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Sample records for sole population group

  1. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  2. Effects of climate change on growth of 0-group sole and plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Leeuw, de J.J.; Veer, van der H.W.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of rising seawater temperature on growth of 0-group sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the southeastern North Sea was investigated for the period 1970 to 2004 using annual autumn pre-recruit survey data and frequent surveys on a nursery ground. Autumn length showed an

  3. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  4. Dose Specification and Quality Assurance of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 95-17; a Cooperative Group Study of Iridium-192 Breast Implants as Sole Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hanson, W.F.; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Kuske, Robert R.; Arthur, Douglas; Rabinovitch, Rachel; White, Julia; Wilenzick, Raymond M.; Harris, Irene; Tailor, Ramesh C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 95-17 was a Phase I/II trial to evaluate multicatheter brachytherapy as the sole method of adjuvant breast radiotherapy for Stage I/II breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery. Low- or high-dose-rate sources were allowed. Dose prescription and treatment evaluation were based on recommendations in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), Report 58 and included the parameters mean central dose (MCD), average peripheral dose, dose homogeneity index (DHI), and the dimensions of the low- and high-dose regions. Methods and Materials: Three levels of quality assurance were implemented: (1) credentialing of institutions was required before entering patients into the study; (2) rapid review of each treatment plan was conducted before treatment; and (3) retrospective review was performed by the Radiological Physics Center in conjunction with the study chairman and RTOG dosimetry staff. Results: Credentialing focused on the accuracy of dose calculation algorithm and compliance with protocol guidelines. Rapid review was designed to identify and correct deviations from the protocol before treatment. The retrospective review involved recalculation of dosimetry parameters and review of dose distributions to evaluate the treatment. Specifying both central and peripheral doses resulted in uniform dose distributions, with a mean dose homogeneity index of 0.83 ± 0.06. Conclusions: Vigorous quality assurance resulted in a high-quality study with few deviations; only 4 of 100 patients were judged as representing minor variations from protocol, and no patient was judged as representing major deviation. This study should be considered a model for quality assurance of future trials

  5. On two populations of sunspot groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuklin, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    The principal component method was applied studying the sunspot groups distribution in respect to the maximum area for the individual 11-year cycles 12 to 19 (Lopez Arroyo and Lahulla, 1974) and for the years 1900 to 1964 (Mandrykina, 1974). The existence of two populations of sunspot groups is confirmed. The variations of the importance parameter q, which determines the population shares, in the 80-, 22- and 11-year cycles are considered. The obtained maximal area distributions for populations I and II are approximated by linear combination of logarithmic-normal distributions, the subpopulations Ia, Ib, Ic by the most probable maximum areas of 22, 298 and 90 mvh, respectively, and the subpopulations IIa, IIb, IIc by the most probable maximal areas of 6, 142 and 754 mvh, respectively. The characteristic distinction between populations I and II is apparently the magnetic structure of the groups belonging to them (bipolar and unipolar ones). (author)

  6. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The consumption of fish and seafood usually is the main source of intake of methylmercury for members of the general population. Therefore subjects having a diet rich in these food items present a high risk of exceeding the tolerable recommended weekly intake of mercury set by FAO and WHO. The average consumption of fish at a national level is rather small in Italy, 12.5 kg per year, consequently the risk of exposure to elevated levels of mercury through the diet for members of the Italian general population is rather negligible. However, fish is one of the main components of the diet of some population groups. These groups are usually found in coastal towns close fishing ports and include subjects working as fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. The purpose of this research programme, carried our with the collaboration of the National Institute of Nutrition is to determine the levels of mercury and methylmercury in hair samples of subjects having a higher than average fish consumption and to evaluate the effects of elevated intakes of mercury. 1 ref., 13 figs

  7. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  8. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  9. Identification of sole parvalbumin as a major allergen: study of cross-reactivity between parvalbumins in a Spanish fish-allergic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gordo, M; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Maroto, A S; Cases, B; Ibáñez, M D; Vivanco, F; Pastor-Vargas, C

    2011-05-01

    Fish allergy is becoming an important health problem in Spain, a country with the third highest level of fish consumption after Japan and Portugal. The most common fish allergens are parvalbumins. In our area, the most widely consumed fish species are lean, such as whiff (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) and sole (Solea solea). Adverse reactions to fish are usually related to these species, a fact that is largely unknown to allergists in other countries. The aim of this study was to identify and purify the major allergen implicated in allergic response to sole and evaluate the IgE cross-reactivity of purified parvalbumins from whiff and sole, which are phylogenetically close, and more distant species (i.e. cod and salmon). Eighteen Spanish fish-allergic patients with a positive history of type I allergy to fish were recruited from the clinic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from whiff and sole were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining two-dimensional Western blotting and mass spectrometry. The extent of cross-reactivity between these parvalbumins along with cod and salmon parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assay. An IgE-binding spot of approximately 14 kDa was identified as parvalbumin and confirmed as a major allergen in sole extract, which is recognized by almost 70% of the patients. Whiff parvalbumin was recognized by 83.4% of the patients. High cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition assay. Sole and whiff parvalbumin were confirmed as major allergens. The parvalbumins of sole, whiff, cod and salmon were highly cross-reactive, thus suggesting a high amino acid sequence identity between them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should

  11. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  12. Optimisation of rocker sole footwear for prevention of first plantar ulcer: comparison of group-optimised and individually-selected footwear designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Stephen J; Chapman, Jonathan D; Braunstein, Bjoern; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Nester, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate footwear for individuals with diabetes but no ulceration history could reduce the risk of first ulceration. However, individuals who deem themselves at low risk are unlikely to seek out bespoke footwear which is personalised. Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether group-optimised footwear designs, which could be prefabricated and delivered in a retail setting, could achieve appropriate pressure reduction, or whether footwear selection must be on a patient-by-patient basis. A second aim was to compare responses to footwear design between healthy participants and people with diabetes in order to understand the transferability of previous footwear research, performed in healthy populations. Plantar pressures were recorded from 102 individuals with diabetes, considered at low risk of ulceration. This cohort included 17 individuals with peripheral neuropathy. We also collected data from 66 healthy controls. Each participant walked in 8 rocker shoe designs (4 apex positions × 2 rocker angles). ANOVA analysis was then used to understand the effect of two design features and descriptive statistics used to identify the group-optimised design. Using 200 kPa as a target, this group-optimised design was then compared to the design identified as the best for each participant (using plantar pressure data). Peak plantar pressure increased significantly as apex position was moved distally and rocker angle reduced ( p  footwear which was individually selected. In terms of optimised footwear designs, healthy participants demonstrated the same response as participants with diabetes, despite having lower plantar pressures. This is the first study demonstrating that a group-optimised, generic rocker shoe might perform almost as well as footwear selected on a patient by patient basis in a low risk patient group. This work provides a starting point for clinical evaluation of generic versus personalised pressure reducing footwear.

  13. The influence of calving and puerperium on clinical and histopathologic changes associated with laminitis and sole ulceration in a group of first-calving cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R

    1990-08-01

    The left hind and front claws of 43 heifers having recently calved were studied for signs of laminitis and sole ulceration. The left hind and front claws of 8 non-pregnant heifers served as controls. Thirty claws were selected for histologic examination. No influence of parturition and puerperium was found on signs of laminitis in both clinical and histologic investigations. A remarkable histologic finding was the occurrence of numerous vascular buds in the solar corium. It is suggested that the vascular buds may give rise to the glomus-like vascular clusters, which are commonly found in older cattle.

  14. Mercury levels in defined population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Hair samples from subjects living in the areas of Bagnara Calabra, Fiumicino and Ravenna, having a fish consumption above the national average, have been analyzed. A new location close to the Lagoon of Grado and Marano, located near the border with Slovenia, has been Selected because of the high natural levels of mercury in this lagoon due to the discharge of the Isonzo river, a tributary of which crosses the mercury rich area of Idria in Slovenia. During the last year, a group of pregnant women were selected in Rome, Bagnara Calabra, Ravenna and the area of the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. Samples of hair, pubic hair and placenta were collected from each of the subjects. A sample of the newborn hair was also collected whenever possible. The preliminary results indicate higher mercury levels in the subjects living in the area around the Lagoon of Grado and Marano. (author)

  15. Temporal genetic stability and high effective population size despite fisheries-induced life-history trait evolution in the North Sea sole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuveliers, E.L.; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Larmuseau, M.H.D.; Maes, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy fishing and other anthropogenic influences can have profound impact on a species’ resilience to harvesting. Besides the decrease in the census and effective population size, strong declines in mature adults and recruiting individuals may lead to almost irreversible genetic changes in

  16. Maldives. Package on population education for special interest groups developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Population Education Program of the Non-Formal Education Center has developed a package of Population Education for Special Interest Groups comprising a learning package and fieldworker's guide. The learning package is especially developed for teaching population education for out-of-school populations. Special interest groups in Maldives include newly married couples, adolescents, and working youth. Produced under the guidance of UNESCO, Bangkok, the package contains 36 different materials such as posters, charts, leaflets, booklets, stories, and illustrated booklets which may be taught in 36 to 45 periods. The materials deal with eight themes, namely, family size and family welfare, population and resources, delayed marriage and parenthood, responsible parenthood, population-related values and beliefs, women in development, AIDS/STD, and respect for old people. Accompanying the learning package is the fieldworker's guide used to teach the package. It contains individual guides for each of the 36 learning materials. The guide gives the titles of the materials, format, objectives of the materials, messages, target groups, and an overview of the content of each learning materials. The methodologies used for teaching the learning materials include role playing, group discussion, questioning, brainstorming, survey, creative writing, problem-solving and evaluation. The package will be used by fieldworkers to conduct island-based population education courses. full text

  17. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  18. Molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups in some population groups from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabita; Gorakshakar, Ajit C; Vasantha, K; Nadkarni, Anita; Italia, Yazdi; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2014-01-01

    Indian population is characterized by the presence of various castes and tribal groups. Various genetic polymorphisms have been used to differentiate among these groups. Amongst these, the ABO blood group system has been extensively studied. There is no information on molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups from India. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to characterize the common A, B and O alleles by molecular analysis in some Indian population groups. One hundred samples from the mixed population from Mumbai, 101 samples from the Dhodia tribe and 100 samples from the Parsi community were included in this study. Initially, the samples were phenotyped by standard serologic techniques. PCR followed by single strand conformational polymorphsim (SSCP) was used for molecular ABO genotyping. Samples showing atypical SSCP patterns were further analysed by DNA sequencing to characterize rare alleles. Seven common ABO alleles with 19 different genotypes were found in the mixed population. The Dhodias showed 12 different ABO genotypes and the Parsis revealed 15 different ABO genotypes with six common ABO alleles identified in each of them. Two rare alleles were also identified. This study reports the distribution of molecular genotypes of ABO alleles among some population groups from India. Considering the extremely heterogeneous nature of the Indian population, in terms of various genotype markers like blood groups, red cell enzymes, etc., many more ABO alleles are likely to be encountered.

  19. Exposure of critical group of population to water radionuclides in area affected by uranium ore mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladka, E; Zavadsky, M; Solnicka, H; Heroldova, J

    1985-08-01

    Waste waters from the uranium industry are decontaminated and then discharged into water courses. Inhabitants of the nearest village on the river form the critical group with regard to radiation burden. The critical radionuclides are Usub(nat), Ra 226, Pb 210 and Po 210 whose concentrations were determined in drinking water, in the water course and in plants watered with water from the river. From obtained data on the consumption of foods of own production and of water for drinking and cooking, a weighted sum was made of the intake of critical radionuclides per year on the conservative assumption that ingestion is the sole form of intake (permissible ingestion under Notice 59/72, Coll. of Laws). Under the said criteria the intake of radionuclides from water and foods of own production is for the critical population group 27 times less than the permissible intake for the population. Decontaminated waste waters from the operation of uranium industries contribute to the radiation burden of the population only negligibly. Radionuclides from the investigated sources represent a minute fraction of permissible intake.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of blood groups and erythrocytes enzymes in population groups of the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremovska, Lj; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Gjorgjevic, D; Nikoloska Dadic, E

    2007-12-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje, 95 Aromanians from Krusevo, 102 Aromanians from Stip) were included in the study. A comparison of the obtained results with data from literature on other Balkan populations has been made. The results of the comparison of the studied alleles indicate relatively small genetic distances among the studied populations. The obtained dendrograms indicate a larger homogeneity in the large Balkan populations, and a manifest trend of separating the Aromanian population of the Stip region. A larger separation is characteristic in the Greek population of Thrace.

  1. Kin groups and trait groups: population structure and epidemic disease selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A G

    1984-10-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation based on the population structure of a small-scale human population, the Semai Senoi of Malaysia, has been developed to study the combined effects of group, kin, and individual selection. The population structure resembles D.S. Wilson's structured deme model in that local breeding populations (Semai settlements) are subdivided into trait groups (hamlets) that may be kin-structured and are not themselves demes. Additionally, settlement breeding populations are connected by two-dimensional stepping-stone migration approaching 30% per generation. Group and kin-structured group selection occur among hamlets the survivors of which then disperse to breed within the settlement population. Genetic drift is modeled by the process of hamlet formation; individual selection as a deterministic process, and stepping-stone migration as either random or kin-structured migrant groups. The mechanism for group selection is epidemics of infectious disease that can wipe out small hamlets particularly if most adults become sick and social life collapses. Genetic resistance to a disease is an individual attribute; however, hamlet groups with several resistant adults are less likely to disintegrate and experience high social mortality. A specific human gene, hemoglobin E, which confers resistance to malaria, is studied as an example of the process. The results of the simulations show that high genetic variance among hamlet groups may be generated by moderate degrees of kin-structuring. This strong microdifferentiation provides the potential for group selection. The effect of group selection in this case is rapid increase in gene frequencies among the total set of populations. In fact, group selection in concert with individual selection produced a faster rate of gene frequency increase among a set of 25 populations than the rate within a single unstructured population subject to deterministic individual selection. Such rapid evolution with plausible rates of

  2. Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group met at UN headquarters on January 20-24, 1992. The group noted that the momentum of population growth was expected to add 3 billion people to the global population between 1985 and 2025, with more than 90% of the growth occurring in the developing countries which are least able to respond to the attendant resource and environmental demands. The expert group discussed the interaction of population and resources, specifically the impact of population growth on the environment and carrying capacity. The meeting then focused on environmental discontinuities and uncertainties and on environmental degradation, specifically the loss of agricultural land, the destruction of tropical forests, fresh-water resource, the loss of biological diversify, and climate change. Following their deliberations, the expert group drafted 18 recommendations addressed to governments, social institutions, and international organizations. The group urged that governments establish or strengthen the integration of environmental and population concerns into development policy-making and planning and support technologies to achieve sustained economic growth and development while striving to replace the use of fossil fuels with renewable resources. Areas of the environment subject to acute population pressure should be identified and policies devised to reduce that pressure. Ecologically helpful labor-intensive projects should be implemented for their dual benefits. Women should be included in these activities, and their status in society, therefore, should be improved through improved education and participatory opportunities. The uses of water should be optimized to acknowledge its scarcity. The delivery of service to alleviate poverty should proceed in a manner that invites community participation, which, along with education, will be vital to institute these changes. Adequate

  3. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  4. [Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in population groups of Villavicencio, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Agustín; Parra, Jorge; Aponte, Luz; Gómez, Luz

    2008-01-01

    Determining Leptospira spp . antibody seroprevalence in an apparently healthy population and in groups at risk plus their associated factors in the town of Villavicencio in the Meta department of Colombia A cross-sectional epidemiological model was used (subjects being selected by convenience sampling). Blood-samples were obtained by cubital puncture from (n: 503) people, consisting of 230 first semester students from different programmes at the Universidad de los Llanos and 273 people corresponding to 8 groups at risk. Information regarding risk factor was obtained from interviewing the 503 people. A commercial indirect ELISA kit (Pambio) was used for determining IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was 5,2 % in the low risk group. There was 19 % seroprevalence for groups at risk, 7 % for the group of people working in slaughterhouses, 17 % for vets and small animal clinic assistants, 17 % for students in their last year of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnia, 21 % for people milking cows on dual-purpose farms, 23 % for people working in rice-fields, 35 % for people working on pig-farms and 48 % for those working on fish-farms. Three factors were found to be associated: rural social level, having a pet dog and coming into contact with rodents in the workplace. A high seroprevalence for Leptospira spp was found in the groups at risk, people working on pig-farms and fish-farms being those most affected. There was a 1,86 relative risk in both groups indicated as having a greater risk of contagion amongst the population suffering occupational exposure.

  5. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-02-01

    soil invertebrates. These predictions suggested that proposed reference benchmarks from the literature for different taxonomic groups protected all simulated species against population extinction. A generic reference benchmark of 10 μGy h(-1) protected all simulated species against 10% of the effect causing population extinction. Finally, a risk of pseudo-extinction was predicted from 2.0 μGy h(-1) in mammals to 970 μGy h(-1) in soil invertebrates, representing a slight but statistically significant population decline, the importance of which remains to be evaluated in natural settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  7. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    in mammals to 1800 μGy h"−"1 in soil invertebrates. These predictions suggested that proposed reference benchmarks from the literature for different taxonomic groups protected all simulated species against population extinction. A generic reference benchmark of 10 μGy h"−"1 protected all simulated species against 10% of the effect causing population extinction. Finally, a risk of pseudo-extinction was predicted from 2.0 μGy h"−"1 in mammals to 970 μGy h"−"1 in soil invertebrates, representing a slight but statistically significant population decline, the importance of which remains to be evaluated in natural settings. - Highlights: • We simulated population effects of chronic radiation in 12 species and 4 taxonomic groups. • Radiotoxicity and life history data from the literature were used to build matrix population models. • Population response varied among affected individual endpoints and species life histories. • Population endpoints can be more radiosensitive than the most sensitive individual endpoint. • Reference benchmarks from the literature were assessed for a range of population risks.

  8. Measurement of radioactivity from Chernobyl in population groups in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, B.W.; Robertson, I.

    1989-03-01

    The results of a survey of the uptake of radiocaesium by members of the Scottish population between May 1986 and February 1988 following the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. 251 volunteers from various parts of the country were measured by high sensitivity whole-body monitoring and 487 observations are reported. Influence of age, sex, diet and geographical location on uptake was assessed. All members of the Scottish population have almost certainly taken up some radiocaesium as a result of the accident. Body levels reached a maximum after about 8 months and varied by a factor of 4 from an upper to a lower boundary covering 80% of the population sampled. Total ( 134 Cs + 137 Cs) mean dose equivalents from the observations were 31μSv and 20μSv for the first and second years and 62μSv for the overall dose commitment based on the observed decline of radiocaesium. Fresh milk consumption appeared to be the most important dietary factor influencing body levels and venison and goat-meat eaters formed a special group with significantly higher levels than the rest of the population. (author)

  9. Group territoriality in two populations of African lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn

    1997-06-01

    Lionesses, Panthera leoin the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, assess the odds of winning group-territorial contests by counting the number of opponents they hear roaring. They will approach intruders aggressively only if they outnumber them. Here the lionesses in the Serengeti are compared with another population living nearby but in strikingly different ecological circumstances. The lions of Ngorongoro Crater live at much higher densities owing to year-round availability of non-migratory prey species, but also suffer higher mortality from fighting. Playback experiments showed that lionesses in the crater differ from those in the Serengeti by approaching 'intruders' more quickly when the odds of winning are low. This increased aggression is interpreted in terms of the greater difficulty of holding a territory at high population density.

  10. Mineral composition of enamel from two South African population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retief, D H [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit; Turkstra, J [University of Fort Hare, Alice (South Africa). Department of Chemistry; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Biddlecombe, F [Atomic Energy Board, Pelindaba, Pretoria (South Africa). Chemistry Div.

    1979-10-01

    The mineral composition of pooled bulk enamel from Black and White South Africans respectively, resident in the Johannesburg area, was determined by neutron activation analysis and high resolution gamma spectromety. The differences between the concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, Br and Co in the enamel of the two population groups were apparently not significant. There was a trend for the concentrations of Al, Ag, Au, Fe, Sb, and Zn to be higher in the enamel from the White subjects and for the concentrations of Mn, Se and Sr to be higher in the enamel from the Black subjects.

  11. Perception of radiation related risks among three population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, L.T.; Milu, C.; Voicu, B.; Enachescu, D.

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups that mainly differ in socioeconomic status and professional exposure to ionizing radiations. Seventy-seven (26.3%) of the respondents were professionally exposed to radiation, 35 (11.9%) were medical doctors without professional exposure and 177 (68.4%) belonged to the general population group. The level of anxiety toward radiation, expressed as a concernedness index, is significantly lower in people who are professionally exposed to radiation compared to medical doctors and general population (0.81±0.94, 1.42±1.21 and 1.72±1.34 respectively, p < 0.001). In a similar manner, concernedness index values varied with the education status, with lowest values among medical university graduates and highest among public school graduates (p < 0.001). Both university-graduated groups significantly differ from the non-university groups (p < 0.05). Knowledge about radiation and knowledge about emergency plans in nuclear accident/incident were also checked in relation with concernedness, the results confirming the hypothesis that better knowledge associates lower concernedness. The extent to which people accept the civil utilization of nuclear power is also related to concernedness and knowledge, significant associations having been found. The results suggest that a political decision in radiation matter requires a valid analysis of the public's understanding and acceptance. For that reason, it is important that radiological protection authorities develop new plans and materials for communicating with people, in order to improve knowledge upon ionizing radiation, irradiation risks and safety of nuclear energy application for civil purposes. (author)

  12. [Perception of sweet and salty flavors in different population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carnero, J; de la Montaña Miguélez, J; Míguez Bernárdez, M

    2002-01-01

    The flavour perceived by humans when eating varies depending on age, gender, habits, emotional status, etc. The present study reflects the changes in the perception of sweet and salt flavours among different population groups depending on age, with an assessment, for each flavour, of the threshold concentration for the detection of these flavours. Triangular discrimination sensorial tests were performed in three groups, with thirty members in each, classified to represent young, adult and elderly age groups. With regard to sweet flavours, the groups of young people and adults distinguished the different sample at 0.1% of sugar for 95% and 99% significance levels, whereas the elderly required the concentration to reach 1% at both levels before they could distinguish the sugar solution from water. In the case of salt flavours, young people are able to detect the different sample at the lowest concentration level, for both levels of significance. Adults significantly distinguished the sample containing 0.05% of salt, at the 95% significance level, whereas the elderly needed a concentration of 0.1% for both levels of significance. Age-dependent variations in response were observed. As age increases, greater concentrations are required in order to distinguish the salt or sweet solutions from the samples containing only water.

  13. Grouping patterns in a forest dwelling population of Pyrenean chamois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal grouping in a population of Pyrenean chamois Rupicapra p. pyrenaica was studied by direct observation on the edge of their westernmost distribution. The whole area occupied by a population was surveyed by performing monthly fixed transects over one year. The size of 214 groups ranged from 1 to 54. Both size and composition were quite variable and differed between seasons and habitats. Groups were generally very small (45% of only one animal, median: 2; P75=4, which is characteristic of small and low density forest-dwelling populations. Groups appeared to depend strongly on the annual biological cycle, food distribution and vegetation cover. The spatial segregation between males and females was only evident in the summer, when solitary males mostly occupied the forest and females with kids lived on open pasturelands. All the general patterns on size and composition of the groups occurred in this population.

    [fr]
    Par la voie de l'observation directe nous avons étudié le grégarisme journalier chez une population d'isard (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica à la limite occidentale de l'aire de répartition de l'espèce. La surface complète occupée a été suivie par de trajets fixes mensuels durant un an. La taille des différents troupeaux a varié de là 54 individus. De même, la composition était également très variable et changeait d'une saison à l'autre ou d'un habitat à l'autre. De manière générale, les troupeaux étaient très petits (45% de seulement un animal, moyenne: 2 ; P75=5, c'est la caractéristique des petites populations, à basse densité et vivant en forêt. Les groupes étaient fortement conditionnés par le cycle annuel, la distribution des ressources alimentaires et le recouvrement végétal. La ségrégation spatiale entre mâles et femelles avait lieu seulement en été, moment où les mâles solitaires occupaient surtout la forêt tandis que les femelles avec les

  14. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  15. Long-term ingestion dose monitoring in a population group with increased 137Cs intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Malatova, I.; Pfeiferova, V.; Pospisilova, H.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs amounts and ingestion doses in Czech population have been monitored by whole-body counting since the Chernobyl accident. Indirect estimation of the retention through measurement of 137 Cs excreted with urine in 24 hours has also been performed since 1987. The 137 Cs content in human body can be calculated from the urine data provided that the intake of 137 Cs during the period of interest is constant. In a semi-natural environment, the 137 Cs content in mushrooms, wild berries and game decreases due to its natural decay solely. The 137 Cs content in people who mostly consume venison and have been living in an area with elevated contamination has been monitored, mostly through measurement of 137 Cs in urine. In parallel, measurements with a mobile whole-body counter have also been performed. Currently, annual doses from the ingestion of 137 Cs in the inhabitants are very low (0.001 to 0.002 mSv.year -1 ). In a group of hunters in the Jeseniky Mountains (Northern Moravia) the doses were estimated to 0.10 mSv.year -1 . (orig.)

  16. Social-group identity and population substructure in admixed populations in New Mexico and Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E Healy

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between continental-level genetic ancestry and racial and ethnic identity in an admixed population in New Mexico with the goal of increasing our understanding of how racial and ethnic identity influence genetic substructure in admixed populations. Our sample consists of 98 New Mexicans who self-identified as Hispanic or Latino (NM-HL and who further categorized themselves by race and ethnic subgroup membership. The genetic data consist of 270 newly-published autosomal microsatellites from the NM-HL sample and previously published data from 57 globally distributed populations, including 13 admixed samples from Central and South America. For these data, we 1 summarized the major axes of genetic variation using principal component analyses, 2 performed tests of Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, 3 compared empirical genetic ancestry distributions to those predicted under a model of admixture that lacked substructure, 4 tested the hypotheses that individuals in each sample had 100%, 0%, and the sample-mean percentage of African, European, and Native American ancestry. We found that most NM-HL identify themselves and their parents as belonging to one of two groups, conforming to a region-specific narrative that distinguishes recent immigrants from Mexico from individuals whose families have resided in New Mexico for generations and who emphasize their Spanish heritage. The "Spanish" group had significantly lower Native American ancestry and higher European ancestry than the "Mexican" group. Positive FIS values, PCA plots, and heterogeneous ancestry distributions suggest that most Central and South America admixed samples also contain substructure, and that this substructure may be related to variation in social identity. Genetic substructure appears to be common in admixed populations in the Americas and may confound attempts to identify disease-causing genes and to understand the social causes of variation in health outcomes

  17. National legal system in relation to vulnerable population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjeničić Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable social groups can be recognized in everyday life, and local legal regulations identify them as well. Strategies and laws clearly identify the increased needs of vulnerable groups. Local legislation, for example, observes comparative law trends and attempts to prevent discrimination of persons with disabilities, emphasizes their human rights and creates the legal framework for taking these persons out of the institutional form of protection and including them into the community. In Serbia however, strategies and laws, as well as by-laws, are written in sectors, and not in cross-sectors manner. Proper caring for persons with disabilities, including persons with mental disabilities, requires an integral approach, namely a mutual approach of the social, health, educational and other sectors. True enough, local regulations stress the need for an intersectional approach, but such an approach is scantily applied in practice, so the comprehensive care that would satisfy the multiple needs of persons with mental disabilities often turns out to be less than expected in the community. Pursuant to national laws and basic ethic principals, all citizens of the Republic of Serbia have the right to health protection without discrimination. Therefore, methods for using health protection, easier than the existing ones, should be found for certain vulnerable groups, depending on their characteristics, and so for the Roma as well, and bearing in mind that systemic health regulations in Serbia open the door to special treatment of these groups. The inaccessible approach to health care of the Roma population persists primarily due to insufficient basic health documentation and basic personal documentation. Personal documents are linked with the registered place of residence, which the Roma, largely do not have. The problem is thus on a wider scale and is not only focused on the health sector. As such, it requires a wider, intersectional approach and a

  18. Studying the Stellar Populations of the Local Group with VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    The best chance we have to understand star formation and how it proceeds in the Universe is going to come from detailed studies of the numerous different environments found within the Local Group (LG). Present day star formation in our Galaxy occurs exclusively in metal rich environments (Z ˜ Z_⊙), so if we want to study how low metallicity stars form (and thus understand observations of galaxies at high-redshift) we have to look beyond our Galaxy, to the smallest star forming dwarf galaxies, which can have extremely low metallicities (Z ˜ 0.02-0.05Z_⊙). Of course in its entirety a stellar population always contains the complete details of the star formation history of a galaxy, however this information is often hard to disentangle retroactively. We also have much to learn from the Magellanic Clouds (Z ˜ 0.1- 0.3Z_⊙), although because they are undergoing interactions with our Galaxy and each other their evolutionary picture and its general applicability less obvious. In our LG there are also a number of "remnants", or galaxies which which currently do not form stars (e.g. the dSph, such as Carina, Leo I, Ursa Minor, etc..). It is not straight forward to draw parallels between galaxies which are forming stars and those which aren't. This is of course because star formation has such a dramatic impact upon a galaxy, and alternative methods have to be used to make the most basic of comparisons of properties (e.g. metallicity, mass, luminosity evolution). It is necessary to put all the dwarf galaxies into a global picture if we are to draw meaningful conclusions about their star formation properties (e.g. Ferrara & Tolstoy 1999). Many of the small LG galaxies contain direct evidence of complicated star formation histories (e.g. Smecker-Hane et al. 1994; Tolstoy et al. 1998; Gallart et al. 1999), which suggests that star formation patterns can change dramatically over long time scales. This kind of evolutionary behaviour can have a dramatic impact upon the

  19. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  20. Distribution of MN blood group types in local populations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lation, which measures how many people come into the local population, was then .... 1986). In contrast, the Japanese have only 30.9%. (Furuhata et al. ... also came from nearby towns, all of which, Isabela included, are composed of ...

  1. Evidence-based guidelines of the spanish psoriasis group on the use of biologic therapy in patients with psoriasis in difficult-to-treat sites (nails, scalp, palms, and soles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Regaña, M; Aldunce Soto, M J; Belinchón Romero, I; Ribera Pibernat, M; Lafuente-Urrez, R F; Carrascosa Carrillo, J M; Ferrándiz Foraster, C; Puig Sanz, L; Daudén Tello, E; Vidal Sarró, D; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Fonseca Capdevila, E; Rodríguez Cerdeira, M C; Alsina Gibert, M M; Herrera Acosta, E; Marrón Moya, S E

    2014-12-01

    Psoriatic lesions affecting the scalp, nails, palms, and the soles of the feet are described as difficult-to-treat psoriasis and require specific management. Involvement of these sites often has a significant physical and emotional impact on the patient and the lesions are difficult to control with topical treatments owing to inadequate penetration of active ingredients and the poor cosmetic characteristics of the vehicles used. Consequently, when difficult-to-treat sites are involved, psoriasis can be considered severe even though the lesions are not extensive. Scant information is available about the use of biologic therapy in this setting, and published data generally comes from clinical trials of patients who also had moderate to severe extensive lesions or from small case series and isolated case reports. In this article we review the quality of the scientific evidence for the 4 biologic agents currently available in Spain (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and ustekinumab) and report level i evidence for the use of biologics to treat nail psoriasis (level of recommendation A) and a somewhat lower level of evidence in the case of scalp involvement and palmoplantar psoriasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Aorto-iliac occlusive disease in the different population groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. It has previously been accepted that atherosclerotic disease is uncommon among blacks worldv.ride; however, recent studies have increasingly reported atherosclerotic disease in this group. Study design. Prospective study of hospital patients with aorta-iliac occlusive disease presenting to the vascUlar ...

  3. a Study of the AGB in Local Group Bulge Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    1994-01-01

    We propose to survey the bolometric luminosities, colors, and space distribution of the most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the bulges of M31, M32, and M33. We seek to discover whether the bulges of these galaxies are relatively young, of order 10 Gyr rather than 15 Gyr. We will use WFPC2 and the R, I, and F1042M (1 micron) filters. Knowing that F1042M falls on the first continuum point of M giants, we have shown that we can use 1.04 micron fluxes to reliably calculate bolometric magnitudes for these very red stars. Color information from R and I will permit (1) comparison with Galactic bulge M giants, (2) an estimate of the spread of abundance and (3) increase the accuracy of the bolometric magnitudes. Frames with the damaged HST show signs of resolution to within 3" of the M31 nucleus; Red images with the aberrated HST show a red star cluster associated with the nucleus. Ground-based studies of M32 find an intermediate-age population from spectroscopy and infrared photometry. The repaired HST should resolve stars close to the nuclei of these galaxies. We will measure bolometric luminosity functions to determine if the populations are intermediate age, and attempt to measure the abundance range for stars near the nuclei of these galaxies. If metals have been lost due to winds, theory predicts that we should see a substantial spread of abundances even near the nucleus.

  4. SOLE: enhanced FIA data analysis capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Spinney; Paul Van Deusen

    2009-01-01

    The Southern On Line Estimator (SOLE), is an Internet-based annual forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data analysis tool developed cooperatively by the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Southern Research Station. Recent development of SOLE has...

  5. Sole risk and non-consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, Tom

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the subjects of sole risk and non-consent in joint operation agreements as used by oil and gas joint ventures in the United Kingdom. The difference between these two concepts is examined in detail. (UK)

  6. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  7. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  8. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-04-05

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

  9. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  10. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chin Yen; Mitchell, Hazel; Dong, Quanjiang; Goh, Khean-Lee; Dawes, Ian W; Lan, Ruiting

    2009-06-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.

  11. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawes Ian W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.

  12. Comparison of Y-STR polymorphisms in three different Slovak population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrejcíková, Eva; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rebała, Krzysztof; Boronová, Iveta; Bôziková, Alexandra; Sovicová, Adriana; Gabriková, Dana; Maceková, Sona; Svícková, Petra; Carnogurská, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Eleven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci included in the Powerplex Y multiplex kit were analyzed in different Slovak population samples: Habans (n = 39), Romanies (n = 100) and Slovak Caucasian (n = 148) individuals, respectively, from different regions of Slovakia. The analysis of molecular variance between populations indicated that 89.27% of the haplotypic variations were found within populations and only 10.72% between populations (Fst = 0.1027; p = 0.0000). The haplotype diversities were ranging from 0.9258 to 0.9978, and indicated a high potential for differentiating between male individuals. The study reports differences in allele frequencies between the Romanies, Habans and Slovak Caucasian men. Selected loci showed that both the Romany and Haban population belonged to endogamous and relatively small founder population groups, which developed in relatively reproductive isolated groups surrounded by the Slovak Caucasian population.

  13. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  14. [Association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease in Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Lin, Yingzhong; Liu, Hairun; Ji, Qingwei; Lu, Zhihong; Lu, Zhengde; Xu, Nengwen; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate this association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. From August 2010 to April 2013, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese Zhuang population, which included 1 024 CHD cases and 1 024 age and gender-matched non-CHD controls. The ABO blood groups and biological variables were measured by standard laboratory procedures. The Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Compared to non-CHD control group, CHD group had higher levels of fasting blood glucose ((6.71 ± 6.72) mmol/L vs. (4.98 ± 1.55) mmol/L, P blood groups were associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population. Compared with group O, the group B individuals had a higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.88-2.90, P group O subjects in the CHD group, and MACE at 1-year follow-up was similar between ABO blood groups of CHD individuals. ABO blood groups are associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population.

  15. ABO blood group and risk of pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Huseyin; Bilir, Cemil; Üstün, Hasan; Gökmen, Ayla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. The median age of patients were 56 (± 16) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.

  16. Analysis of changes of demographic parameters in different groups of Chernigiv region population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    To perform comparison of the changes in different social and age groups of the population of Chernigiv region, Kozeletsky district in particular, which was exposed to considerable radioactive contamination, during the recent 20 years (beginning from 1977). The Chernobyl accident together with social and other unfavorable factors caused negative demographic changes in the contaminated districts. Reduction in the number of different social groups of the population is expected

  17. Caesium-137 in Groups of Populations; Le Cesium 137 dans les Groupes de Population; 0426 0415 0417 0414 ; El Cesio-137 en Grupos de Poblacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J. K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    1964-11-15

    This review is a synthesis of results obtained by authors who have submitted papers on caesium-137 burdens in population groups and was prepared at the request of the scientific secretariat of this Symposium. (author) [French] Cette etude fan la synthese des resultats obtenus par des auteurs qui ont presente des memoires sur la charge corporelle de cesium 137 dans les groupes de population; elle a ete etablie a la demande du secretariat scientifique du Colloque. (author) [Spanish] El presente estudio constituye una sintesis de los resultados obtenidos por autores que han presentado memorias sobre la carga corporal de cesio-137 en distintos grupos de poblacion, y se ha preparado a peticion de la Secretaria cientifica de este Simposio. (author) [Russian] Jetot obzor predstavljaet soboj obobshhenie rezul'tatov, poluchennyh avtorami, kotorye predstavili doklady otnositel'no soderzhanija cezija-137 v gruppah populjacij, i byl podgotovlen po pros'be nauchnogo sekretariata simpoziuma. (author)

  18. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  19. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  20. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S - s - of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jk a-b- (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  1. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (Pdifferent ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  2. Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur, North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M; Meitei, S Y; Luxmi, Y; Achoubi, N; Meitei, K S; Murry, B; Sachdeva, M P; Saraswathy, K N

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur in comparison with other North East Indian population has been studied. Crow's index as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index for natural selection were calculated based on differential fertility and mortality. The mortality component was found to be lower compared to fertility component in all the populations which may attribute to comparatively improved and easily accessible health care facilities. However, different selection pressures, artificial and natural, seem to be influencing the selection intensity through induced abortion and spontaneous abortion among the two non-tribal migrant groups: Bamon and Muslims, respectively. This study highlights the probable interaction of artificial and natural selection in determining the evolutionary fate of any population group.

  3. Blood groups polymorphism (ABO, Ss, Rhesus and Duffy) in the Arabic population of Beni Mellal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ossmani, H.; El Amri, H.; Bouchrif, B.; Glouib, K.; Zaoui, D.; Chafik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with anthropogenetic profile of the Arab speaking population of the Beni Mellal region which separates areas inhabited by Mid-Atlas Berbers from those inhabited by Soth-Morroccan Arabs. The study of blood groups ABO, Rhesus, Ss,and Duffy was conducted on 131 individuals. The result shows that this population has the highest frequencies of the FyO allele (0.860) and s allele (0.524) in comparison to all Arab and Berber populations of North Africa and the Middle East. However genetic distances estimated on the basis of these four markers reveal that the population of Beni Mellal and another in the Beni Hlal region are in the same sub-cluster with populations from the Middle East. This may be attributed to the Oriental Arab ( M achrek ) origin of these two Moroccan Arab populations. (author)

  4. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  5. Portability of tag SNPs across isolated population groups: an example from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar Roy, N; Farheen, S; Roy, N; Sengupta, S; Majumder, P P

    2008-01-01

    Isolated population groups are useful in conducting association studies of complex diseases to avoid various pitfalls, including those arising from population stratification. Since DNA resequencing is expensive, it is recommended that genotyping be carried out at tagSNP (tSNP) loci. For this, tSNPs identified in one isolated population need to be used in another. Unless tSNPs are highly portable across populations this strategy may result in loss of information in association studies. We examined the issue of tSNP portability by sampling individuals from 10 isolated ethnic groups from India. We generated DNA resequencing data pertaining to 3 genomic regions and identified tSNPs in each population. We defined an index of tSNP portability and showed that portability is low across isolated Indian ethnic groups. The extent of portability did not significantly correlate with genetic similarity among the populations studied here. We also analyzed our data with sequence data from individuals of African and European descent. Our results indicated that it may be necessary to carry out resequencing in a small number of individuals to discover SNPs and identify tSNPs in the specific isolated population in which a disease association study is to be conducted.

  6. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John PA; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene–environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal. PMID:22333905

  7. Genotyping of 75 SNPs using arrays for individual identification in five population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Wu, Lawrence Shih Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing offers promise to forensic genetics. Various strategies and panels for analyzing SNP markers for individual identification have been published. However, the best panels with fewer identity SNPs for all major population groups are still under discussion. This study aimed to find more autosomal SNPs with high heterozygosity for individual identification among Asian populations. Ninety-six autosomal SNPs of 502 DNA samples from unrelated individuals of five population groups (208 Taiwanese Han, 83 Filipinos, 62 Thais, 69 Indonesians, and 80 individuals with European, Near Eastern, or South Asian ancestry) were analyzed using arrays in an initial screening, and 75 SNPs (group A, 46 newly selected SNPs; groups B, 29 SNPs based on a previous SNP panel) were selected for further statistical analyses. Some SNPs with high heterozygosity from Asian populations were identified. The combined random match probability of the best 40 and 45 SNPs was between 3.16 × 10(-17) and 7.75 × 10(-17) and between 2.33 × 10(-19) and 7.00 × 10(-19), respectively, in all five populations. These loci offer comparable power to short tandem repeats (STRs) for routine forensic profiling. In this study, we demonstrated the population genetic characteristics and forensic parameters of 75 SNPs with high heterozygosity from five population groups. This SNPs panel can provide valuable genotypic information and can be helpful in forensic casework for individual identification among these populations.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of nine X-STR loci in four population groups from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiao-Fang; Yu, Bin; Li, Sheng-Bin

    2007-02-01

    Nine short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome (DXS101, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS6804, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS8378, and HPRTB) were analyzed in four population groups (Mongol, Ewenki, Oroqen, and Daur) from Inner Mongolia, China, in order to learn about the genetic diversity, forensic suitability, and possible genetic affinities of the populations. Frequency estimates, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and other parameters of forensic interest were computed. The results revealed that the nine markers have a moderate degree of variability in the population groups. Most heterozygosity values for the nine loci range from 0.480 to 0.891, and there are evident differences of genetic variability among the populations. A UPGMA tree constructed on the basis of the generated data shows very low genetic distance between Mongol and Han (Xi'an) populations. Our results based on genetic distance analysis are consistent with the results of earlier studies based on linguistics and the immigration history and origin of these populations. The minisatellite loci on the X chromosome studied here are not only useful in showing significant genetic variation between the populations, but also are suitable for human identity testing among Inner Mongolian populations.

  9. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-07-11

    Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011. We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table system developed by the World Health Organization to model mortality rates, life expectancy, and length of life for Ethiopian population groups stratified by wealth quintiles, gender and residence. We then estimated and compared within-group and between-group inequality in length of life using the Gini index and absolute length of life inequality. Length of life inequality has decreased and life expectancy has increased for all population groups between 2000 and 2011. Length of life inequality within wealth quintiles is about three times larger than the between-group inequality of 9 years. Total length of life inequality in Ethiopia was 27.6 years in 2011. Longevity has increased and the distribution of health in Ethiopia is more equal in 2011 than 2000, with length of life inequality reduced for all population groups. Still there is considerable potential for further improvement. In the Ethiopian context with a poor and highly rural population, inequality in length of life within wealth quintiles is considerably larger than between them. This suggests that other factors than wealth substantially contribute to total health inequality in Ethiopia and that identification and quantification of these factors will be important for identifying proper measures to further reduce length of life inequality.

  10. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  11. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; Rodriguez Juan; McKeigue Paul; Jacob KS; Krishnamoorthy ES; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Gavrilova Svetlana I; Dewey Michael; Arizaga Raul; Albanese Emiliano; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Sosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Meth...

  12. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  13. Population data of six Alu insertions in indigenous groups from Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, B P; Chua, K H; Lee, P C; Lian, L H

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first to report the genetic relatedness of indigenous populations of Sabah, Malaysia, using a set of Indel markers (HS4.32, TPA25, APO, PV92, B65 and HS3.23). The primary aim was to assess the genetic relationships among these populations and with populations from other parts of the world by examining the distribution of these markers. A total of 504 volunteers from the three largest indigenous groups, i.e. Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau and Rungus, were recruited for the study. Six Alu insertions were typed by PCR with specific primer sets. All insertions were found to present at different frequencies, ranging from 0.170-0.970. The heterozygosity of most of the markers was high (>0.4), with the exception of HS3.23 and APO. A genetic differentiation study revealed that these populations are closely related to each other (G(ST) = 0.006). A principle component plot showed that these populations have higher affinity to Mainland South East Asia/East Asia populations, rather than Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) populations. In summary, these indigenous groups were closely associated in terms of their genetic composition. This finding also supports the colonization model of ISEA, which suggests that the inhabitants of this region were mostly descendants from Southern China.

  14. Phenotypic and allelic distribution of the ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in the Cameroonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoula, S T; Noubiap, J J N; Nansseu, J R N; Wonkam, A

    2014-06-01

    Data on blood group phenotypes are important for blood transfusion programs, for disease association and population genetics studies. This study aimed at reporting the phenotypic and allelic distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) groups in various ethnolinguistic groups in the Cameroonians. We obtained ABO and Rhesus blood groups and self-identified ethnicity from 14,546 Cameroonian students. Ethnicity was classified in seven major ethnolinguistic groups: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian/West Atlantic, Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Grassfield, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Mbam and Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Equatorial. ABO allelic frequencies were determined using the Bernstein method. Differences in phenotypic distribution of blood groups were assessed using the chi-square test; a P value blood groups O, A, B and AB were 48.62%, 25.07%, 21.86% and 4.45%, respectively. Rhesus-positive was 96.32%. The allelic frequencies of O, A and B genes were 0.6978, 0.1605 and 0.1416, respectively. Phenotypic frequencies of the blood groups in the general study population and in the different ethnolinguistic groups were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations (P > 0.05). The frequencies of O, A, and B blood phenotypes were significantly lower, respectively, in the Nilo-Saharan group (P = 0.009), the Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu groups (P = 0.021) and the Niger-Kordofanian/West-Atlantic group. AB blood group was most frequent in the Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui group (P = 0.024). Our study provides the first data on ethnic distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in the Cameroonian population and suggests that its general profile is similar to those of several sub-Saharan African populations. We found some significant differences in phenotypic distribution amongst major ethnolinguistic groups. These data may be important for blood donor recruitment policy and blood transfusion

  15. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  17. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  18. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A

  19. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A. M.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based

  20. THE REALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SOME SOCIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS' OF POPULATION POTENTIAL IN THE OUTLYING DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat Alieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration and analysis of the main problems, concerning the realization of socially vulnerable groups' of the population potential. The problem of women and youth employment development takes on a special acuteness and actualite in the outlying district with a labour redundant labour market.

  1. Polonioum 210 levels in urine of different groups of italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, L.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of urine obtained from different groups of the italian population has been analized to determine the content of polonium-210. The analysis has been carried out with samples from people with high probability of exposure to radon and hits daughters

  2. Assessment of dose to the critical group and the world population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic principles of radiation protection and analyses the exposure of the public through radioactive transfers. The evaluation of the dose to the ''critical group'' is described and an application of the philosophy is proposed. A parallel study is conducted in the case of the evaluation of the dose to the world population. (author)

  3. A genomic insight into diversity among tribal and nontribal population groups of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, K N; Kiranmala, Naorem; Murry, Benrithung; Sinha, Ekata; Saksena, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, M P; Kalla, A K

    2009-10-01

    Twenty autosomal markers, including linked markers at two gene markers, are used to understand the genomic similarity and diversity among three tribal (Paite, Thadou, and Kom) and one nontribal communities of Manipur (Northeast India). Two of the markers (CD4 and HB9) are monomorphic in Paite and one (the CD4 marker) in Kom. Data suggest the Meitei (nontribal groups) stand apart from the three tribal groups with respect to higher heterozygosity (0.366) and presence of the highest ancestor haplotypes of DRD2 markers (0.228); this is also supported by principal co-ordinate analysis. These populations are found to be genomically closer to the Chinese population than to other Indian populations.

  4. Genetic polymorphism of six DNA loci in six population groups of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M

    2007-08-01

    The genetic profile based on autosomal markers, four microsatellite DNA markers (D8S315, FES, D8S592, and D2S1328) and two minisatellite DNA markers (TPMT and PDGFA), were analyzed in six endogamous populations to examine the effect of geographic and linguistic affiliation on the genetic affinities among the groups. The six populations are from three different states of India and are linguistically different. Marathas from western India speak Marathi, an Indo-European language. Arayas, Muslims, Ezhavas, and Nairs from Kerala state of South India speak Malayalam, and Iyers from Tamil Nadu state speak Tamil. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of random, normal, healthy individuals. Locus-specific PCR amplification was carried out, followed by electrophoresis of the amplicons and genotyping. All the loci were highly polymorphic and followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for loci D8S315 and PDGFA in Iyers and Marathas, respectively. All six loci had high heterozygosity (average heterozygosity ranged from 0.73 to 0.76) and high polymorphism information content (0.57-0.90). The extent of gene differentiation among the six populations (G(ST) = 0.030) was greater than that for four Kerala populations (G(ST) = 0.011), suggesting proximity between the four Kerala populations. This result conforms with the cultural and linguistic background of the populations. The extent of diversity found among the populations probably resulted from the strict endogamous practices that they follow.

  5. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  6. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-04

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.

  7. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence: do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted (n = 7,601,785) between 1997 and 2007. Cox Proportional Hazard Models were used to estimate sex disparities in AMI incidence within the Dutch majority population and within ethnic minority groups, stratified by age (30-54, 55-64, ≥65 years). AMI incidence was higher in men than in women in all groups under study. Compared with the majority population (hazard ratio (HR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.21-2.25), sex disparities were similar among minorities originating from the immediate surrounding countries (Belgium, Germany), whereas they were greater in most other minority groups. Most pronounced results were found among minorities from Morocco (HR: 3.48; 95% CI: 2.48-4.88), South Asia (HR: 3.92; 95% CI: 2.45-6.26) and Turkey (HR: 3.98; 95% CI: 3.51-4.51). Sex disparity differences were predominantly evident in those below 55 years of age, and were mainly provoked by a higher AMI incidence in ethnic minority men compared with men belonging to the Dutch majority population. Sex disparities in AMI incidence clearly varied between ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population. Health prevention strategies may first target at a reduction of AMI incidence in young ethnic minority men, especially those originating from Turkey and South Asia. Furthermore, an increase in AMI incidence in their female counterparts should be prevented. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome markers in four U.S. population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Michael D; Hill, Carolyn R; Butler, John M

    2013-05-01

    The PowerPlex Y23 kit contains 23 Y-chromosomal loci including all 17 of the markers in the Yfiler Y-STR kit plus six additional markers: DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643. We have typed 1032 unrelated population samples from four self-declared US groups: African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and Western European Caucasians. An analysis of the population genetic parameters and the improvement of adding additional Y-STR markers to the dataset are described. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  10. Difference in Health Inequity between Two Population Groups due to a Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Penman-Aguilar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health as “complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems” that are responsible for most health inequities. Similar to the individual-level risk factors such as behavioral and biological risk factors that influence disease, we consider social determinants of health such as the distribution of income, wealth, influence and power as risk factors for risk of disease. We operationally define health inequity in a disease within a population due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable as the difference between the disease outcome with and without the risk factor in the population. We derive expressions for difference in health inequity between two populations due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable for a given disease. The difference in heath inequity between two population groups due to a risk factor increases with increasing difference in relative risks and the difference in prevalence of the risk factor in the two populations. The difference in health inequity could be larger than the difference in health outcomes between the two populations in some situations. Compared to health disparities which are typically measured and monitored using absolute or relative disparities of health outcomes, the methods presented in this manuscript provide a different, yet complementary, picture because they parse out the contributions of unfair and avoidable risk factors. PMID:25522048

  11. General self-efficacy in the Norwegian population: Differences and similarities between sociodemographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Heir, Trond; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila; Grimholt, Tine K; Schou-Bredal, Inger

    2018-02-01

    General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to optimistic self-beliefs of being able to perform and control behaviors, and is linked with various physical and mental health outcomes. Measures of self-efficacy are commonly used in health research with clinical populations, but are less explored in relationship to sociodemographic characteristics in general populations. This study investigated GSE in relation to sociodemographic characteristics in the general population in Norway. As part of a larger national survey, the GSE scale was administered to a general population sample, and 1787 out of 4961 eligible participants (response rate 36%) completed the scale. Group comparisons were conducted using independent t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to examine factors independently associated with GSE. GSE was lower for older compared to younger participants ( p employment were independently associated with higher GSE. Age moderated the associations between gender and employment on one hand, and GSE on the other. The association between being male and having higher GSE was more pronounced in younger age, as was the association between being employed and having higher GSE. Male gender and being employed were related to higher GSE among persons in the general population in Norway, and these associations were stronger among persons of younger age. The findings are considered fairly representative for the Norwegian population.

  12. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  13. Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashey, Farrah; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-05-01

    Selection is recognized to operate on multiple levels. In disease organisms, selection among hosts is thought to provide an important counterbalance to selection for faster growth within hosts. We performed three experiments, each selecting for a divergence in group size in the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. These nematodes infect and kill insect larvae, reproduce inside the host carcass, and emerge as infective juveniles. We imposed selection on group size by selecting among hosts for either high or low numbers of emerging nematodes. Our goal was to determine whether this trait could respond to selection at the group level, and if so, to examine what other traits would evolve as correlated responses. One of the three experiments showed a significant response to group selection. In that experiment, the high-selected treatment consistently produced more emerging nematodes per host than the low-selected treatment. In addition, nematodes were larger and they emerged later from hosts in the low-selected lines. Despite small effective population sizes, the effects of inbreeding were small in this experiment. Thus, selection among hosts can be effective, leading to both a direct evolutionary response at the population level, as well as to correlated responses in populational and individual traits.

  14. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Aburto, Tania C; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations. Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups. We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables. For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas. These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population. © 2016 American

  15. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crow’s as well as Johnston and Kensinger’s index have been used for the present purpose. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades. PMID:21031053

  16. Opportunity for natural selection among some selected population groups of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Farida Ahmed; Mithun, Sikdar

    2010-05-01

    Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for seven population groups inhabiting different geographical locations of Northeast India. Crow's as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index have been used for the present purpose. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among the Deoris followed by the Kaibartas. The lowest selection index was found among the Oraon population. If the relative contribution of fertility and mortality components to the total index is considered to be multiplicative, it is observed that in all these communities the fertility component exceeds that of mortality component, which may indicate initiation of demographic transitional phase in the selected populations with the betterment of healthcare and socioeconomic condition within the last few decades.

  17. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  18. Directions for new developments on statistical design and analysis of small population group trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Roes, Kit; Stallard, Nigel

    2016-06-14

    Most statistical design and analysis methods for clinical trials have been developed and evaluated where at least several hundreds of patients could be recruited. These methods may not be suitable to evaluate therapies if the sample size is unavoidably small, which is usually termed by small populations. The specific sample size cut off, where the standard methods fail, needs to be investigated. In this paper, the authors present their view on new developments for design and analysis of clinical trials in small population groups, where conventional statistical methods may be inappropriate, e.g., because of lack of power or poor adherence to asymptotic approximations due to sample size restrictions. Following the EMA/CHMP guideline on clinical trials in small populations, we consider directions for new developments in the area of statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. We relate the findings to the research activities of three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which have received funding since 2013 within the FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1 framework of the EU. As not all aspects of the wide research area of small population clinical trials can be addressed, we focus on areas where we feel advances are needed and feasible. The general framework of the EMA/CHMP guideline on small population clinical trials stimulates a number of research areas. These serve as the basis for the three projects, Asterix, IDeAl, and InSPiRe, which use various approaches to develop new statistical methodology for design and analysis of small population clinical trials. Small population clinical trials refer to trials with a limited number of patients. Small populations may result form rare diseases or specific subtypes of more common diseases. New statistical methodology needs to be tailored to these specific situations. The main results from the three projects will constitute a useful toolbox for improved design and analysis of small

  19. Utility rate equations of group population dynamics in biological and social systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I Yukalov

    Full Text Available We present a novel system of equations to describe the evolution of self-organized structured societies (biological or human composed of several trait groups. The suggested approach is based on the combination of ideas employed in the theory of biological populations, system theory, and utility theory. The evolution equations are defined as utility rate equations, whose parameters are characterized by the utility of each group with respect to the society as a whole and by the mutual utilities of groups with respect to each other. We analyze in detail the cases of two groups (cooperators and defectors and of three groups (cooperators, defectors, and regulators and find that, in a self-organized society, neither defectors nor regulators can overpass the maximal fractions of about [Formula: see text] each. This is in agreement with the data for bee and ant colonies. The classification of societies by their distance from equilibrium is proposed. We apply the formalism to rank the countries according to the introduced metric quantifying their relative stability, which depends on the cost of defectors and regulators as well as their respective population fractions. We find a remarkable concordance with more standard economic ranking based, for instance, on GDP per capita.

  20. Utility Rate Equations of Group Population Dynamics in Biological and Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Yukalova, Elizaveta P.; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel system of equations to describe the evolution of self-organized structured societies (biological or human) composed of several trait groups. The suggested approach is based on the combination of ideas employed in the theory of biological populations, system theory, and utility theory. The evolution equations are defined as utility rate equations, whose parameters are characterized by the utility of each group with respect to the society as a whole and by the mutual utilities of groups with respect to each other. We analyze in detail the cases of two groups (cooperators and defectors) and of three groups (cooperators, defectors, and regulators) and find that, in a self-organized society, neither defectors nor regulators can overpass the maximal fractions of about each. This is in agreement with the data for bee and ant colonies. The classification of societies by their distance from equilibrium is proposed. We apply the formalism to rank the countries according to the introduced metric quantifying their relative stability, which depends on the cost of defectors and regulators as well as their respective population fractions. We find a remarkable concordance with more standard economic ranking based, for instance, on GDP per capita. PMID:24386163

  1. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  2. [Comparison of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive and hypertensive population of various age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wu, S L; Li, H Y; Zhao, Q H; Ning, C H; Zhang, R Y; Yu, J X; Li, W; Chen, S H; Gao, J S

    2018-01-24

    Objective: To investigate the impact of blood pressure and age on arterial stiffness in general population. Methods: Participants who took part in 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan health examination were included. Data of brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) examination were analyzed. According to the WHO criteria of age, participants were divided into 3 age groups: 18-44 years group ( n= 11 608), 45-59 years group ( n= 12 757), above 60 years group ( n= 5 002). Participants were further divided into hypertension group and non-hypertension group according to the diagnostic criteria for hypertension (2010 Chinese guidelines for the managemengt of hypertension). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) with baPWV in the total participants and then stratified by age groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence of blood pressure on arterial stiffness (baPWV≥1 400 cm/s) of various groups. Results: (1)The baseline characteristics of all participants: 35 350 participants completed 2010, 2012 and 2014 Kailuan examinations and took part in baPWV examination. 2 237 participants without blood pressure measurement values were excluded, 1 569 participants with history of peripheral artery disease were excluded, we also excluded 1 016 participants with history of cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. Data from 29 367 participants were analyzed. The age was (48.0±12.4) years old, 21 305 were males (72.5%). (2) Distribution of baPWV in various age groups: baPWV increased with aging. In non-hypertension population, baPWV in 18-44 years group, 45-59 years group, above 60 years group were as follows: 1 299.3, 1 428.7 and 1 704.6 cm/s, respectively. For hypertension participants, the respective values of baPWV were: 1 498.4, 1 640.7 and 1 921.4 cm/s. BaPWV was significantly higher in hypertension group than non-hypertension group of respective age groups ( Page groups ( t -value

  3. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafat Ali

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, p<5.5E-04 with T2D susceptibility in combined population. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08 in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59 when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  4. Impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in different ethnic groups: calculating population attributable fractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Oteng-Ntim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To quantify the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to maternal obesity. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of routine obstetric dataset. SETTING: Guy's and St Thomas's NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT. POPULATION: 23,668 women who had singleton deliveries at GSTFT between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between BMI and outcome in different ethnic groups. Adjusted odds ratios, and the proportions of obese women, were used to calculate population attributable risk fractions (PAFs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (I MATERNAL OUTCOMES: diabetes, type of delivery, post-partum haemorrhage, and preterm delivery. (ii Perinatal outcomes: macrosomia, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care/special care baby unit, and perinatal death. RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal obesity was 14%. Increasing BMI was independently associated with increasing risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. At the individual level, the effect of obesity on diabetes was highest in Asian women compared to white women (p for interaction = 0.03. Calculation of population attributable risk fractions demonstrated that one third of diabetes cases and one in six Caesarean sections could be avoided in this population if all obese women were of normal BMI. At the population level, the contribution of obesity to diabetes was highest for Black women (42%, and lowest for oriental women (8%. Seven percent of neonatal macrosomia in all the population, and 13% in Black mothers, were attributable to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing obesity prior to pregnancy will substantially reduce the burden of obstetric and neonatal morbidity in this population. This reduction will be higher in Black women.

  5. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (Pgroup. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more likely to observe a diverse range of adverse events (Page group (older

  6. Differences in attitudes towards medication between population groups in the Durban Metropolitan Area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Fatima; Ally, Shabnam; Bayat, Samirah; Essack, Razia; Moodley, Renalda; Mtembu, Thobekile; Ramalingham, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Personal factors, especially attitude, have been implicated in the utilization of health care services, and in access to medical treatment. There is little information on the attitudes of the general public in South Africa towards medications and whether attitudes differ across population groups or among the different users of the health care system. This study aimed to determine the general attitude of a local population to medications, self-care orientation and health professional contact, and whether differences existed between age groups, gender and race groups. METHODS We carried out a randomized, cross-sectional quantitative study via telephonic questionnaire survey (adapted from a previous study) of a sample of 1132 telephone numbers. The setting was the Durban Metropolitan Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KEY FINDINGS A total of 500 (44.2%) people responded. The majority had a positive attitude towards medication. An increase in age resulted in increased medication use. Females were more likely than males to use medication and seek professional health care (P = 0.0406). Most of the respondents (86.0%) were self-care-orientated and displayed moderate medication knowledge (46.2%). Some 295 (59.0%) of the 500 respondents had visited a pharmacy within the last 6 months. Conclusions Health care professionals can adopt an informed approach to address the needs of the population with regard to medication, by targeting groups more likely to use medication (females and the older age group). In addition, gaps in medication knowledge were identified which could be used for health-promotion interventions by health care workers.

  7. Dietary exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs of different population groups in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihats, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke

    2015-05-01

    The dietary exposure to the sum of the six indicator PCBs (Σ6 PCBs; PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) across different Austrian population groups was assessed in this study by combining data on occurrence from food of the Austrian market (n=157) analysed during 2006-2011 with national food consumption data. The most contaminated food group was meat, poultry, game and offal with average levels of ndl-PCBs of 5.20 ng g(-1) fat. In fish and fish products and eggs, mean concentrations of 3.89 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 4.00 ng g(-1) fat, respectively, were found. In milk and dairy products average concentrations ranged from 3.07 to 4.44 ng g(-1) fat. The mean dietary intake of Σ6 PCBs was estimated to be 3.37 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for children (6-15 years old), 3.19 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for women (19-65 years) and 2.64 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men (19-65 years). In all three population groups, milk and dairy products was the major contributing food group to the total dietary intake (50-55%) followed by fish and fish products (23-27%). The exposure of all Austrian population groups is well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) proposed by WHO, accounting for 34% in children, 32% in women and 26% in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic differentiation and population structure of five ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-12-01

    The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The F ST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping

  9. 25 CFR 140.1 - Sole power to appoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sole power to appoint. 140.1 Section 140.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.1 Sole power to appoint. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall have the sole power and authority to...

  10. Frequency Distribution of Blood Groups ABO, MN and Rh Factor in Philippine Cosmopolitan, Regional and the National Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Marian S. Guzman; Ricardo Noel R. Gervasio; Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla; Ernelea P. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. Blood groups include the ABO, Rh and the MN red cell antigens. The frequency distribution of these three blood groups were obtained and assessed for differences from three populations: (1) a regional population from the town of Cabagan located in Isabela province; (2) a cosmopolitan population from the University of the Philippines’ r...

  11. Haptoglobin gene subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Miranda-Vilela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp*2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp*1F and Hp*1S, that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56, Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70 and an urban population (n = 132 were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3% and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%. The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of FST (0.0291 indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp *1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians.

  12. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafat; Chopra, Rupali; Manvati, Siddharth; Singh, Yoginder Pal; Kaul, Nabodita; Behura, Anita; Mahajan, Ankit; Sehajpal, Prabodh; Gupta, Subash; Dhar, Manoj K; Chainy, Gagan B N; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, ppopulation. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08) in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR)<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59) when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  13. Behavioral responses in structured populations pave the way to group optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    An unresolved controversy regarding social behaviors is exemplified when natural selection might lead to behaviors that maximize fitness at the social-group level but are costly at the individual level. Except for the special case of groups of clones, we do not have a general understanding of how and when group-optimal behaviors evolve, especially when the behaviors in question are flexible. To address this question, we develop a general model that integrates behavioral plasticity in social interactions with the action of natural selection in structured populations. We find that group-optimal behaviors can evolve, even without clonal groups, if individuals exhibit appropriate behavioral responses to each other's actions. The evolution of such behavioral responses, in turn, is predicated on the nature of the proximate behavioral mechanisms. We model a particular class of proximate mechanisms, prosocial preferences, and find that such preferences evolve to sustain maximum group benefit under certain levels of relatedness and certain ecological conditions. Thus, our model demonstrates the fundamental interplay between behavioral responses and relatedness in determining the course of social evolution. We also highlight the crucial role of proximate mechanisms such as prosocial preferences in the evolution of behavioral responses and in facilitating evolutionary transitions in individuality.

  14. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation on hepatitis C virus infection among different population group in eastern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kai; Chen Linxing; Zhang Renhua; Yao Zhanchen; Xu Pinghui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the HCV infection rate and the route of transmission among different population groups in Eastern Gruangdong province. Methods: Anti HCV was detected with EL ISA and HCV-RNA with FQ-PCR in selected population groups in Eastern Guangdong (total 8990 subjects). Results: The anti-HCV positive rates for general population, pregnant women, medical personnel, hepatitis B patients and patients on hemodialysis (HD) were: 0.89%(58/6468), 0.93%(17/1836), 2.93%(5/171), 11.5%(47/410) and 51.4%(54/105) respectively. Twelve of the 17 anti-HCV positive mothers were found to be HCV-RNA positive and two of the 12 infants were also HCV-RNA positive: a mother-to-infant transmission rate of 16.7%. In MD patients, anti HCV positive rate in those with history of transfusion and those without transfusion was 58% and 17% respectively, the difference being significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Blood transmission was the main route for HCV infection transmission and mother-to-infant transmission as well as infections in medical personnel should be of great concern. (authors)

  16. Incidence of diabetes mellitus in various population groups in Israel (1989 and 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Mansour, T; Slepon, R; Karp, M; Shohat, T

    1994-10-01

    A prospective survey of all newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) children and adolescents aged 0-17 years in Israel was conducted for the years 1989 and 1990. All diabetic clinics in Israel treating young diabetics were contacted and they returned written reports to us. Each clinic was also visited regularly by a member of the team who reviewed the individual charts to obtain data on population origin as well as medical and demographic data. A total of 187 patients were identified (164 Jews and 23 Arabs), giving a total incidence rate of 5.46/10(5). Analysis of the incidence rates by population groups showed that Arabs and Jews originating in Asia had the lowest incidence (2.77 and 4.58/10(5) respectively), followed by Jews whose fathers were born in Israel (5.61/10(5)). The highest incidence was registered for Jews originating from Europe and North America (9.34/10(5)). The female-to-male preponderance ratio was higher in the Jews originating in Asia (2.1) than in Jews originating in Europe and North America (1.2). Comparing the present data with a survey performed for the years 1975-80 we found a statistically significant increase in incidence in all population groups. Our findings strongly suggest an influence of genetic factors on the incidence of childhood IDDM.

  17. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  18. Trace element analysis of teeth from pre-Columbian population groups in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Oliver, A.; Andrade, E.; Macias, R.; Mansilla, J.; Chavez-Lomeli, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Human teeth from pre-Columbian and recent population groups have been analyzed by PIXE. Ancient teeth corresponding to children and adults were obtained from archaeological burials located in five geographic areas of Mexico. Inter-specific and inter-site differences in the trace element contents of enamel were compared in order to get some insight into differences in diet, environmental conditions, teeth health, disease state and post mortem alteration among the co-occurring populations. For permanent teeth from adults, small variations in trace element levels were found depending on the collection site or tooth health, but for deciduous teeth from children, the concentration of elements such as Mn, Fe and Sr varied considerably. In this work, the possible sources of variation are discussed. (author)

  19. Digital divide: Use of electronic personal health record by different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Hun; Kim, Yongmin

    2010-01-01

    Personal Health Record (PHR) has been increasingly recognized and actively promoted by the federal government, experts and industry as an important tool for improving healthcare in the U.S. However, the PHR use by patients and its utility have not been studied well. We have evaluated a web-based PHR in multiple locations covering diverse population groups. The study sites included a surgical specialty clinic, a medical specialty clinic, and a mental health clinic at the University of Washington, and a low-income elderly housing facility near Seattle in the state of Washington. The PHR use by the low-income elderly was limited due to poor technical skills and low physical/cognitive abilities. On the other hand, the younger and affluent populations used the web-based PHR much easily and efficiently compared to the older and low-income group. They regarded managing personal health information easy while the older group struggled. As more computer literate individuals age, the next-generation elderly are certain to be more technically skilled than the current generation. Although the reduced physical/cognitive abilities due to aging would still be a challenge, more elderly people will be able to not only use a PHR system but also use it to the full extent to get the maximum benefit.

  20. [A Survey for Colton and Other 3 Rare Blood Group Systems in Chinese Nanjing Han Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yan-Chun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the distribution of Colton, Diego, Kell and Yt rare blood groups in Chinese Nanjing Han population, so as to improve the transfusion capability of patients with rare blood group and to further enrich the rare-blood-donor bank. A total of 2 015 blood samples from the blood donors were selected randomly to screen the presence of K⁺ and Kp(c+) (Kell), Yt(b+) (Yt), Co(b+) (Colton), Di(a+b+) and Di(a+b-) (Digeo) antigen allele by using PCR and multiplex PCR. Out of 2005 samples, 1 case with K⁺ gene, 8 cases with Yt(b+) gene and 100 cases with Di(a+b+) gene, 2 cases with Di(a+b-) were identified, while no Kp(c+) and Co(b+) were detected. The frequencies of K⁺, Yt(b+) and Di(a+), Di(b+) are 0.0003, 0.0013 and 0.0258, 0.9742, respectively. They are very rare blood groups in Chinese Nanjing Han population.

  1. Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing in Five Special Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Muñoz, Edgar; Holden, Alan E; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Smith, Selina A; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wyatt, Stephen W; Suarez, Lucina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups. The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences. Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to "follow doctor recommendations" (p=0.017), "concern for effects on family" (p=0.044), "distrust of modern medicine" (p=0.036), "cost" (p=0.025), and "concerns about communication of results to others" (p=0.032). There was a significant inverse relationship between interest and genetic testing cost (p<0.050), with the exception of Latinas, who showed the highest level of interest regardless of increasing cost. Cost may be an important barrier to obtaining genetic testing services, and participants would benefit by genetic counseling that incorporates the unique cultural values and beliefs of each group to create an individualized, culturally competent program. Further research about attitudes toward genetic testing is needed among Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Appalachians for whom data are severely lacking. Future study of the different Latina perceptions toward genetic testing are encouraged.

  2. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Remodelling core group theory: the role of sustaining populations in HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy; Foss, Anna M; Hossain, Mazeda; Cox, Andrew; Vickerman, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Core group theory describes the central role of groups with high rates of sexual partner change in HIV transmission. Research illustrates the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of commercial sex, and that some men involved in the organisation or policing of sex work regularly have sex with sex workers. These findings are used to explore gaps in core group theory. Evidence from developing countries on the duration that women sell and men buy sex was reviewed. Simple compartmental dynamic models were used to derive analytical expressions for the relative HIV equilibrium levels among sex workers and partners, incorporating partner change rates and duration in commercial sex settings. Simulations explored the degree to which HIV infection can be attributable to men with low partner change rates who remain in sex work settings for long periods, and their influence on the impact of HIV intervention. Partner change rates and duration of time in a setting determine equilibrium HIV levels. Modelling projections suggest that men with low mobility can substantially contribute to HIV prevalence among sex workers, especially in settings with prevalences group theory. Men who control the sex industry and regular clients may form an important 'sustaining population' that increases infection and undermines the impact of intervention. Intervention activities should include these groups, and examine the social organisation of sex work that underpins many of these relationships.

  4. Intrinsic rewards experienced by a group of dentists working with underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S P; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Winning, T A; Peterson, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore, using qualitative methods, the intrinsic reasons why dentists work with underserved groups. Minority and marginalized groups of Australians suffer a greater burden of dental disease than the general population due to disparities in accessing care. Recruitment and retention of dentists to care for underserved groups is problematic due to personal, professional and structural reasons. What drives dentists to work with underserved groups is not widely known. Sixteen dentists were recruited using 'snowball' purposeful sampling. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcriptions to identify themes. Five key themes emerged: (1) 'tapped on the shoulder', being personally approached or invited; (2) 'dental school experience', the challenges faced as a student; (3) 'empathic concern', the non-judgemental expressions of care toward others; (4) 'resilience', the ability to bounce back after setbacks; (5) 'intrinsic reward', the personal gain and satisfaction received. This study focuses on the intrinsic rewards which were found to be simple, unexpected, and associated with relieving pain, community engagement and making a difference. Emphasizing personal fulfilment and intrinsic reward could be useful when promoting dentistry as a career and when encouraging graduates to consider working with disadvantaged groups. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  6. Population is the main driver of war group size and conflict casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Rahul C; Kissel, Marc; Golitko, Mark; Sheridan, Susan Guise; Kim, Nam C; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-12-26

    The proportions of individuals involved in intergroup coalitional conflict, measured by war group size (W), conflict casualties (C), and overall group conflict deaths (G), have declined with respect to growing populations, implying that states are less violent than small-scale societies. We argue that these trends are better explained by scaling laws shared by both past and contemporary societies regardless of social organization, where group population (P) directly determines W and indirectly determines C and G. W is shown to be a power law function of P with scaling exponent X [demographic conflict investment (DCI)]. C is shown to be a power law function of W with scaling exponent Y [conflict lethality (CL)]. G is shown to be a power law function of P with scaling exponent Z [group conflict mortality (GCM)]. Results show that, while W/P and G/P decrease as expected with increasing P, C/W increases with growing W. Small-scale societies show higher but more variance in DCI and CL than contemporary states. We find no significant differences in DCI or CL between small-scale societies and contemporary states undergoing drafts or conflict, after accounting for variance and scale. We calculate relative measures of DCI and CL applicable to all societies that can be tracked over time for one or multiple actors. In light of the recent global emergence of populist, nationalist, and sectarian violence, our comparison-focused approach to DCI and CL will enable better models and analysis of the landscapes of violence in the 21st century. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: The example of Cabo Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G.; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R.; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Methods Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Results Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95%CI:1.36–1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95%CI:7.8–8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios targeting FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence. PMID:25838121

  8. Evaluating HIV prevention strategies for populations in key affected groups: the example of Cabo Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Galea, Sandro; Flanigan, Timothy; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Friedman, Samuel R; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2015-05-01

    We used an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical prevention interventions on HIV incidence trajectories in a concentrated, mixed epidemic setting from 2011 to 2021, and using Cabo Verde as an example. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the extent to which early HIV treatment and optimization of care, HIV testing, condom distribution, and substance abuse treatment could eliminate new infections (i.e., reduce incidence to less than 10 cases per 10,000 person-years) among non-drug users, female sex workers (FSW), and people who use drugs (PWUD). Scaling up all four interventions resulted in the largest decreases in HIV, with estimates ranging from 1.4 (95 % CI 1.36-1.44) per 10,000 person-years among non-drug users to 8.2 (95 % CI 7.8-8.6) per 10,000 person-years among PWUD in 2021. Intervention scenarios prioritizing FWS and PWUD also resulted in HIV incidence estimates at or below 10 per 10,000 person-years by 2021 for all population sub-groups. Our results suggest that scaling up multiple interventions among entire population is necessary to achieve elimination. However, prioritizing key populations with this combination prevention strategy may also result in a substantial decrease in total incidence.

  9. Seroepidemiological Study of Epstein-Barr Virus in Different Population Groups in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beader, Nataša; Kolarić, Branko; Slačanac, Domagoj; Tabain, Irena; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana

    2018-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common viruses found in humans, causing lifelong infection in up to 95% of the world population. To analyze the seroprevalence of EBV infection in different population groups in Croatia. During a 2 year period (2015-2016), a total of 2022 consecutive serum samples collected from Croatian residents were tested for the presence of EBV-specific viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. IgM/IgG-positive samples were further tested for IgG avidity. The overall prevalence of EBV IgG antibodies was 91.4%. Females had significantly higher IgG seroprevalence than males (93.1% vs. 89.9%, P = 0.008). According to age, IgG seropositivity increased progressively from 59.6% in children age 40. All IgM positive participants > 40 years showed high IgG avidity. Logistic regression showed that age is associated with EBV IgG seropositivity. EBV is widespread in the Croatian population. Older age appears to be the main risk factor for EBV seropositivity.

  10. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in different population groups: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Lukas; Cina, Manuel; Egli-Gany, Dianne; Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Lohrer, Gian-Reto; Ali, Hammad; Scott, Pippa; Low, Nicola

    2018-02-09

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. Testing of asymptomatic populations has been proposed, but prevalence in asymptomatic populations is not well established. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSWs) and clinic-based samples, METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline, IndMED, African Index Medicus and LILACS from 1 January 1991 to 12 July 2016 without language restrictions. We included studies with 500 participants or more. Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies and extracted data. We examined forest plots and conducted random-effects meta-analysis to estimate prevalence, if appropriate. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I 2 statistic and meta-regression. Of 3316 screened records, 63 were included. In randomly selected samples from the general population, the summary prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.8%, I 2 41.5%, three studies, 9091 people) in countries with higher levels of development and 3.9% (95% CI 2.2 to 6.7, I 2 89.2%, three studies, 3809 people) in countries with lower levels. Prevalence was similar in women and men (P=0.47). In clinic based samples, prevalence estimates were higher, except in asymptomatic patients (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.4, I 2 0.0%, three studies, 2889 people). Summary prevalence estimates were, in the following groups: pregnant women 0.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.4%, I 2 0%, four studies, 3472 people), MSM in the community 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 5.1, I 2 78.3%, five studies, 3012 people) and female CSWs in the community 15.9% (95% CI 13.5 to 18.9, I 2 79.9%, four studies, 4006 people). This systematic review can inform testing guidelines for M. genitalium . The low estimated prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women and asymptomatic attenders at clinics does not support expansion of testing to these

  11. Population-specific left ventricular hypertrophy in three groups from the northeastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P K; Hazarika, N C; Biswas, D; Kalita, H C; Mahanta, J

    2010-01-01

    People living in the hills are continuously exposed to strenuous physical activity for their day-to-day work. Besides hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy in different populations may be related to continuous physical activity. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure and sociodemographic information of 12 252 subjects > or = 30 years of age from three different population groups living in Mizoram (hilly) and Assam (plain) were recorded. Of them, 8058 were from Mizoram and 3180 and 1014 were Indigenous Assamese and tea garden workers of Assam. Among the subjects from Mizoram the percentage of smokers (41.9%), mean (SD) BMI (21.9 [3.8]) and waist-hip ratio (0.87 [0.02]) were significantly higher than in those from other groups. Tea garden workers had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (145.2 [25.7]) and diastolic blood pressure (87.6 [13.6]). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was highest among tea garden workers (16.5%) followed by people from Mizoram (3.7%) and the indigenous Assamese (2%) people. In spite of a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the indigenous Assamese community than among those from Mizoram, left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be lower in the former. High prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among tea garden workers was possibly related to a higher prevalence of hypertension but the higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among people from Mizoram might be related to more physical activity.

  12. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  13. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Shutov, V.N.; Ya Bruk, G.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Pogorely, Ju.A.; Burkova, T.F.

    2002-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137 Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137 Cs and 90 Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137 Cs intake in this group were about 10 μSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 μSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137 Cs intake of about 0.5 μSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137 Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90 Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied

  14. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Dewey, Michael; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Krishnamoorthy, E S; McKeigue, Paul; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata M M; Stewart, Robert; Uwakwe, Richard

    2007-07-20

    Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina), with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000). Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain). Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815). A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina) to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our aim is to create an evidence base to empower advocacy, raise

  15. Trends in cannabis use disorders among racial/ethnic population groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-08-01

    Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. Data were from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD. Approximately 1.5% of adults met criteria for a CUD in the past year. Regardless of survey year, cannabis dependence was more common than cannabis abuse, representing 66% of adults with a CUD. Across racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of cannabis abuse and dependence remained stable during 2005-2013. In the total adult sample, the odds of weekly CU, monthly CU, and cannabis dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and mixed-race adults than whites. Among cannabis users, the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and Hispanics than whites. Logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, and survey year indicated an increased trend in monthly CU and weekly CU in the total sample and among past-year cannabis users. Younger age, male sex, and low education were associated with increased odds of cannabis dependence. The large sample provides robust information that indicates a need for research to monitor CUD and identify culturally appropriate interventions especially for targeting minority populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  17. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  18. Tax Policy and Sole Proprietorships: A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The 21 million sole proprietorship returns filed in 2005 represent a wide variety of economic activity. This paper examines three major tax policy issues related to sole proprietorships—taxpayer compliance, taxpayer burden, and incentives for growth. It uses tax return data to take a closer look at sole proprietorships. It proposes a new taxonomy for describing these returns in an economically meaningful way, based on the principal factors of production that they use: their own labor, hired l...

  19. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. III. A catalog of galaxies in five nearby groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    Five nearby groups of galaxies have been surveyed using large-scale plates from the 2.5 m duPont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Catalogs of galaxies brighter than B(T) = 20 are presented for the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, and Antlia groups. A total of 1044 galaxies are included, from visual inspection of 14 plates, covering 31 deg square. Galaxies have been classified in the extended Hubble system, and group memberships have been assigned based on velocity (where available) and morphology. About half the galaxies listed are likely members of one of the nearby groups. The catalogs are complete to B(T) = 18, although the completeness limits vary slightly from group to group. Based on King model fits to the surface density profiles, the core radii of the groups range from 0.3 to 1 Mpc, and central densities range from 120 to 1900 galaxies Mpc exp-3 brighter than M(BT) = -12.5. Dynamical analysis indicates that all of the groups are likely to be gravitationally bound. 64 refs

  20. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  1. Lifetime ultraviolet exposure estimates for selected population groups in south-east Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.V.; Meldrum, L.R.; Wong, J.C.F.; Fleming, R.A.; Aitken, J.

    1999-01-01

    The lifetime erythemal UV exposures received by selected population groups in south-east Queensland from birth up to an age of 55 years have been quantitatively estimated. A representative sample of teachers and other school workers received (64±22)x10 5 J m -2 to the neck compared with (4.1±1.4)x10 5 Jm -2 to the upper leg. A sample of indoor workers (bank officers, solicitors and psychologists) received approximately 2% less and a sample of outdoor workers (carpenters, tilers, electricians and labourers) received approximately 10% more to the neck than the school workers. These differences in erythemal UV exposures may influence the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. (author)

  2. The Ontology of Biological Groups: Do Grasshoppers Form Assemblages, Communities, Guilds, Populations, or Something Else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Lockwood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acridologists have used a variety of terms to describe groups of grasshoppers, including assemblage, community, guild, and population. This terminological diversity has raised the question of whether one of these descriptors is the correct one. I take the position that these terms pick out different features of the natural world such that there is no unconditionally or uniquely correct term. By adopting the framework of constrained perspectivism—a form of philosophical pragmatism—it is argued that a term is correct if it accurately reflects the conceptual framework of the investigator and effectively communicates this perspective to others. Such an approach gives rise to terminological pluralism that avoids the problems of relativism (the subjectivist's view that any term can be used and absolutism (the objectivist's view that there is a single correct term. I describe the contexts in which the most common terms are appropriate.

  3. Assessment of child psychomotor development in population groups as a positive health indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Passcucci, María C; Masautis, Alicia; Insua, Iván; Lejarraga, Celina; Nunes, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    It is necessary to use health indicators describing the conditions of all individuals in a population, not just of those who have a disease or die. To introduce a method to collect population indicators of psychomotor development in children younger than 6 years old and show its results. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional assessment regarding compliance with 13 developmental milestones (selected from the national reference) conducted in 5465 children using five surveys administered by the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin Authority in areas of this basin where a high proportion of families with unmet basic needs live. For each survey, a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the median age at attainment of the 13 developmental milestones. A linear regression model between the estimated age at attainment of the 13 milestones was adjusted for each survey based on the corresponding age at attainment of the national reference. Based on this model, three indicators were defined: overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend. Results from the five surveys ranged between 0.74 and 0.85, 0.88 and 0.81, and -0.15 and -0.26 for the overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend, respectively. A distinct developmental delay and an increasing trend in delay with age were observed. Indicators are easily interpreted and related to social indicators (unmet basic needs, etc.). Collecting the information necessary to make estimations takes little time and can be applied to population groups, but not on an individual level. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. ABO Blood Group Genotyping by Real-time PCR in Kazakh Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tarlykov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ABO blood group genotyping is a new technology in hematology that helps prevent adverse transfusion reactions in patients. Identification of antigens on the surface of red blood cells is based on serology; however, genotyping employs a different strategy and is aimed directly at genes that determine the surface proteins. ABO blood group genotyping by real-time PCR has several crucial advantages over other PCR-based techniques, such as high rapidity and reliability of analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine nucleotide substitutions differences by blood types using a PCR-based method on Kazakh blood donors.Methods. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center for Biotechnology. Venous blood samples from 369 healthy Kazakh blood donors, whose blood types had been determined by serological methods, were collected after obtaining informed consent. The phenotypes of the samples included blood group A (n = 99, B (n = 93, O (n = 132, and AB (n = 45. Genomic DNA was extracted using a salting-out method. PCR products of ABO gene were sequenced on an ABI 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems. The resulting nucleotide sequences were compared and aligned against reference sequence NM_020469.2. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on CFX96 Touch™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (BioRad.Results. Direct sequencing of ABO gene in 369 samples revealed that the vast majority of nucleotide substitutions that change the ABO phenotype were limited to exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene at positions 261, 467, 657, 796, 803, 930 and 1,060. However, genotyping of only three of them (261, 796 and 803 resulted in identification of major ABO genotypes in the Kazakh population. As a result, TaqMan probe based real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of genotypes 261, 796 and 803 was developed. The assay did not take into account several other mutations that may affect the determination of blood group, because they have a

  5. The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.

  6. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  7. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, R N; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy

    2013-03-01

    Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, F(a) : 87.4, Fy(b) : 57.6, Jk(a) : 81.5, Jk(b) : 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

  8. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Green, Manfred S; Soskolne, Varda; Neumark, Yehuda

    2017-06-24

    Israel is a high-income country with an advanced health system and universal health-care insurance. Overall, the health status has improved steadily over recent decades. We examined differences in morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between subpopulation groups. Between 1975 and 2014, life expectancy in Israel steadily increased and is currently above the average life expectancy for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Nevertheless, life expectancy has remained lower among Israeli Arabs than Israeli Jews, and this gap has recently widened. Age-adjusted mortality as a result of heart disease, stroke, or diabetes remains higher in Arabs, whereas age-adjusted incidence and mortality of cancer were higher among Jews. The prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in Israel is considerably higher among Arabs than Jews. Smoking prevalence is highest for Arab men and lowest for Arab women. Health inequalities are also evident by the indicators of socioeconomic position and in subpopulations, such as immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Bedouin Arabs. Despite universal health coverage and substantial improvements in the overall health of the Israeli population, substantial inequalities in NCDs persist. These differences might be explained, at least in part, by gaps in social determinants of health. The Ministry of Health has developed comprehensive programmes to reduce these inequalities between the major population groups. Sustained coordinated multisectoral efforts are needed to achieve a greater impact and to address other social inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Aquiles

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina, with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000. Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain. Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815. A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our

  10. Spectrum of MTHFR gene SNPs C677T and A1298C: a study among 23 population groups of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Asghar, Mohammad; Samtani, Ratika; Murry, Benrithung; Mondal, Prakash Ranjan; Ghosh, Pradeep Kumar; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

    2012-04-01

    Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for many complex disorders. The role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in methylation of homocysteine makes it one of the most important candidate genes for these disorders. Considering the heterogeneity in its distribution in world populations, we screened MTHFR C677T and A1298C single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 23 Indian caste, tribal and religious population groups from five geographical regions of India and belonging to four major linguistic groups. The frequencies of MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were found to be 10.08 and 20.66%, respectively. MTHFR homozygous genotype 677TT was absent in eight population groups and homozygous 1298CC was absent in two population groups. 677T allele was found to be highest among north Indian populations with Indo-European tongue and 1298C was high among Dravidian-speaking tribes of east India and south India. The less common mutant haplotype 677T-1298C was observed among seven population groups and overall the frequency of this haplotype was 0.008, which is similar to that of African populations. cis configuration of 677T and 1298C was 0.94%. However, we could not find any individual with four mutant alleles which supports the earlier observation that presence of more than two mutant alleles may decrease the viability of foetus and possibly be a selective disadvantage in the population.

  11. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong Tar Wei; Faisal Muti Al-Hassan; Norris Naim; Aishah Knight; Sanmukh R Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence...

  12. Molecular – genetic variance of RH blood group system within human population of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Lasić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two major theories for inheritance of Rh blood group system: Fisher - Race theory and Wiener theory. Aim of this study was identifying frequency of RHDCE alleles in Bosnian - Herzegovinian population and introduction of this method in screening for Rh phenotype in B&H since this type of analysis was not used for blood typing in B&H before. Rh blood group was typed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, using the protocols and primers previously established by other authors, then carrying out electrophoresis in 2-3% agarose gel. Percentage of Rh positive individuals in our sample is 84.48%, while the percentage of Rh negative individuals is 15.52%. Inter-rater agreement statistic showed perfect agreement (K=1 between the results of Rh blood system detection based on serological and molecular-genetics methods. In conclusion, molecular - genetic methods are suitable for prenatal genotyping and specific cases while standard serological method is suitable for high-throughput of samples.

  13. Mortality forecast from gastroduodenal ulcer disease for different gender and age population groups in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzhiy I.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.

  14. Patterns of Mortality in Patients Treated with Dental Implants: A Comparison of Patient Age Groups and Corresponding Reference Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemt, Torsten; Kowar, Jan; Nilsson, Mats; Stenport, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between implant patient mortality compared to reference populations. The aim of this study was to report the mortality pattern in patients treated with dental implants up to a 15-year period, and to compare this to mortality in reference populations with regard to age at surgery, sex, and degree of tooth loss. Patient cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated for a total of 4,231 treated implant patients from a single clinic. Information was based on surgical registers in the clinic and the National Population Register in Sweden. Patients were arranged into age groups of 10 years, and CSR was compared to that of the reference population of comparable age and reported in relation to age at surgery, sex, and type of jaw/dentition. A similar, consistent, general relationship between CSR of different age groups of implant patients and reference populations could be observed for all parameters studied. Completely edentulous patients presented higher mortality than partially edentulous patients (P age groups showed mortality similar to or higher than reference populations, while older patient age groups showed increasingly lower mortality than comparable reference populations for edentulous and partially edentulous patients (P age groups of patients compared to reference populations was observed, indicating higher patient mortality in younger age groups and lower in older groups. The reported pattern is not assumed to be related to implant treatment per se, but is assumed to reflect the variation in general health of a selected subgroup of treated implant patients compared to the reference population in different age groups.

  15. Population parameters for dose calculations: initial estimates of municipal, city and provincial age group population within 20, 50 and 80 kilometers of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The study attempts to determine the total population and population growth rates of four (4) age groups per municipality/city within twenty (20), fifty (50) and eighty (80) kilometers from the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1). The population estimates were done at five (5) year intervals covering the next fifty years. The latest National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO) population projections at the provincial level under the assumption of moderate fertility and moderate mentality decline (series no. 2) were used to derive the estimates of the total population and population growth rates at the minicipality/city levels. The Bureau of Coastal and Geodetic Survey (BCGS) and the NCSO maps served as the bases for delineating the geographic and political boundaries covered by the study. The results will complement the findings of the PAEC project on agricultural parameters for radiation dose calculations and useful for related environmental studies. (author)

  16. Discards monitoring in the gillnet fishery for sole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 2-3% of the Dutch fishing quota for sole (Solea solea) is caught by a 60-vessel strong inshore fleet of gillnetters. From their home ports in IJmuiden, Scheveningen and Den Helder, these vessels fish typically with bottom-set gillnets for sole during 1 day trips between March and

  17. 31 CFR 515.546 - Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of Cuba... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships. 515.546 Section 515.546 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  18. Participant recruitment from minority religious groups: the case of the Islamic population in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, N; Jones, T; Evans, D

    2008-12-01

    Participant recruitment is a fundamental component of the research process and the methods employed to attract individuals will depend on the nature of the study. Recruitment may be more challenging when the study involves people from a minority religious group. However, this issue has not been well addressed in the literature. To discuss the challenges of recruiting participants from a minority religious group (the Islamic population) to participate in an interpretive, hermeneutic study concerning the experience of hospitalization. The challenges of recruitment encountered during this study are used as the basis for a broader discussion of this important issue. To ensure the success of this phase of the study, a pre-planned recruitment strategy was essential. Multiple recruitment strategies were used, including hospital-based recruitment, snowball sampling, advertising and contact with key people. Despite the use of multiple strategies, recruitment of participants was difficult and required an extended period of time to achieve sufficiently rich data. Thirteen participants shared their lived experience to provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Recruiting participants from minority religious group involves potentially sensitive issues. There is an increased need for the researchers to carefully consider potential participants' rights and ensure that sound ethical principles underpin the study, as failure to do this may hinder the recruitment process. The two most effective strategies of recruitment were snowball sampling and contact with key Islamic people, with the least effective being advertising. This paper highlights the importance of anticipating potential difficulties and pre-planning strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment. Implementation of multiple strategies is recommended to ensure successful research recruitment.

  19. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2015. U.S. Census Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Selected Age Groups by Sex for the United States. The estimates are based on the 2010 Census...

  20. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-02-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O(2) concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing (clone libraries and 454-pyrotags). Estimates of MGA abundance as a proportion of total bacteria were similar across all three methods although estimates based on CARD-FISH were consistently lower in the OMZ (5.6%±1.9%) than estimates based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (11.0%±3.9%) or pyrotags (9.9%±1.8%). Five previously defined MGA subgroups were recovered in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and five novel subgroups were defined (HF770D10, P262000D03, P41300E03, P262000N21 and A714018). Rarefaction analysis of pyrotag data indicated that the ultimate richness of MGA was very nearly sampled. Spearman's rank analysis of MGA abundances by CARD-FISH and O(2) concentrations resulted in significant correlation. Analyzed in more detail by 16S rRNA pyrotag sequencing, MGA operational taxonomic units affiliated with subgroups Arctic95A-2 and A714018 comprised 0.3-2.4% of total bacterial sequences and displayed strong correlations with decreasing O(2) concentration. This study is the first comprehensive description of MGA diversity using complementary techniques. These results provide a phylogenetic framework for interpreting future studies on ecotype selection among MGA subgroups, and suggest a potentially important role for MGA in the ecology and biogeochemistry of OMZs.

  1. The low-mass star and sub-stellar populations of the 25 Orionis group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Juan José; Briceño, César; Mateu, Cecilia; Hernández, Jesús; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.; Allen, Lori

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of a survey of the low-mass star and brown dwarf population of the 25 Orionis group. Using optical photometry from the CIDA (Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía `Francisco J. Duarte', Mérida, Venezuela) Deep Survey of Orion, near-IR photometry from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy and low-resolution spectroscopy obtained with Hectospec at the MMT telescope, we selected 1246 photometric candidates to low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with estimated masses within 0.02 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 0.8 and spectroscopically confirmed a sample of 77 low-mass stars as new members of the cluster with a mean age of ˜7 Myr. We have obtained a system initial mass function of the group that can be well described by either a Kroupa power-law function with indices α3 = -1.73 ± 0.31 and α2 = 0.68 ± 0.41 in the mass ranges 0.03 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 0.08 and 0.08 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 0.5, respectively, or a Scalo lognormal function with coefficients m_c=0.21^{+0.02}_{-0.02} and σ = 0.36 ± 0.03 in the mass range 0.03 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 0.8. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of this numerous candidate sample, we have confirmed the east-west elongation of the 25 Orionis group observed in previous works, and rule out a possible southern extension of the group. We find that the spatial distributions of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in 25 Orionis are statistically indistinguishable. Finally, we found that the fraction of brown dwarfs showing IR excesses is higher than for low-mass stars, supporting the scenario in which the evolution of circumstellar discs around the least massive objects could be more prolonged.

  2. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Tar Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diego blood group antigen, Di(a, is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a, in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+ red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Materials and Methods: Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Results: Di(a antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a in serum. Conclusion: The prevalence of Di(a antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+ red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  3. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2013-01-01

    Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  4. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  5. RESEARCH REGARDING THE FREQUENCY AND TRANSMISSION OF AB0 BLOOD GROUPS IN A POPULATION OF PUPILS FROM ROMAN, NEAMŢ COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Bara; Emiliana Randunica; Cristian Tudose; Iuliana Csilla Bara

    2007-01-01

    Part of a larger study regarding the genetic polymorphisms present in the human population of Romania, we have studied the frequency and transmission of AB0 blood groups in Roman, Neamţ County. We have investigated a population of school-boys from Roman town, Neamţ County. The blood groups frequency were: 0 = 30%; A = 42%; B = 19%; AB = 9%. These values are in accordance with the values registered for all Romanian population. In Roman town, between 2001-2004, the frequency of ...

  6. Epidemiological studies of general population groups exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments

  7. Population structure and morphometric variance of the Apis mellifera scutellata group of honeybees in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Radloff

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee populations of Africa classified as Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier were analysed morphometrically using multivariate statistical techniques. The collection consisted of nearly 15,000 worker honeybees from 825 individual colonies at 193 localities in east Africa, extending from South Africa to Ethiopia. Factor analysis established one primary cluster, designated as A. m. scutellata. Morphocluster formation and inclusivity (correct classification are highly sensitive to sampling distance intervals. Within the A. m. scutellata region are larger bees associated with high altitudes of mountain systems which are traditionally classified as A. m. monticola Smith, but it is evident that these bees do not form a uniform group. Variance characteristics of the morphometric measurements show domains of significantly different local populations. These high variance populations mostly occur at transitional edges of major climatic and vegetational zones, and sometimes with more localised discontinuities in temperature. It is also now evident that those A. m. scutellata introduced nearly fifty years ago into the Neotropics were a particularly homogenous sample, which exhibited all the traits expected in a founder effect or bottleneck population.Populações africanas de abelhas comuns classificadas como Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier foram analisadas morfometricamente usando-se técnicas estatísticas multivariadas. A população consistia de aproximadamente 15.000 abelhas operárias provenientes de 825 colônias individuais de 193 localidades do leste da África, estendendo-se da África do Sul até a Etiópia. A análise de fatores estabeleceu um agrupamento primário designado A. m. scutellata. A formação de agrupamento morfológico e a inclusividade (classificação correta são altamente sensíveis aos intervalos de distância da amostragem. Dentro da região de A. m. scutellata há abelhas maiores associadas às altas altitudes

  8. A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Individual versus Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Problems of Depression and Anxiety in an HMO Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared the cost effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy, traditional process-oriented interpersonal group, and individual cognitive behavior therapy in dealing with depression and anxiety in a health maintenance organization population (N=44). Results suggest that cost considerations can become relatively important when decisions are…

  10. Genetic analysis of eight population groups living in Taiwan using a 13 X-chromosomal STR loci multiplex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, James Chun-I; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Chen, Ya-Hui; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A 13 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system (DXS6807, DXS8378, DSX9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05, HPRTB, DXS8377, and DXS7423) was tested on 1,037 DNA samples from eight population groups currently living in Taiwan. Different distributions of the allelic frequencies in different populations were presented. DXS8377 and DXS101 were the two most polymorphic loci in these eight populations, whereas DXS7423 was the least informative marker in most of the populations studied. The genetic distances between the populations and the constructed phylogenetic tree revealed a long genetic distance between Asian and Caucasian populations as well as isolation of the Tao population. The phylogenetic tree grouped populations into clusters compatible with their ethnogeographic relationships. This 13 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat multiplex system offers a considerable number of polymorphic patterns in different populations. This system can be useful in forensic identification casework and ethnogeographic research.

  11. European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526

  12. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Fuselli, Silvia; Nakbunlung, Supaporn; Seielstad, Mark; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2011-06-15

    The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to estimate the degree of genetic divergence between these major linguistic groups and their internal structure. A large fraction of genetic variation is observed within populations (about 80% and 90% for mtDNA and the Y-chromosome, respectively). The genetic divergence between populations is much higher in Mon-Khmer than in Tai speaking groups, especially at the paternally inherited markers. The two major linguistic groups are genetically distinct, but only for a marginal fraction (1 to 2%) of the total genetic variation. Genetic distances between populations correlate with their linguistic differences, whereas the geographic distance does not explain the genetic divergence pattern. The Mon-Khmer speaking populations in northern Thailand exhibited the genetic divergence among each other and also when compared to Tai speaking peoples. The different drift effects and the post-marital residence patterns between the two linguistic groups are the explanation for a small but significant fraction of the genetic variation pattern within and between them. © 2011 Kutanan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. RESEARCH REGARDING THE FREQUENCY AND TRANSMISSION OF AB0 BLOOD GROUPS IN A POPULATION OF PUPILS FROM ROMAN, NEAMŢ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bara

    2007-08-01

    population of school-boys from Roman town, Neamţ County. The blood groups frequency were: 0 = 30%; A = 42%; B = 19%; AB = 9%. These values are in accordance with the values registered for all Romanian population. In Roman town, between 2001-2004, the frequency of blood groups is, also, in accordance with our results. The blood groups 0, B and AB are more frequent in males, and A is more frequent in females. It is, on the other hand, difficult to compare our results with the worldwide situation.

  14. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  15. Consultants Group Meeting on Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A Thematic Plan on SIT for Screwworms developed in 1999 by IPC and TC identified certain R and D bottlenecks to the expansion of this technology into new agricultural areas. This consultant's meeting was held to review these conclusions and to advise the Agency on the need, or otherwise, of initiating a CRP to address the bottlenecks identified in the Thematic Plan. In 2001 it is expected that the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, will have been eradicated from all of Central America, including Panama where a sterile release barrier will be established to prevent re-invasion from South America. This barrier will need to be maintained indefinitely with its associated costs. The use of an all-male strain in the production facility would have very positive impact on the cost/benefit analysis of the programme. The Director of the Screwworm Programme in Central America made this point very strongly during the Thematic Plan discussions and at a subsequent technical meeting in Tuxtla Gutierrez. Interest to expand the programme into South America is now being shown by certain countries in the region where the economic feasibility of implementing an SIT programme might depend on producing sterile flies more economically and here again the use of a genetic sexing strain could play an important role. For the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana the Australian authorities have just completed a successful small field trial of the SIT in Malaysia and it is proposed that more extensive field tests be carried out in the region. For both the New World Screwworm in South America and the Old World Screwworm, in Asia there is virtually no information regarding the population structure in relation to the implementation of an SIT programme. Is the Old World Screwworm a single species over its very wide distribution and are the populations of New World Screwworm in South America the same as in Central America and related to each other? Are the populations isolated? These

  16. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  17. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... probably do not require sophisticated neurological skills or investigations, failure to recognise an underlying disorder or an ...

  18. Cardiovascular health among two ethnic groups living in the same region: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderly, Michal; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Gillon-Keren, Michal; Rogowski, Ori; Sela, Ben-Ami; Kanety, Hannah; Harats, Dror; Atamna, Ahmed; Alpert, Gershon; Goldbourt, Uri; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-02-01

    Poor cardiovascular health (CVH) among ethnic/racial minorities, studied primarily in the USA, may reflect lower access to healthcare. We examined factors associated with minority CVH in a setting of universal access to healthcare. CVH behaviors and factors were evaluated in a random population sample (551 Arabs, 553 Jews) stratified by sex, ethnicity and age. More Jews (10%) than Arabs (3%) had 3 ideal health behaviors. Only one participant had all four. Although ideal diet was rare (≤1.5%) across groups, Arabs were more likely to meet intake recommendations for whole grains, but less likely to meet intake recommendations for fruits/vegetables and fish. Arabs had lower odds of attaining ideal levels for body mass index and physical activity. Smoking prevalence was 57% among Arab men and 6% among Arab women. Having four ideal health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, smoking) was observed in 2% and 8% of Arab and Jewish men, respectively, and 13% of Arab and Jewish women. Higher prevalence of ideal total-cholesterol corresponded to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Arabs. No participant met ideal levels for all 7 metrics and only 1.8% presented with 6. Accounting for age and lower socioeconomic status, Arabs were less likely to meet a greater number of metric goals (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.62 (0.42-0.92) for men, and 0.73 (0.48-1.12) for women). Ideal CVH, rare altogether, was less prevalent among the Arab minority albeit universal access to healthcare. Health behaviors were the main contributors to the CVH disparity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Hone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection.

  20. Barriers to Maori sole mothers’ primary health care access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International research consistently shows that sole mothers experience poorer health and suboptimal health care access. New Zealand studies on sole mothers' health report similar findings. The aim of this exploratory research was to better understand the experiences of Maori sole mothers' access to health services, particularly primary health care, for personal health needs. METHODS: This qualitative study employed a general inductive design informed by a Kaupapa Maori approach, providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols for recruiting and engaging Maori participants. Distributing written information and snowballing techniques were used to purposively recruit seven Maori sole mothers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using general inductive thematic analysis to identify commonalities and patterns in participants' experiences. FINDINGS: The dominant themes that emerged captured and described participants' experiences in accessing health care. The major barrier to access reported was cost. Compounding cost, transport difficulties and location or scheduling of services were additional barriers to health service accessibility. Child-related issues also posed a barrier, including prioritising children's needs and childcare over personal health needs. CONCLUSION: The findings illuminate Maori sole mothers' experiences of accessing health care and the complex socioeconomic inequalities affecting access options and uptake of services. Further investigation of barriers to access is needed. The study has implications for addressing barriers to access at policy, funding and practice levels to improve health outcomes and equitable health care access for Maori sole mothers.

  1. Minimal sharing of Y-chromosome STR haplotypes among five endogamous population groups from western and southwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Chauhan, P S; Seshadri, M

    2004-10-01

    We attempt to address the issue of genetic variation and the pattern of male gene flow among and between five Indian population groups of two different geographic and linguistic affiliations using Y-chromosome markers. We studied 221 males at three Y-chromosome biallelic loci and 184 males for the five Y-chromosome STRs. We observed 111 Y-chromosome STR haplotypes. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on Y-chromosome STRs showed that the variation observed between the population groups belonging to two major regions (western and southwestern India) was 0.17%, which was significantly lower than the level of genetic variance among the five populations (0.59%) considered as a single group. Combined haplotype analysis of the five STRs and the biallelic locus 92R7 revealed minimal sharing of haplotypes among these five ethnic groups, irrespective of the similar origin of the linguistic and geographic affiliations; this minimal sharing indicates restricted male gene flow. As a consequence, most of the haplotypes were population specific. Network analysis showed that the haplotypes, which were shared between the populations, seem to have originated from different mutational pathways at different loci. Biallelic markers showed that all five ethnic groups have a similar ancestral origin despite their geographic and linguistic diversity.

  2. Identification of target risk groups for population-based Clostridium difficile infection prevention strategies using a population attributable risk approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Hye-Young

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to determine risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess the contributions of these factors on CDI burden. We conducted a 1:4 matched case-control study using a national claims dataset. Cases were incident CDI without a history of CDI in the previous 84 days, and were age- and sex-matched with control patients. We ascertained exposure, defined as a history of morbidities and drug use within 90 days. The population attributable risk (PAR) percent for risk factors was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) obtained from the case-control study. Overall, the strongest CDI-associated risk factors, which have significant contributions to the CDI burden as well, were the experience of gastroenteritis (OR=5.08, PAR%=17.09%) and use of antibiotics (OR=1.69, PAR%=19.00%), followed by the experiences of female pelvic infection, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and pneumonia, and use of proton-pump inhibitors (OR=1.52-2.37, PAR%=1.95-2.90). The control of risk factors that had strong association with CDI and affected large proportions of total CDI cases would be beneficial for CDI prevention. We suggest performing CDI testing for symptomatic patients with gastroenteritis and implementing antibiotics stewardship. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Global Population Structure of a Worldwide Pest and Virus Vector: Genetic Diversity and Population History of the Bemisia tabaci Sibling Species Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci sibling species (sibsp.) group comprises morphologically indiscernible lineages of well-known exemplars referred to as biotypes. It is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes and includes the contemporary invasive haplotypes, termed B and Q. Several well-studied B. tabaci biotypes exhibit ecological and biological diversity, however, most members are poorly studied or completely uncharacterized. Genetic studies have revealed substantial diversity within the group based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequence (haplotypes), with other tested markers being less useful for deep phylogenetic comparisons. The view of global relationships within the B. tabaci sibsp. group is largely derived from this single marker, making assessment of gene flow and genetic structure difficult at the population level. Here, the population structure was explored for B. tabaci in a global context using nuclear data from variable microsatellite markers. Worldwide collections were examined representing most of the available diversity, including known monophagous, polyphagous, invasive, and indigenous haplotypes. Well-characterized biotypes and other related geographic lineages discovered represented highly differentiated genetic clusters with little or no evidence of gene flow. The invasive B and Q biotypes exhibited moderate to high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that they stemmed from large founding populations that have maintained ancestral variation, despite homogenizing effects, possibly due to human-mediated among-population gene flow. Results of the microsatellite analyses are in general agreement with published mtCOI phylogenies; however, notable conflicts exist between the nuclear and mitochondrial relationships, highlighting the need for a multifaceted approach to delineate the evolutionary history of the group. This study supports the hypothesis that the extant B. tabaci sibsp. group contains

  4. ABO blood group frequency in Ischemic heart disease patients in Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Anwar, Naureen; Farasat, Tasnim; Naz, Shagufta

    2014-05-01

    To determine if there is any significant association between ABO blood groups and ischemic heart disease (IHD). The study was performed at Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC), Lahore. Study duration was from January 2012 to September 2012. This study included 200 IHD patients and 230 control individuals. Self design questionnaire was used to collect information regarding risk factors. Standard agglutination test was performed to determine the blood groups. Data was analyzed on SPSS 16. The prevalence of blood groups in IHD group was 34% in blood group A, 29% in blood group B, 14% in blood group AB and 23% in blood group O. In control group the distribution of B, A, AB and O blood groups were 34.4%, 20.9%, 12.6%, 32.2% respectively. Rh+ve factor was prevalent in 90.5% among IHD group and 92.6% in control subjects. The prevalence of IHD was more in males (63.5%) as compared to females (36.5%). Mean age was 56.4±0.86 (yrs) and BMI was 26.4±0.33 (kg/m(2)). The prevalence of hypertension was 58.5%, diabetes was 53%, family history of cardiac disease was 45%, 35.5% of patients were doing exercise regularly, 58.5% used ghee, and 58% were smokers. C onclusion: Subjects with blood group A had significantly (pblood groups.

  5. Recruiting hard-to-reach United States population sub-groups via adaptations of snowball sampling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Lee, Hau-Chen; Seung-Hwan Lim, Rod; Fullerton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Nurse researchers and educators often engage in outreach to narrowly defined populations. This article offers examples of how variations on the snowball sampling recruitment strategy can be applied in the creation of culturally appropriate, community-based information dissemination efforts related to recruitment to health education programs and research studies. Examples from the primary author’s program of research are provided to demonstrate how adaptations of snowball sampling can be effectively used in the recruitment of members of traditionally underserved or vulnerable populations. The adaptation of snowball sampling techniques, as described in this article, helped the authors to gain access to each of the more vulnerable population groups of interest. The use of culturally sensitive recruitment strategies is both appropriate and effective in enlisting the involvement of members of vulnerable populations. Adaptations of snowball sampling strategies should be considered when recruiting participants for education programs or subjects for research studies when recruitment of a population based sample is not essential. PMID:20727089

  6. Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstedt, Pär; Asokliene, Loreta; Eliasson, Ingvar; Olsen, Björn; Wallensten, Anders; Bunikis, Jonas; Bergström, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia, is naturally maintained in marine and terrestrial enzootic cycles, which primarily involve birds, including seabirds and migratory passerines. These bird groups associate with, correspondingly, Ixodes uriae and Ixodes ricinus ticks, of which the latter species may bite and transmit the infection to humans. Studies of the overlap between these two natural cycles of B. garinii have been limited, in part due to the absence of representative collections of this spirochete's samples, as well as of the lack of reliable measure of the genetic heterogeneity of its strains. As a prerequisite for understanding the epidemiological correlates of the complex maintenance of B. garinii, the present study sought to assess the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of this species' strains from its natural hosts and patients with Lyme borreliosis from subarctic Eurasia. We used sequence typing of the partial rrs-rrl intergenic spacer (IGS) of archived and prospective samples of B. garinii from I. uriae ticks collected predominantly on Commander Islands in North Pacific, as well as on the islands in northern Sweden and arctic Norway. We also typed B. garinii samples from patients with Lyme borreliosis and I. ricinus ticks infesting migratory birds in southern Sweden, or found questing in selected sites on the islands in the Baltic Sea and Lithuania. Fifty-two (68%) of 77 B. garinii samples representing wide geographical range and associated with I. ricinus and infection of humans contributed 12 (60%) of total 20 identified IGS variants. In contrast, the remaining 25 (32%) samples recovered from I. uriae ticks from a few islands accounted for as many as 10 (50%) IGS types, suggesting greater local diversity of B. garinii maintained by seabirds and their ticks. Two IGS variants of the spirochete in common for both tick species were found in I. ricinus larvae from migratory birds, an indication that B

  7. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009

  8. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87-30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds.

  9. Prescribing of medicines in the Danish paediatric population outwith the licensed age group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2011-01-01

    associated with off-label use, 60% of them serious. More than one half of off-label ADRs were reported in adolescents. Serious ADRs due to off-label prescribing are more likely to be reported for hormonal contraceptives (ATC group G), anti-acne preparations (ATC group D) and allergens (ATC group V...

  10. Allele frequency distribution of D8S592 (STR) and PDGFA (VNTR) among five endogamous population groups of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shazia; Seshadri, M

    2004-07-01

    Allele frequency distribution have been analyzed at D8S592 (short tandem repeat) and PDGFA (variable number of tandem repeat) among five distinct endogamous groups of India namely Ezhavas, Nayers, Arayas, Vishwakarma and Muslims. Muslims are religio-ethnic group while other populations mentioned above belong to distinct section of Hindu religion. All these populations are from Kollam district of Kerala in Southern India and speak Malayalam, an Indo-Dravidian language. A total of 228 for D8S592 and 212 for PDGFA loci, random, healthy individuals were analyzed.

  11. Measurement of radioactivity from Chernobyl in population groups in Scotland - Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, B.W.; Robertson, I.; Walker, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radiocaesium by members of the Scottish population following the reactor accident at Chernobyl was measured by whole-body counting between March 1988 and March 1990. 216 measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were made, 193 of which were repeat measurements on volunteers included in an earlier study. The influence of sex, age, diet and geographical location on 137 Cs uptake was re-examined and it was found that: there was no difference between males and females; during part of the study, the levels of 137 Cs in children had declined more rapidly than those in adults; only game and venison eaters showed distinctly higher body radiocaesium compared with the rest of the population; and only marginal differences due to geographical location were observable. The decline in body 137 Cs in the population showed a half-life of 550 days and the total effective dose equivalent for the population mean was 69μSv, an increase of 12% on the previous estimate. From the observed rate of decrease, the mean value of body 137 Cs in the Scottish population will reach the pre-Chernobyl level in 1992. The relationship between body 137 Cs and urinary 137 Cs output was also studied. Urinary analysis for mass-screening of the population appeared possible, provided micturition intervals could be adequately recorded. (author)

  12. Blood Groups Distribution and Gene Diversity of the ABO and Rh (D Loci in the Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Canizalez-Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh (D antigens and, additionally, investigate gene diversity and the structure of Mexican populations. Materials and Methods. Blood groups were tested in 271,164 subjects from 2014 to 2016. The ABO blood group was determined by agglutination using the antibodies anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-D for the Rh factor, respectively. Results. The overall distribution of ABO and Rh (D groups in the population studied was as follows: O: 61.82%; A: 27.44%; B: 8.93%; and AB: 1.81%. For the Rh group, 95.58% of people were Rh (D, and 4.42% were Rh (d. Different distributions of blood groups across regions were found; additionally, genetic analysis revealed that the IO and ID allele showed an increasing trend from the north to the center, while the IA and Id allele tended to increase from the center to the north. Also, we found more gene diversity in both loci in the north compared with the center, suggesting population structure in Mexico. Conclusion. This work could help health institutions to identify where they can obtain blood products necessary for medical interventions. Moreover, this piece of information contributes to the knowledge of the genetic structure of the Mexican populations which could have significant implications in different fields of biomedicine.

  13. ABO blood groups and oral premalignancies: A clinical study in selected Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, S; Arora, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ABO blood group antigens are present on the surface of red blood cells and various epithelial cells. As the majority of human cancers are derived from epithelial cells, changes in blood group antigens constitute an important aspect of human cancers. The aim of the study was to establish clinical usefulness of ABO blood group as a predisposing factor in early diagnosis and management of patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 50 control and 50 oral precancer (25 leukoplakia and 25 Oral Submucous Fibrosis) confirmed by histopathologic examination. All samples were subjected to blood group testing and their prevalence was compared by Z-test using STATA version 8. Results: The "A" blood group was prevalent among the precancerous group. Significant differences on prevalences of blood groups were found (P blood group. Conclusion: Blood group type should be considered along with other risk factors to understand the individual patient's risk and further studies in larger samples with inclusion of Rh factor is needed to elucidate the relationship with ABO blood group types.

  14. Association between Cheiloscopic Patterns and ABO Blood Groups among South Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanapure, Sneha; Suhas, H G; Potdar, Shrudha; Sam, George; Sudeep, C B; Arjun, M R

    2017-07-01

    Human beings have few characteristics that are unique from others. Lip prints are one of such feature. They are not changed throughout the life and are not influenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. According to the various antigen-antibody reactions in the bloodstream, different individuals have specific blood groups. To study the distribution of lip print patterns among individuals with different ABO and Rh blood groups and also to know the relation between their characters and blood groups. In the present study, lip prints were collected randomly from 85 individuals, and their blood group matching was performed. This is to identify the most common lip print type and to know any association between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of lip prints was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. It was observed that in individuals with B+, A+, and O- blood groups, predominant pattern was Type IV and individuals having blood group O+ and AB+ common lip print pattern was Type II. This study showed strong association between lip print patterns and ABO blood groups as some blood groups were not included in statistical analysis; further studies including larger sample are essential to substantiate the results. Correlating lip print with blood group helps in identification of the suspects. Along with lip prints, another biological record that remains unchanged throughout the lifetime of a person is the blood group. Determining the blood group of a person from the samples obtained at the site of crime and also recovering lip prints from site can help identify a person.

  15. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Fuselli, Silvia; Nakbunlung, Supaporn; Seielstad, Mark; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to est...

  16. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  17. Cross national study of leisure-time physical activity in Dutch and English populations with ethnic group comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Jeroen S. L.; Agyemang, Charles; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Variations between countries in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can be used to test the convergence thesis, which expects that ethnic minority groups change towards the LTPA levels of the native population of host countries. The aim of this study was to test whether similar differences in LTPA

  18. Normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in a population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Yilmaz, R B; Oktay, I; Ilhan, D; Fişekçioğlu, E; Özdemir, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia Region) (mean age ± SD: 12.80 ± 3.57 years) were randomly selected and divided into six age groups (7-8,9-10,11-12,13-14,15-16, and 17-18 year-olds) and categorized according to the dental health component (DHC) of the index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Additionally, the patients were asked to indicate the photograph that was most similar to their own dentition from the 10-point scale of the aesthetic component of IOTN. The DHC of IOTN was not significantly different between the six age groups (P > 0.05). However, no/slight need (aesthetic component 1-4) for orthodontic treatment according to AC of IOTN was significantly higher in 13-14,15-16, and 17-18 age groups than 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 age groups (P age groups (P > 0.05). The normative need distribution was homogeneous within all the age groups according to DHC. However, the subjective need for orthodontic treatment was higher in the younger age groups.

  19. ABO blood group and esophageal carcinoma risk: from a case-control study in Chinese population to meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Xiaopeng; Wei, Min; Lin, Tianlong; Zhang, Yixin; Jiang, Songqi; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Ziang; Shi, Minxin

    2014-10-01

    The association between ABO blood group and the risk of esophageal carcinoma (EC) in previously published studies is uncertain and conflicting. The aim of the current study was to determine the correlation of ABO blood group with EC risk via a case-control study and meta-analysis. We performed a population-based case-control study of 3,595 cases and 41,788 controls in Chinese population to evaluate the association between ABO blood group and EC risk. Then, a comprehensive meta-analysis combining our original data and previously published data was conducted to clearly discern the real relationship. The strength of association was measured by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In our case-control study, the risk of EC in blood group B was significantly higher than that in non-B groups (A, O, and AB) (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21). Compared with non-O groups (A, B, and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of EC (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.94). The meta-analysis also indicated that blood group B was associated with significantly higher EC risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.31), and people with blood group O had a decreased EC risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99). Neither the case-control study nor the meta-analysis produced any significant association of blood group A or AB with EC risk. Results from our case-control study and the followed meta-analysis confirmed that there was an increased risk of EC in blood group B individuals, whereas a decreased risk of EC was observed in blood group O individuals.

  20. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Sole Ulcers and White Line Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, J K; van Amstel, Sarel R

    2017-07-01

    Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness. Successful treatment requires an orthopedic foot block to the healthy claw and corrective trimming of the lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Minor Ethnic Group of Vietnam: A Multiethnic, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Tran Thanh; Tuan, Vo Phuoc; Dung, Ho Dang Quy; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo Phuong Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Giang, Do Anh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Uchida, Tomohisa; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    The Helicobacter pylori -induced burden of gastric cancer varies based on geographical regions and ethnic grouping. Vietnam is a multiethnic country with the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Southeast Asia, but previous studies focused only on the Kinh ethnic group. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 494 volunteers (18-78 years old), from 13 ethnic groups in Daklak and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam. H. pylori status was determined by multiple tests (rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology). cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR-based sequencing. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 38.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that variations in geographical region, age, and ethnicity were independent factors associated with the risk of H. pylori acquisition. Therefore, multicenter, multiethnic, population based study is essential to assess the H. pylori prevalence and its burden in the general population. Only the E De ethnicity carried strains with Western-type CagA (82%) and exhibited significantly lower gastric mucosal inflammation compared to other ethnic groups. However, the histological scores of Western-type CagA and East-Asian-type CagA within the E De group showed no significant differences. Thus, in addition to bacterial virulence factors, host factors are likely to be important determinants for gastric mucosal inflammation and contribute to the Asian enigma.

  2. [Genotyping of ABO Blood Group in Partial Population of Yunnan Province by SNaPshot Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S X; Zeng, F M; Jin, Y Z; Wan, H J; Zhai, D; Xing, Y M; Cheng, B W

    2017-06-01

    To detect the genotype of ABO blood group by SNaPshot technology. DNA were extracted from the peripheral blood samples with known blood groups (obtained by serology) of 107 unrelated individuals in Yunnan. Six SNP loci of the 261th, 297th, 681th, 703th, 802th, and 803th nucleotide positions were detected by SNaPshot Multiplex kit, and relevant genetics parameters were calculated. In 107 blood samples, the allele frequencies of types A, B, O A , and O G were 0.355 1, 0.168 2, 0.230 0 and 0.247 6, respectively, while that of types A G and cis AB were not detected. The genotyping results of ABO blood group were consistent with that of serologic testing. SNaPshot technology can be adapted for genotyping of ABO blood group. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  3. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-01-01

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L X,H >10 42 ;M R <−20)=8.0 −2.3 +3.0 % at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L X, H > 10 41 erg s –1 ) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  4. Echotomographic characteristics of kidney in different age groups of our population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a continuous process, which leaves its mark on all tissues, organs and organ systems. The aging process causes a number of functional and morphological and structural changes in the kidneys. Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze echotomographic changes in the size of the renal parenchyma and renal sinus during the aging process. Method: The study was conducted on 62 subjects in the service of the radiological diagnostics of CHC Dr Dragisa Mišović in Belgrade. All subjects included in this study were neither anamnestically nor echotomographically positive for any of kidney diseases. Subjects were assorted in three age groups. Group I (20-39 years - 21 subjects, group II (40-59 years - 21 subjects, and group III (60-79 years - 20 subjects. Results: During aging process dimensions of the renal parenchyma decrease. Dimensions of the renal parenchyma exhibit statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the first and third age group for both kidneys, but difference between the first and second age group is significant only for the right kidney (p<0,05. Dimensions (length and width, of the renal sinuses tend to increase during the aging process, with difference between the first and third age group that is statistically significant for both kidneys (p<0.05. Difference in width of the sinuses for both kidneys is statistically significant only between the second and third age group. Conclusion: During aging process size of the renal sinus increases at the expense of renal parenchyma, and parenchyma-pyelon index decreases.

  5. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  6. pigmentation of the sole of the foot in rhodesian africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-23

    Jan 23, 1971 ... basal layer. (Photo by courtesy of Dr C. M. D. Ross.) Fig. 8. From a biopsy of a grade III area on the sole of the foot a section shows, apart from proliferated melanocytes in the basal layer, isolated pigmented cells extending through the stratum malpighii to the stratum granulosum above it, (Photo by courtesy ...

  7. Deaths among West African dwarf goats fed sole Dactyladaenia barteri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dactyladaema barteri is an important shrub utilized in fallow development and as a much-preferred ruminant browse by local farmers in Nigeria. We report the death of two 12 – 15 months old West African Dwarf (WAD) goats used in a digestibility trail with D. barteri as sole feed and in a mixed browse - grass diet in the ...

  8. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  9. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  10. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining neural tube defects: The possible role of autoantibodies. Keat Wei Loo, Siew Hua Gan. Abstract. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe but common congenital malformations. Neonates who suffer from NTDs may experience long-term complications throughout ...

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  12. Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties ... pattern of peasant farmers in Nigeria. Some of the advantages ... in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system as compared to sole crops. While intercropping ...

  13. Genetic Analysis of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Backward Caste Population of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana RAI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cell surface constitute blood group antigens. These are AB, A, B and O in ABO blood group system and Rh in rhesus blood group system. A total of 1065 unrelated Backward Caste (OBC individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D blood groups. Total 1065 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.81% (n=392, followed by O (32.68%; n=348, A (23.66%; n=252 and AB (6.85%; n=73. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The allelic frequencies of O, A, and B alleles were 0.5819, 0.1674 and 0.2506 respectively. Out of total 1065 samples, 1018 (95.59% samples were Rh-positive and 47 (4.41% were Rh-negative. Phenotypic frequency of Rh-negative in Koari, Yadav, Kurmi and Maurya samples were 0.99%, 4%, 1.4% and 7.6% respectively.

  14. The association between social capital and loneliness in different age groups: a population-based study in Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Victor, Christina R; Forsman, Anna K; Cattan, Mima

    2016-07-11

    Previous studies of loneliness have largely focused on establishing risk factors in specific age groups such as in later life or in young people. Researchers have paid less attention to the link between social capital and loneliness across different age groups. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and experienced loneliness in different age groups in a Finnish setting. The data originates from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among 4618 people aged 15-80 in Western Finland in 2011. The response rate was 46.2 %. The association between social capital, measured by frequency of social contacts, participation in organisational activities, trust and sense of belonging to the neighbourhood and loneliness was tested by logistic regression analyses stratified by four age groups. Frequent loneliness (defined as experienced often or sometimes) was higher among younger people (39.5 %) compared to older people (27.3 %). Low levels of trust were linked to loneliness in all four age groups. The association between other aspects of social capital and loneliness varied across age groups. Frequent loneliness is common among the general adult population and could be seen as a public health issue. Our findings imply that low social capital, especially in terms of low trust, may be a risk factor for loneliness. However, further research is needed to assess the influence of poor health and reverse causality as explanations for the findings.

  15. The effects of grading on the growth and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month study was carried out to investigate the effects of grading on the overall production, growth performance and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.). Juvenile fish (4.0–40.4 g) were sorted into three size groups: small (4.0–15.5 g), medium (16.0–21.5 g) and large (22.0–40.5 g)...

  16. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  17. Psychotic-like experiences in the general population: characterizing a high-risk group for psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, I

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that psychotic symptoms, or psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), are reported not only by psychosis patients but also by healthy members of the general population. Healthy individuals who report these symptoms are considered to represent a non-clinical psychosis phenotype, and have been demonstrated to be at increased risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Converging research now shows that this non-clinical psychosis phenotype is familial, heritable and covaries with familial schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. A review of the research also shows that the non-clinical phenotype is associated extensively with schizophrenia-related risk factors, including social, environmental, substance use, obstetric, developmental, anatomical, motor, cognitive, linguistic, intellectual and psychopathological risk factors. The criterion and construct validity of the non-clinical psychosis phenotype with schizophrenia demonstrates that it is a valid population in which to study the aetiology of psychosis. Furthermore, it suggests shared genetic variation between the clinical and non-clinical phenotypes. Much remains to be learned about psychosis by broadening the scope of research to include the non-clinical psychosis phenotype.

  18. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  19. Population genomic analysis of strain variation in Leptospirillum group II bacteria involved in acid mine drainage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sheri L; Dibartolo, Genevieve; Denef, Vincent J; Goltsman, Daniela S Aliaga; Thelen, Michael P; Banfield, Jillian F

    2008-07-22

    Deeply sampled community genomic (metagenomic) datasets enable comprehensive analysis of heterogeneity in natural microbial populations. In this study, we used sequence data obtained from the dominant member of a low-diversity natural chemoautotrophic microbial community to determine how coexisting closely related individuals differ from each other in terms of gene sequence and gene content, and to uncover evidence of evolutionary processes that occur over short timescales. DNA sequence obtained from an acid mine drainage biofilm was reconstructed, taking into account the effects of strain variation, to generate a nearly complete genome tiling path for a Leptospirillum group II species closely related to L. ferriphilum (sampling depth approximately 20x). The population is dominated by one sequence type, yet we detected evidence for relatively abundant variants (>99.5% sequence identity to the dominant type) at multiple loci, and a few rare variants. Blocks of other Leptospirillum group II types ( approximately 94% sequence identity) have recombined into one or more variants. Variant blocks of both types are more numerous near the origin of replication. Heterogeneity in genetic potential within the population arises from localized variation in gene content, typically focused in integrated plasmid/phage-like regions. Some laterally transferred gene blocks encode physiologically important genes, including quorum-sensing genes of the LuxIR system. Overall, results suggest inter- and intrapopulation genetic exchange involving distinct parental genome types and implicate gain and loss of phage and plasmid genes in recent evolution of this Leptospirillum group II population. Population genetic analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms indicate variation between closely related strains is not maintained by positive selection, suggesting that these regions do not represent adaptive differences between strains. Thus, the most likely explanation for the observed patterns of

  20. Population genomic analysis of strain variation in Leptospirillum group II bacteria involved in acid mine drainage formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Simmons

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deeply sampled community genomic (metagenomic datasets enable comprehensive analysis of heterogeneity in natural microbial populations. In this study, we used sequence data obtained from the dominant member of a low-diversity natural chemoautotrophic microbial community to determine how coexisting closely related individuals differ from each other in terms of gene sequence and gene content, and to uncover evidence of evolutionary processes that occur over short timescales. DNA sequence obtained from an acid mine drainage biofilm was reconstructed, taking into account the effects of strain variation, to generate a nearly complete genome tiling path for a Leptospirillum group II species closely related to L. ferriphilum (sampling depth approximately 20x. The population is dominated by one sequence type, yet we detected evidence for relatively abundant variants (>99.5% sequence identity to the dominant type at multiple loci, and a few rare variants. Blocks of other Leptospirillum group II types ( approximately 94% sequence identity have recombined into one or more variants. Variant blocks of both types are more numerous near the origin of replication. Heterogeneity in genetic potential within the population arises from localized variation in gene content, typically focused in integrated plasmid/phage-like regions. Some laterally transferred gene blocks encode physiologically important genes, including quorum-sensing genes of the LuxIR system. Overall, results suggest inter- and intrapopulation genetic exchange involving distinct parental genome types and implicate gain and loss of phage and plasmid genes in recent evolution of this Leptospirillum group II population. Population genetic analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms indicate variation between closely related strains is not maintained by positive selection, suggesting that these regions do not represent adaptive differences between strains. Thus, the most likely explanation for the

  1. Subsidized health insurance coverage of people in the informal sector and vulnerable population groups: trends in institutional design in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcu, Ileana; Probst, Lilli; Dorjsuren, Bayarsaikhan; Mathauer, Inke

    2016-10-04

    Many low- and middle-income countries with a social health insurance system face challenges on their road towards universal health coverage (UHC), especially for people in the informal sector and vulnerable population groups or the informally employed. One way to address this is to subsidize their contributions through general government revenue transfers to the health insurance fund. This paper provides an overview of such health financing arrangements in Asian low- and middle-income countries. The purpose is to assess the institutional design features of government subsidized health insurance type arrangements for vulnerable and informally employed population groups and to explore how these features contribute to UHC progress. This regional study is based on a literature search to collect country information on the specific institutional design features of such subsidization arrangements and data related to UHC progress indicators, i.e. population coverage, financial protection and access to care. The institutional design analysis focuses on eligibility rules, targeting and enrolment procedures; financing arrangements; the pooling architecture; and benefit entitlements. Such financing arrangements currently exist in 8 countries with a total of 14 subsidization schemes. The most frequent groups covered are the poor, older persons and children. Membership in these arrangements is mostly mandatory as is full subsidization. An integrated pool for both the subsidized and the contributors exists in half of the countries, which is one of the most decisive features for equitable access and financial protection. Nonetheless, in most schemes, utilization rates of the subsidized are higher compared to the uninsured, but still lower compared to insured formal sector employees. Total population coverage rates, as well as a higher share of the subsidized in the total insured population are related with broader eligibility criteria. Overall, government subsidized health

  2. Immunoconglutinin levels in normal and diseased population groups in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K. C.

    1971-01-01

    Immunoconglutinin (I-K) levels were measured in adult blood donors of European and African origin and in patients with the following diseases: acute typhoid fever, amoebic liver abscess, chronic liver disease and primary hepatoma. The lowest levels were found in the white donor group and the highest in those with chronic liver disease and those with primary hepatoma. African donors had levels higher than white donors which may relate to chronic infection and particularly chronic parasitic infestation. There was poor correlation between `O' and `H' antibodies and I-K levels in the typhoid group. In those with chronic liver disease there was some correlation between I-K levels and total γ-globulin and also with raised IgM and IgA levels but not with raised IgG. PMID:4103887

  3. Trends in Female Breast Cancer by Age Group in the Chiang Mai Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. PMID:28612595

  4. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  5. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Rashmi; Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-02-01

    The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination.

  6. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Cantian; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Shuang; Yi, Kaihong; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-04-01

     Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%), 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%), 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%), and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%). Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91), 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09) and  4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76). Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  7. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%, 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%, 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%, and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%. Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91, 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09 and 4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76. Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  8. Exact solutions of the population balance equation including particle transport, using group analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fubiao; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Flood, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) has received an unprecedented amount of attention in recent years from both academics and industrial practitioners because of its long history, widespread use in engineering, and applicability to a wide variety of particulate and discrete-phase processes. However it is typically impossible to obtain analytical solutions, although in almost every case a numerical solution of the PBEs can be obtained. In this article, the symmetries of PBEs with homogeneous coagulation kernels involving aggregation, breakage and growth processes and particle transport in one dimension are found by direct solving the determining equations. Using the optimal system of one and two-dimensional subalgebras, all invariant solutions and reduced equations are obtained. In particular, an explicit analytical physical solution is also presented.

  9. Medical care of hepatitis B among Asian American populations: perspectives from three provider groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jessica P; Roundtree, Aimee K; Engebretson, Joan C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2010-03-01

    Physicians can play a significant role in helping to decrease the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden among Asian Americans. Few studies have described knowledge and practice patterns in the medical community among different provider types regarding HBV and liver cancer. Our study explores the HBV beliefs, attitudes and practice patterns of medical providers serving Asian American communities. We conducted three focus groups with primary care providers, liver specialists, and other providers predominantly serving Asian American community. We asked about practices and barriers to appropriate medical care and outreach. We moderated three focus groups with 23 participants, 18 of whom completed and returned demographic surveys. Twelve were of Asian ethnicity and 13 spoke English as a second language. Only eight screened at least half of their patients, most (72%) using the hepatitis B surface antigen test. We used grounded theory methods to analyze focus group transcripts. Participants frequently discussed cultural and financial barriers to hepatitis care. They admitted reluctance to screen for HBV because patients might be unwilling or unable to afford treatment. Cultural differences were discussed most by primary care providers; best methods of outreach were discussed most by liver specialists; and alternative medicine was discussed most by acupuncturists and other providers. More resources are needed to lower financial barriers complicating HBV care and encourage providing guideline-recommended screenings. Other providers can help promote HBV screening and increase community and cultural awareness.

  10. Ingestion of radium 226 and its evaluation in a selected population group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, J.; Slovak, M.; Abel, E.; Patzeltova, N.

    1976-01-01

    The activity of 226 Ra was followed in the drinking water of the West Slovakia region and in the all-day food intake. The volume activities of 226 Ra in drinking water were in the range 0 to 63 mBq.l -1 (0.0 to 1.7 pCi.l -1 ) with the mean value 9.3 mBq.l -1 (0.25 pCi.l -1 ). The average activity of 226 Ra in the food, as expressed per person and day, was 47.7 mBq (1.29 pCi). A general intake of 226 Ra by ingestion in the observed group, also calculated per person and day, was 57 mBq (1.54 pCi) on the average. The value found was used for the evaluation of the group exposure of a homogeneous group of boarders of a university canteen. The values obtained indicate an average exposure to 226 Ra. The calculated value of the annual dose equivalent of 226 Ra to the skeleton in adults was 2.48 mrem, with the corresponding dose equivalent being 0.119 rem; these values are small in view of the above mentioned annual 226 Ra intake, but are not negligible with regard to the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  11. Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urban populations of different ethnic groups in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan...

  12. Use of Stakeholder Focus Groups to Define the Mission and Scope of a new Department of Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William M

    2018-04-09

    The focus and funding of US healthcare is evolving from volume to value-based, and healthcare leaders, managers, payers, and researchers are increasingly focusing on managing populations of patients. Simultaneously, there is increasing interest in getting "upstream" from disease management to promote health and prevent disease. Hence, the term "population health" has both clinical and community-based connotations relevant to the tripartite mission of US medical schools. To seek broad input for the strategic development of the Department of Population Health in a new medical school at a tier 1 research university. Focus groups with facilitated consensus development. Eighty-one persons representing the Dell Medical School and other schools at the University of Texas at Austin, city/county government, community nonprofit organizations, and faculty from other local university schools along with selected national academic leaders. Focus groups with subsequent consensus development of emphases identified premeeting by participants by e-mail exchanges. The resulting departmental strategic plan included scope of work, desired characteristics of leaders, and early impact activities in seven areas of interest: community engagement and health equity, primary care and value-based health, occupational and environment medicine, medical education, health services and community-based research, health informatics and data analysis, and global health. Medical schools should have a primary focus in population, most effectively at the departmental level. Engaging relevant academic and community stakeholders is an effective model for developing this emerging discipline in US medical schools.

  13. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. Correlation of lip patterns, gender, and blood group in North Kerala population: A study of over 800 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Shaini; Gopinath, Divya; Shameena, P M; Sudha, S; Lakshmi, J Dhana; Litha

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-changing field of criminal justice, the constant revision of criteria for acceptable evidence by the judiciary poses new challenges in forensic investigation. The applicability of cheiloscopy in individual identification is an area of extensive research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns in North Kerala population, to assess any sexual dimorphism in lip patterns, and to correlate lip print patterns with ABO and Rh blood groups. A total of 858 students, 471 males and 387 females, from different colleges in the district of Kozhikode in North Kerala were included in the study. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cello tape and transferred onto white papers. Blood group of the participants was noted. The most predominant pattern observed was Type I (48.3%), followed by Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type I', and Type V. We also observed that the lower lip exhibited an overwhelming predominance of Type I pattern in the North Kerala population while the upper lip showed a more even distribution. Gender-wise difference was observed with Type II being the most common in males and Type IV being the predominant pattern in females. No correlation was obtained between the blood groups and lip patterns. The potential usefulness of cheiloscopy in forensic medicine still remains largely untapped and under-recognized. Similar studies in different populations with large sample sizes will allow a more definite picture of lip print patterns to emerge.

  15. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts. PMID:27043587

  16. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  17. Cross national study of leisure-time physical activity in Dutch and English populations with ethnic group comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, Jeroen S L; Agyemang, Charles; van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2013-06-01

    Variations between countries in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can be used to test the convergence thesis, which expects that ethnic minority groups change towards the LTPA levels of the native population of host countries. The aim of this study was to test whether similar differences in LTPA between the native populations of England and the Netherlands are also observed among the Indian and African descent groups living in these countries. We used English and Dutch population-based health surveys that included participants aged 35-60 years of European (n(english) = 14,723, n(dutch) = 567), Indian (n(english) = 1264, n(dutch) = 370) and African-Caribbean (n(english) = 1112, n(dutch) = 689) descent. Levels of LTPA (30-minute walking, any reported cycling, gardening, dancing and playing sports) were estimated with age-sex-standardized prevalence rates. Comparisons among groups were made using adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PRs). Within both countries and compared with the European group, Indian and African groups had lower levels of gardening and cycling, whereas the African groups had higher levels of dancing. Between countries, among the European groups, the Netherlands showed higher prevalence of cycling than England, PR = 2.26 (95% CI: 2.06-2.48), and this was 2.85 (1.94-4.19) among Indian descent, and 2.77 (2.05-3.73) among African descent. For playing sports, this was PR = 1.30 (1.23-1.38), 1.43 (1.24-1.66) and 1.22 (1.10-1.34), whereas for gardening this was PR = 0.71 (0.65-0.78), 0.65 (0.52-0.81) and 0.75 (0.62-0.90), respectively. Walking and dancing showed inconsistent differences between the countries and ethnic groups. This cross-national comparison supports the expectation that LTPA of Indian and African descent groups converge towards the national levels of England and the Netherlands respectively.

  18. Miltenberger blood group typing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis in Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsakulyanon, A; Kitpoka, P; Kunakorn, M; Srikhirin, T

    2015-12-01

    To develop reliable and convenient methods for Miltenberger (Mi(a) ) blood group typing. To apply real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis to Mi(a) blood group typing. The Mi(a) blood group is the collective set of glycophorin hybrids in the MNS blood group system. Mi(a+) blood is common among East Asians and is also found in the Thai population. Incompatible Mi(a) blood transfusions pose the risk of life-threatening haemolysis; therefore, Mi(a) blood group typing is necessary in ethnicities where the Mi(a) blood group is prevalent. One hundred and forty-three blood samples from Thai blood donors were used in the study. The samples included 50 Mi(a+) samples and 93 Mi(a-) samples, which were defined by serology. The samples were typed by Mi(a) typing qPCR, and 50 Mi(a+) samples were sequenced to identify the Mi(a) subtypes. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was performed to define GP.Mur. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping were tested on a conventional PCR platform. The results of Mi(a) typing qPCR were all concordant with serology. Sequencing of the 50 Mi(a+) samples revealed 47 GP.Mur samples and 3 GP.Hop or Bun samples. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was the supplementary test used to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping performed well using a conventional PCR platform. Mi(a) typing qPCR correctly identified Mi(a) blood groups in a Thai population with the feasibility of Mi(a) subtype discrimination, and Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was able to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis ) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  20. Dual structures for the sole-proprietorship firm

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Robert G.; Quiggin, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a dual representation of firm-level and market-level equilibrium behavior for a sole proprietorship economy with competitive and frictionless financial markets and stochastic production opportunities in a two-period setting. The dual equilibrium model is used to state conditions for the firms' production choices to be independent of their risk preferences in equilibrium. These conditions entail Pareto optimality, but do not require either that the firm's consumption choice...

  1. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  2. Influenza C virus high seroprevalence rates observed in 3 different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Mélade, Julien; Pascalis, Hervé; Aherfi, Sarah; Dellagi, Koussay; Charrel, Rémi N; Carrat, Fabrice; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiology of Influenza C virus (FLUCV) infections remains poorly characterised. Here, we have examined the age- and location-specific seroprevalence of antibodies against FLUCV in 1441 sera from metropolitan continental France (Marseille), South-West Indian Ocean French territories (Reunion Island) and United-Kingdom (Edinburgh) using a combination of haemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralisation and ELISA assays. Our results show that immunity to FLUCV is common in all locations studied (global seroprevalence values >50%) and that the first immunising contacts generally occur early in life (i.e., in the 0-4 year-old age group). The latter item is further supported by the detection of FLUCV RNA by RT-PCR in naso-pharyngeal samples collected in patient attending the Emergency Room of the Public hospitals of Marseille, France with a large majority of children under 10 years-old: 17 (60.7%) in children ≤3 yo, 10 (35.7%) in the 4-10 yo age group and 1 (3.6%) in an adult (49yo). The temporal distribution of cases was atypical with regard to influenza (a large proportion of cases occurred in spring and summer) and the clinical presentation was diverse, including but being not limited to classical Influenza-like-Ilnesses. Altogether, our results indicate an intense circulation of FLUCV in the different study areas and an early occurrence of infection in human life. Flu C appears to be a widely under-diagnosed and under-studied human paediatric disease that obviously deserves further clinical and epidemiological characterisation. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish populations in a large group of acid-stressed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, H H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental stress on the number and diversity of fish species in a group of acid-stressed lakes. The study area was the La Cloche Mountains, a series of quartzite ridges covering 1,300 km/sup 2/ along the north shore of Georgian Bay and north channel of Lake Huron. Within these ridges are 173 lakes; 68 of the largest of these made up the study sample. The lakes of the La Cloche Mountains are undergoing rapid acidification. Coincident with this there has been the loss of sport fishes from several lakes. Lakes such as Nellie, Lumsden, O.S.A., Acid and Killarney supported good sport fisheries for the lake trout, (Salvelinus namaycush) for many years, but have ceased to do so in the last 5 to 15 years. Other sport fishes, notably the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) have disappeared from some of the La Cloche Lakes. Thus recreational fishing alone could not have been the cause of the change. Beamish (1974) recorded the extreme sparcity of the three remaining fish species in O.S.A. Lake. Many of the lakes of the La Cloche mountains are accessible only with difficulty and little or no information exists for these lakes prior to this study. This precluded simple comparison of these lakes before and during acidification. This lack of historic data determined in part the approach taken in this study; a comparison of the fish communities of a group of lakes differing in degree of acid stress.

  4. MEDICO-SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION GROUPS SEEKING FOR DENTAL CARE IN POLYCLINICS SMOLENSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Николаевна Дехнич

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research’s aim is to give health-social characteristic of contingents of the urban population, seeking for outpatient dental care, including a comparative estimation of stomatological index of life quality (SILQ by doctors and patients.Novelty: Was installed the difference in the estimation of work sets SILQ by doctors and patients.Methodology of the research work. It was used an advantage «Card of studying the dental health» for holding the research, including the objective and subjective expert estimations of the dental patient’s status by doctors. This information was comparing with the subjective estimation of SILQ by patients. The sample volume was about 400 people out of number of people, seeking for outpatient dental care in state budget dental clinics during 2011-2012 years.Results. Was installed mostly very high level of prevalence of caries, the destruction of fabrics of parodont reaches 100 % with the age. The stomatological index of life quality among the patients, seeking for outpatient care is low. One of the reasons- a low population’s sanitary culture. A big part of patients seek in case of acute pain(40%. Out of three components of SILQ the criteria of social welfare got rather high estimation. The lowest estimation was given to moral psychological well-being criteria. In this case the moral psychological well-being criteria was given a higher estimation by doctors then by patients (in 1,8. The criteria of the physical and social well-being is lower compared with the patient’s (in 1,8 and 1,2 times respectively.Practical implication: Indicators SILQ may be the basis for planning activities of stomatological polyclinics, including the preventive dentists’ work.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-46

  5. Improving Quality of Shoe Soles Product using Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesslyn Wijaya, Athalia; Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Ma’ruf, Anas; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    A manufacture in Bandung produce kind of rubber-based product i.e. trim, rice rollers, shoe soles, etc. After penetrating the shoe soles market, the manufacture has met customer with tight quality control. Based on the past data, defect level of this product was 18.08% that caused the manufacture’s loss of time and money. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC). In the design phase, the object’s problem and definition were defined. Delphi method was also used in this phase to identify critical factors. In the measure phase, the existing process stability and sigma quality level were measured. Fishbone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analyse the root cause and determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by designing alternative improvement strategy using 5W1H method. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) modifying design of the hanging rack, (ii) create pantone colour book and check sheet, (iii) provide pedestrian line at compound department, (iv) buying stop watch, and (v) modifying shoe soles dies. Some control strategies for continuous improvement were proposed such as SOP or reward and punishment system.

  6. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  7. Growing massive black holes in a Local Group environment: the central supermassive, slowly sinking and ejected populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micic, Miroslav; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2011-06-01

    We explore the growth of ≤107 M⊙ black holes that reside at the centres of spiral and field dwarf galaxies in a Local Group type of environment. We use merger trees from a cosmological N-body simulation known as Via Lactea 2 (VL-2) as a framework to test two merger-driven semi-analytic recipes for black hole growth that include dynamical friction, tidal stripping and gravitational wave recoil in over 20 000 merger tree realizations. First, we apply a Fundamental Plane limited (FPL) model to the growth of Sgr A*, which drives the central black hole to a maximum mass limited by the black hole Fundamental Plane after every merger. Next, we present a new model that allows for low-level prolonged gas accretion (PGA) during the merger. We find that both models can generate an Sgr A* mass black hole. We predict a population of massive black holes in local field dwarf galaxies - if the VL-2 simulation is representative of the growth of the Local Group, we predict up to 35 massive black holes (≤106 M⊙) in Local Group field dwarfs. We also predict that hundreds of ≤105 M⊙ black holes fail to merge, and instead populate the Milky Way halo, with the most massive of them at roughly the virial radius. In addition, we find that there may be hundreds of massive black holes ejected from their hosts into the nearby intergalactic medium due to gravitational wave recoil. We discuss how the black hole population in the Local Group field dwarfs may help to constrain the growth mechanism for Sgr A*.

  8. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Brera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON was  in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg, far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination.

  9. Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brera, Carlo; Bertazzoni, Valentina; Debegnach, Francesca; Gregori, Emanuela; Prantera, Elisabetta; De Santis, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Four hundred and seventy-two pasta samples were collected from long retail distribution chain sales points located in North, Central and South Italy. Representative criteria in the sample collection were followed in terms of number of samples collected, market share, and types of pasta. Samples were analysed by an accredited HPLC-UV method of analysis. The mean contamination level (64.8 μg/kg) of deoxynivalenol (DON) was in the 95th percentile (239 μg/kg) and 99th percentile (337 μg/kg), far below the legal limit (750 μg/kg) set by Regulation EC/1126/2007, accounting for about one tenth, one third and half the legal limit, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of samples fell below half the legal limit. On the basis of the obtained occurrence levels and considering the consumption rates reported by the Italian official database, no health concern was assessed for all consumer groups, being that exposure was far below the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1000 ng/kg b.w/day. Nevertheless, despite this, particular attention should be devoted to the exposure to DON by high consumers, such as children aged 3–5 years, who could reach the TDI even with very low levels of DON contamination. PMID:24287568

  10. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  11. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at DRD2 locus--a study on four population groups of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Shukla, Deepti; Kaur, Harpreet; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal; Rao, A P; Saksena, Deepti; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) is expressed in the central nervous system and has a high affinity for many antipsychotic drugs. Besides several epidemiological investigations on association of DRD2 locus polymorphism(s) with neuropsychiatric problems and addictive behavior, a few polymorphisms in this locus have also been used to understand genomic diversity and population migratory histories globally. The present study attempts to understand the genomic diversity/affinity among four endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh (India) against the backdrop of diversity studies from other parts of India and the rest of the world, with special reference to DRD2 locus. The four population groups from Adilabad District of Andhra Pradesh, namely, Brahmin (n=50), Nayakpod (n=49), Thoti (n=52), and Kolam (n=53), were included in the study. The DRD2 markers typed for the present study are three biallelic restriction fragments, that is, TaqI A (rs1800497), TaqI B (rs1079597), and TaqI D (rs1800498). Scoring of DRD2 haplotypes with respect to the three TaqI sites shows that five out of eight possible haplotypes are shared by the four populations. Ancestral haplotype B2D2A1 is most frequent among Thotis (0.359). The results of the present study indicate a differential gene flow into South India followed by certain important demographic events resulting in diversified peopling of India.

  12. Methylation of inorganic arsenic in different mammalian species and population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahter, M

    1999-01-01

    Thousands of people in different parts of the world are exposed to arsenic via drinking water or contaminated soil or food. The high general toxic of arsenic has been known for centuries, and research during the last decades has shown that arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. However, most experimental cancer studies have failed to demonstrate carcinogenicity in experimental animals, indicating marked variation in sensitivity towards arsenic toxicity between species. It has also been suggested that there is a variation in susceptibility among human individuals. One reason for such variability in toxic response may be variation in metabolism. Inorganic arsenic is methylated in humans as well as animals and micro-organisms, but there are considerable differences between species and individuals. In many, but not all, mammalian species, inorganic arsenic is methylated to methylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which are more rapidly excreted in urine than is the inorganic arsenic, especially the trivalent form (AsIII, arsenite) which is highly reactive with tissue components. Absorbed arsenate (AsV) is reduced to trivalent arsenic (AsIII) before the methyl groups are attached. It has been estimated that as much as 50-70% of absorbed AsV is rapidly reduced to AsIII, a reaction which seems to be common for most species. In most experimental animal species, DMA is the main metabolite excreted in urine. Compared to human subjects, very little MMA is produced. However, the rate of methylation varies considerably between species, and several species, e.g. the marmoset monkey and the chimpanzee have been shown not to methylate inorganic arsenic at all. In addition, the marmoset monkey accumulates arsenic in the liver. The rat, on the other hand, has an efficient methylation of arsenic but the formed DMA is to a large extent accumulated in the red blood cells. As a result, the rat shows a low rate of excretion of arsenic. In both human subjects and rodents

  13. ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B K; Zhang, Z; Wikman, A; Lindqvist, P G; Reilly, M

    2012-09-01

    To examine the association between ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders in a large population-based cohort. Cohort study. Risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, estimated by odds ratios for maternal ABO blood group and RhD status. National health registers of Sweden. All singleton deliveries in Sweden born to first-time mothers during the period 1987-2002 [total n = 641 926; any gestational hypertensive disorders, n = 39 011 (6.1%); pre-eclampsia cases, n = 29 337 (4.6%); severe pre-eclampsia cases, n = 8477 (1.3%)]. Using blood group O as a reference, odds ratios of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia were obtained from logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia. Compared with blood group O, all non-O blood groups had modest but statistically significantly higher odds of pre-eclampsia. Blood group AB had the highest risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30). RhD-positive mothers had a small increased risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10). In the largest study on this topic to date, women with AB blood group have the highest risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, whereas women with O blood group have the lowest risks of developing these disorders. Although the magnitude of increased risk is small, this finding may help improve our understanding of the etiology of pre-eclampsia. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  14. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  15. Sole ulcers in dairy-cattle - associations with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Grohn, Y T; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    lactation and body weight were positively associated with sole ulcer. Heel erosion was associated with sole ulcer depending on season of trimming and parity. Presence of sole ulcer but not heel erosion in a lactation increased the risk of sole ulcer in the subsequent lactation. The interval between...

  16. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  17. Genetic variation observed at three tetrameric short tandem repeat loci HumTHO1, TPOX, and CSF1PO--in five ethnic population groups of northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, D; Kashyap, V K

    2001-01-01

    This paper portrays the genetic variation observed at three tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci HumTHO1, TPOX, and CSF1PO in five ethnic population groups from northeastern India. The study also specifies the suitability of use of these markers for forensic testing. The populations studied included three tribal groups (Kuki, Naga and Hmar), one Mongoloid caste group (Meitei), and a religious caste group (Manipuri Muslims). The loci were highly polymorphic in the populations, and all loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations. No evidence for association of alleles among the loci was detected. The probability of match for the three loci of the most frequent genotype in the five population groups ranged between 2.6 x 10(-4) and 6.6 x 10(-5). The average heterozygosity among the population groups was approximately 70% with the overall extent of gene differentiation among the five groups being high (Gst = 0.046). Genetic affinity among the populations reveal very close association between the Kuki, Hmar, Naga, and Meitei. The Manipuri Muslims, despite being found in the same region, have had no admixture with these populations and maintain a substantial distance with the other groups. The genetic polymorphism data suggest that the studied systems can be used for human identity testing to estimate the frequency of a multiple locus STR DNA profile in population groups of northeastern India.

  18. Eight luminous early-type galaxies in nearby pairs and sparse groups. I. Stellar populations spatially analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D. A.; Milone, A. C.; Krabbe, A. C.; Rodrigues, I.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed spatial analysis of stellar populations based on long-slit optical spectra in a sample of eight luminous early-type galaxies selected from nearby sparse groups and pairs, three of them may have interaction with another galaxy of similar mass. We have spatially measured luminosity-weighted averages of age, [M/H], [Fe/H], and [α /Fe] in the sample galaxies to add empirical data relative to the influence of galaxy mass, environment, interaction, and AGN feedback in their formation and evolution. The stellar population of the individual galaxies were determined through the well-established stellar population synthesis code starlight using semi-empirical simple stellar population models. Radial variations of luminosity- weighted means of age, [M/H], [Fe/H], and [α /Fe] were quantified up to half of the effective radius of each galaxy. We found trends between representative values of age, [M/H], [α /Fe], and the nuclear stellar velocity dispersion. There are also relations between the metallicity/age gradients and the velocity dispersion. Contributions of 1-4 Gyr old stellar populations were quantified in IC 5328 and NGC 6758 as well as 4-8 Gyr old ones in NGC 5812. Extended gas is present in IC 5328, NGC 1052, NGC 1209, and NGC 6758, and the presence of a LINER is identified in all these galaxies. The regions up to one effective radius of all galaxies are basically dominated by α -enhanced metal-rich old stellar populations likely due to rapid star formation episodes that induced efficient chemical enrichment. On average, the age and [α /Fe] gradients are null and the [M/H] gradients are negative, although discordant cases were found. We found no correlation between the stellar population properties and the LINER presence as well as between the stellar properties and environment or gravitational interaction, suggesting that the influence of progenitor mass cannot be discarded in the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies.

  19. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Puig, Marieva; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eida; Morales, Marangelie; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV, the objective being to discover why they engaged in maladaptive behaviors as a way of coping with felt stigma. We used deductive and inductive analysis to codify the resulting data. Concepts associated with the word stigma, emotional reactions to felt stigma, and the impact of felt stigma on self-schema helped elucidate how the internalization of felt stigma can lead to negative affective states and self-destructive behaviors (e.g., drug use and syringe exchange). Results underline the importance of developing intervention models that reduce stigma as a means of HIV prevention in vulnerable populations.

  20. "Where are all the lonely people?" A population-based study of high-risk groups across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Friis, Karina; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    and socio-demographic and health-related factors across multiple age groups. Methods. This was a combined population-based questionnaire survey and register data study based on a representative sample, including 33,285 Danish individuals aged 16–102 years. Loneliness was measured using the Three......Item Loneliness Scale. Results. The relation between loneliness and age took a shallow U-shaped distribution. Ethnic minority status, receiving disability pensions or being unemployed, living alone, prolonged mental disorder, and psychiatric treatment were strongly associated with severe loneliness. Socio......-demographic and health-related factors were associated with an increased risk of severe loneliness in specific age groups. Being female, having a low educational level and living in a deprived area were only associated with loneliness in adolescence/emerging adulthood. Receiving disability pensions and living alone (i...

  1. Polymorphic Variation in Double Strand Break Repair Gene in Indian Population: A Comparative Approach with Worldwide Ethnic Group Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Raju Kumar; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2018-04-01

    DNA repair capacity is essential in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity may allow better cancer prevention. Double strand break repair pathway plays critical roles in maintaining genome stability. Present study was conducted to determine distribution of XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) and XRCC7 Intron 8 (G6721T, rs7003908) gene polymorphisms in North Indian population and compare with different populations globally. The genotype assays were performed in 224 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Allelic frequencies of wild type were 79% (C) in XRCC3 Exon 7 C > T and 57% (G) in XRCC7 Intron 8 (G > T) 57% (G) observed. On the other hand, the variant allele frequency were 21% (T) in XRCC3 Exon 7 C > T and 43% (T) in XRCC7 Intron 8 G > T respectively. Major differences from other ethnic populations were observed. Our results suggest that frequency in these DNA repair genes exhibit distinctive pattern in India that could be attributed to ethnicity variation. This could assist in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

  2. Genetic variation in a DNA double strand break repair gene in saudi population: a comparative study with worldwide ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Yahya

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair capacity is crucial in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. However, it can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes and this may lead to the development of many diseases including malignancies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity is necessary for better prevention. Homologous recombination (HR), a major double strand break repair pathway, plays a critical role in maintaining the genome stability. The present study was performed to determine the frequency of the HR gene XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) polymorphisms in Saudi Arabian population in comparison with epidemiological studies by "MEDLINE" search to equate with global populations. The variant allelic (T) frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) was found to be 39%. Our results suggest that frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) DNA repair gene exhibits distinctive patterns compared with the Saudi Arabian population and this might be attributed to ethnic variation. The present findings may help in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

  3. Elemental concentration in hair and nail from a selected population group in the Machakos District of Keyna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otham, I.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1979-01-01

    Hair and nail samples were collected in the Iveti location of the Machakos District, Kenya by the University of Surrey Africa Study Group. The population chosen was one suggested by the World Health Organization because a large section of it is involved in agricultural activities, and it is supposedly free from industrial effluents. Also, since the District is where the 4th-year Nairobi medical students do their field training, health profiles may be more readily obtained. It was hoped that the study would yield normal ranges of elements for this population and provide information about their environment. Results for the concentrations of 11 elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Br, Sr, Ba and Hg) in hair and toe-nails obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis for about one quarter (71 subjects) of the total 'normal' sample, divided by sex and age into four groups, are presented. These are treated as preliminary findings. In addition, the use of techniques in electron microscopy is advocated and discussed in evaluating hair and nails as indicators of environmental health. (author)

  4. Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors for Acquiring HBV and/or HCV in HIV-Infected Population Groups in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Manjula; Baniya, Jagat Bahadur; Aryal, Nirmal; Shrestha, Bimal; Rauniyar, Ramanuj; Adhikari, Anurag; Koirala, Pratik; Oli, Pardip Kumar; Pandit, Ram Deo; Stein, David A; Gupta, Birendra Prasad

    2018-01-01

    HBV and HCV infections are widespread among the HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. The goals of this study were to investigate the epidemiological profile and risk factors for acquiring HBV and/or HCV coinfection in disadvantaged HIV-positive population groups in Nepal. We conducted a retrospective study on blood samples from HIV-positive patients from the National Public Health Laboratory at Kathmandu to assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell count. Among 579 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV coinfections was 3.62%, 2.93%, and 0.34%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that spouses of HIV-positive migrant labourers were at significant risk for coinfection with HBV infection, and an age of >40 years in HIV-infected individuals was identified as a significant risk factor for HCV coinfection. Overall our study indicates that disadvantaged population groups such as intravenous drug users, migrant workers and their spouses, female sex workers, and men who have sex with HIV-infected men are at a high and persistent risk of acquiring viral hepatitis. We conclude that Nepalese HIV patients should receive HBV and HCV diagnostic screening on a regular basis.

  5. Frequency and correlation of lip prints, fingerprints and ABO blood groups in population of Sriganganagar District, Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpreet; Verma, Pradhuman; Padda, Sarfaraz; Raj, Seetharamaiha Sunder

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the frequency and uniqueness of different lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and ABO Rh blood groups among a semi-urban population of Sriganganagar, Rajasthan. The study was conducted on 1200 healthy volunteers aged 18-30 years. The cheiloscopic and dermatographic data of each subject were obtained and were analysed according to the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi and Henry systems of classification, respectively. Two forensic experts analyzed the patterns independently. The ABO Rh blood group was also recorded for each subject. The Chi square statistical analysis was done and tests were considered significant when p value blood group was noted as most common in both genders while least common were A- among males and AB- in females. Type II lip pattern was most predominant while the least common was Type I' in males and Type I' and Type V in females. The UL fingerprint pattern was the most common, while RL was least noted in both genders. All the fingerprint patterns showed correlation with different lip print patterns. A correlation was found between different blood groups and lip print patterns except Type I (vertical) lip pattern. A positive correlation was observed between all the blood groups and fingerprint patterns, except for RL pattern. There is an association between lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns and ABO blood groups in both the genders. Thus, correlating the uniqueness of these physical evidences sometimes helps the forensic team members in accurate personal identification or it can at least narrow the search for an individual where there are no possible data referring to the identity of the subject. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  6. Prevalence and impact of primary headache disorders among students and working population in 18-25 years age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Aishwarya S, Eswari N, Chandrasekar M, Chandra Prabha J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache or cephalalgia is defined as pain in the head. Headache is an extremely common symptom that may have a profound impact on peoples’ functioning and quality of life. According to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD, they are Primary and Secondary headaches. Primary Headaches are triggered by stress, alcohol, changes in sleep pattern, anxiety, poor posture, all of which are part and parcel our day-to-day life. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of primary headache disorders and its severity of impact among students and working population in the age group 18-25. Methods: The study was conducted on 718 subjects of which 483 subjects were medical and engineering students from the age group 18-21 and 235 subjects were working people from the age group 22-25. Written consent was taken from each of them. Headache Impact Test-6 (version 1.1 and the HARDSHIP Questionnaire by Timothy Steiner et al. were the questionnaires used to diagnose the severity of impact and the type of headache respectively. The study was ethically approved by Ethical Clearance Board of MAHER University. People suffering from psychiatric illness were excluded from the study. Result: There was increased prevalence of migraine in the age group 18-21 and tension type headache in the age group 22-25.Over 50%of subjects from both the age groups had headaches that have substantial to severe impact on their lives. There was no significant gender variation in headache prevalence.

  7. Cesarean Delivery in the United States 2005 - 2014: A Population-Based Analysis Using the Robson Ten Group Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Mark P; Ananth, Cande V; Siddiq, Zainab; Flood, Karen; Friedman, Alexander M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2018-04-12

    Cesarean delivery has increased steadily in the United States over recent decades with significant downstream health consequences. The World Health Organization has endorsed the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) as a global standard to facilitate analysis and comparison of cesarean delivery rates. Our objective was to apply the TGCS to a nationwide cohort in the United States over a 10-year period. This population-based analysis applied the TGCS to all births in the United States from 2005-2014, recorded in the 2003-revised birth certificate format. Over the study 10-year period 27,044,217 deliveries met inclusion criteria. Five parameters (parity including previous cesarean, gestational age, labor onset, fetal presentation and plurality), identifiable on presentation for delivery, were used to classify all women included into one of ten groups. The overall cesarean rate was 31.6%. Group 3 births (singleton, term, cephalic multiparas in spontaneous labor) were most common, while Group 5 births (those with a previous cesarean) accounted for the most cesarean deliveries increasing from 27% of all cesareans in 2005-06 to over 34% in 2013-14. Breech pregnancies (Groups 6 and 7) had cesarean rates above 90%. Primiparous and multiparous women who had a prelabor cesarean [Groups 2(b) and 4(b)] accounted for over one quarter of all cesarean deliveries. Women with a previous cesarean delivery represent an increasing proportion of cesarean deliveries. Use of the Robson criteria allows standardised comparisons of data and identifies clinical scenarios driving changes in cesarean rates. Hospitals and health organisations can use the TGCS to evaluate quality and processes associated with cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bayesian population structure analysis reveals presence of phylogeographically specific sublineages within previously ill-defined T group of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Reynaud

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic structure, and evolutionary history have been studied for years by several genotyping approaches, but delineation of a few sublineages remains controversial and needs better characterization. This is particularly the case of T group within lineage 4 (L4 which was first described using spoligotyping to pool together a number of strains with ill-defined signatures. Although T strains were not traditionally considered as a real phylogenetic group, they did contain a few phylogenetically meaningful sublineages as shown using SNPs. We therefore decided to investigate if this observation could be corroborated using other robust genetic markers. We consequently made a first assessment of genetic structure using 24-loci MIRU-VNTRs data extracted from the SITVIT2 database (n = 607 clinical isolates collected in Russia, Albania, Turkey, Iraq, Brazil and China. Combining Minimum Spanning Trees and Bayesian population structure analyses (using STRUCTURE and TESS softwares, we distinctly identified eight tentative phylogenetic groups (T1-T8 with a remarkable correlation with geographical origin. We further compared the present structure observed with other L4 sublineages (n = 416 clinical isolates belonging to LAM, Haarlem, X, S sublineages, and showed that 5 out of 8 T groups seemed phylogeographically well-defined as opposed to the remaining 3 groups that partially mixed with other L4 isolates. These results provide with novel evidence about phylogeographically specificity of a proportion of ill-defined T group of M. tuberculosis. The genetic structure observed will now be further validated on an enlarged worldwide dataset using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS.

  9. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  10. Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Flores, R M; Barton, S A; Marty-Gonzalez, L F; Rivas, F; Chakraborty, R

    1999-07-01

    A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups (A1A2BO, MNSs, Rh, Duffy, Lutheran, Kidd, and P) on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo León, Mexico. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on genetic exclusions at one or more loci (combined average exclusion probability of 0.694 for specific mother-child phenotype pairs). The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0.118 +/- 0.020. The nonpaternity rates in Nuevo León were also seen to be inversely related with the socioeconomic status of the families, i.e., the highest in the low and the lowest in the high socioeconomic class. We further argue that with the moderately low (69.4%) power of exclusion for these seven blood group systems, the traditional critical values of paternity index (PI > or = 19) were not good indicators of true paternity, since a considerable fraction (307/364) of nonexcluded legal fathers had a paternity index below 19 based on the seven markers. Implications of these results in the context of genetic-epidemiological studies as well as for detection of true fathers for child-support adjudications are discussed, implying the need to employ a battery of genetic markers (possibly DNA-based tests) that yield a higher power of exclusion. We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers.

  11. Roflumilast for the treatment of COPD in an Asian population: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinping; Yang, Jinghua; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhao, Li; Hui, Fuxin; Wang, Haoyan; Bai, Chunxue; Chen, Ping; Li, Huiping; Kang, Jian; Brose, Manja; Richard, Frank; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study, patients of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity (N = 626) with severe to very severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to receive either roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.071 L; 95% CI, 0.046, 0.095 L; P < .0001). Similar improvements were observed in the secondary end points of postbronchodilator FEV1 (0.068 L; 95% CI 0.044, 0.092 L; P < .0001) and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FVC (0.109 L; 95% CI, 0.061, 0.157 L; P < .0001 and 0.101 L; 95% CI, 0.055, 0.146 L; P < .0001, respectively). The adverse event profile was consistent with previous roflumilast studies. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (6.0% and 1.0% of patients in the roflumilast and placebo groups, respectively). Roflumilast plays an important role in lung function improvement and is well tolerated in an Asian population. It provides an optimal treatment choice for patients with severe to very severe COPD.

  12. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Methods: This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. Results: The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. Conclusion: The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation. PMID:21960925

  13. Inherent variation in multiple shoe-sole test impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Yaron; Wiesner, Sarena; Tsach, Tsadok; Gurel, Ron; Yekutieli, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Shoeprints left at crime scenes are seldom perfect. Many prints are distorted or contaminated by various materials. Noisy background often contributes to vagueness on the shoeprints as well. Test impressions made from the suspect's shoes in the laboratory are considered a genuine replication of the shoe-sole. This naïve attitude is far from being correct. Consecutive test impressions made in the laboratory under strict similar conditions revealed differences among the exemplars of the same sole. Some of them are minor, but some are major, and can mislead the less experienced practitioners during the comparison process. This article focuses on the inherent within source variability between controlled shoeprints made from the same shoe, as it appears on the RACs. To describe and analyze this variability, repeated test impressions were prepared, and datasets were created. Several RACs were marked on each test impression, using an expert assisting software tool (developed in the authors' lab). The variance in repeated test impressions is demonstrated and possible sources are discussed. This variance should be considered when trying to establish the degree of matching between individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  15. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mec...

  16. Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of N-pentafluoroaryl benzamides using air as the sole oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Huai-Wei; Spangler, Jillian E; Chen, Kai; Cui, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Wei-Yin; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2015-03-01

    The oxidative olefination of a broad array of arenes and heteroarenes with a variety of activated and unactivated olefins has be achieved via a rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation reaction. The use of an N -pentafluorophenyl benzamide directing group is crucial for achieving catalytic turnovers in the presence of air as the sole oxidant without using a co-oxidant.

  17. Population size, group composition and behavioural ecology of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Zewdu; Belay, Gurja; Bekele, Afework

    2013-11-01

    Primates that live in protected areas are intensively studied; however, those that live outside protected areas are less studied by primatologists. Therefore, the present study was carried out outside protected areas on the endemic gelada (Theropithecus gelada) to estimate the population size and group composition and human-gelada conflict in Wonchit Valley, Ethiopia from August 2008-March 2009. Total count method was used to determine the population size and group composition of geladas. A band of geladas was selected to carry out behavioural research. Data were collected on activity, diet and ranging patterns for one band of geladas using scan samples at 15 min intervals. Data on human-gelada conflict was gathered using questionnaire interview method. The total number of geladas in the study area was 1525. The average size of one-male unit was 16.96. Adult male to adult female sex ratio was 1.00:6.61. The average size of the band was 58.03. Group size ranged from 3 to 220. Geladas spent 65.2% of their time feeding, 16.3% moving, 4.6% resting and 13.9% socializing. The total time spent feeding on grass blades was 83.8% and 11.8% for bulbs and roots. The home range size was 1.5 km2 during the dry season and 0.2 km2 during the wet season. Geladas in the study area caused crop damage and shared pasture and drinking water with livestock. They consume crops during harvesting stage more than the seedling and vegetative stages. The study has immense contribution for the conservation and management of this endemic primate in unprotected areas.

  18. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40-79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707-0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735-0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were -0.107 (95% CI, -0.273-0.058; P=0.203) and -0.014 (95% CI, -0.033-0.006; P=0.182), respectively. The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO.

  19. Blood group AB is protective factor for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Wang, Leishen; Sun, Shurong; Liu, Gongshu; Leng, Junhong; Guo, Jia; Lv, Li; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chinese cohort. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 14,198 pregnant women within the first 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women had a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test if the results from GCT were ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for traditional risk factors. Stratified analysis was performed by family history of diabetes (yes versus no). Sensitivity analyses were also performed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for GDM. Women with blood groups A, B or O (i.e. non-AB) were associated with increased risk of GDM as compared with those with blood group AB (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.83). Sensitivity analyses showed that the result was consistent using WHO criteria. The adjusted OR of blood group non-AB versus AB for GDM was enhanced among women with a family history of diabetes (2.69, 1.21-5.96) and attenuated among those without (1.33, 1.03-1.71). Blood group AB was a protective factor against GDM in pregnant Chinese women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Discriminating bot accounts based solely on temporal features of microblog behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junshan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hanping

    2016-05-01

    As the largest microblog service in China, Sina Weibo has attracted numerous automated applications (known as bots) due to its popularity and open architecture. We classify the active users from Sina Weibo into human, bot-based and hybrid groups based solely on the study of temporal features of their posting behavior. The anomalous burstiness parameter and time-interval entropy value are exploited to characterize automation. We also reveal different behavior patterns among the three types of users regarding their reposting ratio, daily rhythm and active days. Our findings may help Sina Weibo manage a better community and should be considered for dynamic models of microblog behaviors.

  1. Etiology of hypopituitarism in tertiary care institutions in Turkish population: analysis of 773 patients from Pituitary Study Group database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, F; Dokmetas, H S; Kebapcı, N; Kilicli, F; Atmaca, H; Yarman, S; Ertorer, M E; Erturk, E; Bayram, F; Tugrul, A; Culha, C; Cakir, M; Mert, M; Aydin, H; Taskale, M; Ersoz, N; Canturk, Z; Anaforoglu, I; Ozkaya, M; Oruk, G; Hekimsoy, Z; Kelestimur, F; Erbas, T

    2014-09-01

    Hypopituitarism in adult life is commonly acquired and the main causes are known as pituitary tumors and/or their treatments. Since there are new insights into the etiology of hypopituitarism and presence of differences in various populations, more studies regarding causes of hypopituitarism are needed to be done in different ethnic groups with sufficient number of patients. Therefore, we performed a multi-center database study in Turkish population investigating the etiology of hypopituitarism in 773 patients in tertiary care institutions. The study was designed and coordinated by the Pituitary Study Group of SEMT (The Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism of Turkey). Nineteen tertiary reference centers (14 university hospitals and 5 training hospitals) from the different regions of Turkey participated in the study. It is a cross-sectional database study, and the data were recorded for 18 months. We mainly classified the causes of hypopituitarism as pituitary tumors (due to direct effects of the pituitary tumors and/or their treatments), extra-pituitary tumors and non-tumoral causes. Mean age of 773 patients (49.8 % male, 50.2 % female) was 43.9 ± 16.1 years (range 16-84 years). The most common etiology of pituitary dysfunction was due to non-tumoral causes (49.2 %) among all patients. However, when we analyze the causes according to gender, the most common etiology in males was pituitary tumors, but the most common etiology in females was non-tumoral causes. According to the subgroup analysis of the causes of hypopituitarism in all patients, the most common four causes of hypopituitarism which have frequencies over 10 % were as follows: non-secretory pituitary adenomas, Sheehan's syndrome, lactotroph adenomas and idiopathic. With regard to the type of hormonal deficiencies; FSH/LH deficiency was the most common hormonal deficit (84.9 % of the patients). In 33.8 % of the patients, 4 anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies (FSH/LH, ACTH, TSH, and GH) were

  2. Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience

  3. European wildcat populations are subdivided into five main biogeographic groups: consequences of Pleistocene climate changes or recent anthropogenic fragmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattucci, Federica; Oliveira, Rita; Lyons, Leslie A; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    Extant populations of the European wildcat are fragmented across the continent, the likely consequence of recent extirpations due to habitat loss and over-hunting. However, their underlying phylogeographic history has never been reconstructed. For testing the hypothesis that the European wildcat survived the Ice Age fragmented in Mediterranean refuges, we assayed the genetic variation at 31 microsatellites in 668 presumptive European wildcats sampled in 15 European countries. Moreover, to evaluate the extent of subspecies/population divergence and identify eventual wild × domestic cat hybrids, we genotyped 26 African wildcats from Sardinia and North Africa and 294 random-bred domestic cats. Results of multivariate analyses and Bayesian clustering confirmed that the European wild and the domestic cats (plus the African wildcats) belong to two well-differentiated clusters (average Ф ST = 0.159, r st = 0.392, P > 0.001; Analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA]). We identified from c. 5% to 10% cryptic hybrids in southern and central European populations. In contrast, wild-living cats in Hungary and Scotland showed deep signatures of genetic admixture and introgression with domestic cats. The European wildcats are subdivided into five main genetic clusters (average Ф ST = 0.103, r st = 0.143, P > 0.001; AMOVA) corresponding to five biogeographic groups, respectively, distributed in the Iberian Peninsula, central Europe, central Germany, Italian Peninsula and the island of Sicily, and in north-eastern Italy and northern Balkan regions (Dinaric Alps). Approximate Bayesian Computation simulations supported late Pleistocene-early Holocene population splittings (from c. 60 k to 10 k years ago), contemporary to the last Ice Age climatic changes. These results provide evidences for wildcat Mediterranean refuges in southwestern Europe, but the evolution history of eastern wildcat populations remains to be clarified. Historical genetic subdivisions suggest

  4. A genetic linkage map of sole (Solea solea: a tool for evolutionary and comparative analyses of exploited (flatfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Diopere

    Full Text Available Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective forces at play during exploitation or selective breeding. Additionally, they allow the use of genomic information from other related species for which more detailed information is available. Sole (solea solea L. is a commercially important flatfish species in the North Sea, subject to overexploitation and showing evidence of fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in growth- and maturation-related traits. Sole would definitely benefit from a linkage map to better understand how evolution has shaped its genome structure. This study presents a linkage map of sole based on 423 single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from expressed sequence tags and 8 neutral microsatellite markers. The total map length is 1233.8 cM and consists of 38 linkage groups with a size varying between 0 to 92.1 cM. Being derived from expressed sequence tags allowed us to align the map with the genome of four model fish species, namely medaka (Oryzias latipes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis. This comparison revealed multiple conserved syntenic regions with all four species, and suggested that the linkage groups represent 21 putative sole chromosomes. The map was also compared to the linkage map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, another commercially important flatfish species and closely related to sole. For all putative sole chromosomes (except one a turbot homolog was detected, confirming the even higher degree of synteny between these two flatfish species.

  5. Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Rocker-Sole Footwear for First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis: Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Predictors of response to prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-05-12

    Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ OA) is a common and disabling condition commonly managed with footwear and orthotic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a successful treatment response in people with 1st MTPJ OA provided with prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear as part of a randomised clinical trial. People with 1st MTPJ OA (n = 88) who participated in a randomised trial were allocated to receive prefabricated foot orthoses (n = 47) or rocker-sole footwear (n = 41) and completed a baseline questionnaire including information on demographics, anthropometrics, general health, pain characteristics (including the Foot Health Status Questionnaire [FHSQ] and Foot Function Index [FFI]) and perceptions of the interventions, and a clinical assessment of foot posture, range of motion, radiographic severity and in-shoe plantar pressures. Adherence was documented using diaries. At 12 weeks, participants documented their perception of improvement on a 15-point scale. Those reporting at least moderate improvement on this scale were classified as 'responders'. There were 29 responders (62%) in the orthoses group and 16 responders (39%) in the rocker-sole group. In the orthoses group, responders had greater baseline pain severity while walking, a higher FFI difficulty score, and wore their orthoses more frequently. In the rocker-sole group, responders had a higher FFI stiffness score and greater radiographic severity. However, the accuracy of these variables in identifying responders in each group was modest (62 and 53%, respectively). The response to prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in people with 1st MTPJ OA is related to measures of increased pain and disease severity. However, the overall classification accuracy associated with these factors is not sufficient for identifying individuals who are most likely to benefit from these interventions. Australian New

  7. Comparison of base composition analysis and Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial DNA for four U.S. population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesler, Kevin M; Coble, Michael D; Hall, Thomas A; Vallone, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A set of 711 samples from four U.S. population groups was analyzed using a novel mass spectrometry based method for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) base composition profiling. Comparison of the mass spectrometry results with Sanger sequencing derived data yielded a concordance rate of 99.97%. Length heteroplasmy was identified in 46% of samples and point heteroplasmy was observed in 6.6% of samples in the combined mass spectral and Sanger data set. Using discrimination capacity as a metric, Sanger sequencing of the full control region had the highest discriminatory power, followed by the mass spectrometry base composition method, which was more discriminating than Sanger sequencing of just the hypervariable regions. This trend is in agreement with the number of nucleotides covered by each of the three assays. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. [Preventing cardiovascular diseases through a screening modelling applicable to wide population groups: results from the first phase of the project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Antonio; Cinquetti, Sandro; Moro, Alessandro; Siddu, Andrea; Trimarchi, Antonino; Penon, Maria Gabriella; Pavan, Pierpaolo; Camillotto, Raffaella; Rossetto, Luca; Volpe, Valter; Zevrain, Simone; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    evaluate, through active call, lifestyles of an asymptomatic population in order to identify hyperglycaemic subjects and/or high-blood pressure sufferers to dispatch to their GP to perform suitable checking, and subjects to invite to a cardiovascular disease prevention programme because of their lifestyles. between January 2009 and July 2012, all healthy residents in the Local Health Authority of Este (ULSS 17 Este) aged 45-59 years were invited to join a cardiovascular disease prevention programme. all participants were evaluated through an administered lifestyle questionnaire. Parameters such as blood pressure (BP), glycaemia, waist circumference and body mass index were collected and recorded. Participants also received counseling, informational materials on lifestyle and were invited to individual or group health promotion initiatives in relation to personal risk factors. among the invited, 55.5% (3,922/7,071) adhered. Women (58.8%) responded significantly better than men (51.9%) (p diseases.

  9. BACTERIAL PROFILES FOR CHRONIC AND AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS IN A SAMPLE POPULATION GROUP. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cornelia TEODORESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study aims at determining some possible significant differences in the subgingival microbial profiles of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, as a tool in helping with differential diagnostic. Materials and methods. 20 subgingival fluid samples (10 from GAP and 10 from GCP patients were subjected to a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in order to determine the prevalence and the counts of 9 periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Results and discussion. Fusobacterium nucleatum was singnificantly correlated with the aggressive periodontitis group, but no significant differences were found for the other 8 periodontal bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence or count of some periodontal pathogens could help clinicians make an easier differential diagnostic between GCP and GAP, however further studies, conducted on larger population samples, are still needed.

  10. High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Police use of handcuffs in the homeless population leads to long-term negative attitudes within this group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  13. The YWHAE gene confers risk to major depressive disorder in the male group of Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Tao; Li, Jun-Yan; Wang, Ti; Li, You; Feng, Guo-Yin; Shi, Yong-Yong; He, Lin

    2017-07-03

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder are two major psychiatric illnesses that may share specific genetic risk factors to a certain extent. Increasing evidence suggests that the two disorders might be more closely related than previously considered. To investigate whether YWHAE gene plays a significant role in major depressive disorder in Han Chinese population, we recruited 1135 unrelated major depressive disorder patients (485 males, 650 females) and 989 unrelated controls (296 males, 693 females) of Chinese Han origin. Eleven common SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan® technology. In male-group, the allele and genotype frequencies of rs34041110 differed significantly between patients and control (P allele =0.036486, OR[95%CI]: 1.249442(1.013988-1.539571); P genotype =0.045301). Also in this group, allele and genotype frequencies of rs1532976 differed significantly (P allele =0.013242, OR[95%CI]: 1.302007(1.056501-1.604563); genotype: P=0.039152). Haplotype-analyses showed that, in male-group, positive association with major depressive disorder was found for the A-A-C-G haplotype of rs3752826-rs2131431-rs1873827-rs12452627 (χ 2 =20.397, P=6.38E-06, OR[95%CI]: 7.442 [2.691-20.583]), its C-A-C-G haplotype (χ 2 =19.122, P=1.24E-05, OR and 95%CI: 0.402 [0.264-0.612]), its C-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =9.766, P=0.001785, OR[95%CI]: 5.654 [1.664-19.211]). In female-group, positive association was found for the A-A-C-G haplotype of rs3752826-rs2131431-rs1873827-rs12452627 (χ 2 =78.628, P=7.94E-19, OR[95%CI]: 50.043 [11.087-225.876]), its A-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =38.806, P=4.83E-10, OR[95%CI]: 0.053 [0.015-0.192]), the C-A-C-G haplotype (χ 2 =18.930, P=1.37E-05, OR[95%CI]: 0.526 [0.392-0.705]), and the C-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =38.668, P=5.18E-10, OR[95%CI]: 6.130 [3.207-11.716]). Our findings support YWHAE being a risk gene for Major Depressive Disorder in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic differences in the two main groups of the Japanese population based on autosomal SNPs and haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hosono, Naoya; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2012-05-01

    Although the Japanese population has a rather low genetic diversity, we recently confirmed the presence of two main clusters (the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters) through principal component analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. Understanding the genetic differences between the two main clusters requires further genome-wide analyses based on a dense SNP set and comparison of haplotype frequencies. In the present study, we determined haplotypes for the Hondo cluster of the Japanese population by detecting SNP homozygotes with 388,591 autosomal SNPs from 18,379 individuals and estimated the haplotype frequencies. Haplotypes for the Ryukyu cluster were inferred by a statistical approach using the genotype data from 504 individuals. We then compared the haplotype frequencies between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters. In most genomic regions, the haplotype frequencies in the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters were very similar. However, in addition to the human leukocyte antigen region on chromosome 6, other genomic regions (chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 12) showed dissimilarities in haplotype frequency. These regions were enriched for genes involved in the immune system, cell-cell adhesion and the intracellular signaling cascade. These differentiated genomic regions between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters are of interest because they (1) should be examined carefully in association studies and (2) likely contain genes responsible for morphological or physiological differences between the two groups.

  15. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  16. Contribution of DNA repair xeroderma pigmentosum group D genotypes to pancreatic cancer risk in the Chinese Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to determine the association between the polymorphisms and haplotypes in the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD gene and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese Han population. SNaPshot was used for genotyping six SNP sites of the XPD gene. Comparisons of the correlations between different genotypes in combination with smoking and the susceptibility to pancreatic cancer were performed. Individual pancreatic cancer risk in patients who carry mutant C alleles (AC, CC, and AC+CC at rs13181 increased (p < 0.05. Taking non-smoking individuals who carry the AA genotype as a reference, and non-smoking individuals who carry mutant allele C (AC+CC, the risk of pancreatic cancer increased by 3.343 times in individuals who smoked ≥ 20 cigarettes daily, 3.309 times in individuals who smoked ≥ 14 packs per year, 5.011 times in individuals who smoked ≥ 24 packs per year, and 4.013 times in the individuals who smoked ≥ 37 packs per year (P < 0.05. In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype AGG, which comprised rs13181, rs3916874 and rs238415, was associated with a 1.401-fold increase in pancreatic cancer risk (p < 0.05. We conclude that the polymorphism of XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181 in combination with smoking contributes to increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the Chinese Han population. Haplotype AGG might be a susceptibility haplotype for pancreatic cancer.

  17. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdularahman B O; Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-Harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101 , A101/A102 , A101/B101 , B101/B101 , and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02 , cis-AB01/O01 , and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients.

  18. Physical and sexual violence, mental health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo

    2012-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence. An anonymous, cross-sectional survey among randomly selected street-based adolescents, adults, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) was undertaken at the end of 2010 in Tegucigalpa. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) mapped places where the study population gathers. Stratified probability samples were drawn for all groups, using two-stage random sampling. Trained MSF staff administered on-site standardized face-to-face questionnaires. Self-reported exposure to severe physical violence in the previous year was 20.9% among street-based adolescents, 28.8% among adults, and 30.6% among CSWs. For the physical violence event self-defined as most severe, 50.0% of the adolescents, 81.4% of the adults, and 70.6% of the CSWs sought medical treatment. Their exposure to severe sexual violence was 8.6%, 28.8%, and 59.2%, respectively. After exposure to the self-defined most severe sexual violence event, 14.3% of adolescents, 31.9% of adults, and 29.1% of CSWs sought treatment. Common mental health and substance abuse symptoms were highly prevalent and strongly associated with exposure to physical (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.0001) and sexual (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.0001) violence. Exposure to physical and sexual violence reached extreme levels among street-based subpopulations. Treatment-seeking behavior, particularly after severe sexual violence, was limited. The association of mental health and substance abuse symptoms with exposure to violence could lead to further victimization. Medical and psychological treatments targeting these groups are needed and could help decrease their vulnerability.

  19. A pharmacogenetic study of CD4 recovery in response to HIV antiretroviral therapy in two South African population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parathyras, John; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann-Rebello, Renate; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Venter, Mauritz; Warnich, Louise

    2009-05-01

    South Africa, like many other Southern African countries, has one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world and many individuals consequently receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, knowledge regarding (i) the prevalence of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pharmacologically relevant genes, and (ii) variance in pharmacotherapy both within and between different populations and ethnic groups is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether selected polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2B6 and CYP3A4) and the multidrug-resistance 1 (ABCB1) gene underlie altered antiretroviral (ARV) drug response in two South African populations. DNA samples from 182 HIV-positive individuals of Mixed-Ancestry and Xhosa ethnicity on ART were genotyped for the A-392G SNP in CYP3A4, the G516T and A785G SNPs in CYP2B6, and the T-129C, C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T SNPs in ABCB1. Univariate two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing revealed no apparent effect of ethnicity on immune recovery (in terms of CD4-cell count) in response to ART. Univariate one-way ANOVA testing revealed a discernible effect of genotype on immune recovery in the cases of the T-129C (P=0.03) and G2677A (P<0.01) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene. This study serves as a basis for better understanding and possible prediction of pharmacogenetic risk profiles and drug response in individuals and ethnic groups in South Africa.

  20. Bactericidal activity of M protein conserved region antibodies against group A streptococcal isolates from the Northern Thai population

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    Pruksachatkunakorn Chulabhorn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most group A streptococcal (GAS vaccine strategies have focused on the surface M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. The amino-terminus of the M protein elicits antibodies, that are both opsonic and protective, but which are type specific. J14, a chimeric peptide that contains 14 amino acids from the M protein conserved C-region at the carboxy-terminus, offers the possibility of a vaccine which will elicit protective opsonic antibodies against multiple different GAS strains. In this study, we searched for J14 and J14-like sequences and the number of their repeats in the C-region of the M protein from GAS strains isolated from the Northern Thai population. Then, we examined the bactericidal activity of J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2 antisera against multiple Thai GAS strains. Results The emm genes of GAS isolates were sequenced and grouped as 14 different J14-types. The most diversity of J14-types was found in the C1-repeat. The J14.1 type was the major sequence in the C2 and C3-repeats. We have shown that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region peptides, J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2, commonly found in GAS isolates from the Northern Thai population, are able to kill GAS of multiple different emm types derived from an endemic area. The mean percent of bactericidal activities for all J14 and J14-like peptide antisera against GAS isolates were more than 70%. The mean percent of bactericidal activity was highest for J14 antisera followed by J14-R2, J14.1 and J14-R1 antisera. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region are able to kill multiple different strains of GAS isolated from the Northern Thai population. Therefore, the four conserved "J14" peptides have the potential to be used as GAS vaccine candidates to prevent streptococcal infections in an endemic area.

  1. Depth and substrate as determinants of distribution of juvenile flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and rock sole (Pleuronectes bilineatus), in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    1998-01-01

    Three transects in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, were sampled in September 1994, May and August 1995, and February, May, and August 1996. Juvenile flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, and rock sole, Pleuronectes bilineatus, were the most abundant flatfishes, comprising 65-85% of all fiatfishes captured at any period. Collections of fish and sediments were made at regular depth contour intervals of l0 m. Habitat distribution was described by depth at 10 m increments and sediment percent weights of gravel, sand, and mud. Year-round habitat of flathead sole age-0 was primarily from 40 to 60 m, and age-1 habitat was primarily from 40 to 80 m. Summer habitat of rock sole age-0 and -1 was from 10 to 30 m, and in winter they moved offshore to depths of up to 150 m. Both age classes of flathead sole were most abundant on mixed mud sediments, while age-1 were also in high abundance on muddy sand sediments. Rock sole age-0 and -1 were most abundant on sand, though age-1 were also found on a variety of sediments both finer and coarser grained than sand. Flathead sole and rock sole had distinctive depth and sediment habitats. When habitat overlap occurred between the species, it was most often due to rock sole moving offshore in the winter. Abundances were not significantly different among seasons for age-1 flatfishes.

  2. [Level at which control objectives are reached in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Pinillos, J; Sabio, P; Martín, J L; Garzón, G; Gil, Á

    There is evidence of increased macro- and micro-vascular risk in diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of control in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Primary care. Madrid Health Service. Year: 2014. Patients over 14 years with type 2 diabetes. Number of patientes: n=6674. Variables on the degree of control (HbA1c, systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], LDL-c) and variables on patient characteristics (demographic, other cardiovascular risk factors, complications). The mean age of patients with controlled HbA1c was 67.8 years vs. 62.9 years in the uncontrolled (Pdifferences were statistically significant (P 140mmHg or DBP> 90mmHg. Over 25% of patients with hypertension or DL and uncontrolled levels were not receiving drug treatment. Control was improved in all groups, especially in younger patients, with particularly high cardiovascular risk by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors or macroangiopathy. A significant percentage of patients with uncontrolled BP and cLDL were not diagnosed or receiving drug treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. PMID:22822439

  4. Defining constant versus variable phenotypic features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome using different ethnic groups and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, C K; Arason, G; Gudmundsson, J A; Adams, J; Palsdóttir, H; Gudlaugsdóttir, G; Ingadóttir, G; Crowley, W F

    2006-11-01

    The phenotype of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variable, depending on the ethnic background. The phenotypes of women with PCOS in Iceland and Boston were compared. The study was observational with a parallel design. Subjects were studied in an outpatient setting. Women, aged 18-45 yr, with PCOS defined by hyperandrogenism and fewer than nine menses per year, were examined in Iceland (n = 105) and Boston (n = 262). PCOS subjects underwent a physical exam, fasting blood samples for androgens, gonadotropins, metabolic parameters, and a transvaginal ultrasound. The phenotype of women with PCOS was compared between Caucasian women in Iceland and Boston and among Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women in Boston. Androstenedione (4.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; P PCOS. There were no differences in fasting blood glucose, insulin, or homeostasis model assessment in body mass index-matched Caucasian subjects from Iceland or Boston or in different ethnic groups in Boston. Polycystic ovary morphology was demonstrated in 93-100% of women with PCOS in all ethnic groups. The data demonstrate differences in the reproductive features of PCOS without differences in glucose and insulin in body mass index-matched populations. These studies also suggest that measuring androstenedione is important for the documentation of hyperandrogenism in Icelandic women. Finally, polycystic ovary morphology by ultrasound is an almost universal finding in women with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and irregular menses.

  5. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deli, Martin; Fritz, Jan; Mateiescu, Serban; Busch, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Becker, Jan; Garmer, Marietta; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  6. Biomonitoring of organophosphate exposure of pesticide sprayers and comparison of exposure levels with other population groups in Thessaly (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the exposure of different population groups in Thessaly (Greece) to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and investigate the dependence of exposure levels on pesticide application practices, personal protective and hygienic measures taken. For the exposure assessment, four dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were quantified in spot urine samples of 77 pesticide sprayers, 75 residents of the studied agricultural area non-involved in agricultural activities and 112 urban residents who served as a control group. Structured questionnaires were used to record demographic characteristics, pesticide application parameters and protective measures taken. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the obtained cross-sectional data was performed to identify potential risk factors associated with biomarker levels. It was found that total DAP median level in the sprayers' group was 24.9 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 13.0-42.1), while the rural and urban residents had significantly lower (p<0.001) levels of 11.3 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 5.3-18.7) and 11.9 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 6.3-20.3), respectively. In sprayers who had recently applied an OP pesticide (n=28), the median levels of DAP metabolites were 31.8 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 22.3-117.2). Logistic regression analysis showed that the use of full body coveralls while handling and spraying pesticides was significantly associated with lower DAP levels (OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.22 to 13.46). Also, changing clothes immediately after accidental contamination of clothing with pesticide amounts was found to be significantly associated with lower exposure levels (OR 4.04, CI 1.05 to 15.57). Our study findings confirm the increased exposure to OPs in pesticide sprayers and underline the importance of protective measures especially those that focus on dermal exposure mitigation.

  7. Weight-related differences in glucose metabolism and free fatty acid production in two South African population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadeera, C; van der Merwe, M T; Crowther, N J; Toman, M; Immelman, A R; Schlaphoff, G P; Gray, I P

    2001-08-01

    The effects of free fatty acids (FFA), leptin, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and body fat distribution on in vivo oxidation of a glucose load were studied in two South African ethnic groups. Anthropometric and various metabolic indices were measured at fasting and during a 7 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis and subcutaneous and visceral fat mass was assessed using a five- and two-level CT-scan respectively. Glucose oxidation was evaluated by measuring the ratio of (13)CO(2) to (12)CO(2) in breath following ingestion of 1-(13)C-labelled glucose. Ten lean black women (LBW), ten obese black women (OBW), nine lean white women (LWW) and nine obese white women (OWW) were investigated after an overnight fast. Visceral fat levels were significantly higher (Pdifferences in glucose oxidation however; in the lean subjects of both ethnic groups the area under the curve (AUC) was higher than in obese subjects (Pgroups. Percentage suppression of FFAs at 30 min of the OGTT was 24+/-12% in OWW and -38+/-23% (Pgroup. AUC for FFAs during the late postprandial period (120--420 min) was significantly higher in OWW than OBW (Pgroups compared to the lean women. Glucose oxidation is reduced in obese subjects of both ethnic groups; inter- and intra-ethnic differences were observed in visceral fat mass and FFA production and it is possible that such differences may play a role in the differing prevalences of obesity-related disorders that have been reported in these two populations.

  8. Patients with burning mouth sensations. A clinical investigation of causative factors in a group of "compete denture wearers" Jordanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukatash-Nimri, Gadeer Elea; Al-Nimri, Marwan A; Al-Jadeed, Omar G; Al-Zobe, Zaid R; Aburumman, Khuzama K; Masarwa, Nader A

    2017-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of "true" burning mouth syndrome and study the association between patients' spontaneous complaints of burning mouth and systemic conditions in a group of middle age and elderly "denture wearers" patients in Jordan. A group of 129 patients (112 female and 17 male) of "complete denture wearers" subjects aged 40 years and over attended prosthetic clinic at King Hussein Medical Hospital complaining from oral burning, with no oral lesion possibly responsible for the burning sensations were selected. Assessment of oral and general status was done based on questioners, detailed history taking, medical records and extra and intraoral examination. The existed complete dentures retention, stability, jaw relationship and the free way space were evaluated. The current blood test and instrumental protocol for examination of patients with burning mouth complains were performed for each patient. Then those studied patients with burning mouth sensations including "true" burning mouth syndrome have been compared to the controls with regard to the presence of local problem, undermined local, systemic or psychological disease. The diagnosis of "true" burning mouth syndrome was established in (2.3%) of the studied population two females and one male. In most patients (58%) more than one site was affected. Significant positive associations were found between local factors (i.e., wearing complete dentures with unsatisfactory retention or jaw relationship, dry mouth or candidasis) and patients suffering from burning mouth sensation. The results also show that some systemic or psychological disorders were significantly more present among patients with burning mouth symptoms when compared to the control group ( p  burning mouth without mucosal signs should be considered as a manifestation of undermind pathology and/or distress, and the multi-factorial causes of burning mouth syndrome and sensation need to be referred to the suitable specialist for better

  9. [Folic acid fortified foods available in Spain: types of products, level of fortification and target population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego Vaesken, M L; Alonso-Aperte, E; Varela-Moreiras, G

    2009-01-01

    Folic acid is a potentially relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies (congenital abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and neurocognitive decline). This has led to the introduction of different strategies in order to increase folate intake: nutritional education, pharmacological supplementation and mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with folic acid. In Spain there is a growing number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis, but there is also a lack of reliable data to assess their impact on the population's dietary folate intakes. To gather a better knowledge of folic acid food fortification practices in Spain. A Food Composition Database was developed using data from a market study. Also, previously published data of unfortified staple foods from Food Composition Tables was reviewed. The Database included 260 folic acid fortified food items and it was periodically updated. Food groups included were primarily "Cereals and derivatives" (52%) followed by "Dairy products". Most of these foodstuffs lacked a target population for their consumption (37%) or were aimed at "Weight control" (28%) and "Children" (23%), but only 2% targeted women at a reproductive age. Number of unfortified foods included was 690. Fortification levels declared by manufacturers ranged between 15 and 430% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for folic acid per 100 g/ml, and simultaneous addition of B6 and B12 vitamins was observed in 75% of the products. Currently, Spain market offers a significant number of folic acid fortified products on a voluntary basis and at a level > or = 15% of the RDA per 100 g/ml or serving declared by manufacturers.

  10. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  11. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Genetic relatedness of indigenous ethnic groups in northern Borneo to neighboring populations from Southeast Asia, as inferred from genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chee Wei; Hoque, Mohd Zahirul; Pugh-Kitingan, Jacqueline; Minsong, Alexander; Voo, Christopher Lok Yung; Ransangan, Julian; Lau, Sophia Tiek Ying; Wang, Xu; Saw, Woei Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Phipps, Maude E; Kumar, S Vijay

    2018-07-01

    The region of northern Borneo is home to the current state of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located closest to the southern Philippine islands and may have served as a viaduct for ancient human migration onto or off of Borneo Island. In this study, five indigenous ethnic groups from Sabah were subjected to genome-wide SNP genotyping. These individuals represent the "North Borneo"-speaking group of the great Austronesian family. They have traditionally resided in the inland region of Sabah. The dataset was merged with public datasets, and the genetic relatedness of these groups to neighboring populations from the islands of Southeast Asia, mainland Southeast Asia and southern China was inferred. Genetic structure analysis revealed that these groups formed a genetic cluster that was independent of the clusters of neighboring populations. Additionally, these groups exhibited near-absolute proportions of a genetic component that is also common among Austronesians from Taiwan and the Philippines. They showed no genetic admixture with Austro-Melanesian populations. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to non-Austro-Melansian Filipinos as well as to Taiwan natives but are distantly related to populations from mainland Southeast Asia. Relatively lower heterozygosity and higher pairwise genetic differentiation index (F ST ) values than those of nearby populations indicate that these groups might have experienced genetic drift in the past, resulting in their differentiation from other Austronesians. Subsequent formal testing suggested that these populations have received no gene flow from neighboring populations. Taken together, these results imply that the indigenous ethnic groups of northern Borneo shared a common ancestor with Taiwan natives and non-Austro-Melanesian Filipinos and then isolated themselves on the inland of Sabah. This isolation presumably led to no admixture with other populations, and these individuals therefore underwent

  13. Uneven frequency of Vibrio alginolyticus-group isolates among different populations of Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Maria C; Ciambotta, Marco; Sapochetti, Manuela; Migliore, Luciana; Tapia, Whashington; Cedeño, Virna; Gentile, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    The presence of Vibrio isolates was investigated in cloacal swabs from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhyncus cristatus). Such unique iguana is endemic to the Galápagos Archipelago, it is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (2009), and is strictly protected by CITES and Ecuador laws. Our results revealed an uneven isolation frequency of vibrios from animals living in different settings: maximal among the Santa Fe population, scarce at Bahía Tortuga but practically absent in the samples from Puerto Ayora and Plaza Sur. A 16S sequencing confirmed that the isolates belonged to the genus Vibrio, placing them within the V. alginolyticus group; the biochemical identification was, indeed, consistent with V. alginolyticus features. The reason of the observed discrepancy is not clear, but could be either linked to a higher pollution in the inhabited or more touristic places or to differential influence of chemical and physical parameters at a local scale. As V. alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen for man and it is known to cause disease in sea-living animals, the ability of these vibrios to enter and persist to a certain extent in the marine iguana gut should be regarded as a risk for health of both the animals and the human personnel involved in monitoring activities. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism and heteroplasmy in populations of the three species of Tropidurus of the nanuzae group (Squamata, Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Passoni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The nanuzae group of lizards includes three species, Tropidurus nanuzae, T. divaricatus and T. amathites. The first species is found along Serra do Espinhaço, in eastern Brazil, and the other two in the northern region of the Brazilian State of Bahia, in continental dunes on both margins of the São Francisco River. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP of the mtDNA in these species were detected in 53 restriction sites. Site and fragment length polymorphisms were characterized, and cases of heteroplasmy involving length variation were observed. In T. divaricatus, these variations involved changes of 50-200 bp, probably in the control region of the molecule. In T. amathites, variation was apparently due to duplication/deletion of a 400-bp segment. Fragment length mutation rate varied among the species, being smaller in T. amathites than in T. divaricatus. Relatively low nucleotide diversity values were detected in these populations, the smallest being found in T. nanuzae. The most polymorphic population was T. divaricatus from Alagoado, followed by that of the same species from Ibiraba, suggesting both probable recovery of mtDNA genetic diversity after putative reductions in population size, and recent population expansion.O grupo nanuzae de lagartos compreende três espécies, Tropidurus nanuzae, T. divaricatus e T. amathites. A primeira é encontrada ao longo da Serra do Espinhaço, na região leste do Brasil, e as outras duas na região norte do Estado da Bahia, nas dunas continentais do Rio São Francisco, em margens opostas. Essas três espécies foram analisadas quanto a polimorfismos de tamanho de fragmentos de restrição (RFLP do DNAmit, tendo sido caracterizados 53 sítios de restrição. Polimorfismos de sítio e de tamanho de alguns fragmentos específicos foram caracterizados, bem como casos de heteroplasmia envolvendo variações de tamanho. Em T. divaricatus, estas variações correspondem a 50-200 pb, provavelmente

  15. A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  16. Clinical assessment of dynamic coefficient of friction effects in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Jamshidi; Firooz, Salami

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was examining the effect of human factors such as plantar friction, contact period time, and impulse on shoe-sole trituration of drop foot patients. Twenty-five patients with drop foot and twenty normal subjects were recruited in the study. The force plate and its related software's recorded human factor (coefficient of friction, ground reaction force, time of stance phase) as time dependent parameters. Dynamic coefficient of friction patterns were categorized based on their magnitude versus time when the longitudinal axis of the sole was plotted as the Y-axis and the transverse axis of the sole as X-axis during stance phase. The result of this research indicated that the average coefficient of friction among drop foot patients is 77.53 % (p value <0.05) lower than the normal subjects. Also the time of stance phase among drop foot patients is 7.56 % (p value <0.05) greater than normal subjects. There is no difference in the peaks, of vertical ground reaction force between normal and control group. The findings of this research revealed that the time of stance phase has a key role in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

  17. MACF1 gene variant rs2296172 is associated with type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Bania population group of Punjab - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microtubule Actin Cross linking Factor 1 (MACF1 gene variant rs2296172 has been associated with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. However, this variant has never been evaluated as such in Indian populations. We replicated this variant in pooled population of Northwest India and specifically in an endogamous caste group, Bania  of Punjab, India. We genotyped variant rs2296172 by Taqman allele discrimination assay in 651 T2D patients and in 568 healthy controls from Northwest India. The association of the SNP with T2D was evaluated by case - control association study design. The SNP rs2296172 of MACF1 was found to be significantly associated with T2D with p value = 0.009 in Northwest Indian population but allelic distribution was observed to be deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE. Assuming population stratification the most plausible cause, we further evaluated the samples belonging to Bania caste group from Punjab, India. We observed significant association of this SNP with T2D with OR = 1.71 (1.03-2.83 at 95%CI, (p =0.03 and sample set following HWE. MACF1 variant rs2296172 was found to be associated with T2D in endogamous ethnic population group (Bania of Punjab, India. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the pooled population group from Northwest India, underlines that Indian population sub structure exists and may have implications in association studies. Thus, ideal case - control association study design in Indian populations is to evaluate endogamous population groups rather than the conventional practice of pooling samples based on geography or linguistic affinities only.

  18. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  19. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  20. Essential fatty acids influence metabolic rate and tolerance of hypoxia in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Lund, Ivar; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    Dover sole (Solea solea, Linneaus 1758) were raised from first feeding on brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with different contents and compositions of the essential fatty acids (EFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n - 6); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3......), and their metabolic rate and tolerance to hypoxia measured prior to and following metamorphosis and settlement. Four dietary Artemia preparations were compared: (1) un-enriched; (2) enriched with a commercial EFA mixture (Easy DHA SELCO Emulsion); (3) enriched with a marine fish oil combination (VEVODAR and Incromega...... DHA) to provide a high ratio of ARA to DHA, and (4) enriched with these fish oils to provide a low ratio of ARA to DHA. Sole fed un-enriched Artemia were significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than the other dietary groups. Larvae from this group had significantly higher routine metabolic rate (RMR...

  1. Differences in survival on chronic dialysis treatment between ethnic groups in Denmark: a population-wide, national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beukel, Tessa O; Hommel, Kristine; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Heaf, James G; Siegert, Carl E H; Honig, Adriaan; Jager, Kitty J; Dekker, Friedo W; Norredam, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In Western countries, black and Asian dialysis patients experience better survival compared with white patients. The aim of this study is to compare the survival of native Danish dialysis patients with that of dialysis patients originating from other countries and to explore the association between the duration of residence in Denmark before the start of dialysis and the mortality on dialysis. We performed a population-wide national cohort study of incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark (≥18 years old) who started dialysis between 1995 and 2010. In total, 8459 patients were native Danes, 344 originated from other Western countries, 79 from North Africa or West Asia, 173 from South or South-East Asia and 54 from sub-Saharan Africa. Native Danes were more likely to die on dialysis compared with the other groups (crude incidence rates for mortality: 234, 166, 96, 110 and 53 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Native Danes had greater hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality compared with the other groups {HRs for mortality adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics: 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.54]; 2.22 [95% CI 1.51-3.23]; 1.79 [95% CI 1.41-2.27]; 2.00 [95% CI 1.10-3.57], respectively}. Compared with native Danes, adjusted HRs for mortality for Western immigrants living in Denmark for ≤10 years, >10 to ≤20 years and >20 years were 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.71), 0.56 (95% CI 0.39-0.82) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.04), respectively. For non-Western immigrants, these HRs were 0.42 (95% CI 0.27-0.67), 0.52 (95% CI 0.33-0.80) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.66), respectively. Incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark originating from countries other than Denmark have a better survival compared with native Danes. For Western immigrants, this survival benefit declines among those who have lived in Denmark longer. For non-Western immigrants, the survival benefit largely remains over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  2. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, Philippe, E-mail: radiologie@skynet.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Silva, Celso, E-mail: caras@uma.pt [Human Anatomy of Medical Course, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Gryspeerdt, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan@sgryspeerdt.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Rodrigues, António, E-mail: nucleo@nid.pt [Nucleo Imagem Diagnostica, Rua 5 De Outubro, 9000-216 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Rita, E-mail: rita@uma.pt [Department of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Teixeira, Ricardo, E-mail: j.teixeira1947@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Central Hospital of Funchal, Avenida Luís de Camões, 9004513 Funchal (Portugal); Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de, E-mail: fhgouveia@netmadeira.com [LANA, Pathology Centre, Rua João Gago, 10, 9000-071 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer.

  3. Effects of racial and ethnic group and health literacy on responses to genomic risk information in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Stafford, Jewel D; McGowan, Lucy D'Agostino; Seo, Joann; Lachance, Christina R; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have examined how individuals respond to genomic risk information for common, chronic diseases. This randomized study examined differences in responses by type of genomic information (genetic test/family history) and disease condition (diabetes/heart disease), and by race/ethnicity in a medically underserved population. 1,057 English-speaking adults completed a survey containing 1 of 4 vignettes (2-by-2 randomized design). Differences in dependent variables (i.e., interest in receiving genomic assessment, discussing with doctor or family, changing health habits) by experimental condition and race/ethnicity were examined using chi-squared tests and multivariable regression analysis. No significant differences were found in dependent variables by type of genomic information or disease condition. In multivariable models, Hispanics were more interested in receiving a genomic assessment than Whites (OR = 1.93; p literacy had greater interest than those with adequate health literacy. Blacks (OR = 1.78; p = .001) and Hispanics (OR = 1.85; p = .001) had greater interest in discussing information with family than Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 1.45; p = .04) had greater interest in discussing genomic information with a doctor than Whites. Blacks (β = -0.41; p literacy was negatively associated with number of health habits participants intended to change. Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may affect responses to genomic risk information. Additional research could examine how cognitive representations of this information differ across racial/ethnic groups. Health literacy is also critical to consider in developing approaches to communicating genomic information.

  4. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefere, Philippe; Silva, Celso; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan; Rodrigues, António; Vasconcelos, Rita; Teixeira, Ricardo; Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer

  5. Rh(III) -Catalyzed C-H Olefination of Benzoic Acids under Mild Conditions using Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quandi; Zhu, Changlei; Zhao, Huaiqing; Su, Weiping

    2016-02-04

    Phthalide skeletons have been synthesized for the first time through a Rh(III) -catalyzed C-H olefination of benzoic acids under mild conditions using oxygen as the sole oxidant. Aromatic acids bearing a variety of functional groups could react with diverse alkenes to afford the desired cyclized lactones or uncyclized alkenylarenes in moderate-to-excellent yields. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2018-04-24

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world\\'s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum group. Previous studies have shown that considerable genetic diversity exists within the group and that group members found within the PAG are significantly differentiated from those found externally, in the Gulf of Oman and wider waters. However, little is known about this genetic diversity. As an initial step towards understanding whether this diversity could represent niche adapted, selectable populations within the S. thermophilum group that may act as natural sources of stress tolerant associations to Indo-Pacific reefs, we investigate whether the diversity is structured between populations and where the location of the internal-external genetic partition lies. We use regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic psbA gene (non-coding region) from >100 S. thermophilum group-harbouring Porites spp. (P. lobata, P. lutea, and P. harrisoni) sampled across steep temperature and salinity gradients to conduct analyses of variance and create maximum parsimony networks to assess genetic structure and (dis)similarity within and between populations of S. thermophilum found within the PAG and externally in the Gulf of Oman. Our analyses resolve a sharp genetic boundary between Symbiodinium populations in the western Strait of Hormuz and identify significant genetic structure between populations with as little as 20 km between them demonstrating that differentiation between populations is likely due to factors other than limited connectivity. Further, we hypothesize that genotypes identified outside of the PAG in the Gulf of Oman existing in near-oceanic salinities, yet thermally challenging waters, putatively represent candidates for stress-tolerant symbionts that could act as natural seed populations of

  8. The Power of Interactive Groups: How Diversity of Adults Volunteering in Classroom Groups Can Promote Inclusion and Success for Children of Vulnerable Minority Ethnic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited success of grouping students by attainment in enhancing educational achievement for all, this practice is still widely followed in European schools. Aiming at identifying successful educational actions that promote high academic achievement and social inclusion and cohesion, part of the EU-sponsored Europe-wide INCLUD-ED…

  9. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambarene, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500

  10. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK

    2004-01-01

    Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern

  11. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Revathi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was

  12. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, V K

    2004-08-19

    A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them

  13. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species’ sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling...... and identify potential molecular markers that indicate a physiological response to chronic stress. Two groups of fish were reared in duplicate for 28 days, one of them weekly exposed to handling stress (including hypoxia) for 3 min, and the other left undisturbed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis enabled...... the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test, p stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12...

  14. Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł J. Zawadzki; Konrad Perkowski; Bohdan Starościak; Wanda Baltaza; Marcin Padzik; Krzysztof Pionkowski; Lidia Chomicz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups. Material and Methods The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as...

  15. Frequency of ABO blood groups and RhD factor in the female population of District Peshawar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, Rubina; Haider, Jamila; Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Akhtar, Tasleem; Aslam, Hina

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) D antigen in the females of "District" Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 429 women having pregnancy induced hypertension, admitted in the three teaching hospitals of Peshawar, over a period of one year. Blood sample was collected from each subject after taking informed consent. The antigen antibody agglutination slide test for "blood grouping (ABO)" and RhD factors was done by using IgM and IgG monoclonal reagents. The antisera used were from Biolaboratory, USA. Data was analyzed for percentage calculation. The blood group distribution was 134 (31.2%), 43 (10.1%), 116 (27%), 136 (31.7%) for blood groups A, AB, O and B, respectively. Subjects having blood group B was slightly more dominant, followed by A and O, while blood group AB was rare in these females. Blood group A Rh negative is more in female 12 (37.5%) followed by group O 10 (31.3%), group B 09 (28.1%) and group AB 01 (3.1%). Frequency of "Rh-positive blood group" is B, A, O and AB, whereas the frequency of the most common Rh-negative blood group are A, O, B and AB respectively. The determination of the frequency of blood groups in the region would not only help in blood transfusion services, but also reduce the risk of erythroblastosis foetalis in the neonates.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of Working Age Population Who Are Employed by Block Group for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the employment rate, or the percent of the population aged 16-64 who have worked in the past 12 months. The employment rate is a...

  17. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution...... relationship with the training population. Groupsmgs had both the sire and the maternal grandsire (MGS), Groupsire only had the sire, Groupmgs only had the MGS, and Groupnon had neither the sire nor the MGS in the training population. Reliability of DGV was measured as the squared correlation between DGV...... and DRP divided by the reliability of DRP for the bulls in validation data set. Unbiasedness of DGV was measured as the regression of DRP on DGV. The results indicated that DGV were more accurate and less biased for animals that were more related to the training population. In general, the Bayesian...

  18. Effect of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of knee joint load in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth G; Kean, Crystal O; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and pain in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 30 individuals (mean (SD): age, 61 (7) yr; 15 (50%) male) with radiographic and symptomatic knee OA under three walking conditions in a randomized order: i) wearing rocker-soled shoes (Skechers Shape-ups), ii) wearing non-rocker-soled shoes (ASICS walking shoes), and iii) barefoot. Peak KAM and KAM angular impulse were measured as primary indicators of knee load distribution. Secondary measures included the knee flexion moment (KFM) and knee pain during walking. Peak KAM was significantly lower when wearing the rocker-soled shoes compared with that when wearing the non-rocker-soled shoes (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.27 (-0.42 to -0.12) N·m/BW × Ht%; P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant difference in KAM impulse between rocker-soled and non-rocker-soled shoe conditions (P = 0.13). Both peak KAM and KAM impulse were significantly higher during both shoe conditions compared with those during the barefoot condition (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in KFM (P = 0.36) or knee pain (P = 0.89) between conditions. Rocker-soled shoes significantly reduced peak KAM when compared with non-rocker-soled shoes, without a concomitant change in KFM, and thus may potentially reduce medial knee joint loading. However, KAM parameters in the rocker-soled shoes remained significantly higher than those during barefoot walking. Wearing rocker-soled shoes did not have a significant immediate effect on walking pain. Further research is required to evaluate whether rocker-soled shoes can influence symptoms and progression of knee OA with prolonged wear.

  19. Faecal urobilinogen levels and pH of stools in population groups with different incidence of cancer of the colon, and their possible role in its aetiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, S L

    1982-01-01

    Mean faecal urobilinogen levels and the pH of stools were both found to be higher in subjects from a population group at high risk of developing cancer of the colon than in subjects matched for age, sex and socioeconomic status from a low-risk population group. An alkaline reaction of the colon contents seems to have a tumorigenic effect by a direct action on the mucus of the mucous cells. An acidic reaction, on the other hand, appears to be protective. These differences are dependent on the ...

  20. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Mal...

  1. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups in China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-12-03

    ABO and RhD blood groups are key factors affecting blood transfusion safety. The distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups varies globally, but limited data exist for ethnic distributions of these blood groups in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups among Chinese ethnic groups. A population-based cross-sectional study. Data on ABO groups and ethnicities were obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) with participants from 220 counties of 31 provinces in China PARTICIPANTS: There were 3 832 034 participants aged 21-49 years who took part in the NFPHEP from January 2010 to December 2012 and were included in this study. The proportion of ABO and RhD blood groups among different ethnic groups was calculated. ABO and RhD blood distribution was significantly different among nine ethnic groups (Pgroups, the Yi group had more A phenotypes (34.0%), and the Manchu (33.7%) and Mongolian (33.3%) ethnic groups had more B phenotypes. The Zhuang group had the greatest proportion of O phenotypes (41.8%), followed by the Miao group (37.7%). AB phenotypes were more frequent in the Uygur ethnic group (10.6%) but lower in the Zhuang group (5.5%). Meanwhile, RhD negativity (RhD-) was greater in the Uygur group (3.3%) than in the Mongolian (0.3%) and Manchu ethnic groups (0.4%). O RhD- blood groups were more frequent in the Uygur group (0.8%) than in the other ethnic groups (0.1%-0.4%, Pblood phenotypes vary across different ethnic groups in China. The diversity in the distribution of the ABO and RhD blood groups in different ethnic groups should be considered when developing rational and evidence-based strategies for blood collection and management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Susceptibility of Different Populations of Nilaparvata lugens from Major Rice Growing Areas of Karnataka, India to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. BASANTH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to insecticides was investigated by collecting field populations of brown planthopper from different locations of southern Karnataka, India (Gangavati, Kathalagere, Kollegala, Soraba and Mandya. All the field populations differed in their susceptibility to insecticides. In general, Soraba and Mandya populations were more susceptible to insecticides compared to Gangavati and Kathalagere populations. The resistance ratios varied greatly among the populations viz., chlorpyriphos (1.13- to 16.82-fold, imidacloprid (0.53- to 13.50-fold, acephate (1.34- to 5.32-fold, fipronil (1.13- to 4.06-fold, thiamethoxam (1.01- to 2.19-fold, clothianidin (1.92- to 4.86-fold, dinotefuran (0.82- to 2.22-fold, buprofezin (1.06- to 5.43-fold and carbofuran (0.41- to 2.17-fold. The populations from Gangavati, Kathalagere and Kollegala exhibited higher resistance to some of the old insecticides and low resistance to new molecules.

  3. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  4. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  5. Characterizing the genetic differences between two distinct migrant groups from Indo-European and Dravidian speaking populations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Liu, Xuanyao; Pillai, Esakimuthu Nisha; Chen, Peng; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-07-22

    India is home to many ethnically and linguistically diverse populations. It is hypothesized that history of invasions by people from Persia and Central Asia, who are referred as Aryans in Hindu Holy Scriptures, had a defining role in shaping the Indian population canvas. A shift in spoken languages from Dravidian languages to Indo-European languages around 1500 B.C. is central to the Aryan Invasion Theory. Here we investigate the genetic differences between two sub-populations of India consisting of: (1) The Indo-European language speaking Gujarati Indians with genome-wide data from the International HapMap Project; and (2) the Dravidian language speaking Tamil Indians with genome-wide data from the Singapore Genome Variation Project. We implemented three population genetics measures to identify genomic regions that are significantly differentiated between the two Indian populations originating from the north and south of India. These measures singled out genomic regions with: (i) SNPs exhibiting significant variation in allele frequencies in the two Indian populations; and (ii) differential signals of positive natural selection as quantified by the integrated haplotype score (iHS) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH). One of the regions that emerged spans the SLC24A5 gene that has been functionally shown to affect skin pigmentation, with a higher degree of genetic sharing between Gujarati Indians and Europeans. Our finding points to a gene-flow from Europe to north India that provides an explanation for the lighter skin tones present in North Indians in comparison to South Indians.

  6. THE TRIAL OF FOUNDING THE DEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE SIZE OF HOOF SOLE AND BIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF HUCUL HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ŁUSZCZYŃSKI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hoofs are an important part of horse body and significantly influence its usability.According to irregular weight of horse limbs, fore-hoofs and hind-hoofs differ withthe shape, the angle of fore-wall inclination and size but they should be proportionalto horse body size. The objective of this study was the trial of founding the dependencebetween the size sole surface of fore- and hind-hoofs and biometric measurementsof Hucul horses. Contours of left fore- and hind-hoof were collected from 50Hucul horses from Gładyszów Stud (7 stallions and 43 mares. The contours werescanned in 1:1 scale and using the AutoCad computer program the surface and circumferenceof hoof sole were evaluated. At the same time the biometrical measurementswere taken from mentioned horses – height at withers, girth and cannon circumferences.In studied population the surface and circumference of fore-hoofs weresignificantly higher than of hind-hoofs. Biometrical measurements and indexescounted highly significantly and significantly affected the surface and circumferenceof Hucul horse hoofs. Horses with higher height at withers and higher girth capacitywere characterized by significantly higher surface and circumference of hind-hoofsthan in horses with lower height. Highly significantly higher sole surface and circumferenceof fore-hoofs was shown in horses with higher cannon circumference.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in very important pharmacogenomic variants in the Zhuang ethnic group of Southwestern China: A cohort study in the Zhuang population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Chenghao; Yan, Mengdan; Niu, Fanglin; Chen, Peng; Li, Bin; Jin, Tianbo

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics, the study of the role of genetics in drug response, has recently become a focal point of research. Previous studies showed that genes associated with drug detoxification vary among different populations. However, pharmacogenomic information of the Zhuang ethnic group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to screen members of the Zhuang ethnicity in southwestern China for genotype frequencies of very important pharmacogenomic (VIP) variants and to determine the differences between the Zhuang ethnicity and other human populations.We genotyped 80 variants of VIP genes in 100 unrelated healthy Zhuang adults from the Yunnan province of China. Next, we analyzed the genotyping data with Structure and F-statistics (Fst).We compared our data with those of other populations using the HapMap data set, and observed that the frequency distribution of Zhuang population in Yunnan closely resembles that of JPT. Furthermore, population structure and Fst analysis showed that the Zhuang population is closely related to the Shaanxi Han population with respect to genetic background.Our study supplements existing information on Zhuang population pharmacogenomics and provides an extensive overview for developing personalized medicine.

  8. STR-based genetic structure of the Berber population of Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and its relationships to various ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nadir; Sahnoune, Mohamed; Chikhi, Lounes; Atmani, Djebbar

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations have been described for decades. However, North Africa has received little attention and Algeria, in particular, is poorly studied, Here we genotyped a Berber-speaking population from Algeria using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA from the commercially available AmpF/STR Identifiler kit. Altogether 150 unrelated North Algerian individuals were sampled across 10 administrative regions or towns from the Bejaia Wilaya (administrative district). We found that all of the STR loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, after Bonferroni correction and that the Berber-speaking population of Bejaia presented a high level of observed heterozygosity for the 15 STR system (>0.7). Genetic parameters of forensic interest such as combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) showed values higher than 0.999, suggesting that this set of STRs can be used for forensic studies. Our results were also compared to those published for 42 other human populations analyzed with the same set. We found that the Bejaia sample clustered with several North African populations but that some geographically close populations, including the Berber-speaking Mozabite from Algeria were closer to Near-Eastern populations. While we were able to detect some genetic structure among samples, we found that it was not correlated to language (Berber-speaking versus Arab-speaking) or to geography (east versus west). In other words, no significant genetic differences were found between the Berber-speaking and the Arab-speaking populations of North Africa. The genetic closeness of European, North African and Near-Eastern populations suggest that North Africa should be integrated in models aiming at reconstructing the demographic history of Europe. Similarly, the genetic proximity with sub-Saharan Africa is

  9. The population genetics of Quechuas, the largest native South American group: autosomal sequences, SNPs, and microsatellites evidence high level of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Chevitarese, Juliana; Lemos, Livia; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Fagundes, Nelson J; Bonatto, Sandro L; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Elucidating the pattern of genetic diversity for non-European populations is necessary to make the benefits of human genetics research available to individuals from these groups. In the era of large human genomic initiatives, Native American populations have been neglected, in particular, the Quechua, the largest South Amerindian group settled along the Andes. We characterized the genetic diversity of a Quechua population in a global setting, using autosomal noncoding sequences (nine unlinked loci for a total of 16 kb), 351 unlinked SNPs and 678 microsatellites and tested predictions of the model of the evolution of Native Americans proposed by (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496). European admixture is Quechua or Melanesian populations, which is concordant with the African origin of modern humans and the fact that South America was the last part of the world to be peopled. The diversity in the Quechua population is comparable with that of Eurasian populations, and the allele frequency spectrum based on resequencing data does not reflect a reduction in the proportion of rare alleles. Thus, the Quechua population is a large reservoir of common and rare genetic variants of South Amerindians. These results are consistent with and complement our evolutionary model of South Amerindians (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496), proposed based on Y-chromosome data, which predicts high genomic diversity due to the high level of gene flow between Andean populations and their long-term effective population size. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. ESCAP/POPIN Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Network: report on the meeting held from 20 to 23 June 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The Expert Working Group on the Development of Population Information Centers and Networks met in June 1984 to consider the organizational and technical aspects of the development of national population information centers in the countries in the Bangkok region, as well as national, regional and global networking. Representatives from China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam participated in the meeting. POPIN was represented by its coordinator. Among the major issues considered by the Working Group were the role and functions of population information centers with special reference to the positioning of centers in national population programs user-oriented products to facilitate the utilization of research findings for policy formulation and program implementation, and the possible approaches to be developed by population centers in facilitating in-country networking to extend population information services beyond capital cities to the local level. The mandate and responsibilities of national population information centers should be explicitly stated by the highest authority. Centers should contribute to the national population programs by collecting, processing and disseminating population information effectively. Greater flexibility in performing activities should be given to centers. Training of staff should be expanded; external funding should be continued; and research and evaluation techniques should be developed. Surveys of users and their needs should be periodically undertaken to determine needs. Systematic user education programs should be provided and policy makers should be informed of current research findings and policy implications. Automation of bibliographic information should be undertaken. The Asia-Pacific POPIN Newsletter produced by ESCAP should be institutionalized as a channel of information centers in the region. ESCAP should take the initiative in establishing a South Asian

  11. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. VI: Factors associated with fatigue within 5 years of criteria diagnosis. LUMINA Study Group. LUpus in MInority populations: NAture vs Nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana-Nacach, A; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Friedman, A W; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D; Alarcón, G S

    2000-01-01

    To determine the frequency, degree and associated features of fatigue among Hispanic (H), African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) patients with recent onset (NAture vs Nurture) cohort were studied. Fatigue [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)] was defined as present if FSS score > or = 3.0. Variables from functional, clinical, sociodemographic, health behaviors, behavioral and psychological and immunogenetics domains were ascertained at study entry. Associations were examined using regression models. Eighty-six percent (85.7%) of patients reported having fatigue (82.6% H; 85.5% AA; 88.7% C); median FSS score, 5.3. Factors from the psychological and clinical domains were primarily associated with FSS; immunogenetic (HLA Class II phenotypes) features were not. Increased fatigue was strongly associated with decreasing function, both physical and mental. Variables associated with significantly greater degree of fatigue at baseline in the multivariable stepwise model in order of decreasing additional partial R2 explained included: abnormal illness-related behaviors, older age, higher self-reported pain, greater degree of helplessness, greater disease activity, Caucasian race, and lacking health insurance (model R2 = 37%). Fatigue is one of the most prevalent clinical manifestations of SLE across all ethnic groups. The perception of fatigue severity in SLE may be multifactorial in origin, including psychosocial factors and disease activity. If these prove causal, knowledge of their contribution may suggest therapeutic and/or behavioral interventions, which could ameliorate this pervasive and often incapacitating symptom of SLE.

  12. Comparative Effect of Sole Forage and Mixed Concentrate-Forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical (P>0.05) difference in average intake of forage between the two treatment groups. Economically, Treatment 1 proves to be better for the enhancement of body weight in growing rabbits than Treatment 2. Key words: Weaner rabbits,Poultry grower mesh, Tridax procumbens, Feed intake,Body weight ...

  13. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  14. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henderson, L. [Univ. of Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  15. Multi-Population Invariance with Dichotomous Measures: Combining Multi-Group and MIMIC Methodologies in Evaluating the General Aptitude Test in the Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al-harbi, Khaleel A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of measurement invariance by simultaneously estimating invariance across multiple populations in the dichotomous instrument case using multi-group confirmatory factor analytic and multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) methodologies. Using the Arabic version of the General Aptitude Test…

  16. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  17. Assessment of relationship of ABO blood groups among tobacco induced oral cancer patients of Kanpur Population, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Katiyar, Anuradha; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Pandey, Amit

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of association between ABO blood groups and malignancy was first discussed by Anderson DE & Haas C. The association between blood group and oral cancer is least explored and hence this study was undertaken to evaluate relationship of ABO blood groups with an increased risk for oral cancer. The present study was conducted at various cancer hospitals in Kanpur. The study samples comprised 100 oral cancer patients and 50 controls with tobacco chewing habit. The information regarding the socio demographic profile, history on tobacco habits, type of oral cancer and ABO blood group profile was obtained from the case sheets of the patients. The frequency of squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher in men (78%) than women (22%) and mostly found in the age range of 45-65 years and also consuming chewing type of tobacco. It was found that out of 100 patients, 53 were of blood group B+ve, 28 of O +ve, 16 of A+ve and 3 had the blood group AB+ve. The high potential risk of developing OSCC was more in B+ve blood group (1.96 times), and relative frequency (%) in blood group O+ve (1.64 times) than in the control group Among locations of oral cancers, squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (25%) and buccal mucosa (15%) was more common in B+ve and Carcinoma of floor of mouth (11%) was more common in O+ve blood group cases. It was found that people with blood group B+ve, followed by O+ve had increased risk of developing OSCC with most prevalent being Well Differentiated OSCC as compared to people of other blood groups. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility against different types of oral cancers. The people with blood group B+ve and O+ve having tobacco chewing habits can be appraised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  18. Reasons for seeking dental care in a Malaysian urban adult population: an analysis by sex and ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N; Abdul Razak, I

    1988-04-01

    Different groups of people will view and use modern dental services differently. This is determined by their traditional beliefs and cultural background. The aim of this study is to identify variations in utilization among adults in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Dental records of 500 adults attending the University dental center were randomly selected and analyzed by sex and ethnic group. Results from this pilot study clearly indicate that different ethnic groups tend to use certain types of services more than others. Similarly, there is evidence of variation in the type of dental service preferred between males and females. The implications of these findings for dental health educators, program planners and further research is emphasized in order to promote a more positive pattern of utilization among the various ethnic groups.

  19. The impact of sexually abstaining groups on persistence of sexually transmitted infections in populations with ephemeral pair bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maxin, D.; Berec, Luděk; Covello, M.; Jessee, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 292, - (2012), s. 1-10 ISSN 0022-5193 Grant - others:NSF Grant(US) DMS-0851721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ephemeral pair bond * population dynamics * promiscuous mating system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2012

  20. POPIN Working Group on Dissemination of Population Information: Report on the meeting held from 2 to 4 April 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The objectives of this meeting were: to analyze the general dissemination strategy and functions of POPIN member organizations and assess the methods currently employed to identify users; to select publications or other information output and evaluate how they are being distributed and how procedures for the selective dissemination of information are developed; to develop guidelines for determining the potential audience and reader's interests; to discuss the methodology for maintaining a register of readers' interest; to develop guidelines for establishing linds with key press and broadcasting agencies to ensure rapid dissemination of information; to dientify media and organizations currently involved in the dissemination of population information; to document experience and provide recommendations for the utilization of innovative approaches to serve audiences; and to explore ways and means to meet the special needs of policy makers. Problem areas in population information dissemination were identified at the meeting as well as priority areas in meeting speical information needs of policy makers. Collection of information for dissemination is difficult, costly and time-consuming; there is a shortage of staff trained in the repackaging and dissemination of population information; the direct use of the mass media for information dissemination is still very limited; and financial resources are limited. Priority areas include: compilation of a calendar of events or meetings; conducting media surveys and inventories of population infromation centers and their services and compilation of results; resource development through product marketing and preparation of resource catalogues; and preparation of executive summaries highlighting policy implications to facilitate policy making. Recommendations include: promotion of training and technical assistance in population information activities by the POPIN Coordinating Unit; encouraging member organizations with relevant

  1. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bil, Janneke P.; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B.; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the

  2. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... valuable component of its deliberations in preparing to implement this law, which includes contracting with... Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES...

  3. Growth performances of juvenile sole Solea solea under environmental constraints of embayed nursery areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffargue, P.; Lagardere, F.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Fillon, A.; Amara, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tidal embayments in the Bay of Biscay (France) host nursery grounds where common sole, Solea solea, is the most abundant flatfish species. This study aimed to appraise the way those habitats function as nurseries through juvenile sole's responses in somatic growth and condition (Fulton's K) during

  4. 78 FR 51061 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 32 CFR Part 199 [DoD-2010-HA-0072] RIN 0720-AB41 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals; Correction... TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access...

  5. Variation in behaviour and growth of common sole : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas Muñoz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Common sole (Solea solea) has a high potential for commercial aquaculture because of its consumer popularity and high market values in Europe. However, a major economic constraint for the culture of sole is its slow and variable growth. The aim of this thesis was to investigate: 1) the

  6. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qun; Zhuang, Yunlong; Chen, Yuanfeng

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have reported that the ABO gene can affect circulating expression levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in Caucasians. However, several factors may affect the association, including the distribution and variations of the ABO gene, ethnic diversity and the inflammatory response status. The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue in Asian subjects of various blood groups. A total of 800 blood samples were randomly selected from healthy blood donors. The ABO blood groups were examined using standard serological tests, and ABO genotypes of group A and group AB specimens were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were detected by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In healthy Chinese individuals, blood group A was detected to be significantly associated with lower circulating expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin, compared with group O. Individuals with ≥1 A1 allele had significantly lower expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin compared with all other ABO groups. The data indicate the significant association of ABO blood group antigens with sICAM-1 and sP-selectin expression levels in a healthy Chinese population, independent of the specific variations and distributions of ABO blood groups among ethnic populations. This result provides evidence for the previously unidentified role of ABO blood group antigens in the regulation of the inflammatory adhesion process. Accordingly, it can be proposed that ABO blood groups may require consideration when soluble adhesion molecules are identified as predictors for cardiovascular disease.

  8. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  9. Frequency of ABO blood groups and RhD factor in the female population of District Peshawar

    OpenAIRE

    Nazli, Rubina; Haider, Jamila; Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Akhtar, Tasleem; Aslam, Hina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) D antigen in the females of “District” Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 429 women having pregnancy induced hypertension, admitted in the three teaching hospitals of Peshawar, over a period of one year. Blood sample was collected from each subject after taking informed consent. The antigen antibody agglutination slide test for “blood grouping (ABO)” and ...

  10. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Brief communication genotyping of Burkholderia pseudomallei revealed high genetic variability among isolates from a single population group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueter, Abdelrahman Mohammad; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Yean, Chan Yean; Harun, Azian

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil dwelling Gram-negative bacteria predominates in Southeast Asia zone and the tropical part of Australia. Genetic diversity has been explored among various populations and environments worldwide. To date, little data is available on MLST profiling of clinical B. pseudomallei isolates in peninsular Malaysia. In this brief report, thirteen culture positive B. pseudomallei cases collected from a single population of Terengganu state in the Western Peninsular Malaysia and were confirmed by In-house TTS1-PCR. Isolates were subjected for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to explore their genotypic diversity and to investigate for possible clonal clustering of a certain sequence type. Patient's clinical information was examined to investigate for clinical correlation among the different genotypes. In spite of small sample set, MLST results indicated predictive results; considerable genotypic diversity, predominance and novelty among B. pseudomallei collected over a single geographically-located population in Malaysia. Massive genotypic heterogeneity was observed; 8 different sequence types with predominance of sequence type 54 and discovery of two novel sequence types. However, no clear pathogenomic or organ tropism clonal relationships were predicted.

  12. Perceptions of problem-based learning (PBL) group effectiveness in a socially-culturally diverse medical student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaram, V S; Dolmans, D H J M; Lachman, N; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2008-07-01

    A key aspect of the success of a PBL curriculum is the effective implementation of its small group tutorials. Diversity among students participating in tutorials may affect the effectiveness of the tutorials and may require different implementation strategies. To determine how students from diverse backgrounds perceive the effectiveness of the processes and content of the PBL tutorials. This study also aims to explore the relationship between students' perceptions of their PBL tutorials and their gender, age, language, prior educational training, and secondary schooling. Data were survey results from 244 first-year student-respondents at the Nelson Mandela School of Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to verify scale constructs in the questionnaire. Relationships between independent and dependent variables were investigated in an analysis of variance. The average scores for the items measured varied between 3.3 and 3.8 (scale value 1 indicated negative regard and 5 indicated positive regard). Among process measures, approximately two-thirds of students felt that learning in a group was neither frustrating nor stressful and that they enjoyed learning how to work with students from different social and cultural backgrounds. Among content measures, 80% of the students felt that they learned to work successfully with students from different social and cultural groups and 77% felt that they benefited from the input of other group members. Mean ratings on these measures did not vary with students' gender, age, first language, prior educational training, and the types of schools they had previously attended. Medical students of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, regardless of their backgrounds, generally have positive perceptions of small group learning. These findings support previous studies in highlighting the role that small group tutorials can play in overcoming cultural barriers and promoting unity and

  13. ESCAP/POPIN Expert Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Networks, 20-23 June 1984, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    An overview of current population information programs at the regional, national, and global level was presented at a meeting of the Expert Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Networks. On the global level, the decentralized Population Information Network (POPIN) was established, consisting of population libraries, clearinghouses, information systems, and documentation centers. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Regional Population Information Centre (PIC) has actively promoted the standardization of methodologies for the collection and processing of data, the use of compatible terminology, adoption of classification systems, computer-assisted data and information handling, and improved programs of publication and infomration dissemination, within and among national centers. Among the national PICs, 83% are attached to the primary national family planning/fertility control unit and 17% are attached to demographic data, research, and analysis units. Lack of access to specialized information handling equipment such as microcomputers, word processors, and computer terminals remains a problem for PICs. Recommendations were made by the Expert Working Group to improve the functions of PICs: 1) the mandate and resoponsibilities of the PIC should be explicilty stated; 2) PICs should collect, process, and disseminate population information in the most effective format to workers in the population feild; 3) PICs should be given flexibility in the performance of activitites by their governing bodies; 4) short-term training should be provided in computerization and dissemination of information; 5) research and evaluation mechanisms for PIC activities should be developed; 6) PIC staff should prepare policy briefs for decision makers; 7) access to parent organizations should be given to nongovernment PICs; 8) study tours to foreign PICs should be organized for PIC staff; and 9) on-the-job training in indexing and

  14. The individual tolerance concept is not the sole explanation for the probit dose-effect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.

    2000-02-01

    Predominant methods for analyzing dose- or concentration-effect data (i.e., probit analysis) are based on the concept of individual tolerance or individual effective dose (IED, the smallest characteristic dose needed to kill an individual). An alternative explanation (stochasticity hypothesis) is that individuals do not have unique tolerances: death results from stochastic processes occurring similarly in all individuals. These opposing hypotheses were tested with two types of experiments. First, time to stupefaction (TTS) was measured for zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) exposed to benzocaine. The same 40 fish were exposed during five trials to test if the same order for TTS was maintained among trials. The IED hypothesis was supported with a minor stochastic component being present. Second, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to sublethal or lethal NaCl concentrations until a large portion of the lethally exposed fish died. After sufficient time for recovery, fish sublethally exposed and fish surviving lethal exposure were exposed simultaneously to lethal NaCl concentrations. No statistically significant effect was found of previous exposure on survival time but a large stochastic component to the survival dynamics was obvious. Repetition of this second type of test with pentachlorophenol also provided no support for the IED hypothesis. The authors conclude that neither hypothesis alone was the sole or dominant explanation for the lognormal (probit) model. Determination of the correct explanation (IED or stochastic) or the relative contributions of each is crucial to predicting consequences to populations after repeated or chronic exposures to any particular toxicant.

  15. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  16. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Fedotov, K.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  17. Autosomal InDel polymorphisms for population genetic structure and differentiation analysis of Chinese Kazak ethnic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tingting; Chen, Yahao; Guo, Yuxin; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xiaoye; Xie, Tong; Mu, Yuling; Dong, Qian; Wen, Shaoqing; Zhou, Boyan; Zhang, Li; Shen, Chunmei; Zhu, Bofeng

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversities of the Chinese Kazak ethnic group on the basis of 30 well-chosen autosomal insertion and deletion loci and explored the genetic relationships between Kazak and 23 reference groups. We detected the level of the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.3605 at HLD39 locus to 0.5000 at HLD136 locus and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.3548 at HLD39 locus to 0.5283 at HLD136 locus. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion for all 30 loci in the studied Kazak group were 0.999999999999128 and 0.9945, respectively. The dataset generated in this study indicated the panel of 30 InDels was highly efficient in forensic individual identifcation but may not have enough power in paternity cases. The results of the interpopulation differentiations, PCA plots, phylogenetic trees and STRUCTURE analyses showed a close genetic affiliation between the Kazak and Uigur group. PMID:28915619

  18. Hemocromatosis gene (HFE) mutations in patients with type 2 diabetes and their control group in an Iranian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, F.; Esmaeilzadeh, A.; Zali, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the frequency of 2 different forms of hemochromatosis HFE gene mutations c282y and H63D mutations in a normal population in comparison with type 2 diabetic patients. This case control study was undertaken in Zanjan Diabetic Care Center, Zanjan, western Tehran, in 2005. Two hundred and two individuals were included in this study: 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM patients and 101 age and gender-matched controls. The patients were examined for mutations in the HFE gene. Nucleotide 845 C282Y and 187 H63D alleles were amplified by polymerase chain reaction PCR with lymphocyte deoxyribonucleic acid. The PCR products were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion. Chi-square students test and Fisher's exact tests were used for comparison and odds ratio was calculated. Two hundred and two individuals were studied. The frequency of wild /C28Y alleles was 68.3/31.7% in diabetics p=0.08 and 73.4/26.3% in control subjects p=0.08. The distribution of genotypes was not statistically different. Based on our data, HFE mutations were not found in excess in patients with T2DM and there was no evidence that a population-based search for an excess of these alleles in type 2 diabetes was indicated. (author)

  19. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of Working Age Population Who Are Employed by Block Group for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the employment rate, or the percent of the population aged 16-64 who have worked in the past 12 months. The employment rate is a measure of the percent of the working-age population who are employed. It is an indicator of the prevalence of unemployment, which is often used to assess labor market conditions by economists. It is a widely used metric to evaluate the sustainable development of communities (NRC, 2011, UNECE, 2009). This dataset is based on the American Community Survey 5-year data for 2008-2012. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  1. Chronic disease among Seventh-day Adventists, a low-risk group. Rationale, methodology, and description of the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, W L; Mills, P K; Phillips, R L; Andress, M; Fraser, G E

    1989-08-01

    The Adventist Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 34,198 non-Hispanic white Seventh-day Adventists (13,857 men; 20,341 women, age 25-100 years) followed for 6 years (1977-1982). Within this population, 55.2% were lacto-ovovegetarian (consumed meat, poultry, or fish less than one time per week with no restrictions as to egg or dairy product consumption) in 1976 and most abstained from alcohol, tobacco, and pork products. Baseline data included demographic variables, information on current and past dietary habits, exercise patterns, use of prescription drugs, use of alcohol and tobacco, measures of religiosity, occupation and residential histories, anthropometric data, and menstrual and reproductive histories. Nonfatal case ascertainment was completed through review of self-reported hospitalizations obtained from annual self-administered mailed questionnaires and through computerized record linkage with two California population-based tumor registries. Fatal case ascertainment was completed via record linkage with computerized California state death certificate files, the National Death Index, and individual follow-up. During the 6 years of follow-up, 52.8% of the 34,198 study subjects reported at least one hospitalization. A total of 20,702 medical charts were reviewed for cancer and cardiovascular disease incidence and 1406 incident cancer cases and 2716 deaths from all causes were identified after baseline data collection.

  2. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  3. Dominance behaviour in a non-aggressive flatfish, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and brain mRNA abundance of selected transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Fatsini

    Full Text Available Dominance is defined as the preferential access to limited resources. The present study aimed to characterise dominance in a non-aggressive flatfish species, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis by 1 identifying dominance categories and associated behaviours and 2 linking dominance categories (dominant and subordinate with the abundance of selected mRNA transcripts in the brain. Early juveniles (n = 74, 37 pairs were subjected to a dyadic dominance test, related to feeding, and once behavioural phenotypes had been described the abundance of ten selected mRNAs related to dominance and aggressiveness was measured in the brain. Late juveniles were subjected to two dyadic dominance tests (n = 34, 17 pairs, related to feeding and territoriality and one group test (n = 24, 4 groups of 6 fish. Sole feeding first were categorized as dominant and sole feeding second or not feeding as subordinate. Three social behaviours (i. "Resting the head" on another fish, ii. "Approaching" another fish, iii. "Swimming above another" fish were associated with dominance of feeding. Two other variables (i. Total time occupying the preferred area during the last 2 hours of the 24 h test, ii. Organisms occupying the preferred area when the test ended were representative of dominance in the place preference test. In all tests, dominant fish compared to subordinate fish displayed a significantly higher number of the behaviours "Rest the head" and "Approaches". Moreover, dominant sole dominated the sand at the end of the test, and in the group test dominated the area close to the feed delivery point before feed was delivered. The mRNA abundance of the selected mRNAs related to neurogenesis (nrd2 and neuroplasticity (c-fos in dominant sole compared to subordinate were significantly different. This is the first study to characterise dominance categories with associated behaviours and mRNA abundance in Senegalese sole and provides tools to study dominance related problems in

  4. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION DANGER EXPERIENCE AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF THE POPULATION FROM CONTAMINATED AREAS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of social-psychological consequences of radiation danger experience among different age groups of the population from contaminated areas of Russia (Oryol, Kaluga, Bryansk, Tula areas among whom the unfavorable emotional and personal changes were registered due to subjective features of perception of radiation threat have been represented (“risk” group. Experimental sample of the research consisted of 1 544 people from Russia. One of the main results of this research is establishment of the fact that adverse emotional and personal changes in connection with subjective features of perception of radiation threat were revealed for 53,9% of respondents of advanced age and more than 20% of respondents of middle and young age from contaminated areas of Russia. Among the respondents from contaminated areas of Belarus, about a third surveyed from each age group get to “risk” group.

  6. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Laure; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years), 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07-1.32), French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57), and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45). Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82) than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01). HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups of PLWHIV in France including MSM and heterosexual

  7. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Tron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. METHODS: We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. RESULTS: Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years, 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR: 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.07-1.32, French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57, and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45. Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82 than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02 and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01. HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups

  8. Theoretical methodical aspects of forming skills of swimming among the different groups of population in the process of physical education and sport taking into account gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchar А.І.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose: to expose theoretical and practical bases of effective methods of forming of skills of swimming at the different groups of population taking into account the gender differences of student in the process of physical education and sport. The dominant aspects of forming skills of swimming for different age-dependent groups are set. The negative phenomena of organizational character, which does not allow in good time and reliably to form for a man vitally important skills of safe movement on water, are selected. 5 basic aspects of forming of skills are recommended swimming which characterize high-quality realization of educational in detail, professionally-applied, health-improvement-hygienical, medical prophylactic and sporting-pedagogical influences of facilities of swimming on a population.

  9. Physical fitness examination in a selected group of the North-Moravian industrial population. I: Results in coke plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirac, Z

    1974-01-01

    Basic spirographic and spiroergometric examinations, according to Hollman, were performed on 269 men, aged 20-60 years, who had been working at coke-oven batteries for 1, 16 and more years. There were no significant differences in the spirographic and spiroergometric indicators of cardiopulmonary efficiency in relation to the length of exposure within the age groups. Maximum oxygen uptake in younger men (20-29 years) was identical, in older age groups it was below average according to Hollmann. This phenomenon can be explained by a combined effect of a low physical load and the heat load on the cardiovascular system. Values were compared with those of Shepard. The working and sanitary conditions and investigation methods are described in detail.

  10. Cervical Proprioception in a Young Population Who Spend Long Periods on Mobile Devices: A 2-Group Comparative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Andrew; Reid, Susan A

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if young people with insidious-onset neck pain who spend long periods on mobile electronic devices (known as "text neck") have impaired cervical proprioception and if this is related to time on devices. A 2-group comparative observational study was conducted at an Australian university. Twenty-two participants with text neck and 22 asymptomatic controls, all of whom were 18 to 35 years old and spent ≥4 hours per day on unsupported electronic devices, were assessed using the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test. Differences between groups were calculated using independent sample t-tests, and correlations between neck pain intensity, time on devices, and HRA test were performed using Pearson's bivariate analysis. During cervical flexion, those with text neck (n = 22, mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 21 ± 4 years, 59% female) had a 3.9° (SD: 1.4°) repositioning error, and the control group (n = 22, 20 ± 1 years, 68% female) had a 2.9° (SD: 1.2°) error. The mean difference was 1° (95% confidence interval: 0-2, P = .02). For other cervical movements, there was no difference between groups. There was a moderately significant correlation (P ≤ .05) between time spent on electronic devices and cervical pain intensity and between cervical pain intensity and HRA during flexion. The participants with text neck had a greater proprioceptive error during cervical flexion compared with controls. This could be related to neck pain and time spent on electronic devices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Differential mental health impact of cancer across racial/ethnic groups: findings from a population-based study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E

    2014-09-08

    Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.

  12. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  13. Relative frequencies of DRB1*11 alleles and their DRB3 associations in five major population groups in a United States bone marrow registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T F; Huang, A Y; Pappas, A; Slack, R; Ng, J; Hartzman, R J; Hurley, C K

    2000-08-01

    One hundred sixty-one individuals from each of five US population groups, Caucasians (CAU), African Americans (AFA), Asians/Pacific Islanders (API), Hispanics (HIS), and Native Americans (NAT), were randomly selected from a volunteer bone marrow registry database consisting of 14,452 HLA-DRB1*11 positive individuals. This sampling provided at least an 80% probability of detecting a rare allele that occurred at 1% in the DRB1*11 positive population. Samples were typed for DRB1*11 alleles by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe typing (PCR-SSOP). A total of 10 DRB1*11 alleles out of 27 possible alleles were detected. The distribution and diversity of DRB1*11 alleles varied among populations although DRB1*1101 was the predominant DRB1*11 allele in all populations. Caucasians were the least diversified; only four common alleles (DRB1*1101-*1104) were observed. As well as the four common alleles, other groups also carried one or two other less frequent alleles including DRB1*1105 (API), *1106 (API), *1110 (AFA), *1114 (HIS), *1115 (NAT), and *1117 (AFA). A subset (418) of these individuals were also typed for DRB3 alleles. Most (97.6%) showed a strong association of DRB1*11 with DRB3*0202.

  14. H-index is important for postural control for people with impaired foot sole sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Zhang

    Full Text Available People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN, especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers reflex loop (SAF, might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers reflex loop (LAF for postural control.To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation.Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP and passive (PAP ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS, average sway velocity (VAVG and area (A95 during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and timed up-and-go duration (TUG.Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05 and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05, greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .05 and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5 cm2, P < .05, shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2 m, P < .05, and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3 s, P < .05. Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05. Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05 and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05 performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed.VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering

  15. Place matters: A longitudinal analysis measuring the association between neighbourhood walkability and walking by age group and population center size in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania; Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Kestens, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of walkability on walking behaviour and assessed whether associations varied according to life-stage and population center (PC) size. Walkability scores were obtained for the six-digit postal codes of residential neighbourhoods of 11,200 Canadians, who participated in biennial assessments of the National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2010. Participants were stratified by age-group. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of cumulative exposure to neighborhood walkability on utilitarian and exercise walking by PC size and life-stage. Associations of neighbourhood walkability with utilitarian and exercise walking varied according to age-group and PC size. Exposure to high walkable neighborhoods was associated with utilitarian walking in younger and older adults in all PC sizes, except for older adults living in a medium PC. Living in a highly walkable neighborhood in a large PC was associated with walking for exercise in younger (OR: 1.42; 95%CI: 1.20-1.67) and older adults (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.51-2.89). Living in highly walkable neighbourhood in a medium PC was associated with walking for exercise in older adults (OR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.15-2.29). These results emphasize the need to consider the size and nature of every community, and the age-group of a population when implementing strategies to promote walking.

  16. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  17. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P < 0.0005). It may be of value to consider additional vaccination efforts to protect older adults at higher risk for exposure against diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Energy contribution of NOVA food groups and sociodemographic determinants of ultra-processed food consumption in the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrón-Ponce, Joaquín A; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Batis, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    To identify the energy contributions of NOVA food groups in the Mexican diet and the associations between individual sociodemographic characteristics and the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods (UPF). We classified foods and beverages reported in a 24 h recall according to the NOVA food framework into: (i) unprocessed or minimally processed foods; (ii) processed culinary ingredients; (iii) processed foods; and (iv) UPF. We estimated the energy contribution of each food group and ran a multiple linear regression to identify the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and UPF energy contribution. Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Individuals ≥1 years old (n 10 087). Unprocessed or minimally processed foods had the highest dietary energy contribution (54·0 % of energy), followed by UPF (29·8 %), processed culinary ingredients (10·2 %) and processed foods (6·0 %). The energy contribution of UPF was higher in: pre-school-aged children v. other age groups (3·8 to 12·5 percentage points difference (pp)); urban areas v. rural (5·6 pp); the Central and North regions v. the South (2·7 and 8·4 pp, respectively); medium and high socio-economic status v. low (4·5 pp, in both); and with higher head of household educational level v. without education (3·4 to 7·8 pp). In 2012, about 30 % of energy in the Mexican diet came from UPF. Our results showed that younger ages, urbanization, living in the North region, high socio-economic status and high head of household educational level are sociodemographic factors related to higher consumption of UPF in Mexico.

  19. Reciprocal Genetics: Identifying QTL for General and Specific Combining Abilities in Hybrids Between Multiparental Populations from Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Heterotic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Héloïse; Bauland, Cyril; Falque, Matthieu; Madur, Delphine; Combes, Valérie; Jamin, Philippe; Monteil, Cécile; Laborde, Jacques; Palaffre, Carine; Gaillard, Antoine; Blanchard, Philippe; Charcosset, Alain; Moreau, Laurence

    2017-11-01

    Several plant and animal species of agricultural importance are commercialized as hybrids to take advantage of the heterosis phenomenon. Understanding the genetic architecture of hybrid performances is therefore of key importance. We developed two multiparental maize ( Zea mays L.) populations, each corresponding to an important heterotic group (dent or flint) and comprised of six connected biparental segregating populations of inbred lines (802 and 822 lines for each group, respectively) issued from four founder lines. Instead of using "testers" to evaluate their hybrid values, segregating lines were crossed according to an incomplete factorial design to produce 951 dent-flint hybrids, evaluated for four biomass production traits in eight environments. QTL detection was carried out for the general-combining-ability (GCA) and specific-combining-ability (SCA) components of hybrid value, considering allelic effects transmitted from each founder line. In total, 42 QTL were detected across traits. We detected mostly QTL affecting GCA, 31% (41% for dry matter yield) of which also had mild effects on SCA. The small impact of dominant effects is consistent with the known differentiation between the dent and flint heterotic groups and the small percentage of hybrid variance due to SCA observed in our design (∼20% for the different traits). Furthermore, most (80%) of GCA QTL were segregating in only one of the two heterotic groups. Relative to tester-based designs, use of hybrids between two multiparental populations appears highly cost efficient to detect QTL in two heterotic groups simultaneously. This presents new prospects for selecting superior hybrid combinations with markers. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Population and age-group trends in weekend sun protection and sunburn over two decades of the SunSmart programme in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, J K; Warne, C D; Dobbinson, S J; Wakefield, M A; Hill, D J

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high skin cancer burden in Australia, the multicomponent, community-wide SunSmart programme has worked since 1988 to reduce excessive sun exposure.  To examine trends in key sun-protection behaviours and sunburn for the Melbourne population from 1987 to 2007, and examine for the first time patterns of change among age groups.   Representative cross-sectional weekly telephone surveys of weekend sun protection and sunburn were conducted over 11 of the summers in the period 1987-88 to 2006-07. Trends were analysed for the population and for age groups, adjusting for ambient temperature and ultraviolet radiation, which are environmental determinants of sun-related behaviour and sunburn.   The general pattern of trends suggests two distinct periods, one with rapid improvement in behaviours (more sunscreen use, less unprotected body exposure and less sunburn) from 1987-88 to 1994-95, and the second from 1997-98 to 2006-07 with fewer changes in behaviours noted. The age-group analyses showed a similar pattern of change over time across groups, with a few notable exceptions.  The similarity of the pattern of trends among age groups suggests that external influences including the SunSmart programme's activity had a relatively similar impact across the population. Sun-related behaviours continue to be amenable to change. More recent relative stability with some declines in sun protection suggests further intensive campaigns and other strategies may be needed to maintain previous successes and to achieve more universal use of sun protection. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. The quality of life of medical students studying in New Zealand: a comparison with nonmedical students and a general population reference group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Marcus A; Krägeloh, Christian U; Hawken, Susan J; Zhao, Yipin; Doherty, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is an essential component of learning and has strong links with the practice and study of medicine. There is burgeoning evidence in the research literature to suggest that medical students are experiencing health-related problems such as anxiety, depression, and burnout. The aim of the study was to investigate medical students' perceptions concerning their quality of life. Two hundred seventy-four medical students studying in their early clinical years (response rate = 80%) participated in the present study. Medical students were asked to fill in the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire to elicit information about their quality of life perceptions in relation to their physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Subsequently, their responses were compared with two nonmedical students groups studying at a different university in the same city and an Australian general population norm. The findings were compared using independent group's t tests, confidence intervals, and Cohen's d. The main finding of the study indicated that medical students had similar quality of life perceptions to nonmedical students except in relation to the environment domain. Furthermore, the medical student group scored lower than the general population reference group on the physical health, psychological health, and environment quality of life domains. The results suggest that all university students are expressing concerns related to quality of life, and thus their health might be at risk. The findings in this study provided no evidence to support the notion that medical students experience lower levels of quality of life compared to other university students. When compared to the general population, all student groups examined in this study appeared to be experiencing lower levels of quality of life. This has implications for pastoral support, educationalists, student support personnel, and the

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of modafinil acid and estimation of the metabolic conversion of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-hua; Guo, Tao; Deng, Chen-hui; Guan, Zheng; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2012-11-01

    To describe the population pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil acid and to compare the extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups (Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui) of China. In a multi-center, open-label, single dose clinical trial, 49 healthy volunteers from the 5 ethnic groups received 200 mg of modafinil orally. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation of modafinil and modafinil acid were drawn before and at different time after the administration. Systematic population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling for modafinil acid was conducted, integrating with our previous PopPK model for modafinil. The influence of ethnicity, gender, height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) was estimated. The extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid, expressed as the relative conversion fraction, was estimated and compared among the 5 ethnic groups. When combined with the PopPK model of modafinil, the concentration of modafinil acid versus time profile was best described with a one-compartment model. The typical clearance and volume of distribution for modafinil acid were 4.94 (l/h) and 2.73 (l), respectively. The Korean group had 25% higher clearance, and the Uygur and Hui groups had 12% higher clearance than the Han group. The median for the relative conversion fraction was 0.53 for Koreans, and 0.24 for the other 4 ethnicities. Ethnicity has significant influence on the clearance of modafinil acid. When patients in the 5 ethnic groups are administered drugs or prodrugs catalyzed by esterases and/or amidases, the variability in the extent of drug metabolism should be considered.

  3. Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2005-09-01

    Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole.

  4. Extended adjuvant intermittent letrozole versus continuous letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (SOLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Marco; Luo, Weixiu; Karlsson, Per

    2018-01-01

    of letrozole in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We did the multicentre, open-label, randomised, parallel, phase 3 SOLE trial in 240 centres (academic, primary, secondary, and tertiary care centres) in 22 countries. We enrolled postmenopausal women of any age with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node......-positive, and operable breast cancer for which they had undergone local treatment (surgery with or without radiotherapy) and had completed 4-6 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. They had to be clinically free of breast cancer at enrolment and without evidence of recurrent disease at any time before randomisation. We...... randomly assigned women (1:1) to treatment groups of either continuous use of letrozole (2·5 mg/day orally for 5 years) or intermittent use of letrozole (2·5 mg/day orally for 9 months followed by a 3-month break in years 1-4 and then 2·5 mg/day during all 12 months of year 5). Randomisation was done...

  5. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb ... Biological, and Social Sciences Research, 2nd Edition. Optimal Publ.

  6. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from northern rock sole

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth data from archival tags on northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were examined to assess whether fish used tidal currents to aid horizontal migration....

  7. Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material in periodontal intrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Chang

    2011-09-01

    Conclusions: From a clinical and radiologic point of view at 6 months after surgery, the use of PRF as the sole grafting material seems to be an effective modality of regenerative treatment for periodontal intrabony defects.

  8. 31 CFR 353.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEFINITIVE... of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e., without a coowner or...

  9. 31 CFR 315.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS... § 315.36 Payment during life of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e...

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuki Tateno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.

  11. Simulating the Behavioural Effects of Welfare Reforms among Sole Parents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Duncan; Mark N. Harris

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives and estimates an econometric model of labour supply among sole parents in Australia, using modelling techniques which treat the labour supply decision as a utility maximising choice between a given number of discrete states. In estimation, we control for random preference heterogeneity as well as Þxed and search costs. Using our econometric model, we look at the e.ects of actual and hypothetical welfare policy reforms on the employment choices of sole parents in Australia. ...

  12. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  13. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao; Zhang, Rong; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects ( p  blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups.

  14. [Application of the data from China Total Diet Study to assess the distribution of lead exposure in different age-gender population groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Qing; Liu, Liping; Wu, Yongning

    2012-05-01

    To assess the distribution of dietary lead exposure in different age-gender groups of Chinese residents by using the data from China Total Diet Study, and combining the new risk assessment and the PTWI withdrawn by JECFA. Methods Combining the lead concentrations of dietary samples with the food consumption data from China Total Diet Study in 2007 to obtain the distribution of dietary intake and dietary source of lead in different age-gender population groups. Dietary lead exposure of different age-gender population groups in China was in the range of 48.7 -116.7 microg/d. The status of higher lead exposure in younger age groups was not optimistic, as the mean and median margins of exposure (MOE) have been less than 1.0 (0.1 - 0.3). The main sources of dietary lead were cereals and vegetables, which covering 57% of total lead exposure. Lowering the dietary lead exposure of Chinese residents is necessary, especially of infants and children.

  15. Associations among Substance Use, Mental Health Disorders, and Self-Harm in a Prison Population: Examining Group Risk for Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison L. Gates

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders (SUD and mental health disorders are significant public health issues that co-occur and are associated with high risk for suicide attempts. SUD and mental health disorders are more prevalent among offenders (i.e., prisoners or inmates than the non-imprisoned population, raising concerns about the risk of self-harm. This cross-sectional study examined the population of a state prison system (10,988 out of 13,079 to identify associations among SUD (alcohol, cannabis, intravenous drugs, narcotics, and tobacco smoking, mental health disorders (anxiety, bipolar, depression, and psychotic disorders, and suicide attempts. The primary aim was to determine which groups (SUD, mental health disorders, and co-occurrences were strongly association with suicide attempts. Groups with a documented SUD or mental health disorders compared to peers without these issues had 2.0 and 9.2 greater odds, respectively, for attempting suicide, which was significant at p < 0.0001 for both conditions. There were also significant differences within SUD and mental health disorders groups in regard to suicide attempts. Groups with the greatest odds for suicide attempts were offenders with comorbid bipolar comorbid and anxiety, alcohol combined with depression, and cannabis co-occurring with depression. Documentation of suicide attempts during imprisonment indicates awareness, but also suggest a need to continue enhancing screening and evaluating environmental settings.

  16. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  17. The Reproduction Trajectories of Institutions of Social Isolation of Individual Population Groups in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yuryevich Berzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the spatial socio-demographic isolation as a factor of the current system of settlement in Russia’s regions. In theory, the phenomena of loneliness and social isolation have their demographic, socio-economic and psychological roots. Conceptually, they are expressed in the theories of nuclearization of family structure of society and the family’s loss of its core functions, deprivation of a person (of friends and relatives, in the paradigm of the second demographic transition. In fact, the trend towards the abandonment of birth, growth of cohabitations and divorces, premature mortality as the cause of widowhood are complemented by the institutional factors strengthening the foundations of a singular way of life, including various forms of isolation of an individual from the social environment in a post-industrial society. The main reasons of the socio-demographic isolation are following: the tendency of increasing a number of private households represented by lonely people, both elderly and young; as well as the prevalence of the institute of widowhood (mortality risks influencing the marriage and the family; the impact of flows of labour, academic, self-preservation, consumer migration (both returned and irretrievable types on the reproduction of the population. Psychologically, the demographic isolation of certain local communities contributes to the feelings of loneliness as a regulator of the communication intensity and interaction between individuals. In the socioeconomic aspects, the isolation of local communities is associated with the factor of remote location of families from the centers of communication and real markets, with the development of new Russian and global logistics systems, with are deprivation of traditional sources of household income as a specific form of survival in the vast expanses of life of the Russian society.

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  19. ALGORITHMS FOR THE PROGRAMMING OF FOOTWEAR SOLES MOULDS ON WORKING POSTS OF INJECTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain

  20. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level, including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05: the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for

  1. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  2. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A

    2011-09-01

    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( http://cracs.fc.up.pt/popaffiliator ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  3. Population and Whole Genome Sequence Based Characterization of Invasive Group A Streptococci Recovered in the United States during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopio Chochua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococci (GAS are genetically diverse. Determination of strain features can reveal associations with disease and resistance and assist in vaccine formulation. We employed whole-genome sequence (WGS-based characterization of 1,454 invasive GAS isolates recovered in 2015 by Active Bacterial Core Surveillance and performed conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Predictions were made for genotype, GAS carbohydrate, antimicrobial resistance, surface proteins (M family, fibronectin binding, T, R28, secreted virulence proteins (Sda1, Sic, exotoxins, hyaluronate capsule, and an upregulated nga operon (encodes NADase and streptolysin O promoter (Pnga3. Sixty-four M protein gene (emm types were identified among 69 clonal complexes (CCs, including one CC of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. emm types predicted the presence or absence of active sof determinants and were segregated into sof-positive or sof-negative genetic complexes. Only one “emm type switch” between strains was apparent. sof-negative strains showed a propensity to cause infections in the first quarter of the year, while sof+ strain infections were more likely in summer. Of 1,454 isolates, 808 (55.6% were Pnga3 positive and 637 (78.9% were accounted for by types emm1, emm89, and emm12. Theoretical coverage of a 30-valent M vaccine combined with an M-related protein (Mrp vaccine encompassed 98% of the isolates. WGS data predicted that 15.3, 13.8, 12.7, and 0.6% of the isolates were nonsusceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin plus clindamycin, erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, respectively, with only 19 discordant phenotypic results. Close phylogenetic clustering of emm59 isolates was consistent with recent regional emergence. This study revealed strain traits informative for GAS disease incidence tracking, outbreak detection, vaccine strategy, and antimicrobial therapy.

  4. A study on SARS awareness and health-seeking behaviour - findings from a sampled population attending National Healthcare Group Polyclinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, S L; Lim, P S; Ng, M Y; Wong, H B; Emmanuel, S C

    2004-09-01

    The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of massive SARS public education effort on SARS awareness and the conduct of those suspected of having SARS. Five hundred and ninety-three respondents attending the National Healthcare Group Polyclinics (NHGP) participated in the survey from 9 to 13 June 2003. Associations between awareness of SARS symptoms and (i) first action to be taken and (ii) mode of transportation used, if the respondent was suspected of having SARS, were analysed using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for relevant covariates. The majority (92.7%) of the respondents were aware of SARS symptoms. Television (91.6%), newspaper (65.2%) and radio (30.4%) formed the top 3 sources of information on SARS. Slightly more than half (51.6%) of those who suspect themselves of having SARS would choose to visit their primary health care doctors, while 22.7% of the respondents would go to Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH). If they suspected themselves to have SARS, most (84.9%) of the 578 respondents would react appropriately by taking the SARS ambulance or driving themselves to TTSH. However, 60 respondents would nonetheless take public transport to TTSH [by taxi 8.5%, mass rapid transit (MRT) or bus 1.9%]. In particular, the retired with lower educational levels were likely to be oblivious both to the symptoms of SARS and the possible consequences of travelling by inappropriate transport. Despite more than 2 months of intensive SARS public education in Singapore, there remain important gaps in knowledge and appropriate behaviour that have to be bridged.

  5. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  6. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  7. Strategic transformation of population studies: recommendations of the working group on epidemiology and population sciences from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Véronique L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D; Douglas, Pamela S; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granger, Christopher B; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-03-15

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Enhancing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted to unique population groups in Thailand: lessons learned from applying concepts of diffusion of innovation and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkerud, P J; Singhal, A

    1998-01-01

    Diffusion of innovations theory and social marketing theory have been criticized for their limited applicability in influencing unique population groups (e.g., female commercial sex workers (CSWs) working in low-class brothels). This study investigated the applicability of these two theoretical frameworks in outreach efforts directed to unique populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. Further, this study examined Thai cultural characteristics that influence communication about HIV/AIDS prevention. The results suggest that certain concepts and strategies drawn from the two frameworks were used more or less by effective outreach programs, providing several policy-relevant lessons. Cultural constraints, such as the lack of visibility of the disease and traditional sexual practices, influenced communication about HIV/AIDS prevention.

  9. Identification of infectious microbiota from oral cavity environment of various population group patients as a preventive approach to human health risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Paweł J; Perkowski, Konrad; Starościak, Bohdan; Baltaza, Wanda; Padzik, Marcin; Pionkowski, Krzysztof; Chomicz, Lidia

    2016-12-23

    This study presents the results of comparative investigations aimed to determine microbiota that can occur in the oral environment in different human populations. The objective of the research was to identify pathogenic oral microbiota, the potential cause of health complications in patients of different population groups. The study included 95 patients requiring dental or surgical treatment; their oral cavity environment microbiota as risk factors of local and general infections were assessed. In clinical assessment, differences occurred in oral cavity conditions between patients with malformations of the masticatory system, kidney allograft recipients and individuals without indications for surgical procedures. The presence of various pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains in oral cavities were revealed by direct microscopic and in vitro culture techniques. Colonization of oral cavities of patients requiring surgical treatment by the potentially pathogenic bacteria constitutes the threat of their spread, and development of general infections. Assessment of oral cavity infectious microbiota should be performed as a preventive measure against peri-surgical complications.

  10. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  11. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  12. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  13. Diabetes education through group classes leads to better care and outcomes than individual counselling in adults: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwee, Jeremiah; Cauch-Dudek, Karen; Victor, J Charles; Ng, Ryan; Shah, Baiju R

    2014-05-09

    Self-management education, supported by multidisciplinary health care teams, is essential for optimal diabetes management. We sought to determine whether acute diabetes complications or quality of care differed for patients in routine clinical care when their self-management education was delivered through group diabetes education classes versus individual counselling. With the use of population-level administrative and primary data, all diabetic patients in Ontario who attended a self-management education program in 2006 were identified and grouped according to whether they attended group classes (n=12,234), individual counselling (n=55,761) or a mixture of both (n=9,829). Acute complications and quality of care in the following year were compared among groups. Compared with those attending individual counselling, patients who attended group classes were less likely to have emergency department visits for hypo/hyperglycemia (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.68), hypo/hyperglycemia hospitalizations (OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.75) or foot ulcers/cellulitis (OR 0.64, CI: 0.50-0.81). They were more likely to have adequate HbA1c testing (OR 1.10, CI: 1.05-1.15) and lipid testing (OR 1.25, CI: 1.19-1.32), and were more likely to receive statins (OR 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.39). Group self-management education was associated with fewer acute complications and some improvements in processes of care. Group sessions can offer care to more patients with reduced human resource requirements. With increased pressure to find efficiencies in health care delivery, group diabetes education may provide an opportunity to deliver less resource-intensive care that simultaneously improves patient care.

  14. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Quantifying the contribution of statins to the decline in population mean cholesterol by socioeconomic group in England 1991 - 2012: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kypridemos

    Full Text Available Serum total cholesterol is one of the major targets for cardiovascular disease prevention. Statins are effective for cholesterol control in individual patients. At the population level, however, their contribution to total cholesterol decline remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of statins to the observed fall in population mean cholesterol levels in England over the past two decades, and explore any differences between socioeconomic groups.This is a modelling study based on data from the Health Survey for England. We analysed changes in observed mean total cholesterol levels in the adult England population between 1991-92 (baseline and 2011-12. We then compared the observed changes with a counterfactual 'no statins' scenario, where the impact of statins on population total cholesterol was estimated and removed. We estimated uncertainty intervals (UI using Monte Carlo simulation, where confidence intervals (CI were impractical. In 2011-12, 13.2% (95% CI: 12.5-14.0% of the English adult population used statins at least once per week, compared with 1991-92 when the proportion was just 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3-1.0%. Between 1991-92 and 2011-12, mean total cholesterol declined from 5.86 mmol/L (95% CI: 5.82-5.90 to 5.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 5.14-5.20. For 2011-12, mean total cholesterol was lower in more deprived groups. In our 'no statins' scenario we predicted a mean total cholesterol of 5.36 mmol/L (95% CI: 5.33-5.40 for 2011-12. Statins were responsible for approximately 33.7% (95% UI: 28.9-38.8% of the total cholesterol reduction since 1991-92. The statin contribution to cholesterol reduction was greater among the more deprived groups of women, while showing little socio-economic gradient among men.Our model suggests that statins explained around a third of the substantial falls in total cholesterol observed in England since 1991. Approximately two thirds of the cholesterol decrease can reasonably be attributed non

  16. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.

    2008-01-01

    patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years...... of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 69% among 3 758 patients who received the recommended treatment. Within the first 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of loco-regional recurrences, distant metastases or other malignant disease, or death as a first event were 9...

  17. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  18. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  19. Seasonal incidence of lameness and risk factors associated with thin soles, white line disease, ulcers, and sole punctures in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A H; Shearer, J K; De Vries, A

    2009-07-01

    Lameness is a multifactorial condition with many causes. In this study, cow lifetime records were used to quantify the incidence of specific lameness-causing lesions and investigate factors associated with those lesions. Of primary interest were the effects of seasonality and the effects of thin soles (TS). Thin sole-induced toe ulcers (TSTU) occurring adjacent to the white line in the apical portion of the weight-bearing surface were distinguished from white line disease (WLD) occurring in the region of the abaxial heel sole junction. Sole (SU), heel (HU), and toe (TU) ulcers; TS; sole punctures (SP); leg injuries (INJ); and other (OTH) lesions (e.g., infectious diseases, laminitis, unclassified hemorrhage) were also considered. Data were collected from May 2004 through October 2007 and included records for 4,915 cows of which 1,861 had at least one recorded lameness event. Of these, 20% were TSTU, 20% OTH, 16% SU, 13% TS, 10% WLD, 8% HU, 6% INJ, 4% SP, and 2% TU. Annual incidence risk for lameness was 49.1%. Overall incidence rate for lameness was 1.41/1,000 cow-days, and rates for all lesions were highest in the summer. As parity increased, so did incidence rates for TS, SU, WLD, HU, and INJ. For TS, TSTU, and WLD, incidence rates were lowest in early lactation (16 to 60 DIM), whereas for SU, HU, TU, incidence rates were highest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM). Cox proportional hazard models for TS, TSTU, WLD, SU, HU, TU, and SP included age and year of first calving and milk production capacity. Prior/concurrent lameness events, season, parity, and stage of lactation were included as time-dependent effects. Prior/concurrent TS increased the hazard for all other lesions, particularly TSTU, and HU. Having any other prior claw lesion also increased the hazard for all lesions. Hazard was highest in summer for all lesions except TU. Stage of lactation was a significant effect in hazard of TSTU, which was lowest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM).

  20. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  1. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  2. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  3. Glyphosate Shapes a Dinoflagellate-Associated Bacterial Community While Supporting Algal Growth as Sole Phosphorus Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that can potentially be a phosphorus (P source for phytoplankton and microbes when discharged into the coastal ocean. In contrast to bacteria, few eukaryotic phytoplankton species appear capable of directly utilizing glyphosate. In this study, we observed, after a long delay (>60 days, Prorocentrum donghaiense, a dinoflagellate known to cause major harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea, could grow in a medium with glyphosate as the sole P source; suggesting that P. donghaiense growth was through bacterial mediation. To understand how the bacteria community might respond to glyphosate, we analyzed the 16S rRNA genes of the microbial community present in P. donghaiense cultures when grown under lower (36 μM and higher (360 μM glyphosate concentrations. Based on both Sanger and Illumina high throughput sequencing, we obtained more than 55,323 good-quality sequences, which were classified into six phyla. As the concentration of glyphosate rose, our results showed a significant increase in the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and a decrease in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Further qPCR (Quantitative PCR analysis showed higher abundances of two specific phylotypes in the higher-glyphosate P. donghaiense cultures when compared to the lower-glyphosate and no-glyphosate cultures. Correspondingly, qPCR displayed the same trend for the abundance of a gammaproteobacterial type of phnJ, a gene encoding Alpha-D-ribose 1-methylphosphonate 5-phosphate C-P lyase, which is responsible for phosphonate degradation. In addition, Tax4Fun analysis based on our 16S rRNA gene sequences results in higher predicted abundances of phosphonate metabolizing genes in glyphosate-treated cultures. This study demonstrates that glyphosate could selectively promote the growth of particular groups of bacteria within an algal culture and in glyphosate enriched coastal waters, this interaction may potentially further facilitate the growth of

  4. ABO Blood Group and Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia in the Elderly Population: An Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP)-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Negahdar, Hajar; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Nooreddini, Hajighorban; Parsian, Hadi

    Osteoporosis is known as a degenerative disease of the skeletal system and its main complication is fracture, which influences quality of life in the elderly. There are 4 major blood groups in humans based on the presence of A and B antigens. According to the investigations, there are reported relations between blood types and some diseases. In this study, the association between the ABO blood group and the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in an elderly population was investigated. Medical records of 990 elderly people were investigated in a cross-sectional study and the association between their blood group and the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results showed that ABO blood groups had no association with the prevalence of osteoporosis in both elderly men and women. The association between age and osteoporosis was significant and the association between this disorder and gender was significant too. The results also indicate that there is no association between RH + and RH - blood types and osteoporosis and osteopenia in both men and women. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to conduct extensive studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mental health and satisfaction with life among upper limb amputees: a Norwegian population-based survey comparing adult acquired major upper limb amputees with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.

  6. Population Genomic Analysis of 1,777 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates, Houston, Texas: Unexpected Abundance of Clonal Group 307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S Wesley; Olsen, Randall J; Eagar, Todd N; Beres, Stephen B; Zhao, Picheng; Davis, James J; Brettin, Thomas; Xia, Fangfang; Musser, James M

    2017-05-16

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae , it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae strains cultured from patients in the 2,000-bed Houston Methodist Hospital system between September 2011 and May 2015, representing a comprehensive, population-based strain sample. Strains of largely uncharacterized clonal group 307 (CG307) caused more infections than those of well-studied epidemic CG258. Strains varied markedly in gene content and had an extensive array of small and very large plasmids, often containing antimicrobial resistance genes. Some patients with multiple strains cultured over time were infected with genetically distinct clones. We identified 15 strains expressing the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) enzyme that confers broad resistance to nearly all beta-lactam antibiotics. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of 10 phylogenetically diverse strains showed that the global transcriptome of each strain was unique and highly variable. Experimental mouse infection provided new information about immunological parameters of host-pathogen interaction. We exploited the large data set to develop whole-genome sequence-based classifiers that accurately predict clinical antimicrobial resistance for 12 of the 16 antibiotics tested. We conclude that analysis of large, comprehensive, population-based strain samples can assist understanding of the molecular diversity of these organisms and contribute to enhanced translational research. IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae causes human infections that are increasingly difficult to

  7. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Reinaldo, Mônica Renata; Sena, Anne de; Granato, Celso F H

    Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood group AB and factor V Leiden as risk factors for pre-eclampsia: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Leena M; Laivuori, Hannele; Rautanen, Anna; Kaaja, Risto; Kere, Juha; Krusius, Tom; Paunio, Mikko; Rasi, Vesa

    2009-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. We performed a population-based nested case-control study of 100,000 consecutive pregnancies in Finland. Cases and controls were identified by combining national registers and medical records were reviewed. We studied 248 cases fulfilling strict criteria for pre-eclampsia and 679 controls. Severe pre-eclampsia, early pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) were analyzed separately. Blood group AB increased the risk for pre-eclampsia as a whole (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and in the three subgroups (OR 2.3, 3.8, 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-3.9, 2.0-7.1, 1.6-7.1). FV Leiden increased the risk as a whole (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.9), and in the three subgroups, although not statistically significantly. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were not associated with pre-eclampsia. High body mass index, diabetes, first pregnancy, and twin pregnancy increased the risk from 1.5-fold to 8.2-fold. Our results confirm and extend the prior observation of blood group AB being a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group is known from all pregnant women. The value of blood group as risk factor for pre-eclampsia should be further assessed in prospective studies. In this study, FV Leiden was not statistically significant risk factor.

  9. The impact of differences between patient and general population EQ-5D-3L values on the mean tariff scores of different patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Matthew H R; Reitmeir, Peter; Peters, Annette; Leidl, Reiner

    2014-06-01

    Health states can be valued by those who currently experience a health state (experienced health states [EHS]) or by the general public, who value a set of given health states (GHS) described to them. There has been debate over which method is more appropriate when making resource allocation decisions. This article informs this debate by assessing whether differences between these methods have an effect on the mean EQ-5D-3L tariff scores of different patient groups. The European tariff based on GHS valuations was compared with a German EHS tariff. Comparison was made in the context of EQ-5D-3L health states describing a number of diagnosed chronic diseases (stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and cancer) taken from the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region population surveys. Comparison was made of both the difference in weighting of the dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L and differences in mean tariff scores for patient groups. Weighting of the dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L were found to be systematically different. The EHS tariff gave significantly lower mean scores for most, but not all, patient groups despite tariff scores being lower for 213 of 243 EQ-5D-3L health states using the GHS tariff. Differences were found to vary between groups, with the largest change in difference being 5.45 in the multiple stoke group. The two tariffs have systematic differences that in certain patient groups could drive the results of an economic evaluation. Therefore, the choice as to which is used may be critical when making resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency Of C3435 Mdr1 And A6896g Cyp3a5 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Iranian Population and Comparison with Other Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. AZARPIRA

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:It is well recognized that different patients respond in different ways to medications. The inter-individual variations are greater than the intera- individual variations,a finding consistent with the notion that inheritance is a determinant of drug responses. The recent identification of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters led to the hypothesis that genetic factors may be implicated in this interindividual variation. Single nucleotide polymorphism in common metabolic pathway,cytochrome P450 and common transporter,multidrug resistance-1 gene are two important sites that might involve clinically significant genetic variations. Ethnicity greatly influences these genetic polymorphism distributions. Methods: We studied the inheritance patterns of polymorphisms for MDR1 and CYP3A5 genes in the Iranian population and compared its genotype and allele frequencies with 3 different ethnic groups: Caucasian (United Kingdom, Chinese and Japanese. Results: We found striking differences in the distribution of MDR allelic variants between Iranian,Japanese and Chinese (p<0.02 and similar between the Iranian and Caucasian population.(p=0.06.Almost 50% of Iranian and Caucasian individuals were homozygous carriers of the variant T allele compared with 32% of the Japanese and 43% of the Chinese (p<0.02.More than half of Iranian subjects have at least one T allele,with lower P-gp level in small intestine.We also noted dramatic differences in the CYP3A5 alleles and genotypes distribution between Iranian subjects with other compared populations.99% of Iranian individuals were homozygous carriers of the variant G allele compared with about 70% of the Chinese and Japanese and 19% of the Caucasian population. The G/G genotype has a very low level of active cytochrome P450 enzyme.Conclusion:Our results emphasize the role of ethnicity in interindividual variability of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics

  11. Molecular Method for Sex Identification of Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Using a Novel Sex-Linked Microsatellite Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis is one of the most important flatfish species for aquaculture in China. To produce a monosex population, we attempted to develop a marker-assisted sex control technique in this sexually size dimorphic fish. In this study, we identified a co-dominant sex-linked marker (i.e., CyseSLM by screening genomic microsatellites and further developed a novel molecular method for sex identification in the tongue sole. CyseSLM has a sequence similarity of 73%–75% with stickleback, medaka, Fugu and Tetraodon. At this locus, two alleles (i.e., A244 and A234 were amplified from 119 tongue sole individuals with primer pairs CyseSLM-F1 and CyseSLM-R. Allele A244 was present in all individuals, while allele A234 (female-associated allele, FAA was mostly present in females with exceptions in four male individuals. Compared with the sequence of A244, A234 has a 10-bp deletion and 28 SNPs. A specific primer (CyseSLM-F2 was then designed based on the A234 sequence, which amplified a 204 bp fragment in all females and four males with primer CyseSLM-R. A time-efficient multiplex PCR program was developed using primers CyseSLM-F2, CyseSLM-R and the newly designed primer CyseSLM-F3. The multiplex PCR products with co-dominant pattern could be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, which accurately identified the genetic sex of the tongue sole. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and reliable method for sex identification in tongue sole with a newly identified sex-linked microsatellite marker.

  12. Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Hindhede, Jens; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Records of claw trimmings were analyzed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole...... stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December...

  13. Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Armando Mares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.

  14. Role of age, sex, and obesity in the higher prevalence of arthritis among lower socioeconomic groups: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2007-05-15

    To compare the prevalence of arthritis among population groups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and body mass index (BMI) characteristics; to investigate the combined influence of these factors on arthritis; and to assess the relationship between self-reported health and psychological distress and arthritis. Data from the Victorian Population Health Survey (n = 7,500) were used in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, and self-reported health was assessed by a single item. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the combined influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors and BMI on arthritis. Overall, 23% of Victorian adults (20% men and 26% women) reported having arthritis. The presence of arthritis was associated with high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.4) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.7-2.1). Increased prevalence of arthritis was found in older age groups, lower education and income groups, and in people who were overweight or obese. Women had higher risk of arthritis, even after adjustment for age, residence, education, occupation, income, and BMI. Age and BMI independently predicted arthritis for men and women. For men, higher risk of arthritis was also associated with lower income. Arthritis is a highly prevalent condition associated with poor health and high psychological distress. Prevalence of arthritis is disproportionately high among women and individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. As the prevalence of arthritis is predicted to increase, careful consideration of causal factors, and setting priorities for resource allocation for the treatment and prevention of arthritis are required.

  15. Group based prenatal care in a low-and high risk population in the Netherlands: a study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwicht, Birgit S; Crone, Matty R; van Lith, Jan M M; Rijnders, Marlies E B

    2016-11-15

    CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a multifaceted group based care-model integrated in routine prenatal care, combining health assessment, education, and support. CP has shown some positive results on perinatal outcomes. However, the effects are less obvious when limited to the results of randomized controlled trials: as there are few trials and there is a variation in reported outcomes. Furthermore, former research was mostly conducted in the United States of America and in specific (often high risk) populations. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of CP in the Netherlands in a general population of pregnant women (low and high risk). Furthermore we aim to explore the mechanisms leading to the eventual effects by measuring potential mediating factors. We will perform a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial, in a Western region in the Netherlands. Inclusion criteria are care, women in the intervention period (starting at the randomized time-point) will be offered the choice between individual care or CP. Primary outcomes are maternal and neonatal morbidity, retrieved from a national routine database. Secondary outcomes are health behavior, psychosocial outcomes, satisfaction, health care utilization and process outcomes, collected through self-administered questionnaires, group-evaluations and individual interviews. We will conduct intention-to-treat analyses. Also a per protocol analysis will be performed comparing the three subgroups: control group, CP-participants and non-CP-participants, using multilevel techniques to account for clustering effects. This study contributes to the evidence regarding the effect of CP and gives a first indication of the effect and implementation of CP in both low and high-risk pregnancies in a high-income Western society other than the USA. Also, measuring factors that are hypothesized to mediate the effect of CP will enable to explain the mechanisms that lead to effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Dutch Trial

  16. Hábitos alimentarios en el consumo de vegetales en un grupo poblacional Food habits in the consumption of vegetables in a population group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anai Medina Valdés

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a estudiar los hábitos alimentarios en el consumo de vegetales en un grupo poblacional, su relación con el hábito de fumar y la posibilidad de sufrir riesgo de estrés oxidativo. Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo, y se aplicó una encuesta sobre hábitos alimentarios y estilo de vida a 84 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y los 73 años, pertenecientes al Consultorio Médico no. 23, del área de salud de Calabazar (58 del sexo femenino y 26 del masculino, y los resultados se procesaron a través del programa estadístico para Windows. Los vegetales de mayor preferencia para la población fueron: el tomate, la lechuga, la col y el pepino; y los de menor aceptación, la espinaca, la berenjena y el rábano. Se apreció que para todos los grupos de edades, específicamente para la población fumadora, las frecuencias de consumo son de 1 a 2 veces a la semana, por lo que no se cumplen las recomendaciones de agencias internacionales en este sentido. Las bajas frecuencias de consumo pueden estar asociadas con las enfermedades cardiovasculares, que resultaron ser las que más afectaron a nuestra población, por lo que se evidencia la posibilidad de que esta se encuentre bajo riesgo de estrés oxidativo.This paper is aimed at studying the food habits in the consumption of vegetables in a population group, its relation to smoking and the possibility of suffering oxidative stress risk. A descriptive study was carried out and a survey was done on food habits and life style among 84 patients aged 15-73 from the family physician's office no. 23 of the Calabazar health area (58 females and 26 males. The results were processed by the statistical program for Windows. The preferred vegetables were tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber. Spinach, eggplant and raddish were the less accepted. It was observed that for all the age groups, particularly for the smoking population, the consumption frequencies are once or

  17. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  18. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruuk, H.

    1963-01-01

    1. 1. The diurnal rhythm in the trawl catch of Solea vulgaris Quensel gave rise to this investigation into the diurnal activity rhythm of the fish. 2. 2. Periodicity in the food intake of the Sole in its natural habitat was studied by analyses of the contents of the intestines. Food intake

  19. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Business Administration (SBA) may not accept a sole- source 8(a) contract in excess of $20 million for... is no conflict with the law. Execution of the J&A prior to the SBA's initiation of contract... small number of businesses that have been awarded 8(a) contracts over the $20 million threshold may be...

  20. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Plantar Sole Unweighting Alters the Sensory Transmission to the Cortical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mouchnino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission. To test this hypothesis, we recorded cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs of individuals following cutaneous stimulat