Asymmetry in olfactory generalization and the inclusion criterion in ants.
Bos, Nick
2014-01-01
Animals constantly face the challenge of extracting important information out of their environment, and for many animals much of this information is chemical in nature. The ability to discriminate and generalize between chemical stimuli is extremely important and is commonly thought to depend mostly on the structural similarity between the different stimuli. However, we previously provided evidence that in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops, generalization not only depends on structural similarity, but also on the animal's previous training experience. When individual ants were conditioned to substance A, they generalized toward a mixture of A and B. However, when trained to substance B, they did not generalize toward this mixture, resulting in asymmetrical generalization. This asymmetry followed an inclusion criterion, where the ants consistently generalized from a molecule with a long carbon chain to molecules with a shorter chain, but not the other way around. Here I will review the evidence for the inclusion criterion, describe possible proximate mechanisms underlying this phenomenon as well as discuss its potential adaptive significance.
A MIXED MODE FRACTURE CRITERION BASED ON THE MAXIMUM TANGENTIAL STRESS IN BRITTLE INCLUSION
Ji Changjiang; Li Zhonghua; Sun Jun
2005-01-01
A closed-form solution for predicting the tangential stress of an inclusion located in mixed mode Ⅰ and Ⅱ crack tip field was developed based on the Eshelby equivalent inclusion theory. Then a mixed mode fracture criterion, including the fracture direction and the critical load, was established based on the maximum tangential stress in the inclusion for brittle inclusioninduced fracture materials. The proposed fracture criterion is a function of the inclusion fracture stress, its size and volume fraction, as well as the elastic constants of the inclusion and the matrix material. The present criterion will reduce to the conventional one as the inclusion having the same elastic behavior as the matrix material. The proposed solutions are in good agreement with detailed finite element analysis and measurement.
Kellici, Tahsin F.; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Vanioti, Marianna; Golic Grdadolnik, Simona; Simcic, Mihael; Michas, Georgios; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Mavromoustakos, Thomas
2017-02-01
During the synthesis of new pyrrolidinone analogs possessing biological activity it is intriguing to assign their absolute stereochemistry as it is well known that drug potency is influenced by the stereochemistry. The combination of J-coupling information with theoretical results was used in order to establish their total stereochemistry when the chiral center of the starting material has known absolute stereochemistry. The J-coupling can be used as a sole criterion for novel synthetic analogs to identify the right stereochemistry. This approach is extremely useful especially in the case of analogs whose 2D NOESY spectra cannot provide this information. Few synthetic examples are given to prove the significance of this approach.
Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng
2016-06-01
In the current study, the three-dimensional fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification in steel centrifugal continuous casting strands were simulated. The volume of fluid model was used to solve the multiphase phenomena between the molten steel and the air. The entrapment and final distribution of inclusions in the solidified shell were studied with the discussion on the effect of rotation behavior of the caster system. Main results indicate that after applying the rotation of the shell, the fluid flow transformed from a recirculation flow to a rotation flow in the mold region and was driven to flow around in the casting direction. As the distance below the meniscus increased, the distribution of the tangential speed of the flow and the centrifugal force along one diameter of the strand became symmetrical gradually. The jet flow from the nozzle hardly impinged on the same location on the shell due to the rotation of the shell during solidification. Thus, the shell thickness on the same height was uniform around, and the thinning shell and a hot spot on the surface of shell were avoided. Both of the measurement and the calculation about the distribution of oxide inclusions along the radial direction indicated the number of inclusions at the side and the center was more than that at the quarter on the cross section of billet. With a larger diameter, inclusions tended to be entrapped toward the center area of the billet.
Yu Yan
2012-01-01
Amid the rhythmic tap-dance of production inside Neiliansheng's factory in Xicheng District of Beijing,He Kaiying,a master of Neiliansheng cloth shoes,was teaching an apprentice to draw the outline of a sole.The 56-year-old senior shoemaker guides three young apprentices,passing on traditional shoemaking skills that have been in place since the company's establishment. Neiliansheng,which means "unstopped promotions in official ranks" in Chinese,is a classic cloth shoe brand created in Beijing in 1853.It once provided shoes for emperors and royal court officials.At that time,wearing the court shoes of Neiliansheng was a fashion statement in Beijing and a mark of high status.
Grellety, Thomas; Cousin, Sophie; Letinier, Louis; Bosco-Lévy, Pauline; Hoppe, Stéphanie; Joly, Damien; Penel, Nicolas; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Italiano, Antoine
2016-10-04
Optimizing patient selection is a necessary step to design better clinical trials. 'Life expectancy' is a frequent inclusion criterion in phase II trial protocols, a measure that is subjective and often difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early death in patients included in phase II studies. We retrospectively collected medical records of patients with advanced solid tumors included in phase II trials in two French Comprehensive Cancer Centers (Bordeaux, Center 1 set; Lille, Center 2 set). We analyzed patients' baseline characteristics. Predictive factors associated with early death (mortality at 3 months) were identified by logistic regression. We built a model (PREDIT, PRognostic factor of Early Death In phase II Trials) based on prognostic factors isolated from the final multivariate model. Center 1 and 2 sets included 303 and 227 patients, respectively. Patients from Center 1 and 2 sets differed in tumor site, urological (26 % vs 15 %) and gastrointestinal (18 % vs 28 %) and in lung metastasis incidence (10 % vs 49 %). Overall survival (OS) at 3 months was 88 % (95 % CI [83.5; 91.0], Center 1 set) and 91 % (95 % CI [86.7; 94.2], Center 2 set). Presence of a 'life expectancy' inclusion criterion did not improve the 3-month OS (HR 0.6, 95 % CI [0.2; 1.2], p = 0.2325). Independent factors of early death were an ECOG score of 2 (OR 13.3, 95%CI [4.1; 43.4]), hyperleukocytosis (OR 5.5, 95 % CI [1.9; 16.3]) and anemia (OR 2.8, 95 % CI [1.1; 7.1]). Same predictive factors but with different association levels were found in the Center 2 set. Using the Center 1 set, ROC analysis shows a good discrimination to predict early death (AUC: 0.89 at 3 months and 0.86 at 6 months). Risk modeling in two independent cancer populations based on simple clinical parameters showed that baseline ECOG of 2, hyperleukocytosis and anemia are strong early-death predictive factors. This model allows identifying patients who may
Gniadek Agnieszka
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims at demonstrating the usefulness of the Pareto in- clusive criterion methodology for comparative analyses of fungi toxicity. The toxicity of fungi is usually measured using a scale of several ranks. In practice, the ranks of toxicity are routinely grouped into only four conventional classes of toxicity: from a class of no toxicity, low toxicity, and moderate toxicity, to a class of high toxicity. The illustrative material included the N = 61 fungi samples obtained from three species: A. ochraceus, A. niger and A. flavus. In accordance with the Pareto approach, four partial criterions of the worst toxi- city were defined, a single criterion used for each conventional class of toxicity. Finally, the odds ratios (OR were calculated separately for each partial cri- terion, and the significance of the hypotheses OR = 1 was estimated. It was stated that A. ochraceus fungi are distinctly more toxic than the two remaining ones with respect to the all considered four partial criterions, with significance equal to p = 0.04, p = 0.04, p = 0.007 and p = 0.005, respectively. Thus, the suggested method illustrated its utility in the case under study.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...
Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie;
2014-01-01
This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...
Shijian YUAN; Dazhi XIAO; Zhubin HE
2004-01-01
A generalized yield criterion is proposed based on the metal plastic deformation mechanics and the fundamental formula in theory of plasticity. Using the generalized yield criterion, the reason is explained that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion do not completely match with experimental data. It has been shown that the yield criteria of ductile metals depend not only on the quadratic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J2, but also on the cubic invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor J3 and the ratio of the yield stress in pure shear to the yield stress in uniaxial tension k/σs. The reason that Mises yield criterion and Tresca yield criterion are not in good agreement with the experimental data is that the effect of J3 and k/σs is neglected.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 7 polygons representing 6 individual sole source aquifer boundaries and one streamflow source area in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Various efforts were...
An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.
Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M
2016-03-31
In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record
EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,algebraic criteria are established to determine whether or not a real coefficient polynomial has one or two pairs of conjugate complex roots whose moduli are equal to 1 and the other roots have moduli less than 1 directly from its coefficients.The form and the function of the criteria are similar to those of the Jury criterion which can be used to determine whether or not all the moduli of the roots of a real coefficient polynomial are less than 1.
Sole Source Aquifers for NY and NJ
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer is the designated sole source aquifers of New York and New Jersey. A Sole Source Aquifer, is an aquifer that supplies 50% or more of the drinking water...
Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart
无
2006-01-01
@@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.
A Less Conservative Circle Criterion
2008-01-01
A weak form of the Circle Criterion for Lur'e systems is stated. The result allows prove global boundedness of all system solutions. Moreover such a result can be employed to enlarge the set of nonlinearities for which the standard Circle Criterion can guarantee absolute stability.
The Inclusive Classroom: How Inclusive Is Inclusion?
Reid, Claudette M.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the position that inclusion is limited; inclusion does not go far enough. The inclusive classroom has been assessed to be of benefit both to the teacher and student. There are, however, limits set on inclusion. In most classrooms only children with learning disability are included omitting those with severe disabilities,…
Stability Criterion for Humanoid Running
LIZhao-Hui; HUANGQiang; LIKe-Jie
2005-01-01
A humanoid robot has high mobility but possibly risks of tipping over. Until now, one main topic on humanoid robots is to study the walking stability; the issue of the running stability has rarely been investigated. The running is different from the walking, and is more difficult to maintain its dynamic stability. The objective of this paper is to study the stability criterion for humanoid running based on the whole dynamics. First, the cycle and the dynamics of running are analyzed. Then, the stability criterion of humanoid running is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion is illustrated by a dynamic simulation example using a dynamic analysis and design system (DADS).
Entropic criterion for model selection
Tseng, Chih-Yuan
2006-10-01
Model or variable selection is usually achieved through ranking models according to the increasing order of preference. One of methods is applying Kullback-Leibler distance or relative entropy as a selection criterion. Yet that will raise two questions, why use this criterion and are there any other criteria. Besides, conventional approaches require a reference prior, which is usually difficult to get. Following the logic of inductive inference proposed by Caticha [Relative entropy and inductive inference, in: G. Erickson, Y. Zhai (Eds.), Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 707, 2004 (available from arXiv.org/abs/physics/0311093)], we show relative entropy to be a unique criterion, which requires no prior information and can be applied to different fields. We examine this criterion by considering a physical problem, simple fluids, and results are promising.
National Sole Source Aquifer GIS Layer
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains indexes and Esri shape files of boundaries of the designated sole source aquifers and related aquifer boundaries. Data provide a vector...
A Planarity Criterion for Graphs
Dosen, Kosta
2012-01-01
It is proven that a connected graph is planar if and only if all its cocycles with at least four edges are "grounded" in the graph. The notion of grounding of this planarity criterion, which is purely combinatorial, stems from the intuitive idea that with planarity there should be a linear ordering of the edges of a cocycle such that in the two subgraphs remaining after the removal of these edges there can be no crossing of disjoint paths that join the vertices of these edges. The proof given in the paper of the right-to-left direction of the equivalence is based on Kuratowski's Theorem for planarity involving $K_{3,3}$ and $K_5$, but the criterion itself does not mention $K_{3,3}$ and $K_5$. Some other variants of the criterion are also shown necessary and sufficient for planarity.
A Failure Criterion for Concrete
Ottosen, N. S.
1977-01-01
A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace in the devi......A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...
A Failure Criterion for Concrete
Ottosen, N. S.
1977-01-01
A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace in the devi......A four-parameter failure criterion containing all the three stress invariants explicitly is proposed for short-time loading of concrete. It corresponds to a smooth convex failure surface with curved meridians, which open in the negative direction of the hydrostatic axis, and the trace...
ALGORITHMS FOR THE PROGRAMMING OF FOOTWEAR SOLES MOULDS ON WORKING POSTS OF INJECTION MACHINES
LUCA Cornelia
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain
Criterion Reading Instructional Project (CRIP).
Linden Board of Education, NJ.
This booklet describes the Linden Title I Program between the years 1971-1974, with a focus on the Criterion Reading Instructional Project (CRIP). The program (in Linden, New Jersey) evolved from a supplemental reading and mathematics program to a structured developmental program of language arts designed to meet the needs of primary grade…
Ecological criterion effect on the forest road network longitudinal gradient
Petr Hrůza
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The specific way in which a forest road is designed affects the management in the forest environment and timber transport. The aim of this study was to find out whether an inclusion of the ecological criterion in the forest road design will change the parameter of the longitudinal gradient of forest hauling roads and whether these changes will have an effect on the accessibility of forest stands by timber hauling machinery. The possible changes in the longitudinal gradient can also affect the technology of forest road surfacing and the selection of the appropriate surface type. We can state that an inclusion of the ecological criterion in the forest road network design will bring statistically significant changes in longitudinal gradients of forest hauling roads. The mean longitudinal gradient of the current forest road network is 2.82 % and the mean longitudinal gradient of the forest road network designed with inclusion of the ecological criterion is 4.82 %. The results show statistically significant changes in the longitudinal parameters of forest hauling roads. However, it will not bring a need for a change in construction technology, and will not affect the accessibility of forest stands by timber hauling machinery.
Marker selection by Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion.
Li, W; Nyholt, D R
2001-01-01
We carried out a discriminant analysis with identity by descent (IBD) at each marker as inputs, and the sib pair type (affected-affected versus affected-unaffected) as the output. Using simple logistic regression for this discriminant analysis, we illustrate the importance of comparing models with different number of parameters. Such model comparisons are best carried out using either the Akaike information criterion (AIC) or the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). When AIC (or BIC) stepwise variable selection was applied to the German Asthma data set, a group of markers were selected which provide the best fit to the data (assuming an additive effect). Interestingly, these 25-26 markers were not identical to those with the highest (in magnitude) single-locus lod scores.
Lichen nitidus of palms and soles
Gandhi Vijay
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Lichen nitidus occurs uncommonly on the palms and soles and has an unusual morphology at these sites. Two patients who presented with lesions on the palms and soles are reported. The first patient had rough papules with prominent keratotic plugs. In the second patient, the lesion was an irregular plaque with peripheral papules showing keratotic plugs. Both patients had typical lesions elsewhere on the body. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Awareness of this variant will help in prompt recognition of the condition.
Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow
2009-01-01
The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje
IONESCU Cozmin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available One solution for attaching soles on footwear is to inject them directly into the upper part using moulds with unique cavities. Injection moulds are manufactured for each sole design, for each foot, right and left, and for each size number. As a result of the market demand for a large number of soles designs, the execution costs of moulds for each of them are substantial. In the case of small manufacturers, injection moulds wear out morally long before they wear out physically. This paper will present some design solutions for moulds that have reusable parts that can be used from one sole design to another, without changing the entire mould. Using these moulds, soles design can be modified by interchanging some modules which are fitted into the main mould cavities. These solutions represent a cheaper and faster alternative for classic moulds, with unique single cavities.
A Focused Bayesian Information Criterion
Georges Nguefack-Tsague
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Myriads of model selection criteria (Bayesian and frequentist have been proposed in the literature aiming at selecting a single model regardless of its intended use. An honorable exception in the frequentist perspective is the “focused information criterion” (FIC aiming at selecting a model based on the parameter of interest (focus. This paper takes the same view in the Bayesian context; that is, a model may be good for one estimand but bad for another. The proposed method exploits the Bayesian model averaging (BMA machinery to obtain a new criterion, the focused Bayesian model averaging (FoBMA, for which the best model is the one whose estimate is closest to the BMA estimate. In particular, for two models, this criterion reduces to the classical Bayesian model selection scheme of choosing the model with the highest posterior probability. The new method is applied in linear regression, logistic regression, and survival analysis. This criterion is specially important in epidemiological studies in which the objective is often to determine a risk factor (focus for a disease, adjusting for potential confounding factors.
A Criterion for Regular Sequences
D P Patil; U Storch; J Stückrad
2004-05-01
Let be a commutative noetherian ring and $f_1,\\ldots,f_r \\in R$. In this article we give (cf. the Theorem in $\\mathcal{x}$2) a criterion for $f_1,\\ldots,f_r$ to be regular sequence for a finitely generated module over which strengthens and generalises a result in [2]. As an immediate consequence we deduce that if $V(g_1,\\ldots,g_r) \\subseteq V(f_1,\\ldots,f_r)$ in Spec and if $f_1,\\ldots,f_r$ is a regular sequence in , then $g_1,\\ldots,g_r$ is also a regular sequence in .
Formation Criterion for Synthetic Jets
2005-10-01
formation data for the axisymmetric case were published over 50 years ago by Ingard and Labate.10 More recent studies33,34 suggest that L0/d > 1 for...with the axisymmetric data from Ingard and Labate10 and Smith et al.33 are compared in Fig. 7. It is found that the available data are consis- tent with...the jet formation criterion with an empirically determined constant K equal to approximately 0.16. The deviation of Ingard and Labate’s data at their
Uncertainty Relation and Inseparability Criterion
Goswami, Ashutosh K.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-11-01
We investigate the Peres-Horodecki positive partial transpose criterion in the context of conserved quantities and derive a condition of inseparability for a composite bipartite system depending only on the dimensions of its subsystems, which leads to a bi-linear entanglement witness for the two qubit system. A separability inequality using generalized Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation taking suitable operators, has been derived, which proves to be stronger than the bi-linear entanglement witness operator. In the case of mixed density matrices, it identically distinguishes the separable and non separable Werner states.
On the Modified Barkhausen Criterion
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.
2016-01-01
Oscillators are normally designed according to the Modified Barkhausen Criterion i.e. the complex pole pair is moved out in RHP so that the linear circuit becomes unstable. By means of the Mancini Phaseshift Oscillator it is demonstrated that the distortion of the oscillator may be minimized by i...... by introducing a nonlinear ”Hewlett Resistor” so that the complex pole-pair is in the RHP for small signals and in the LHP for large signals i.e. the complex pole pair of the instant linearized small signal model is moving around the imaginary axis in the complex frequency plane....
Schrag, Judy; Burnette, Jane
1994-01-01
This review of five recent (1992 and 1993) books and journal articles is intended to illuminate characteristics of inclusive schools. The review defines inclusion as more than merely regular class placement for students with disabilities, to include a philosophy which celebrates diversity and the provision of a continuum of educational options.…
Lambert, Lukischa
2008-01-01
The placement and education of students with disabilities in the general education classroom has generated a challenge and varied opinions for educators, families, and service providers. It is likely that with recent litigation and legislation which supports inclusion and increasing pressure from advocates of inclusion, the trend towards including…
Social inclusion and inclusive education
Marsela Robo
2014-07-01
In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.
Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Polygon layer of EPA Region 6 sole source aquifers in Louisiana. The sole source aquifers represented are Chicot and Southern Hills in Louisiana/Mississippi.
Criterion Referenced Measures for Clinical Evaluations.
Pikulski, John J.
This paper discusses criterion referenced tests' characteristics and their use in clinical evaluation. The distinction between diagnostic tests and criterion referenced measures is largely a matter of emphasis. Some authorities believe that in diagnostic testing the emphasis is upon an evaluation of an individual's strengths and weaknesses in…
ON A GENERALIZED GAUSS CONVERGENCE CRITERION
ILEANA BUCUR
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we combine the well known Raabe-Duhamel, Kummer, Bertrand . . . criterions of convergence for series with positive terms and we obtain a new one which is more powerful than those cited before. Even the famous Gauss criterion,which was in fact our starting point, is a consequence of this new convergence test.
Why Observable Space Is Solely Three Dimensional
Rabinowitz, Mario
2015-01-01
Quantum (and classical) binding energy considerations in n-dimensional space indicate that atoms (and planets) can only exist in three-dimensional space. This is why observable space is solely 3-dimensional. Both a novel Virial theorem analysis, and detailed classical and quantum energy calculations for 3-space circular and elliptical orbits indicate that they have no orbital binding energy in greater than 3-space. The same energy equation also excludes the possibility of atom-like bodies in strictly 1 and 2-dimensions. A prediction is made that in the search for deviations from r^-2 of the gravitational force at sub-millimeter distances such a deviation must occur at < ~ 10^-10 m (or < ~10^-12 m considering muoniom), since atoms would disintegrate if the curled up dimensions of string theory were larger than this. Callender asserts that the often-repeated claim in previous work that stable orbits are possible in only three dimensions is not even remotely established. The binding energy analysis herein ...
Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig
2015-01-01
This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach will...
Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig
This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach will...
Colver, David
2010-01-01
Inclusion analysis is the name given by Operis to a black box testing technique that it has found to make the checking of key financial ratios calculated by spreadsheet models quicker, easier and more likely to find omission errors than code inspection.
ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?
Herriott, Richard
2013-01-01
A large body of literature exists relating to Inclusive Design. The literature can be divided into theory concerning methodology and case studies concerning practice. With such a large body of theoretical literature available, the question arises as to how closely practice matches that theory....... This paper is a survey of the methods used in the execution of self-declared inclusively design products based on an analysis of academic papers, posters and oral presentations. The case studies are divided into two groups, product design and assistive technology. Design steps were assigned to six categories...
Van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Thiéry, Régis
2001-01-01
The paper gives an overview of the phase relations in carbonic fluid inclusions with pure, binary and ternary mixtures of the system CO 2-CH 4-N 2, compositions, which are frequently found in geological materials. Phase transitions involving liquid, gas and solid phases in the temperature range between -192°C and 31°C are discussed and presented in phase diagrams ( PT, TX and VX projections). These diagrams can be applied for the interpretation of microthermometry data in order to determine fluid composition and molar volume (or density).
40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.
2010-07-01
... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engines used solely for competition... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.620 Engines used solely for competition. The provisions of...
Nine decades of North Sea sole and plaice distribution
Engelhard, G.H.; Pinnegar, J.K.; Kell, L.T.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.
2011-01-01
Recent studies based mainly on research survey data suggest that within the North Sea, sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa have exhibited distribution shifts in recent decades—on average southward for sole and northward to deeper waters for plaice. Various hypotheses may account for su
杨永芳
2005-01-01
This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.
Filamentary and hierarchical pictures - Kinetic energy criterion
Klypin, Anatoly A.; Melott, Adrian L.
1992-01-01
We present a new criterion for formation of second-generation filaments. The criterion called the kinetic energy ratio, KR, is based on comparison of peculiar velocities at different scales. We suggest that the clumpiness of the distribution in some cases might be less important than the 'coldness' or 'hotness' of the flow for formation of coherent structures. The kinetic energy ratio is analogous to the Mach number except for one essential difference. If at some scale KR is greater than 1, as estimated at the linear stage, then when fluctuations of this scale reach nonlinearity, the objects they produce must be anisotropic ('filamentary'). In the case of power-law initial spectra the kinetic ratio criterion suggests that the border line is the power-spectrum with the slope n = -1.
Aesthetical criterion in art and science
Milovanović, Miloš
2016-01-01
In the paper, the authors elaborate some recently published research concerning the originality of artworks in terms of self-organization in the complex systems physics. It has been demonstrated that the originality issue such conceived leads to the criterion of a substantial aesthetics whose applicability is not restricted to the fine arts domain only covering also physics, biology, cosmology and other fields construed in the complex systems terms. Moreover, it is about a truth criterion related to the traditional personality conception revealing the ontological context transcendent to the gnoseological dualism of subjective and objective reality that is characteristic of modern science and humanities. Thus, it is considered to be an aesthetical criterion substantiating art and science as well as the other developments of the postmodern era. Its impact to psychology, education, ecology, culture and other humanities is briefly indicated.
Force criterion of different electrolytes in microchannel
Ren Yu-Kun; Yan Hui; Jiang Hong-Yuan; Gu Jian-Zhong; Antonio Ramos
2009-01-01
The control and handling of fluids is central to many applications of the lab-on-chip. This paper analyzes the basic theory of manipulating different electrolytes and finds the two-dimensional model. Coulomb force and dielectric force belonging to the body force of different electrolytes in the microchannel were analyzed. The force criterion at the interface was concluded, and testified by the specific example. Three basic equations were analyzed and applied to simulate the phenomenon. The force criterion was proved to be correct based on the simulation results.
Fracture Criterion for Fracture Mechanics of Magnets
潘灏; 杨文涛
2003-01-01
The applicability and limitation of some fracture criteria in the fracture mechanics of magnets are studied.It is shown that the magnetic field intensity factor can be used as a fracture criterion when the crack in a magnet is only affected by a magnetic field. For some magnetostrictive materials in which the components of magnetostriction strain do not satisfy the compatibility equation of deformation, the stress intensity factor can no longer be effectively applicable as a fracture criterion when the crack in a magnet is affected by a magnetic field and mechanical loads simultaneously.
KINETIC ASSESSMENT OF GOLF SHOE OUTER SOLE DESIGN FEATURES
Rosemary J. Dyson
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This study assessed human kinetics in relation to golf shoe outer sole design features during the golf swing using a driver club by measuring both within the shoe, and beneath the shoe at the natural grass interface. Three different shoes were assessed: metal 7- spike shoe, alternative 7-spike shoe, and a flat soled shoe. In-shoe plantar pressure data were recorded using Footscan RS International pressure insoles and sampling at 500 Hz. Simultaneously ground reaction force at the shoe outer sole was measured using 2 natural grass covered Kistler force platforms and 1000 Hz data acquisition. Video recording of the 18 right-handed golfers at 200 Hz was undertaken while the golfer performed 5 golf shots with his own driver in each type of shoe. Front foot (nearest to shot direction maximum vertical force and torque were greater than at the back foot, and there was no significant difference related to the shoe type. Wearing the metal spike shoe when using a driver was associated with more torque generation at the back foot (p < 0. 05 than when the flat soled shoe was worn. Within shoe regional pressures differed significantly with golf shoe outer sole design features (p < 0.05. Comparison of the metal spike and alternative spike shoe results provided indications of the quality of regional traction on the outer sole. Potential golf shoe outer sole design features and traction were presented in relation to phases of the golf swing movement. Application of two kinetic measurement methods identified that moderated (adapted muscular control of foot and body movement may be induced by golf shoe outer sole design features. Ground reaction force measures inform comparisons of overall shoe functional performance, and insole pressure measurements inform comparisons of the underfoot conditions induced by specific regions of the golf shoe outer sole
A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES
IONESCU Cozmin
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.
An aerodynamic load criterion for airships
Woodward, D. E.
1975-01-01
A simple aerodynamic bending moment envelope is derived for conventionally shaped airships. This criterion is intended to be used, much like the Naval Architect's standard wave, for preliminary estimates of longitudinal strength requirements. It should be useful in tradeoff studies between speed, fineness ratio, block coefficient, structure weight, and other such general parameters of airship design.
Stability Criterion for Discrete-Time Systems
K. Ratchagit
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent stability analysis for discrete-time systems with interval-like time-varying delays. The problem is solved by applying a novel Lyapunov functional, and an improved delay-dependent stability criterion is obtained in terms of a linear matrix inequality.
A Criterion-Referenced Test for Archery.
Shifflett, Bethany; Schuman, Barbara J.
1982-01-01
A criterion-referenced test for a beginning archery class was developed and evaluated. Techniques for estimating test validity and reliability were applied to data. A method developed by R. A. Burk (1976) was used to establish a cutoff score that would distinguish between those mastering the class and nonmasters. (Authors/PP)
Luoyang Dual Spatial Criterion Ecological City Construction
Wang Fazeng; Wang Shengnan
2007-01-01
The construction of an ecological city has two foundational platforms:the small platform,namely urban district or simply called as"city ecosystem";and the big platform,namely around city district in certain region scope or also referred to as"city-region ecosystem".The construction of an ecological city must be launched in the dual spatial criteria:in city(urban district)criterion-optimizing the city ecosystem;in city-region(city territory)criterion-optimizing the city-region ecosystem.Luoyang has the bright characteristic and the typical image within cities of China,and even in the world.The construction of anecological city in dual spatial criteria-the city and the city-region-has the vital significance to urbanization advancement and sustainable development in Luoyang.In city-region criterion,the primary mission of Luoyang's ecological city construction is to create a fine ecological environment platform in its city territory.In city criterion,the basic duty of Luoyang's ecologic city construction is to enhance the ecological capacity and benefit of the central city.
A focused information criterion for graphical models
Pircalabelu, E.; Claeskens, G.; Waldorp, L.
2015-01-01
A new method for model selection for Gaussian Bayesian networks and Markov networks, with extensions towards ancestral graphs, is constructed to have good mean squared error properties. The method is based on the focused information criterion, and offers the possibility of fitting individual-tailore
A Criterion for the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis
Jin Hong LI
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study the automorphic L-functions attached to the classical automorphic forms on GL(2), i.e. holomorphic cusp form. And we also give a criterion for the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH) for the above L-functions.
Identical Synchronous Criterion for a Coupling System
HUANGXiangao; ANOWei; LUOXinmin; ZHUFuchen
2004-01-01
A new identical synchronous criterion of a coupling system, which is the time average of the derivative of the Lyapunov function, is proposed to determine the synchronous occurrence of any coupling system. Three examples with linear or nonlinear feedback synchronous systems are introduced to test some synchronous parameters that are the conditional Lyapunov exponents, the time average of the derivative of the Lyapunov function,the mean square error of the synchronization. Having obtained the synchronous parameters with the change of the feedback gains, we discover that Pecora and Carroll's criterion and He and Vaidya's reduced criterion are only fit to determine the synchronization of the identical selfsynchronization system which is a special example in the coupling systems, and are not taken as the general identical synchronous criterion of any coupling system. However,no matter whether the largest conditional Lyapunov exponent or the derivative of the Lyapunov function is positive or negative, synchronization of the coupling systems will occur,as long as the average change ratio of the derivative of the Lyapunov function tends to zero.
A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations
Urs Schaefer-Rolffs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.
LIPOMA ON THE SOLE OF FOOT: A RARE LOCATION
Ramesh Kumar
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumors that can occur at any age and frequently on the upper back, neck, shoulder and abdomen. We present a case of lipoma over sole of foot which is an uncommon location.
Sole Source Aquifer Program | Drinking Water in New ...
2017-07-06
The Safe Drinking Water Act gives EPA the authority to designate aquifers which are the sole or principal drinking water source for an area, and which, if contaminated, would create a significant hazard to public health.
Bridging AIC and BIC: a new criterion for autoregression
Jie Ding; Vahid Tarokh; Yuhong Yang
2015-01-01
We introduce a new criterion to determine the order of an autoregressive model fitted to time series data. It has the benefits of the two well-known model selection techniques, the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. When the data is generated from a finite order autoregression, the Bayesian information criterion is known to be consistent, and so is the new criterion. When the true order is infinity or suitably high with respect to the sample size, the Akaike ...
Oman metamorphic sole formation reveals early subduction dynamics
Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Plunder, Alexis; Ildefonse, Benoît; Yamato, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile
2016-04-01
Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500m thick tectonic slices welded beneath most of the large-scale ophiolites. They typically show a steep inverted metamorphic structure where the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization increase upward (from 500±100°C at 0.5±0.2 GPa to 800±100°C at 1.0±0.2 GPa), with isograds subparallel to the contact with the overlying ophiolitic peridotite. The proportion of mafic rocks in metamorphic soles also increases from the bottom (meta-sediments rich) to the top (approaching the ophiolite peridotites). These soles are interpreted as the result of heat transfer from the incipient mantle wedge toward the nascent slab (associated with large-scale fluid transfer and possible shear heating) during the first My of intra-oceanic subduction (as indicated by radiometric ages). Metamorphic soles provide therefore major constraints on early subduction dynamics (i.e., thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology along the nascent slab interface). We present a detailed structural and petrological study of the metamorphic sole from 4 major cross-sections along the Oman ophiolite. We show precise pressure-temperature estimates obtained by pseudosection modelling and EBSD measurements performed on both the garnet-bearing and garnet-free high-grade sole. Results allow quantification of the micro-scale deformation and highlight differences in pressure-temperature-deformation conditions between the 4 different locations, showing that the inverted metamorphic gradient through the sole is not continuous in all locations. Based on these new constraints, we suggest a new tectonic-petrological model for the formation of metamorphic soles below ophiolites. This model involves the stacking of several homogeneous slivers of oceanic crust leading to the present-day structure of the sole. In this view, these thrusts are the result of rheological contrasts between the sole and the peridotite as the plate interface progressively cools down
A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future
Maria-Luise Braunsteiner
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The term, inclusion, particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of ‘dis’-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in all curricula, not solely within special education. The future of a truly inclusive education relies on a cultural shift that supports and nurtures differences, and views success through a lens not focused on standardization but on diversity. The Index for Inclusion (The Index has been utilized worldwide to support schools, to remove perceived barriers and to establish increasingly inclusive school cultures and practices. The Index aids in the creation of a culture that is dedicated to identifying and reducing barriers to inclusion and increases the learning and participation for all students.
Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications
Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han
2017-01-01
Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009
无
2002-01-01
The shape and the size of inclusions in DKDP crystal have been observed and measured microscopically.Three kinds of inclusions were found and the components of the inclusions were measured. The formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed.``
Information criterion based fast PCA adaptive algorithm
Li Jiawen; Li Congxin
2007-01-01
The novel information criterion (NIC) algorithm can find the principal subspace quickly, but it is not an actual principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm and hence it cannot find the orthonormal eigen-space which corresponds to the principal component of input vector.This defect limits its application in practice.By weighting the neural network's output of NIC, a modified novel information criterion (MNIC) algorithm is presented.MNIC extractes the principal components and corresponding eigenvectors in a parallel online learning program, and overcomes the NIC's defect.It is proved to have a single global optimum and nonquadratic convergence rate, which is superior to the conventional PCA online algorithms such as Oja and LMSER.The relationship among Oja, LMSER and MNIC is exhibited.Simulations show that MNIC could converge to the optimum fast.The validity of MNIC is proved.
Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements
Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans;
2012-01-01
An alternative, quasi-empirical sampling criterion for EMC near field measurements intended for close coupling investigations is proposed. The criterion is based on maximum error caused by sub-optimal sampling of near fields in the vicinity of an elementary dipole, which is suggested as a worst......-case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...... parametrization with respect to the desired maximum error in measurements. This allows the engineer performing the near field scan to choose a suitable compromise between accuracy and measurement time....
Optimization of laminates subjected to failure criterion
E. Kormaníková
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is aimed on laminate optimization subjected to maximum strain criterion. The optimization problem is based on the use of continuous design variables. The thicknesses of layers with the known orientation are used as design variables. The optimization problem with strain constraints are formulated to minimize the laminate weight. The design of the final thickness is rounded off to integer multiples of the commercially available layer thickness.
Age Effects in Adaptive Criterion Learning.
Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H
2016-11-01
Although prior work has examined age-related changes to criterion placement and flexibility, no study tested these constructs through a paradigm that employs adaptive feedback to encourage specific criterion changes. The goal of this study was to assess age differences in how young and older adults adapt and shift criteria in recognition memory decisions based on trial-by-trial feedback. Young and older adults completed an adaptive criterion learning paradigm. Over 3 study/test cycles, a biased feedback technique at test encouraged more liberal or strict responding by false-positive feedback toward false alarms or misses. Older adults were more conservative than young, even when feedback first encouraged a liberal response bias, and older adults adaptively placed criteria in response to biased feedback, much like young adults. After first being encouraged to respond conservatively, older adults shifted criteria less than young when feedback encouraged more lenient responding. These findings evidence labile adaptive criteria placement and criteria shifting with age. However, age-related tendencies toward conservative response biases may limit the extent to which criteria can be shifted in a lenient direction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
An information criterion for marginal structural models.
Platt, Robert W; Brookhart, M Alan; Cole, Stephen R; Westreich, Daniel; Schisterman, Enrique F
2013-04-15
Marginal structural models were developed as a semiparametric alternative to the G-computation formula to estimate causal effects of exposures. In practice, these models are often specified using parametric regression models. As such, the usual conventions regarding regression model specification apply. This paper outlines strategies for marginal structural model specification and considerations for the functional form of the exposure metric in the final structural model. We propose a quasi-likelihood information criterion adapted from use in generalized estimating equations. We evaluate the properties of our proposed information criterion using a limited simulation study. We illustrate our approach using two empirical examples. In the first example, we use data from a randomized breastfeeding promotion trial to estimate the effect of breastfeeding duration on infant weight at 1 year. In the second example, we use data from two prospective cohorts studies to estimate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on CD4 count in an observational cohort of HIV-infected men and women. The marginal structural model specified should reflect the scientific question being addressed but can also assist in exploration of other plausible and closely related questions. In marginal structural models, as in any regression setting, correct inference depends on correct model specification. Our proposed information criterion provides a formal method for comparing model fit for different specifications.
The Bohm criterion and sheath formation
Riemann, K.U. (Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1)
1990-11-01
In the limit of a small Debye length ({lambda}{sub D}{yields}0) the analysis of the plasma boundary layer leads to a two scale problem of a collision free sheath and of a quasineutral presheath. Bohm's criterion expresses a necessary condition for the formation of a stationary sheath in front of a negative absorbing wall. The basic features of the plasma-sheath transition and their relation to the Bohm criterion are discussed and illustrated from a simple cold-ion fluid model. A rigorous kinetic analysis of the vicinity of the sheath edge allows to generalize Bohm's criterion acounting not only for arbitrary ion- and electron distributions, but also for general boundary conditions at the wall. It is shown that the generalized sheath condition is (apart from special exceptions) fulfilled marginally and related to a sheath edge field singularity. Due to this singularity a smooth matching of the presheath and sheath solutions requires an additional transition layer. Previous investigations concerning special problems of the plasma-sheath transition are reviewed in the light of the general relations. (orig.).
Regularization Parameter Selections via Generalized Information Criterion.
Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Runze; Tsai, Chih-Ling
2010-03-01
We apply the nonconcave penalized likelihood approach to obtain variable selections as well as shrinkage estimators. This approach relies heavily on the choice of regularization parameter, which controls the model complexity. In this paper, we propose employing the generalized information criterion (GIC), encompassing the commonly used Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), for selecting the regularization parameter. Our proposal makes a connection between the classical variable selection criteria and the regularization parameter selections for the nonconcave penalized likelihood approaches. We show that the BIC-type selector enables identification of the true model consistently, and the resulting estimator possesses the oracle property in the terminology of Fan and Li (2001). In contrast, however, the AIC-type selector tends to overfit with positive probability. We further show that the AIC-type selector is asymptotically loss efficient, while the BIC-type selector is not. Our simulation results confirm these theoretical findings, and an empirical example is presented. Some technical proofs are given in the online supplementary material.
Social influences on adaptive criterion learning.
Cassidy, Brittany S; Dubé, Chad; Gutchess, Angela H
2015-07-01
People adaptively shift decision criteria when given biased feedback encouraging specific types of errors. Given that work on this topic has been conducted in nonsocial contexts, we extended the literature by examining adaptive criterion learning in both social and nonsocial contexts. Specifically, we compared potential differences in criterion shifting given performance feedback from social sources varying in reliability and from a nonsocial source. Participants became lax when given false positive feedback for false alarms, and became conservative when given false positive feedback for misses, replicating prior work. In terms of a social influence on adaptive criterion learning, people became more lax in response style over time if feedback was provided by a nonsocial source or by a social source meant to be perceived as unreliable and low-achieving. In contrast, people adopted a more conservative response style over time if performance feedback came from a high-achieving and reliable source. Awareness that a reliable and high-achieving person had not provided their feedback reduced the tendency to become more conservative, relative to those unaware of the source manipulation. Because teaching and learning often occur in a social context, these findings may have important implications for many scenarios in which people fine-tune their behaviors, given cues from others.
On the hodological criterion for homology.
Faunes, Macarena; Francisco Botelho, João; Ahumada Galleguillos, Patricio; Mpodozis, Jorge
2015-01-01
Owen's pre-evolutionary definition of a homolog as "the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function" and its redefinition after Darwin as "the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry" entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish "sameness."Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium.
On the hodological criterion for homology
Macarena eFaunes
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Owen’s pre-evolutionary definition of a homologue as the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function and its redefinition after Darwin as the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish sameness. Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium.
On the hodological criterion for homology
Faunes, Macarena; Francisco Botelho, João; Ahumada Galleguillos, Patricio; Mpodozis, Jorge
2015-01-01
Owen's pre-evolutionary definition of a homolog as “the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function” and its redefinition after Darwin as “the same trait in different lineages due to common ancestry” entail the same heuristic problem: how to establish “sameness.”Although different criteria for homology often conflict, there is currently a generalized acceptance of gene expression as the best criterion. This gene-centered view of homology results from a reductionist and preformationist concept of living beings. Here, we adopt an alternative organismic-epigenetic viewpoint, and conceive living beings as systems whose identity is given by the dynamic interactions between their components at their multiple levels of composition. We posit that there cannot be an absolute homology criterion, and instead, homology should be inferred from comparisons at the levels and developmental stages where the delimitation of the compared trait lies. In this line, we argue that neural connectivity, i.e., the hodological criterion, should prevail in the determination of homologies between brain supra-cellular structures, such as the vertebrate pallium. PMID:26157357
Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging
Rob Garbutt
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.
Hansen, Janne Hedegaard
2012-01-01
In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…
Hansen, Janne Hedegaard
2012-01-01
In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…
Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces
Ma'Mari, Fatma Al; Moorsom, Timothy; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Deacon, William; Prokscha, Thomas; Luetkens, Hubertus; Lee, Steve; Sterbinsky, George E.; Arena, Dario A.; MacLaren, Donald A.; Flokstra, Machiel; Ali, Mannan; Wheeler, May C.; Burnell, Gavin; Hickey, Bryan J.; Cespedes, Oscar
2015-08-01
Only three elements are ferromagnetic at room temperature: the transition metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The Stoner criterion explains why iron is ferromagnetic but manganese, for example, is not, even though both elements have an unfilled 3d shell and are adjacent in the periodic table: according to this criterion, the product of the density of states and the exchange integral must be greater than unity for spontaneous spin ordering to emerge. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to alter the electronic states of non-ferromagnetic materials, such as diamagnetic copper and paramagnetic manganese, to overcome the Stoner criterion and make them ferromagnetic at room temperature. This effect is achieved via interfaces between metallic thin films and C60 molecular layers. The emergent ferromagnetic state exists over several layers of the metal before being quenched at large sample thicknesses by the material's bulk properties. Although the induced magnetization is easily measurable by magnetometry, low-energy muon spin spectroscopy provides insight into its distribution by studying the depolarization process of low-energy muons implanted in the sample. This technique indicates localized spin-ordered states at, and close to, the metal-molecule interface. Density functional theory simulations suggest a mechanism based on magnetic hardening of the metal atoms, owing to electron transfer. This mechanism might allow for the exploitation of molecular coupling to design magnetic metamaterials using abundant, non-toxic components such as organic semiconductors. Charge transfer at molecular interfaces may thus be used to control spin polarization or magnetization, with consequences for the design of devices for electronic, power or computing applications (see, for example, refs 6 and 7).
Social imaginaries and inclusion
Hansen, Janne Hedegaard
2016-01-01
The main goal of this entry is to introduce inclusion as a sociological concept consistent with which exclusion is an internal part of inclusion. When exclusion is the basis of inclusion, the establishment of communities will always involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. Similarly......, the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...... that inclusion on the one hand may be seen to be about human rights, solidarity, and democracy, and on the other hand, it is about ensuring the cohesion of neoliberal society by means of every person’s obligation to realize one’s potential through learning, development, and education regardless of one’s needs...
Convex functions and the rolling circle criterion
1995-01-01
Given 0≤R1≤R2≤∞, CVG(R1,R2) denotes the class of normalized convex functions f in the unit disc U, for which ∂f(U) satisfies a Blaschke Rolling Circles Criterion with radii R1 and R2. Necessary and sufficient conditions for R1=R2, growth and distortion theorems for CVG(R1,R2) and rotation theorem for the class of convex functions of bounded type, are found.
Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble
Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.
1997-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...
Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts
Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H
2015-01-01
Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,
Children's Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.
Kline, Marsha; And Others
1989-01-01
Examined patterns of custody and their relationship to the behavioral-emotional and social adjustment of 93 children of 3-14 years of age. Found no evidence that joint physical custody arrangements differ from sole physical custody arrangements with regard to postdivorce child adjustment. (RH)
Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions
Hook, Genine A.
2015-01-01
This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…
Acute meningoencephalitis as the sole manifestation of Q fever.
Guerrero, M; Gutierrez, J; Carnero, C; Gonzalez-Maldonado, R; Maroto, C
1993-01-01
The case of a 25-year old man who presented with meningoencephalitis as the sole clinical manifestation of Q fever is described. Serological studies revealed the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. The patient responded favourably to a ten-day course of i.v. ceftriaxone and was discharged without any neurological sequelae.
Stocking density-dependent growth of Dover sole (Solea solea)
Schram, E.; Heul, van der J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.
2006-01-01
Dover sole were reared at 6 different stocking densities between 0.56 and 12.6 kg/m2 with duplicate tanks for each treatment. The experiment lasted for 55 days. Water quality effects on growth were minimised by making the flow rate per tank proportional to the feeding load. Individual initial and
ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES
Cornelia LUCA
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.
Selecting Sole: breeding programs for natural - mating populations
Blonk, R.J.W.
2010-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to design a breeding program for increased productivity of farmed common sole, Solea solea, 1) using natural mating in groups to obtain offspring and 2) using present farm infrastructures as much as possible. Parental allocation with DNA marker data on offspring from
A CRITERION FOR TESTING WHETHER A DIFFERENCE IDEAL IS PRIME
Chunming YUAN; Xiao-Shan GAO
2009-01-01
This paper presents a criterion for testing the irreducibility of a polynomial over an algebraic extension field. Using this criterion and the characteristic set method, the authors give a criterion for testing whether certain difference ascending chains are strong irreducible, and as a consequence, whether the saturation ideals of these ascending chains are prime ideals.
Condensation of saturated vapours on isentropic compression: a simple criterion
Patwardhan, V.S.
1987-01-01
A criterion is derived and tested for determining whether the isentropic compression of saturated vapours leads to superheat or condensation. This criterion needs only values of the critical temperature, the acentric factor and the liquid specific heat. The application of the criterion for selection of a working fluid both for heat pumps and heat engines is discussed.
Mandira Sarma
2008-01-01
The promotion of an inclusive financial system is considered a policy priority in many countries. While the importance of financial inclusion is widely recognized, the literature lacks a comprehensive measure that can be used to measure the extent of financial inclusion across economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by proposing an index of financial inclusion (IFI). The IFI is a multi-dimensional index that captures information on various dimensions of financial inclusion in one sing...
Middelhoven, W J; De Kievit, H; Biesbroek, A L
1985-01-01
Yeast strains utilizing uric acid, adenine, monoamines or diamines as sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from several soil samples by the enrichment culture method. The most common species was Trichosporon cutaneum. Strains of Candida catenulata, C. famata, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa, Cryptococcus laurentii, Stephanoascus ciferrii and Tr. adeninovorans were also isolated. All strains utilizing uric acid as sole carbon source utilized some primary n-alkyl-l-amines, hydroxyamines or diamines as well. The ascomycetous yeast strains showing these characteristics all belonged to species known to assimilate hydrocarbons. Type strains of hydrocarbon-positive yeast species which were not found in the enrichment cultures generally assimilated putrescine, some type strains also butylamine or pentylamine, but none assimilated uric acid. Methanol-positive species were not isolated. Type strains of methanol-positive and of hydrocarbon-negative species did not assimilate uric acid, butylamine or putrescine. Assimilation of putrescine as sole source of carbon and energy may be a valuable diagnostic criterion in yeast taxonomy.
Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.
Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J
2015-04-01
Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).
Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment
Aud Marit Simensen
2010-05-01
Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.
Jeans instability criterion modified by external tidal field
Jog, Chanda J
2013-01-01
The well-known Jeans criterion describes the onset of instabilities in an infinite, homogeneous, self-gravitating medium supported by pressure. Most realistic astrophysical systems, however, are not isolated - instead they are under the influence of an external field such as the tidal field due to a neighbour. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a system in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation that depends on the wavenumber, the sound speed, and also the magnitude of the tidal field. A typical, disruptive tidal field is shown to make the system more stable against perturbations, and results in a higher effective Jeans wavelength. The minimum mass that can become unstable is then higher (super-Jeans) than the usual Jeans mass. Conversely, in a compressive tidal field, perturbations can grow even when the mass is lower (sub-Jeans). This approach involving the inclusion of tidal field opens up a new way of looking at instabilities in gravitating systems. The treatment is gene...
Kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves
Liberzon, Dan; Itay, Uri
2016-11-01
Validity of a kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves was examined experimentally. Results obtained by simultaneous measurements of water surface velocity by PTV and of the propagation velocity of a steep crest up to the point of breaking inception during shoaling will be reported. The experiments performed in a large wave tank examining breaking behavior of gentle spillers during shoaling on three different slopes suggest a validity of the recently proposed kinematic criterion. The breaking inception was found to occur when the horizontal velocity of the water surface on the steep (local steepness of 0.41-0.6) crest reaches a threshold value of 0.85-0.95 of that of the crest propagation. The exact moment and position of breaking inception detected using a Phase Time Method (PTM), characterizing a unique shape of the local frequency fluctuations at the inception. Future implementation of the PTM method for detection of breaking events in irregular wave fields will be discussed. Supported by German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (GIF) Grant #2019392.
Extensions and Applications of the Bohm Criterion
Baalrud, Scott D; Yee, Benjamin; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward
2014-01-01
The generalized Bohm criterion is revisited in the context of incorporating kinetic effects of the electron and ion distribution functions into the theory. The underlying assumptions and results of two different approaches are compared: The conventional `kinetic Bohm criterion' and a fluid-moment hierarchy approach. The former is based on the asymptotic limit of an infinitely thin sheath ($\\lambda_D/l =0$), whereas the latter is based on a perturbative expansion of a sheath that is thin compared to the plasma ($\\lambda_D/l \\ll 1$). Here $\\lambda_D$ is the Debye length, which characterizes the sheath length scale, and $l$ is a measure of the plasma or presheath length scale. The consequences of these assumptions are discussed in terms of how they restrict the class of distribution functions to which the resulting criteria can be applied. Two examples are considered to provide concrete comparisons between the two approaches. The first is a Tonks-Langmuir model including a warm ion source [Robertson 2009 \\textit...
Discriminant Validity Assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT Criterion
Hamid, M. R. Ab; Sami, W.; Mohmad Sidek, M. H.
2017-09-01
Assessment of discriminant validity is a must in any research that involves latent variables for the prevention of multicollinearity issues. Fornell and Larcker criterion is the most widely used method for this purpose. However, a new method has emerged for establishing the discriminant validity assessment through heterotrait-monotrait (HTMT) ratio of correlations method. Therefore, this article presents the results of discriminant validity assessment using these methods. Data from previous study was used that involved 429 respondents for empirical validation of value-based excellence model in higher education institutions (HEI) in Malaysia. From the analysis, the convergent, divergent and discriminant validity were established and admissible using Fornell and Larcker criterion. However, the discriminant validity is an issue when employing the HTMT criterion. This shows that the latent variables under study faced the issue of multicollinearity and should be looked into for further details. This also implied that the HTMT criterion is a stringent measure that could detect the possible indiscriminant among the latent variables. In conclusion, the instrument which consisted of six latent variables was still lacking in terms of discriminant validity and should be explored further.
A criterion for separating process calculi
Banti, Federico; Tiezzi, Francesco; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.2
2010-01-01
We introduce a new criterion, replacement freeness, to discern the relative expressiveness of process calculi. Intuitively, a calculus is strongly replacement free if replacing, within an enclosing context, a process that cannot perform any visible action by an arbitrary process never inhibits the capability of the resulting process to perform a visible action. We prove that there exists no compositional and interaction sensitive encoding of a not strongly replacement free calculus into any strongly replacement free one. We then define a weaker version of replacement freeness, by only considering replacement of closed processes, and prove that, if we additionally require the encoding to preserve name independence, it is not even possible to encode a non replacement free calculus into a weakly replacement free one. As a consequence of our encodability results, we get that many calculi equipped with priority are not replacement free and hence are not encodable into mainstream calculi like CCS and pi-calculus, t...
Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications
Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)
1994-12-31
The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.
Focusing criterion in DHM image reconstruction
Mihailescu, M.; Mihale, N.; Popescu, R. C.; Acasandrei, A.; Paun, I. A.; Dinescu, M.; Scarlat, E.
2015-02-01
This study is presenting the theoretical approach and the practical results of a precise activity involved in the hologram reconstruction in order to find the optimally focused image of MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultivated on polymeric flat substrates. The morphology and dynamic of the cell is investigated by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) technique. The reconstruction is digitally performed using an algorithm based on the scalar theory of diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. The quality of the 3D images of the cells is crucially depending on the focusing capability of the reconstruction chain to fit the parameters of the optical recorder, particularly the focusing value. Our proposal to find the focused image is based on the images decomposition on gray levels and their histogram analysis. More precisely the focusing criterion is based on the evaluation of the form of this distribution.
Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization
Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe
2016-06-01
Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.
Fuzzy Clustering with Novel Separable Criterion
无
2006-01-01
Fuzzy clustering has been used widely in pattern recognition, image processing, and data analysis. An improved fuzzy clustering algorithm was developed based on the conventional fuzzy c-means (FCM) to obtain better quality clustering results. The update equations for the membership and the cluster center are derived from the alternating optimization algorithm. Two fuzzy scattering matrices in the objective function assure the compactness between data points and cluster centers, and also strengthen the separation between cluster centers in terms of a novel separable criterion. The clustering algorithm properties are shown to be an improvement over the FCM method's properties. Numerical simulations show that the clustering algorithm gives more accurate clustering results than the FCM method.
Foresighting for Inclusive Development
Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand
We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation policy processes more inclusive, which in turn makes innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future-oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize ...... and processes in two foresight cases in two emerging economies - Brazil and South Korea. Although the research is exploratory and the results tentative, the empirical studies support our main propositions....
Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement
Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement
Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.
2014-01-01
n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement
Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise
2014-01-01
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal
Inclusive Education in Bangladesh
Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay
2007-01-01
This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…
Footstep towards Inclusive Education
Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba
2016-01-01
Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…
Gafoor, K. Abdul
2010-01-01
Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…
Salter, Derrick; Ashley, Mandi; Hayes, Brandalyn
2013-01-01
The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…
Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement
Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; Zee, van der Karen I.; Jans, Lise
2014-01-01
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal disti
Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement
Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.
2014-01-01
n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal distin
Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement
Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise
2014-01-01
In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal disti
2008-01-01
For inclusion to be effective, it is generally agreed that regular teachers should be receptive to the principles and demands of inclusion. This study was to investigate attitudes of 561 Vietnamese regular teachers towards inclusive education (IE) of students with disabilities at 24 lower secondary inclusive project schools funded by INGOs across Vietnam. The study was carried out following quantitative approach based on a survey design using self-administered questionnaire as the sole instru...
The PTSD supremacy: Criterion F in three Voyager cases.
Gaughwin, Peter
2009-04-01
The aim is to consider whether the courts and experts in their application of Criterion F for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have applied it consistently in civil claims brought years after the event. Three cases for compensation relating to the Voyager disaster are considered. It appears, from the cases considered in this paper, that while courts consider that Criterion F is crucial in making a diagnosis of PTSD, there are some inconsistencies in terms of understanding and applying this criterion, both by the courts and experts. This may be because of a lack of guidance in psychiatric texts as to how to apply Criterion F. Criterion F is, after the satisfaction of Criterion A(1), arguably the most important of the criteria for PTSD for, while the symptoms referred to in Criteria B-D have been shown to be fairly easy to simulate, it is arguably harder to do this with Criterion F, particularly in cases that arise a long time after the event. It is important therefore that psychiatrists assessing persons so long after an event adhere rigorously to Criterion F, because it is based on facts open to objective corroboration, while criteria B, C and D tend to rely on subjective experiences which are the most sensitive to distortion. Thus, it is to be hoped that if DSM-V is to maintain a criterion of clinically significant distress or impairment in the majority of the disorders described therein, it will provide some assistance as to how this criteria should be applied.
Bayesian information criterion for censored survival models.
Volinsky, C T; Raftery, A E
2000-03-01
We investigate the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) for variable selection in models for censored survival data. Kass and Wasserman (1995, Journal of the American Statistical Association 90, 928-934) showed that BIC provides a close approximation to the Bayes factor when a unit-information prior on the parameter space is used. We propose a revision of the penalty term in BIC so that it is defined in terms of the number of uncensored events instead of the number of observations. For a simple censored data model, this revision results in a better approximation to the exact Bayes factor based on a conjugate unit-information prior. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, we propose defining BIC in terms of the maximized partial likelihood. Using the number of deaths rather than the number of individuals in the BIC penalty term corresponds to a more realistic prior on the parameter space and is shown to improve predictive performance for assessing stroke risk in the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Manifestation of pernicious anaemia as hyperpigmentation of palms and soles
Srinivas Vaddadi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency produces various manifestations involving CNS, heart, skin, blood and female reproductive systems. It is seen most commonly in the older individuals, malabsorptive states and #8201;(>60% of all cases and vegetarians. Pernicious anaemia may be confused to Addison's disease as both may present with similar clinical features. Hereby we report a case of pernicious anaemia presenting with dermatological manifestation in the form of deep pigmentation of both palms of and both soles respectively, cortisol levels normal so Addition's disease ruled out. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1746-1748
Eclissi! Quando Sole e Luna danno spettacolo in cielo
Bastoni, Marco
2012-01-01
Le eclissi di Sole e di Luna sono fra gli spettacoli più avvincenti della Natura; questo libro è una guida completa alla loro osservazione e spiega come cercare, vivere e fotografare questi eventi senza necessariamente essere astrofili esperti. Cosa posso osservare durante un’eclisse? Da dove? E quando? Un’accurata selezione delle 10 eclissi imperdibili da qui al 2050 chiude l’opera, aiutando il lettore nella pianificazione delle osservazioni. Preparate i bagagli, guardate l’eclisse e lasciatevi emozionare!
[Fibromatosis plantaris Ledderhose (Dupuytren's contracture of the foot sole].
Villiger, K J
1982-05-01
Fibromatosis plantaris, also called Ledderhose disease, is presented on the basis of the limited literature available. The possible causes are mentioned. Two cases are reported of patients suffering from fibromatosis palmaris (Dupuytren) on both hands and fibromatosis plantaris (Ledderhose) on both feet simultaneously. It is suggested that more attention be paid to examination of the soles of the feet, especially after a period of immobilization and plaster fixation of the shank. On diagnosis of Ledderhose disease, surgery should be performed before the often irreversible deformation of the toes develops.
A study of the energy yield criterion of geomaterials
Gao Hong; Zheng Yingren; Feng Xiating; Zeng Jing
2010-01-01
The study results of the internal friction character of geomaterials conclude that the internal friction exists in mechanical elements all the time having a direction opposite to the shear stress,and the deformation failure mechanism of geomaterials greatly differs from that of metals.For metals,the failure results from shear stresses make the crystal structure slip;whereas for geomaterials,owing to its attribute of granular structures,their deformation follows the friction law,it is the co-action of shear stresses and perpendicular stresses that makes grains overcome the frictions between them,thus leading to the final failure of relative sliding.Therefore,on the basis of the cognition above,a triple shear energy criterion is proposed.Its corresponding Drucker-Prager criterion for geomaterials is also given.The new criterion can be rewritten to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion by neglecting the effect of the intermediate principal stress,and to the Mises criterion by not taking the internal friction angle into consideration.Then the studies of yield criteria commonly used are conducted systematical]y from the points of stress,strain and energy of geomaterials.The results show that no matter which expression form of stress,strain or energy is used for the yield criterion,the essence is the same and the triple shear energy yield criterion is the unified criterion of materials.Finally,the experimental verification is conducted in connection with the practical application of the triple shear energy yield criterion in an engineering project,and the calculation result shows that the Mohr-Coulomb criterion which only takes the single shear surface into account is more conservative than the energy criterion that does consider the effect of triple shear surfaces.
Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.
Norton, Elyse H; Fleming, Stephen M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Landy, Michael S
2017-01-01
Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.
A Difference Criterion for Dimensionality Reduction
Aved, A. J.; Blasch, E.; Peng, J.
2015-12-01
A dynamic data-driven geoscience application includes hyperspectral scene classification which has shown promising potential in many remote-sensing applications. A hyperspectral image of a scene spectral radiance is typically measured by hundreds of contiguous spectral bands or features, ranging from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) to shortwave infrared (SWIR). Spectral-reflectance measurements provide rich information for object detection and classification. On the other hand, they generate a large number of features, resulting in a high dimensional measurement space. However, a large number of features often poses challenges and can result in poor classification performance. This is due to the curse of dimensionality which requires model reduction, uncertainty quantification and optimization for real-world applications. In such situations, feature extraction or selection methods play an important role by significantly reducing the number of features for building classifiers. In this work, we focus on efficient feature extraction using the dynamic data-driven applications systems (DDDAS) paradigm. Many dimension reduction techniques have been proposed in the literature. A well-known technique is Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA finds the projection matrix that simultaneously maximizes a within class scatter matrix and minimizes a between class scatter matrix. However, LDA requires matrix inverse which can be a major issue when the within matrix is singular. We propose a difference criterion for dimension reduction that does not require a matrix inverse for software implementation. We show how to solve the optimization problem with semi-definite programming. In addition, we establish an error bound for the proposed algorithm. We demonstrate the connection between relief feature selection and a two class formulation of multi-class problems, thereby providing a sound basis for observed benefits associated with this formulation. Finally, we provide
Foresighting for Inclusive Development
Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand
2017-01-01
We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize such processes as foresighting. We focus on how the ex-ante design...... of policymaking processes affects the actual process with a focus on inclusion, and we discuss how it affects policy effectiveness and innovation system transformation. Our argument is that processes of policymaking must be inclusive to affect and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors......, rather than ministries and innovation agencies, is the gatekeepers of change. From this perspective, inclusion is a precondition rather than an obstacle for transformation. Based on the notion of innovation system foresight, we develop an analytical framework that we use to study design and processes...
Bott periodicity of inclusions
Mare, Augustin-Liviu
2011-01-01
When looking at Bott's original proof of his periodicity theorem for the stable homotopy groups of the orthogonal and unitary groups, one sees in the background a differential geometric periodicity phenomenon. We show that this geometric phenomenon extends to the standard inclusion of the orthogonal group into the unitary group. This explains the periodicity of the group homomorphisms between stable homotopy groups which are induced by the inclusion map. Standard inclusions between other classical Riemannian symmetric spaces are also discussed.
Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion
André Kunz
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.
Modified Schur-Cohn Criterion for Stability of Delayed Systems
Juan Ignacio Mulero-Martínez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A modified Schur-Cohn criterion for time-delay linear time-invariant systems is derived. The classical Schur-Cohn criterion has two main drawbacks; namely, (i the dimension of the Schur-Cohn matrix generates some round-off errors eventually resulting in a polynomial of s with erroneous coefficients and (ii imaginary roots are very hard to detect when numerical errors creep in. In contrast to the classical Schur-Cohn criterion an alternative approach is proposed in this paper which is based on the application of triangular matrices over a polynomial ring in a similar way as in the Jury test of stability for discrete systems. The advantages of the proposed approach are that it halves the dimension of the polynomial and it only requires seeking real roots, making this modified criterion comparable to the Rekasius substitution criterion.
Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups
Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is
MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF INCLUSION
T. V. Semenovskikh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article reveals the phenomenon of "multidime nsionality of inclusion", which is considered by the author in two dimensions: "vertical" and "horizontal". "Vertical" dimensional model includes five fu ndamental systems functioning inclusive society: social, economic, institutional, territorial and symbolic. "Horizontal" multidimensionality of inclusion – the inclusion of a person in group activities, his su bjective feeling. The author gives a classification of socio-cultural markers of inclusion in University of Tyumen, with an emphasis on availability and motivation of quality education, additional educational opportunities, professional training (described by the course "Tutor in inclusive education". The tutor in the inclusive educational environment – the person having the higher vocational education in the field of special pedagogy and psychology; experience of pedagogical, practical activities with persons with limited opportunities of health; having practical ideas of those spheres of activity which have a direct bearing on their training. The tutor in inclusion is the reflexive and reflexing personality understanding and holding a framework of the pr ofessional activity. The tutor, during the work with the resource card of the person is also neutral. "The multidimensionality of inclusion" is a metaphor, the translational motion vector from inclusive education to inclusive society.
Inclusion and Exclusion in Pre-school Institutions in Denmark
Næsby, Torben
2014-01-01
The paper will present the results of an investigation in the pre-schools, participating in the Danish LP-model (Nordahl et al), on which initiatives the pedagogies in these so-called LP-institutions take, in order to develop new practice. Building on earlier research in quality, inclusion...... is outlined as a high-quality criterion. Inclusion and exclusion is defined from the perspective of sociology and systems theory and the survey is based on a model for inclusion (Qvortrup) which is operationalized in the questionnaire. Based on theory of distinction and through a form analysis I will present...... the traditional understandings of how research knowledge can inform practice. Thus it becomes a question of the relationship between theory and practice as well. Furthermore, this leads to the assumption that the Danish inclusion-experiment is not likely to succeed, unless we find new ways to understand how...
Berg, C. A.; Carlson, W. D.; Connelly, James
2013-01-01
in the central Swiss Alps is extraordinarily valuable for calculation of strain rates during Alpine orogenesis, because the unusual zoning patterns clearly define the kinetics of its nucleation and growth. Complex concentric zoning patterns can be correlated from one crystal to another in a hand sample, based...... on compositional and microstructural similarities; the ubiquity of these features demonstrates that all garnet crystals nucleated at nearly the same time. Compositional bands whose radial widths are proportional to crystal size provide evidence for growth governed by the kinetics of intergranular diffusion...
Lyme disease: sudden hearing loss as the sole presentation.
Espiney Amaro, C; Montalvão, P; Huins, C; Saraiva, J
2015-02-01
Lyme disease is an uncommon tick-borne multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The most common clinical manifestation is erythema migrans. In this report, a very unusual presentation of this condition is described, in which sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss was the sole presenting symptom. Case report and review of English-language literature. A patient presented with sensorineural hearing loss, with no other symptoms or signs. Acute Lyme infection was detected by laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of labyrinthitis of the same inner ear. After hyperbaric oxygen and systemic antibiotic treatment, the patient showed total hearing recovery, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete resolution of the labyrinthitis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lyme disease presenting only with sensorineural hearing loss. Borreliosis should be considered as an aetiological factor in sensorineural hearing loss. Adequate treatment may provide total recovery and prevent more severe forms of Lyme disease.
Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms
Ollerton, Mike
2009-01-01
In this article, the author explores the theme of inclusion. Inclusion is one of the themes within the recent Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) publication: "Engaging mathematics for all learners" and the author had the good fortune to participate in this project. This involved working with five schools which, frivolously, all had a…
Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus
Mamas, Christoforos
2013-01-01
This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…
Walton, E.; Nel, N.
2012-01-01
In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…
Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus
Mamas, Christoforos
2013-01-01
This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…
Ainscow, Mel
1997-01-01
Uses classroom vignettes to examine reasons why schools in the United Kingdom are not yet generally successful in including students with disabilities and suggests simple ways that ordinary teachers can implement inclusive practices. These include the importance of teamwork, a school climate which encourages inclusive practices, and teacher…
Smith, Allister
2005-01-01
Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.
Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration
Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.
2011-01-01
Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…
Serhiyenko L.P.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The problem of determining associations between certain groups of sports and dermatoglyphics feet. The study involved 207 men, the general population (those who are not in sports, aged 17-19 years and 78 men highly skilled athletes. It is shown that as a criterion in the sports orientation of children and adolescents can be dermatoglyphics. The features of the structure of the foot dermatoglyphics in men of different sports specialties. There are informative signs dermatoglyphics thumb and feet, which can be recommended to assess the prospects of a particular athlete's motor activity. Among these are the types of finger patterns, combined account and certain dermatoglyphic phenotypes. It is proved that certain features of dermatoglyphics feet act as genetic markers in predicting propensity athletes to realize the potential of high specific energy pattern.
Failure Criterion for Brick Masonry: A Micro-Mechanics Approach
Kawa Marek
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the formulation of failure criterion for an in-plane loaded masonry. Using micro-mechanics approach the strength estimation for masonry microstructure with constituents obeying the Drucker-Prager criterion is determined numerically. The procedure invokes lower bound analysis: for assumed stress fields constructed within masonry periodic cell critical load is obtained as a solution of constrained optimization problem. The analysis is carried out for many different loading conditions at different orientations of bed joints. The performance of the approach is verified against solutions obtained for corresponding layered and block microstructures, which provides the upper and lower strength bounds for masonry microstructure, respectively. Subsequently, a phenomenological anisotropic strength criterion for masonry microstructure is proposed. The criterion has a form of conjunction of Jaeger critical plane condition and Tsai-Wu criterion. The model proposed is identified based on the fitting of numerical results obtained from the microstructural analysis. Identified criterion is then verified against results obtained for different loading orientations. It appears that strength of masonry microstructure can be satisfactorily described by the criterion proposed.
Robust Hammerstein Adaptive Filtering under Maximum Correntropy Criterion
Zongze Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The maximum correntropy criterion (MCC has recently been successfully applied to adaptive filtering. Adaptive algorithms under MCC show strong robustness against large outliers. In this work, we apply the MCC criterion to develop a robust Hammerstein adaptive filter. Compared with the traditional Hammerstein adaptive filters, which are usually derived based on the well-known mean square error (MSE criterion, the proposed algorithm can achieve better convergence performance especially in the presence of impulsive non-Gaussian (e.g., α-stable noises. Additionally, some theoretical results concerning the convergence behavior are also obtained. Simulation examples are presented to confirm the superior performance of the new algorithm.
Industry Software Trustworthiness Criterion Research Based on Business Trustworthiness
Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jun-fei; Jiao, Hai-xing; Shen, Yi; Liu, Shu-yuan
To industry software Trustworthiness problem, an idea aiming to business to construct industry software trustworthiness criterion is proposed. Based on the triangle model of "trustworthy grade definition-trustworthy evidence model-trustworthy evaluating", the idea of business trustworthiness is incarnated from different aspects of trustworthy triangle model for special industry software, power producing management system (PPMS). Business trustworthiness is the center in the constructed industry trustworthy software criterion. Fusing the international standard and industry rules, the constructed trustworthy criterion strengthens the maneuverability and reliability. Quantitive evaluating method makes the evaluating results be intuitionistic and comparable.
The Bohm criterion for a dusty plasma sheath
B P Pandey; Anjan Dutta
2005-07-01
The formation of the sheath in a dusty plasma is investigated. The Bohm criterion is derived for two different cases: (a) when electrons are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust grains provide the immobile, stationary background and (b) when both electrons and ions are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust grains are moving. In the first case, Bohm criterion gets modified due to the fluctuation of the charge on the grain surface. In the second case, the collisional and Coulombic drag play important role in determining the Bohm criterion.
Energy Criterion for the Spectral Stability of Discrete Breathers
Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.
2016-08-01
Discrete breathers are ubiquitous structures in nonlinear anharmonic models ranging from the prototypical example of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to Klein-Gordon nonlinear lattices, among many others. We propose a general criterion for the emergence of instabilities of discrete breathers analogous to the well-established Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion for solitary waves. The criterion involves the change of monotonicity of the discrete breather's energy as a function of the breather frequency. Our analysis suggests and numerical results corroborate that breathers with increasing (decreasing) energy-frequency dependence are generically unstable in soft (hard) nonlinear potentials.
Assessment of inclusive education
Miller, Tanja
2014-01-01
The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing...... the quality of the learning environment in regard to inclusion – this model draws heavily on the logic and mindset of ECERS (Early child environment program). This article will relate the rationale of the assessment model called “Dialoger om Kvalitet” (dialogues on quality) to LSP’s definition of inclusion...
Inclusion in Elementary Schools
Susan Allan Galis
1995-10-01
Full Text Available This study of reform policy focused on inclusive education in the 1990s in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Program modifications including, individualizing instructional methods, adapting the instructional environment, and lowering maximum class size emerged as significant issues. We found that policies related to these areas were compounded by the less experienced educators not readily accepting change strategies for serving students. Apparently younger educators are engrossed in surviving daily routine and have difficulty coping with the complex demands of change. Regular education teachers have difficulty with the idea of inclusion. Legal aspects dealing inclusion need clarification, especially for regular education teachers.
Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference
Nadejda Yu. Gubanova
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.
Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers
MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.
1978-01-01
Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)
A modified failure criterion for transversely isotropic rocks
Omid Saeidi; Vamegh Rasouli; Rashid Geranmayeh Vaneghi; Raoof Gholami; Seyed Rahman Torabi
2014-01-01
A modified failure criterion is proposed to determine the strength of transversely isotropic rocks. Me-chanical properties of some metamorphic and sedimentary rocks including gneiss, slate, marble, schist, shale, sandstone and limestone, which show transversely isotropic behavior, were taken into consider-ation. Afterward, introduced triaxial rock strength criterion was modified for transversely isotropic rocks. Through modification process an index was obtained that can be considered as a strength reduction parameter due to rock strength anisotropy. Comparison of the parameter with previous anisotropy in-dexes in literature showed reasonable results for the studied rock samples. The modified criterion was compared to modified Hoek-Brown and Ramamurthy criteria for different transversely isotropic rocks. It can be concluded that the modified failure criterion proposed in this study can be used for predicting the strength of transversely isotropic rocks.
On the Matrix Formulation of Kaiser's Varimax Criterion.
Neudecker, H.
1981-01-01
A full-fledged matrix derivation of Sherin's matrix formulation of Kaiser's varimax criterion is provided. Matrix differential calculus is used in conjunction with the Hadamard (or Schur) matrix product. Two results on Hadamard products are presented. (Author/JKS)
Bayesian Information Criterion as an Alternative way of Statistical Inference
Nadejda Yu. Gubanova; Simon Zh. Simavoryan
2012-01-01
The article treats Bayesian information criterion as an alternative to traditional methods of statistical inference, based on NHST. The comparison of ANOVA and BIC results for psychological experiment is discussed.
Angular criterion for distinguishing between Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction
Medina, F F; García-Sucerquia, J; Matteucci, G
2003-01-01
The distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction is a crucial condition for the accurate analysis of diffracting structures. In this paper we propose a criterion based on the angle subtended by the first zero of the diffraction pattern from the center of the diffracting aperture. The determination of the zero of the diffraction pattern is the crucial point for assuring the precision of the criterion. It mainly depends on the dynamical range of the detector. Therefore, the applicability of adequate thresholds for different detector types is discussed. The criterion is also generalized by expressing it in terms of the number of Fresnel zones delimited by the aperture. Simulations are reported for illustrating the feasibility of the criterion.
Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture
Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.
2015-01-01
Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.
Electrohydrodynamic flow caused by field-enhanced dissociation solely
Vasilkov, S. A.; Chirkov, V. A.; Stishkov, Yu. K.
2017-06-01
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows emerge in dielectric liquids under the action of the Coulomb force and underlie energy-efficient techniques for heat and mass transfer. The key issue in the phenomena is the way how the net charge is created. One of the most promising, yet poorly studied charge formation mechanisms is the field-enhanced dissociation (or the Wien effect). So the paper studies an EHD flow caused solely by the effect by virtue of both experiment and computer simulation. To preclude the competing mechanism of charge formation—the injection—a new EHD system of a special design was examined. Its main feature is the use of solid insulation to create the region of the strong electric field far from the electrode metal surfaces. The experimental study used the particle image velocimetry technique to observe velocity distributions, whereas the computations were based on the complete set of electrohydrodynamic equations employing the commercial software package COMSOL Multiphysics. Spatial distributions of key quantities (including the ion concentrations, the total space charge density, and the velocity) and the acting forces were obtained in the computer simulation and were analyzed. The experimental flow structure was observed for a number of voltages up to 30 kV. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results yielded a good quantitative agreement for strong electric fields though some overshoot was observed for weak ones. The results allow concluding on the applicability of the Onsager theory of the field-enhanced dissociation in the context of EHD flows.
Self-Adjointness Criterion for Operators in Fock Spaces
Falconi, Marco, E-mail: marco.falconi@univ-rennes1.fr [Université de Rennes I, IRMAR and Centre Henri Lebesgue (France)
2015-12-15
In this paper we provide a criterion of essential self-adjointness for operators in the tensor product of a separable Hilbert space and a Fock space. The class of operators we consider may contain a self-adjoint part, a part that preserves the number of Fock space particles and a non-diagonal part that is at most quadratic with respect to the creation and annihilation operators. The hypotheses of the criterion are satisfied in several interesting applications.
Trace Ratio Criterion for Feature Extraction in Classification
Guoqi Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A generalized linear discriminant analysis based on trace ratio criterion algorithm (GLDA-TRA is derived to extract features for classification. With the proposed GLDA-TRA, a set of orthogonal features can be extracted in succession. Each newly extracted feature is the optimal feature that maximizes the trace ratio criterion function in the subspace orthogonal to the space spanned by the previous extracted features.
Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard
The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...
Inclusive or managed democracy?
Mozambique's commitments to build an inclusive democracy, corruption unmasks ..... and the adoption of electoral and administrative rules that allow it to exist as .... In 2005, citizens were killed, injured and houses destroyed during a.
Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse
2016-01-01
Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion...... of some children with special needs. Hence the title – can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily...... on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity...
A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM
IONESCU Cozmin
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.
On the Smoothed Minimum Error Entropy Criterion
Badong Chen
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the minimum error entropy (MEE criterion can outperform the traditional mean square error criterion in supervised machine learning, especially in nonlinear and non-Gaussian situations. In practice, however, one has to estimate the error entropy from the samples since in general the analytical evaluation of error entropy is not possible. By the Parzen windowing approach, the estimated error entropy converges asymptotically to the entropy of the error plus an independent random variable whose probability density function (PDF corresponds to the kernel function in the Parzen method. This quantity of entropy is called the smoothed error entropy, and the corresponding optimality criterion is named the smoothed MEE (SMEE criterion. In this paper, we study theoretically the SMEE criterion in supervised machine learning where the learning machine is assumed to be nonparametric and universal. Some basic properties are presented. In particular, we show that when the smoothing factor is very small, the smoothed error entropy equals approximately the true error entropy plus a scaled version of the Fisher information of error. We also investigate how the smoothing factor affects the optimal solution. In some special situations, the optimal solution under the SMEE criterion does not change with increasing smoothing factor. In general cases, when the smoothing factor tends to infinity, minimizing the smoothed error entropy will be approximately equivalent to minimizing error variance, regardless of the conditional PDF and the kernel.
Limitations of inclusive fitness.
Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O
2013-12-10
Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.
Continuous biogas production from fodder beet silage as sole substrate
Scherer, P.A.; Dobler, S.; Rohardt, S. [University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg (Germany). Research Centre of Environmental Bioengineering and Applied Biotechnology; Loock, R.; Buettner, B.; Noeldeke, P.; Brettschuh, A. [Loock Environmental Technologies, Hamburg (Germany)
2003-07-01
Since April 2000 a two-step anaerobic plant with two subsequent 500 m{sup 3} reactors has been producing biogas from fodder beet silage (pH 4.1) as the sole substrate. The plant is located at Kirchlengern near Bielefeld, Germany. Initially the reactors were inoculated with swine manure at 37{sup o}C. After a start-up phase the process was sustained at pH 7.5-8.0 by feeding with the silage as sole substrate twice a day. Parallel to the biogas plant at Kirchlengern four one-step laboratory reactors were continuously driven at temperatures of 37{sup o}C, 45{sup o}C, 60{sup o}C and 65{sup o}C. They were fed with the same silage, but only once per day (one impulse). The organic loading rate (OLR) was adjusted to 3.9 g volatile solids (VS)/(l*d) with a concomitant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 27 d. There was no problem with starting the reactors, but after 86 days the volumetric gas production of the 65{sup o}C reactor ceased and a high amount of approximately 130 mM propionate could be determined. By decreasing the temperature down to 60{sup o}C a stable reactor performance was recovered for a period of at least 250 further days. During impulse feeding it was observed that the quickest recovery of gas production could be observed at 37{sup o}C or at 45{sup o}C. Recovery of 75% gas volume (related to the value before or after impulse feeding) was obtained after 5.5 and 7.5 h of feeding time point whereas the 60{sup o}C reactor needed 16 h. Slight significant differences were seen in the spectrum of volatile fatty acids (VFA) reaching at 37{sup o} or 45{sup o}C its maximum with 10-30 mM total VFA at 2-3 h after feeding. After this the VFA level declined to nearly zero (except for the 60{sup o}C reactor). Therefore the 37{sup o}C reactor was favoured. A double experiment with a second 37{sup o}C reactor was started by a somewhat different inoculation procedure from the remaining 3 reactors, but revealed similar results. By increasing the temperature no significantly
Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.
Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T
2016-01-21
A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.
Lopes Ferraz Filho, Jose R.; Pontes Munis, Marcos; Soares Souza, Antonio; Sanches, Rafael A. [Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Imaging Department, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goloni-Bertollo, Eni M.; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika C. [Center of Research and Attendance in Neurofibromatosis, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2008-03-15
Lesions of the brain denominated as unidentified bright objects (UBOs), which are not included in the diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have been detected by MRI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of including the presence of UBOs as a diagnostic criterion for NF1 in children. The study included 88 children between the ages of 2 and 18 years. The case group consisted of 40 children diagnosed with sporadic or familial NF1 according to the criteria established by the NIH. A control group consisted of 48 individuals referred for routine MRI of the brain for other complaints not related to NF1. UBOs were identified in 70% of the NF1 patients and in none of the control group. The sensitivity of the presence of UBOs for the diagnosis of NF1 was 70% (CI 53-83%), with a false-negative rate of 30% (CI 27-47%), a specificity of 100% (CI 86-100%) and a false-positive rate of 0% (CI 0-14%). Faced with the difficulties in diagnosing NF1 in children and the high frequency and specificity of the presence UBOs identified by MRI in our series, we recommend the inclusion of the presence UBOs as a diagnostic criterion for NF1 in children. (orig.)
Formulation of cross-anisotropic failure criterion for soils
Yi-fei SUN
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Inherently anisotropic soil fabric has a considerable influence on soil strength. To model this kind of inherent anisotropy, a three-dimensional anisotropic failure criterion was proposed, employing a scalar-valued anisotropic variable and a modified general three- dimensional isotropic failure criterion. The scalar-valued anisotropic variable in all sectors of the deviatoric plane was defined by correlating a normalized stress tensor with a normalized fabric tensor. Detailed comparison between the available experimental data and the corresponding model predictions in the deviatoric plane was conducted. The proposed failure criterion was shown to well predict the failure behavior in all sectors, especially in sector II with the Lode angle ranging between 60º and 120º, where the prediction was almost in accordance with test data. However, it was also observed that the proposed criterion overestimated the strength of dense Santa Monica Beach sand in sector III where the intermediate principal stress ratio b varied from approximately 0.2 to 0.8, and slightly underestimated the strength when b was between approximately 0.8 and 1. The difference between the model predictions and experimental data was due to the occurrence of shear bending, which might reduce the measured strength. Therefore, the proposed anisotropic failure criterion has a strong ability to characterize the failure behavior of various soils and potentially allows a better description of the influence of the loading direction with respect to the soil fabric.
Lucía López Menéndez
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Nowadays schools have to direct all efforts towards the comprehensive development of all students whatever their individual characteristics and their environment; they have to give a quality educational attention a qualified educational attention to the diversity in all their schools. This article presents an approach on the possibilities of developing a self-assessment using the Guide: "Index for Inclusion": “Index for Inclusion” published in the United kingdom by Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE Tony Booth - Mel Ainscow (2002. This guide is a simple tool intended for schools to evaluate their reality in relation to important aspects of school organization and teaching-learning from the perspective of inclusion. From this self-assessment they can design specific programs to guide their educacional practice.
A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in DSM-5
Verweij, K.J.H.; Agrawal, A.; Nat, N.O.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.; Martin, N.G.; Lynskey, M.T.
2013-01-01
Background Various studies support the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in the diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in the upcoming DSM-5. The aims of the current study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal (criterion B), (2) estimate the role of genetic and
A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in DSM-5
Verweij, K.J.H.; Agrawal, A.; Nat, N.O.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.; Martin, N.G.; Lynskey, M.T.
2013-01-01
Background Various studies support the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in the diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in the upcoming DSM-5. The aims of the current study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal (criterion B), (2) estimate the role of genetic and environmen
Creative activity and inclusion
Shemanov A.Yu.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.
Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion
was intended to focus on the challenge for all schools today - the challenge of being the inclusive school for all! The programme included plenary lectures, paper presentations, workshops, network meetings, "walk and talk" and social events. There were around 100 participants from all Nordic countries (Denmark......This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...
Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion
Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie
2011-01-01
This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…
Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion
Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie
2011-01-01
This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…
Bipartite quantum systems: on the realignment criterion and beyond
Lupo, Cosmo; Aniello, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Scardicchio, Antonello [Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: lupo@na.infn.it, E-mail: aniello@na.infn.it, E-mail: ascardic@princeton.edu
2008-10-17
Inspired by the 'computable cross norm' or 'realignment' criterion, we propose a new point of view about the characterization of the states of bipartite quantum systems. We consider a Schmidt decomposition of a bipartite density operator. The corresponding Schmidt coefficients, or the associated symmetric polynomials, are regarded as quantities that can be used to characterize bipartite quantum states. In particular, starting from the realignment criterion, a family of necessary conditions for the separability of bipartite quantum states are derived. We conjecture that these conditions, which are weaker than the parent criterion, can be strengthened in such a way to obtain a new family of criteria that are independent of the original one. This conjecture is supported by numerical examples for the low dimensional cases. These ideas can be applied to the study of quantum channels, leading to a relation between the rate of contraction of a map and its ability to preserve entanglement.
A Joint Optimization Criterion for Blind DS-CDMA Detection
Sergio A. Cruces-Alvarez
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the blind detection of a desired user in an asynchronous DS-CDMA communications system with multipath propagation channels. Starting from the inverse filter criterion introduced by Tugnait and Li in 2001, we propose to tackle the problem in the context of the blind signal extraction methods for ICA. In order to improve the performance of the detector, we present a criterion based on the joint optimization of several higher-order statistics of the outputs. An algorithm that optimizes the proposed criterion is described, and its improved performance and robustness with respect to the near-far problem are corroborated through simulations. Additionally, a simulation using measurements on a real software-radio platform at 5 GHz has also been performed.
Li's criterion for the Riemann hypothesis - numerical approach
Krzysztof Maślanka
2004-01-01
Full Text Available There has been some interest in a criterion for the Riemann hypothesis proved recently by Xian-Jin Li [Li X.-J.: The Positivity of a Sequence of Numbers and the Riemann Hypothesis. J. Number Theory 65 (1997, 325-333]. The present paper reports on a numerical computation of the first 3300 of Li's coefficients which appear in this criterion. The main empirical observation is that these coefficients can be separated in two parts. One of these grows smoothly while the other is very small and oscillatory. This apparent smallness is quite unexpected. If it persisted till infinity then the Riemann hypothesis would be true.
Paleomagnetism as a structural polarity criterion: application to Tunisian diapirs
Henry, Bernard; Rouvier, Henri; Le Goff, Maxime; Smati, Amor; Hatira, Nouri; Laatar, Essaied; Mansouri, Abdelbaki; Perthuisot, Vincent
2000-03-01
In the Upper Aptian-Albian units, close to Triassic displaced bodies of northwestern Tunisia, the primary magnetization acquired during the Cretaceous period of normal magnetic polarity yields an unquestionable structural polarity criterion. The use of this criterion confirms the diapiric origin of these Triassic bodies and aids understanding of the evolution of the diapirs. It also appears to be a useful tool for the analysis of the geometry of overturning. An Eocene halokinesis on the platform south of the Tunisian Channel is also indicated by analysis of magnetic overprint in the Jebel Slata.
A New Criterion for Disruption Prediction on HL-2A
YANG Qing-Wei; JI Xiao-Quan; DING Xuan-Tong; HL-2A team; ZHOU Hang-Yu; FENG Bei-Bin; LIU Yi; PAN Yu-Dong; LI Wei; DUAN Xu-Ru; CHEN Wei; CUI Zheng-Ying
2006-01-01
@@ A new criterion has been proposed to predict the major disruptions caused by tearing mode instabilities. According to the HL-2A experimental results, the statistical analyses are employed to investigate the relationships between MHD activities and the plasma disruptions. Two kinds of the tearing mode activities can finally cause the disruption on HL-2A operations. By introducing a new parameter, i.e. an integral of poloidal magnetic field over time, as the criterion of disruption precursor, almost all of the disruptions can be predicted.
Automatic control systems satisfying certain general criterions on transient behavior
Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard
1952-01-01
An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.
Non-Equilibrium Gibbs' Criterion for Completely Wetting Volatile Liquids
Tsoumpas, Yannis; Galvagno, Mariano; Rednikov, Alexey; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thiele, Uwe; Colinet, Pierre
2014-01-01
During the spreading of a liquid over a solid substrate, the contact line can stay pinned at sharp edges until the contact angle exceeds a critical value. At (or sufficiently near) equilibrium, this is known as Gibbs' criterion. Here, we show both experimentally and theoretically that for completely wetting volatile liquids there also exists a dynamically-produced critical angle for depinning, which increases with the evaporation rate. This suggests that one may introduce a simple modification of the Gibbs' criterion for (de)pinning, that accounts for the non-equilibrium effect of evaporation.
A derivability criterion based on the existence of adjunctions
Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Beatriz
2012-01-01
In this paper we introduce a derivability criterion of functors based on the existence of adjunctions rather than on the existence of resolutions. It constitutes a converse of Quillen-Maltsiniotis derived adjunction theorem. We present two applications of our derivability criterion. On the one hand, we prove that the two notions for homotopy colimits corresponding to Grothendieck derivators and Quillen model categories are equivalent. On the other hand, we deduce that the internal hom for derived Morita theory constructed by B. To\\"en is indeed the right derived functor of the internal hom of dg-categories.
Many-particle entanglement criterion for superradiant-like states
Tasgin, Mehmet Emre
2016-01-01
We derive a many-particle inseparability criterion for mixed states using the relation between single-mode and many-particle nonclassicalities. It works very well not only in the vicinity of the Dicke states, but also for the superposition of them: superradiant ground state of finite/infinite number of particles and time evolution of single-photon superradiance. We also obtain a criterion for ensemble-field entanglement which works fine for such kind of states. Even though the collective excitations of the many-particle system is sub-Poissonian --which results in entanglement-- the wave function displays bunching.
OIL MONITORING DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIONS BASED ON MAXIMUM ENTROPY PRINCIPLE
Huo Hua; Li Zhuguo; Xia Yanchun
2005-01-01
A method of applying maximum entropy probability density estimation approach to constituting diagnostic criterions of oil monitoring data is presented. The method promotes the precision of diagnostic criterions for evaluating the wear state of mechanical facilities, and judging abnormal data. According to the critical boundary points defined, a new measure on monitoring wear state and identifying probable wear faults can be got. The method can be applied to spectrometric analysis and direct reading ferrographic analysis. On the basis of the analysis and discussion of two examples of 8NVD48A-2U diesel engines, the practicality is proved to be an effective method in oil monitoring.
Raising Achievement through Inclusion
Persson, Elisabeth
2013-01-01
In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose of…
Anthropology and inclusive development
Bakker, L.; Nooteboom, G.
Although the term inclusive development is still rare in anthropological texts, it is a key element of anthropology’s relation to development. Concerns of in/exclusion, unequal power relations and (lack of) voice are central here. Anthropology’s encounter with development primarily focuses on a
Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion
This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...
Freund, Maxine
1994-01-01
These two newsletter issues focus on training strategies for developing more inclusive programs for children with disabilities and for developing collaborative programs. An interview with Dr. Barbara Wolfe addresses successful inservice teacher training strategies. Additional information in the first issue includes guidelines for empowering…
Penile Epidermal Inclusion Cyst
M. El-Shazly
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis.
Collaborative Support for Inclusion
Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar
2016-01-01
Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…
Indirect Methods of Detecting and Evaluating Inclusions in Steel——A Review
ZHANG Li-feng
2006-01-01
Indirect methods to detect and evaluate inclusions in steel are extensively reviewed, which include total oxygen content measurement, nitrogen pickup, steel and slag composition measurement, lining refractory observation, tracer studies of determining exogenous inclusions from slag and lining erosion, SEN clogging and final product tests. There is no single ideal method of detecting and evaluating inclusions in steel, so it is better to use several methods simultaneously to give a more accurate evaluation. Total oxygen content and nitrogen pickup in low carbon aluminum-killed steel as criterion of clean steel in many plants are summarized.
A conjugacy criterion for Hall subgroups in finite groups
Revin, D O
2010-01-01
A finite group $G$ is said to satisfy $C_\\pi$ for a set of primes $\\pi$, if $G$ possesses exactly one class of conjugate $\\pi$-Hall subgroups. In the paper we obtain a criterion for a finite group $G$ to satisfy $C_\\pi$ in terms of a normal series of the group.
The criterion of pulse reconstruction quality based on Wigner representation
Yeremenko, S.; Baltuska, A.; Pshenichnikov, M.S; Wiersma, D. A.
2000-01-01
We propose a new criterion for the assessment of ultrashort pulse reconstruction quality. Our idea is based on the use of a two-dimensional Wigner representation of the electric field. This allows introducing a single measure to represent the quality of both phase and amplitude retrieval. The new cr
An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some…
Decision models for use with criterion-referenced tests
van der Linden, Willem J.
1980-01-01
The problem of mastery decisions and optimizing cutoff scores on criterion-referenced tests is considered. This problem can be formalized as an (empirical) Bayes problem with decisions rules of a monotone shape. Next, the derivation of optimal cutoff scores for threshold, linear, and normal ogive lo
Slope stability analysis using limit equilibrium method in nonlinear criterion.
Lin, Hang; Zhong, Wenwen; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Wenyu
2014-01-01
In slope stability analysis, the limit equilibrium method is usually used to calculate the safety factor of slope based on Mohr-Coulomb criterion. However, Mohr-Coulomb criterion is restricted to the description of rock mass. To overcome its shortcomings, this paper combined Hoek-Brown criterion and limit equilibrium method and proposed an equation for calculating the safety factor of slope with limit equilibrium method in Hoek-Brown criterion through equivalent cohesive strength and the friction angle. Moreover, this paper investigates the impact of Hoek-Brown parameters on the safety factor of slope, which reveals that there is linear relation between equivalent cohesive strength and weakening factor D. However, there are nonlinear relations between equivalent cohesive strength and Geological Strength Index (GSI), the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock σ ci , and the parameter of intact rock m i . There is nonlinear relation between the friction angle and all Hoek-Brown parameters. With the increase of D, the safety factor of slope F decreases linearly; with the increase of GSI, F increases nonlinearly; when σ ci is relatively small, the relation between F and σ ci is nonlinear, but when σ ci is relatively large, the relation is linear; with the increase of m i , F decreases first and then increases.
A modified Burzynski criterion for anisotropic pressure-dependent materials
FARZAD MOAYYEDIAN; MEHRAN KADKHODAYAN
2017-01-01
In this paper the Burzynski criterion, which was introduced for isotropic pressure-dependent materials, is modified for anisotropic pressure-dependent materials in plane-stress condition. The modified criterion can be calibrated with 10 experimental data points such as tensile stress at 0°, 45° and 90°, compressive stress at 0° and 90° and R-values in tensile stress at 0°, 45° and 90° from rolling direction and also biaxial tensilestress and tensile R-value. To identify the anisotropic parameters an error function is set up through comparison of the predicted yield stresses and R-values with those from experiments. Then the Downhill simplex method is applied to solve 10 high-nonlinearity equations. Finally, considering Al 2008-T4 (BCC), Al 2090-T3 (FCC),AZ31 (HCP) and also Mg–0.5% Th alloy, Mg–4% Li alloy, pure textured magnesium, textured magnesium andTi–4Al–1/4O2, which are HCP materials with ep¼ 1%; 5%; 10% as case studies and comparing the results for the modified Burzynski criterion with experiments, it is shown that the Burzynski criterion is appropriate for pressure-dependent anisotropic materials with proper accuracy.
Lost-sales inventory systems with a service level criterion
Bijvank, Marco; Vis, Iris F. A.
2012-01-01
Competitive retail environments are characterized by service levels and lost sales in case of excess demand. We contribute to research on lost-sales models with a service level criterion in multiple ways. First, we study the optimal replenishment policy for this type of inventory system as well as
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles
Peise, Jan; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.;
2016-01-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, as shown successfully...
Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time
Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
2011-01-01
The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (
Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time
Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
2012-01-01
The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (
Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?
Beims, Marcus W; Gallas, Jason A C
2016-11-15
We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback.
Alignment of Lyapunov Vectors: A Quantitative Criterion to Predict Catastrophes?
Beims, Marcus W.; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2016-11-01
We argue that the alignment of Lyapunov vectors provides a quantitative criterion to predict catastrophes, i.e. the imminence of large-amplitude events in chaotic time-series of observables generated by sets of ordinary differential equations. Explicit predictions are reported for a Rössler oscillator and for a semiconductor laser with optoelectronic feedback.
A convenient accuracy criterion for time domain FE-calculations
Jensen, Morten Skaarup
1997-01-01
An accuracy criterion that is well suited to tome domain finite element (FE) calculations is presented. It is then used to develop a method for selecting time steps and element meshes that produce accurate results without significantly overburderning the computer. Use of this method is illustrate...
Creativity.4in1: Four-Criterion Construct of Creativity
Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this theoretical article is to provide an extended definition of creativity that embraces potential cross-cultural variations in this construct. Creativity is defined as a 4-criterion construct, which includes attributes of novelty, utility, aesthetics, and authenticity. Novelty attribute stipulates that a creative work brings…
Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time
Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
2012-01-01
The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns
Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time
Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
2011-01-01
The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns
Orthogonality criterion for banishing hydrino states from standard quantum mechanics
Castro, Antonio S. de [Universidade de Coimbra, Centro de Fisica Computacional, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP (Brazil)], E-mail: castro@pesquisador.cnpq.br
2007-10-01
Orthogonality criterion is used to show in a very simple and general way that anomalous bound-state solutions for the Coulomb potential (hydrino states) do not exist as bona fide solutions of the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations.
2013-03-29
... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Aquifer System located in Kitsap County, Washington is the sole or principle source of drinking water...
26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The exchange, without...
Østergaard, Charlotte; Rostbøll, Solveig Fogh
2015-01-01
and is often a bad experience for students who do not have the required skills or the necessary competitive mentality. The purpose of the study is to generate increased knowledge of how to work with inclusive education in PE in schools. The aims of the study are to identify groups of “outsiders” and to find......EN317 - Inclusive Physical Education - with a focus on active and successful participation Charlotte Østergaard, Solveig Fogh Rostbøll, Department of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College (DK) chao@phmetropol.dk The Danish School Reform 2014 intends to raise the amount and intensity...... of PA in schools. A considerable percentage of Danish children do not participate in PA and are marginalized in PE lessons. One of the primary problems is that PE in Danish schools is characterized by a performative culture. Several studies confirm that PE is characterized by performative ideals...
Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm
Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex
2016-10-01
Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment.
The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley
Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.
2003-01-01
The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...... from the sole cropped pea and barley lysimeters. Soil N balances indicated depletion of N in the soil-plant system during the experimental period, independent of cropping system and residue management. N complementarity in the cropping system and the synchrony between residual N availability and crop N...
Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg
2012-01-01
coverage of the prediction intervals, i.e. the bias between these coverages should ideally be zero. The sharpness is a measure of the distance between the lower and upper prediction limits, and skill score criterion makes it possible to pinpoint the preferred model by taking into account both reliability...... term and a diffusion term, respectively accounting for the deterministic and stochastic part of the models. Furthermore, a distinction is made between the process noise and the observation noise. We compare five different model candidates’ predictive performances that solely differ with respect...... to the diffusion term description up to a 4 h prediction horizon by adopting the prediction performance measures; reliability, sharpness and skill score to pinpoint the preferred model. The prediction performance of a model is reliable if the observed coverage of the prediction intervals corresponds to the nominal...
Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo
2015-01-01
Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…
Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo
2015-01-01
Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…
Madou, Komlanvi; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste
2012-05-01
The aim of this paper is to fully determine the parameters of the approximate homogenized yield criterion for porous ductile solids containing arbitrary ellipsoidal cavities proposed in Part I. This is done through improvements of the limit-analysis of some representative hollow cell presented there. The improvements are of two kinds. For hydrostatic loadings, the limit-analysis is refined by performing micromechanical finite element computations in a number of significant cases, so as to replace Leblond and Gologanu (2008)'s trial velocity field representing the expansion of the void by the exact, numerically determined one. For deviatoric loadings, limit-analysis is dropped and direct use is made of some general rigorous results for nonlinear composites derived by Ponte-Castaneda (1991), Willis (1991) and Michel and Suquet (1992) using the earlier work of Willis (1977) and the concept of "linear comparison material". This hybrid approach is thought to lead to the best possible expressions of the yield criterion parameters. The criterion proposed reduces to (variants of) classical approximate criteria proposed by Gurson (1977) and Gologanu et al. (1993, 1994, 1997) in the specific cases of spherical or spheroidal, prolate or oblate cavities. An overview of the validation of this criterion through micromechanical finite element computations is finally presented.
Manchado, Manuel; Catanese, Gaetano; Ponce, Marian; Funes, Victoria; Infante, Carlos
2007-06-01
The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome for the Senegal sole Solea senegalensis Kaup was determined. The mitochondrial DNA was 16,659 base pairs (bp) in length. Sequence features of the 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs are described. The non-coding control region (1017 bp) was compared with those of the closely related soles Solea solea and Solea lascaris. The typical conservative blocks were identified. A cluster of 42 and 22 tandemly arrayed repeats was detected near the 3' end of control region in S. solea and S. lascaris, respectively. On the contrary, only two (93.8% of haplotypes) or three copies (6.2%) of an 8-bp repeated sequence motif was found in S. senegalensis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 7 out of 9 of haplotypes bearing three copies grouped in a separate cluster. Possible mechanisms influencing the evolution of control region among soles are discussed.
Papadopoulos, Georgios O
2014-01-01
A classic, double problem with intriguing implications at the level of both applied differential geometry and theoretical physics is dealt with in this short work: Is there any criterion in order to decide whether a pseudo-Riemannian space can be locally described using curvature scalars solely? Also: In the case where such a description is impossible, does the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm constitute the only refuge? Surprisingly enough, the first question is susceptible of a very simple and elegant answer, while a naive scheme carries the ambition of providing (modulo specific restrictions) a negative answer to the second question. In order to avoid unnecessary complexity, the analysis is restricted to local rather than global considerations, without any loss of not only the generality but also the insights to the initial problem.
Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education
Alekhina S.V.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.
Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture
Futaba, Yasuko
2016-01-01
This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…
Inclusive Education in South Korea
Kim, Yong-Wook
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…
Inclusive Education in South Korea
Kim, Yong-Wook
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…
Sole means navigation and integrity through hybrid Loran-C and NAVSTAR GPS
Vangraas, Frank
1990-01-01
A sole means navigation system does not only call for integrity, but also for coverage, reliability, availability and accuracy. Even though ground monitored GPS will provide integrity, availability is still not sufficient. One satellite outage can affect a large service area for several hours per day. The same holds for differential GPS; a total satellite outage cannot be corrected for. To obtain sufficient coverage, extra measurements are needed, either in the form of extra GPS satellites (expensive) or through redundant measurements from other systems. LORAN-C is available and will, hybridized with GPS, result in a system that has the potential to satisfy the requirements for a sole means navigation system for use in the continental United States. Assumptions are made about the qualification sole means, mainly based on current sole means systems such as VOR/DME. In order to allow for system design that will satisfy sole means requirements, it is recommended that a definition of a sole means navigation system be established. This definition must include requirements for availability, reliability, and integrity currently not specified. In addition to the definition of a sole means navigation system, certification requirements must be established for hybrid navigation systems. This will allow for design and production of a new generation of airborne navigation systems that will reduce overall system costs and simplify training procedures.
An important reference criterion for the selection of GSSP
无
2000-01-01
A study on the relationship between biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy in several designated global boundary stratotypes shows that the best way may be to take the GSSP at a point coincident with the base of the first widespread Leading Group biozone above the first flooding surface (FFS) of the relevant third-order sequence.It is suggested that the first flooding surface of the sequence should be an important reference criterion for the selection of GSSP.As the base of the first widespread Leading Group biozone chosen for the definition of GSSP could not be lower than the first flooding surface of the referred sequence,the latter surface may be an important criterion for the recognition and correlation of the chronostratigraphic boundaries.
A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems
Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke
1989-04-01
A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems.
Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making
Ivan Vrana
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.
A Non-Termination Criterion for Binary Constraint Logic Programs
Payet, Etienne
2008-01-01
On the one hand, termination analysis of logic programs is now a fairly established research topic within the logic programming community. On the other hand, non-termination analysis seems to remain a much less attractive subject. If we divide this line of research into two kinds of approaches: dynamic versus static analysis, this paper belongs to the latter. It proposes a criterion for detecting non-terminating atomic queries with respect to binary CLP rules, which strictly generalizes our previous works on this subject. We give a generic operational definition and an implemented logical form of this criterion. Then we show that the logical form is correct and complete with respect to the operational definition.
A unified criterion for the growth and coalescence of microvoids
Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Benzerga, A. Amine; Kondo, Djimédo
2016-12-01
A yield criterion is developed which unifies void growth and void coalescence theories. Standard void growth theory assumes that plastic flow is diffuse, if not prevalent everywhere within the matrix of the elementary cell considered. On the other hand, void coalescence theory assumes states of post-localized plasticity whereby plastic flow is restricted to intervoid ligaments. The new theory accommodates both scenarios through some appropriate choice of microscopic velocity fields. An important implication for actual evolution problems is a seamless transition from void growth to void coalescence. This is in contrast with previous hybrid approaches whereby abrupt transitions are associated with the presence of unavoidable corners in the effective yield surface. More generally, the new criterion is applicable to describe yielding in porous metal plasticity for both low and high void volume fractions.
Bayesian Case-deletion Model Complexity and Information Criterion.
Zhu, Hongtu; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Qingxia
2014-10-01
We establish a connection between Bayesian case influence measures for assessing the influence of individual observations and Bayesian predictive methods for evaluating the predictive performance of a model and comparing different models fitted to the same dataset. Based on such a connection, we formally propose a new set of Bayesian case-deletion model complexity (BCMC) measures for quantifying the effective number of parameters in a given statistical model. Its properties in linear models are explored. Adding some functions of BCMC to a conditional deviance function leads to a Bayesian case-deletion information criterion (BCIC) for comparing models. We systematically investigate some properties of BCIC and its connection with other information criteria, such as the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). We illustrate the proposed methodology on linear mixed models with simulations and a real data example.
Adaptive Linear Filtering Design with Minimum Symbol Error Probability Criterion
Sheng Chen
2006-01-01
Adaptive digital filtering has traditionally been developed based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE)criterion and has found ever-increasing applications in communications. This paper presents an alternative adaptive filtering design based on the minimum symbol error rate (MSER) criterion for communication applications. It is shown that the MSER filtering is smarter, as it exploits the non-Gaussian distribution of filter output effectively. Consequently, it provides significant performance gain in terms of smaller symbol error over the MMSE approach. Adopting Parzen window or kernel density estimation for a probability density function, a block-data gradient adaptive MSER algorithm is derived. A stochastic gradient adaptive MSER algorithm, referred to as the least symbol error rate, is further developed for sampleby-sample adaptive implementation of the MSER filtering. Two applications, involving single-user channel equalization and beamforming assisted receiver, are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of the proposed adaptive MSER filtering approach.
Graham Frederick Welch
2014-07-01
Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.
Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc
2014-01-01
There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514
Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc
2014-01-01
There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.
Colfelt, Solvej
2012-01-01
CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... hospital complexes ? The article will explore the fundament of wayshowing on the basis of prior research as well as on the basis of the results of a case study in a large existing danish hospital complex. The result points to signage being an inevitable factor but also that it is a factor that is not very...
Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg
. The manuscripts presented in this thesis have provided critical insights into the origin and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes as well as the formation and transport history of chondrules and, by extension, the precursor material to asteroidal and planetary bodies. The proposal of 26Al heterogeneity...... and the observation of a reduced initial abundance of 26Al in the accretion regions of chondrules and asteroidal bodies impacts our understanding of the accretion timescales of protoplanets in a significant way. Combining high-precision isotope measurements of multiple systems on individual meteoritic inclusions...
Colfelt, Solvej
2012-01-01
CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... years. The primary part of the sum is to be used on new large hospital complexes. The 5 danish regions are the quarantor of healthcare quality and responsible for the projects of 5 new hospital complexes. The complexes are planned to be the size of willages of 5000-8000 inhabitants…. Finding your way...
Large, moderate, small earthquakes and seismic fortification criterion
沈建文; 石树中
2004-01-01
This paper discusses the relation between two-step seismic design and the standard of probability of exceedance, and the relation of three-levels seismic ground motion parameters given by probability method and comprehensive probability method. The relative size relations of the ground motions with 2%, 10%, 63% probability of exceedance in 50 years, namely "large earthquake","moderate earthquake", and "small earthquake", are discussed through a practical example of seismic hazard analysis. The methods to determine seismic fortification criterion are discussed.
Convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity of DSM-5 traits.
Yalch, Matthew M; Hopwood, Christopher J
2016-10-01
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edi.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) contains a system for diagnosing personality disorder based in part on assessing 25 maladaptive traits. Initial research suggests that this aspect of the system improves the validity and clinical utility of the Section II Model. The Computer Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD; Simms et al., 2011) contains many similar traits as the DSM-5, as well as several additional traits seemingly not covered in the DSM-5. In this study we evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity between the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), and CAT-PD in an undergraduate sample, and test whether traits included in the CAT-PD but not the DSM-5 provide incremental validity in association with clinically relevant criterion variables. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 and CAT-PD scales in their assessment of 23 out of 25 DSM-5 traits. DSM-5 traits were consistently associated with 11 criterion variables, despite our having intentionally selected clinically relevant criterion constructs not directly assessed by DSM-5 traits. However, the additional CAT-PD traits provided incremental information above and beyond the DSM-5 traits for all criterion variables examined. These findings support the validity of pathological trait models in general and the DSM-5 and CAT-PD models in particular, while also suggesting that the CAT-PD may include additional traits for consideration in future iterations of the DSM-5 system. (PsycINFO Database Record
A Dynamic Stability Criterion for Ice Shelves and Tidewater Glaciers
Bassis, J. N.; Fricker, H. A.; Minster, J.
2006-12-01
The collapse of the Antarctic ice shelves could have dramatic consequences for the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and, as a result, sea level rise. It is therefore imperative to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that lead to ice shelf retreat. The mechanism that has the potential to remove the largest amounts of mass rapidly is iceberg calving. However, the processes and mechanisms that lead to iceberg calving are still poorly understood. Motivated by the complexity of the short-time scale behavior of ice fracture we seek a dynamic stability criterion that predicts the onset of ice shelf retreat based on dimensional analysis. In our approach, rather than attempt to model the initiation and propagation of individual fractures, we look for a non-dimensional number that describes the overall ice shelf stability. We also make the assumption that the same criterion, valid for ice shelves, also applies to tidewater glaciers. This enables us to test our criterion against a larger set of ice shelves and calving glaciers. Our analysis predicts that retreat will occur when a non-dimensional number that we call the "terminus stability number", decreases below a critical value. We show that this criterion is valid for calving glaciers in Alaska, for several glaciers around Greenland as well as for three Antarctic ice shelves. This stability analysis has much in common with classic hydrodynamic stability theory, where the onset of instability is related to non-dimensional numbers that are largely independent of geometry or other situation specific variables.
On Feller's criterion for the law of the iterated logarithm
Deli Li
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Combining Feller's criterion with a non-uniform estimate result in the context of the Central Limit Theorem for partial sums of independent random variables, we obtain several results on the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. Two of these results refine corresponding results of Wittmann (1985 and Egorov (1971. In addition, these results are compared with the corresponding results of Teicher (1974, Tomkins (1983 and Tomkins (1990
Determining threshold default risk criterion for trade credit granting
无
2008-01-01
To solve the problem of setting threshold default risk criterion to select retailer eligible for trade credit granting, a novel method of solving simultaneous equations is proposed. This method is based on the bilevel programming modeling of trade credit decisions as an interaction between supplier and retailer. First, the bilevel programming is set up where the supplier decides on credit terms at the top level considering a retailer's default risk, and the retailer determines the order quantity at the lowe...
Best Practices in Utilizing the Changing Criterion Design.
Klein, Liesa A; Houlihan, Daniel; Vincent, James L; Panahon, Carlos J
2017-03-01
The changing criterion design (CCD) has been a recognized format of single-case research for four decades. Published examples of the CCD have been limited and the structure of the design used in the literature has varied to a degree that might engender confusion. This review examines the structure of CCD studies published to date to identify prior implementation practices and identify best practices for future use.
Amenorrhea as a Diagnostic Criterion for Anorexia Nervosa
2012-01-01
Amenorrhea is a current criterion for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) according to the DSM-IV-TR. Nevertheless, when comparing groups of patients who fulfill all the criteria of this manual for AN and groups of women who show them all but amenorrhea, some studies did not find significant differences in the psychopathology typically associated with AN. The purpose of our study was to compare both groups in demographic, anthropometric, psychological and psychopathological variables. Ther...
Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
2004-01-01
The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...
Bayesian information criterion for longitudinal and clustered data.
Jones, Richard H
2011-11-10
When a number of models are fit to the same data set, one method of choosing the 'best' model is to select the model for which Akaike's information criterion (AIC) is lowest. AIC applies when maximum likelihood is used to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. The value of -2 log likelihood for each model fit is penalized by adding twice the number of estimated parameters. The number of estimated parameters includes both the linear parameters and parameters in the covariance structure. Another criterion for model selection is the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). BIC penalizes -2 log likelihood by adding the number of estimated parameters multiplied by the log of the sample size. For large sample sizes, BIC penalizes -2 log likelihood much more than AIC making it harder to enter new parameters into the model. An assumption in BIC is that the observations are independent. In mixed models, the observations are not independent. This paper develops a method for calculating the 'effective sample size' for mixed models based on Fisher's information. The effective sample size replaces the sample size in BIC and can vary from the number of subjects to the number of observations. A number of error models are considered based on a general mixed model including unstructured, compound symmetry.
Helmerhorst Hendrik JF
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.
Derivation of Plastic Work Rate Done per Unit Volume for Mean Yield Criterion and Its Application
Dewen ZHAO; Yingjie XIE; Xiaowen WANG; Xianghua LIU
2005-01-01
In Haigh Westergaard stress space linear combination of twin shear stress and Tresca yield functions is called the mean yield (MY) criterion. The mathematical relationship of the criterion and its plastic work rate done per unit volume were derived. A generalized worked example of slab forging was analyzed by the criterion and its corresponding plastic work rate done per unit volume. Then, the precision of the solution was compared with those by Mises and Twin shear stress yield criterions, respectively. It turned out that the calculated results by MY criterion were in good agreement with those by Mises criterion.
29 CFR 500.73 - Required purchase of goods or services solely from any person prohibited.
2010-07-01
... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker... migrant or seasonal agricultural worker to purchase goods or services solely from such farm labor... any person subject to this prohibition. Recruiting, Hiring and Providing Information to...
AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from northern rock sole
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth data from archival tags on northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were examined to assess whether fish used tidal currents to aid horizontal migration....
Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...
AJL
2012-03-08
Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ... cake, urea, muriate of potash and single super phosphate. Two separate ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation
Fuyuki Tateno
2014-08-01
Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.
Second Sourcing vs. Sole Sourcing with Capacity Investment and Asymmetric Information
Cuihong Li; Laurens G. Debo
2009-01-01
We study the decision of a manufacturer (the buyer), expecting new sourcing opportunities in the future, in selecting between sole- and second-sourcing strategies for a noncommodity component. In a sole-sourcing strategy, the buyer commits to sourcing from a single supplier (the incumbent) over the entire horizon. In a second-sourcing strategy, the buyer keeps the option open to source from a new supplier (the entrant) in the future. Supplier costs are private information, and the incumbent's...
Activation of peripheral nerve fibers by electrical stimulation in the sole of the foot
Frahm, Ken Steffen; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Grill, Warren M; Lubock, Nathan B; Hennings, Kristian; Andersen, Ole Kæseler
2013-01-01
Background Human nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) can be evoked by electrical stimulation applied to the sole of the foot. However, elicitation of NWRs is highly site dependent, and NWRs are especially difficult to elicit at the heel. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential peripheral mechanisms for any site dependent differences in reflex thresholds. Results The first part of the study investigated the neural innervation in different sites of the sole of the foot using...
Inclusive Business - What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies
Tea Golja
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presents the analysis of inclusive markets. Hence, the research results show the dispersion of inclusive businesses worldwide, type of the organization, sector coverage, and contribution to MDGs as well as the particular way of inclusion of low income communities in their value chain. The aim is to present how inclusive business benefits not only the low income societies, but the companies that operate in this way as well.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES
IONESCU Cozmin
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.
Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)
Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.
2010-10-01
Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.
Effects of shoe sole hardness on plantar pressure and comfort in older people with forefoot pain.
Lane, Tamara J; Landorf, Karl B; Bonanno, Daniel R; Raspovic, Anita; Menz, Hylton B
2014-01-01
Plantar forefoot pain is common in older people and is related to increased peak pressures under the foot during gait. Variations in the hardness of the shoe sole may therefore influence both the magnitude of loading under the foot and the perceived comfort of the shoe in this population. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of varying shoe sole hardness on plantar pressures and comfort in older people with forefoot pain. In-shoe plantar pressures under the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were recorded from 35 older people (mean age 73.2, SD 4.5 years) with current or previous forefoot pain using the pedar-X(®) system. Participants walked at their normal comfortable speed along an 8m walkway in shoes with three different levels of sole hardness: soft (Shore A25), medium (Shore A40) and hard (Shore A58). Shoe comfort was measured on a 100mm visual analogue scale. There were statistically significant differences in peak pressure of between 5% and 23% across the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot (phard-soled shoe registered the highest peak pressures and the soft-soled shoe the lowest peak pressures. However, no differences in comfort scores across the three shoe conditions were observed. These findings demonstrate that as shoe sole hardness increases, plantar pressure increases, however this does not appear to have a significant effect on shoe comfort.
Luh Yeni Laksmini
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis (IBM merupakan penyakit inflamasi pada otot yang bersifat progresif dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui dan tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap berbagai terapi. Gambaran histopatologi IBM ditandai dengan infiltrat sel-sel limfosit diantara ruangan endomisial, di dalam otot dan di sekitar otot dengan fokus-fokus inklusi di dalam miosit (rimmed vacuole serta beberapa serat otot terlihat atrofi dan nekrosis. Dilaporkan wanita, usia 46 tahun dengan IBM. Keluhan utama pasien berupa kelemahan pada kedua tangan, kaki kanan terasa berat jika diangkat sehingga susah berjalan. Pemeriksaan saraf sensorik ekstremitas dekstra dan sinistra dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan enzim cretinine kinase meningkat secara dramatik. Pemeriksaan histopatologi dari biospi otot gastrocnemius menunjukkan gambaran yang sesuai untuk IBM dan telah dilakukan penanganan dengan pemberian oral methilprednisolon 3x32 mg dan mecobalmin 1x500ìg intravena, namun tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap terapi dan akhirnya pasien meninggal. [MEDICINA 2013;44:118-123].
Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse
2016-01-01
building and the strategies the pedagogues develop to fulfil their pedagogical intentions. But in one respect, the results gave more and other knowledge than anticipated at the setup of the project: By analysing the interviews, it became clear that especially for a group of children with special......A society is known by how it cares for the weak. This may be how it cares for wheel chair users but is may also be how it includes some children with special requirements in kindergartens or whether they are referred to special institutions. We expect most people would say that they go...... for an inclusive society – e.g. that a kindergarten should be for all children. But in practice this intention may be met by considerable challenges. So many factors influence the process. In this paper the question is raised, whether the physical frame of the kindergartens makes a difference for daily life...
Roloff, P.
Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.
无
2006-01-01
China wants the European Union to kick its anti-dumping measures on footwear to the curb Among all the advanced countries and regions, the European Union (EU) is China's most stable and mature trading partner. Since China established diplomatic ties with the European Economic Community in 1975, especially after the EU published its first policy paper on China in 1995, Sino-EU relations have developed rapidly, from an all-round partnership to an all-round strategic one. In addition to working together on ...
Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion
Morgan, Peter J; Pontines, Victor
2014-01-01
Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...
Criterion for SLOCC equivalence of multipartite quantum states
Zhang, Tinggui; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Huang, Xiaofen
2016-10-01
We study the stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalence for arbitrary dimensional multipartite quantum states. For multipartite pure states, we present a necessary and sufficient criterion in terms of their coefficient matrices. This condition can be used to classify some SLOCC equivalent quantum states with coefficient matrices having the same rank. For multipartite mixed state, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition by means of the realignment of matrix. Some detailed examples are given to identify the SLOCC equivalence of multipartite quantum states.
Application of the Kelly Criterion to Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Processes
Lv, Yingdong; Meister, Bernhard K.
In this paper, we study the Kelly criterion in the continuous time framework building on the work of E.O. Thorp and others. The existence of an optimal strategy is proven in a general setting and the corresponding optimal wealth process is found. A simple formula is provided for calculating the optimal portfolio for a set of price processes satisfying some simple conditions. Properties of the optimal investment strategy for assets governed by multiple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes are studied. The paper ends with a short discus-sion of the implications of these ideas for financial markets.
Qualitative Criterion for Interception in a Pursuit/Evasion Game
Morgan, John A
2009-01-01
A qualitative account is given of a differential pursuit/evasion game. A criterion for the existence of an intercept solution is obtained using future cones that contain all attainable trajectories of target or interceptor originating from an initial position. A sufficient and necessary conditon that an opportunity to intercept always exist is that, after some initial time, the future cone of the target be contained within the future cone of the interceptor. The sufficient condition may be regarded as a kind of Nash equillibrium.
Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain
SONG Yingchun
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.
Optimization of the Structures at Shakedown and Rosen's Optimality Criterion
Alawdin, Piotr; Atkociunas, Juozas; Liepa, Liudas
2016-09-01
Paper focuses on the problems of application of extreme energy principles and nonlinear mathematical programing in the theory of structural shakedown. By means of energy principles, which describes the true stress-strain state conditions of the structure, the dual mathematical models of analysis problems are formed (static and kinematic formulations). It is shown how common mathematical model of the structures optimization at shakedown with safety and serviceability constraints (according to the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) requirements) on the basis of previously mentioned mathematical models is formed. The possibilities of optimization problem solution in the context of physical interpretation of optimality criterion of Rosen's algorithm are analyzed.
Sensor Calibration Design Based on D-Optimality Criterion
Hajiyev Chingiz
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, a procedure for optimal selection of measurement points using the D-optimality criterion to find the best calibration curves of measurement sensors is proposed. The coefficients of calibration curve are evaluated by applying the classical Least Squares Method (LSM. As an example, the problem of optimal selection for standard pressure setters when calibrating a differential pressure sensor is solved. The values obtained from the D-optimum measurement points for calibration of the differential pressure sensor are compared with those from actual experiments. Comparison of the calibration errors corresponding to the D-optimal, A-optimal and Equidistant calibration curves is done.
On the Carleson measure criterion in linear systems theory
Haak, Bernhard Hermann
2008-01-01
In Ho, Russell, and Weiss, a Carleson measure criterion for admissibility of one-dimensional input elements with respect to diagonal semigroups is given. We extend their results from the Hilbert space situation $X=\\ell_2$ and $L^2$--admissibility to the more general situation of $L^p$--admissibility on $\\ell_q$--spaces. In case of analytic diagonal semigroups we present a new result that does not rely on Laplace transform methods. A comparison of both criteria leads to result of $L^p$--admissibility for reciprocal systems in the sense of Curtain.
Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint
Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.
2014-04-01
This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.
An improved criterion for Kapitza's pendulum stability
Butikov, Eugene i, E-mail: eugene.butikov@gmail.com [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2011-07-22
An enhanced and more exact criterion for dynamic stabilization of the parametrically driven inverted pendulum is obtained: the boundaries of stability are determined with greater precision and are valid in a wider region of the system parameters than previous results. The lower boundary of stability is associated with the phenomenon of subharmonic resonances in this system. The relationship of the upper limit of dynamic stabilization of the inverted pendulum with ordinary parametric resonance (i.e. with destabilization of the lower equilibrium position) is established. Computer simulation of the physical system aids the analytical investigation and proves the theoretical results.
Critical machine cluster identification using the equal area criterion
Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob
2015-01-01
The paper introduces a new method to early identify the critical machine cluster (CMC) after a transient disturbance. For transient stability assessment with methods based on the equal area criterion it is necessary to split the generators into a group of critical and non-critical machines...... coupling coefficient is derived and a cluster identification algorithm is developed. The algorithm determines the CMC based on the impact of the fault on the derived coupling coefficient of individual generator pairs. The results from two cases are presented and discussed, where the CMC is successfully...
Local Axisymmetric Instability Criterion in the Thin, Rotating, Multicomponent Disk
Rafikov, R R
2000-01-01
Purely gravitational perturbations are considered in a thin rotating disk composed of several gas and stellar components. The dispersion relation for the axisymmetric density waves propagating through the disk is found and the criterion for the local axisymmetric stability of the whole system is formulated. In the appropriate limit of two-component gas we confirm the findings of Jog & Solomon (1984) and extend consideration to the case when one component is collisionless. Gravitational stability of the Galactic disk in the Solar neighborhood based on the multicomponent instability condition is explored using recent measurements of the stellar composition and kinematics in the local Galactic disk obtained by Hipparcos satellite.
Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components
Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes
2010-01-01
. This paper will present a review of the techniques used in the automotive industry regarding durability before mentioned systems. The paper will present the procedures to obtain the spectrum loading to use in finite element analysis and the validation in laboratory and proving grounds.......Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension components...
Inclusion in a Polarised World
Freeman, Alan
2005-01-01
This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...
McDougall, Dennis; Hawkins, Jacqueline; Brady, Michael; Jenkins, Amelia
2006-01-01
This article illustrates (a) 2 recent innovations in the changing criterion research design, (b) how these innovations apply to research and practice in special education, and (c) how clinical needs influence design features of the changing criterion design. The first innovation, the range-bound changing criterion, is a very simple variation of…
Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education
Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu
2008-01-01
A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…
Enacting Inclusion : A Framework for Interrogating Inclusive Practice
Florian, Lani; Spratt, Jennifer
2013-01-01
This study reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that…
Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications
Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann
2012-01-01
The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...
An objective criterion for determining the South Atlantic Convergence Zone
Tercio eAmbrizzi
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ is the dominant summertime cloudiness feature of subtropical South America and the western South Atlantic Ocean, having a significant influence on the precipitation regime of southeastern Brazil. This paper proposes an objective criterion based mainly on precipitation, as this variable is easily obtained on general circulation models simulating past, present and future climate. Usually most SACZ studies use emerging long wave radiation as a precipitation proxy. This is enough to describe event position at first, but using precipitation would allow for better quantification, especially for climate studies, where precipitation is indispensable. An assessment was carried out to find out if classical DJF period is ideal for determining the SACZ for the present climate and future scenarios. In general the SACZ event detection criterion showed quite satisfactory results when event dates were previously known. When it was applied to future climate scenario it identified a number of events compatible with the present climate. The SACZ was well defined for both the simulated and observed precipitation data.
Criterion of Turbulent Transition in Pressure Driven Flows
Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2012-11-01
It has been found from numerical simulations and experiments that velocity inflection could result in turbulent transition in viscous parallel flows. However, there are exceptions, for example, in the plane Poiseuille-Couette flow. Thus, whether velocity inflection necessarily leads to turbulent transition is still not clear. To-date, there is still no consensus on the physics of turbulence transition in the scientific community. In this study, the mechanism of turbulent transition is investigated using the energy gradient method. It is found that the transition to turbulence from a laminar flow depends on the magnitudes of the energy gradient function and the energy of the disturbance imposed (including both the amplitude and the frequency). Our study further reveals that the criterion of turbulent transition is different in pressure and shear driven flows. In pressure driven parallel flows, it is found that the necessary and sufficient condition of turbulent transition is the existence of an inflection point on the velocity profile. This criterion is found to be consistent with the available experimental data and numerical simulation results. On contrast, velocity inflection in shear driven flows does not necessarily lead to turbulent transition.
A one-class kernel fisher criterion for outlier detection.
Dufrenois, Franck
2015-05-01
Recently, Dufrenois and Noyer proposed a one class Fisher's linear discriminant to isolate normal data from outliers. In this paper, a kernelized version of their criterion is presented. Originally on the basis of an iterative optimization process, alternating between subspace selection and clustering, I show here that their criterion has an upper bound making these two problems independent. In particular, the estimation of the label vector is formulated as an unconstrained binary linear problem (UBLP) which can be solved using an iterative perturbation method. Once the label vector is estimated, an optimal projection subspace is obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. Like many other kernel methods, the performance of the proposed approach depends on the choice of the kernel. Constructed with a Gaussian kernel, I show that the proposed contrast measure is an efficient indicator for selecting an optimal kernel width. This property simplifies the model selection problem which is typically solved by costly (generalized) cross-validation procedures. Initialization, convergence analysis, and computational complexity are also discussed. Lastly, the proposed algorithm is compared with recent novelty detectors on synthetic and real data sets.
A Multi Fluid Analysis of the Ignition Criterion
Guazzotto, Luca; Betti, Riccardo
2016-10-01
In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion experiments, performance with respect to ignition is expressed in terms of the Lawson criterion, a zero-dimensional, single-fluid, steady-state power balance expressing the plasma properties needed for ignition through the energy confinement time τE and the plasma temperature and density. Several improvements to the classical criterion are investigated. Ions, electrons and α particles are allowed to have different energy confinement times and energy coupling times are expressed through physics-based relations. The effect of multi-fluid physics is examined in a steady-state analysis and for the time-dependent case, which requires a nonlinear treatment more detailed than the standard `` Ṫ vs . T'' single-fluid one. A one-dimensional analysis is also considered to investigate the importance of density and temperature profiles on the τE needed for ignition. Rather than by solving the 1D transport equations, this is done with a parametric study. This work was performed under DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER54215.
SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks
Ji, Xing
2016-06-01
The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.
Karst Collapse Mechanism and Criterion for Its Stability
贺可强; 刘长礼; 王思敬
2001-01-01
Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been a focus of environmental geological problems for its ever-increasing hazardousness. The potential erosion theory and vacuum suction erosion theory,which reveal the origin of karst collapse macroscopically, are popularly accepted. However, a mathematic prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established only by these two theories. From a new perspective, this paper attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. When the shear stress surpasses the shear strength of soil, a certain point or a certain plane in the unconsolidated soil covering karst caves will fail under the mechanical effects of water and air as well as its load-pressure, and with the increase of damaged points, a breaking plane appears and the soil on karst caves is completely damaged; as a result, the karst ground collapses. On the basis of the MohrCoulomb failure theory and previous studies, the paper presents a prediction criterion of karst collapse. Finally, by taking,for example, nine typical cases of collapse caused by pumping tests in Guizhou, the paper gives the calculation process of the model and proves its reliability.``
Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) in Bayesian Multiple QTL Mapping.
Shriner, Daniel; Yi, Nengjun
2009-03-15
Mapping multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) is commonly viewed as a problem of model selection. Various model selection criteria have been proposed, primarily in the non-Bayesian framework. The deviance information criterion (DIC) is the most popular criterion for Bayesian model selection and model comparison but has not been applied to Bayesian multiple QTL mapping. A derivation of the DIC is presented for multiple interacting QTL models and calculation of the DIC is demonstrated using posterior samples generated by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. The DIC measures posterior predictive error by penalizing the fit of a model (deviance) by its complexity, determined by the effective number of parameters. The effective number of parameters simultaneously accounts for the sample size, the cross design, the number and lengths of chromosomes, covariates, the number of QTL, the type of QTL effects, and QTL effect sizes. The DIC provides a computationally efficient way to perform sensitivity analysis and can be used to quantitatively evaluate if including environmental effects, gene-gene interactions, and/or gene-environment interactions in the prior specification is worth the extra parameterization. The DIC has been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim, which greatly facilitates the general usage of Bayesian methodology for genome-wide interacting QTL analysis.
A procedure for seiche analysis with Bayesian information criterion
Aichi, Masaatsu
2016-04-01
Seiche is a standing wave in enclosed or semi-enclosed water body. Its amplitude irregularly changes in time due to weather condition etc. Then, extracting seiche signal is not easy by usual methods for time series analysis such as fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this study, a new method for time series analysis with Bayesian information criterion was developed to decompose seiche, tide, long-term trend and residual components from time series data of tide stations. The method was developed based on the maximum marginal likelihood estimation of tide amplitudes, seiche amplitude, and trend components. Seiche amplitude and trend components were assumed that they gradually changes as second derivative in time was close to zero. These assumptions were incorporated as prior distributions. The variances of prior distributions were estimated by minimizing Akaike-Bayes information criterion (ABIC). The frequency of seiche was determined by Newton method with initial guess by FFT. The accuracy of proposed method was checked by analyzing synthetic time series data composed of known components. The reproducibility of the original components was quite well. The proposed method was also applied to the actual time series data of sea level observed by tide station and the strain of coastal rock masses observed by fiber Bragg grating sensor in Aburatsubo Bay, Japan. The seiche in bay and its response of rock masses were successfully extracted.
Stereological estimation of the orbital volume: a criterion standard study.
Acer, Niyazi; Sahin, Bünyamin; Ergür, Hayati; Basaloglu, Hulki; Ceri, Nazli Gülriz
2009-05-01
Several methodologies have been proposed to assess the orbital volume (OV). However, we have not seen a criterion standard study evaluating the results of the methodologies for the assessment of OV. In the current study, the actual OV of 9 dry skulls was measured using the water filling method as the criterion standard. Consecutive computed tomographic sections at a thickness of 1.5 mm were used to estimate the OV by means of the point counting method. The mean (SD) of the OV measured by the water filling method was 17.84 (1.56) cm3. By using the point counting method, it was 17.05 (1.69) cm3. There was no statistically significant difference between sides (P > 0.001). The results of the OV values obtained by the two methods were compared statistically. The agreements between the two methods were also evaluated using the Bland-Altman plots. There was no statistically significant difference between the OV measurements obtained by the stereological technique and water filling method. The described method could be used for the assessment of OV in vivo.
Q criterion for disc stability modified by external tidal field
Jog, Chanda J
2013-01-01
The standard Q criterion (with Q > 1) describes the local stability of a disc supported by rotation and random motion. Most astrophysical discs, however, are under the influence of an external gravitational field which can affect their stability. A typical example is a galactic disc embedded in a dark matter halo. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a disc in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation and a modified stability criterion. An external field has two effects on the disc dynamics: first, it contributes to the unperturbed rotational field, and second, it adds a tidal field term in the stability parameter. A typical disruptive tidal field results in a higher modified Q value and hence leads to a more stable disc. We apply these results to the Milky Way, and to a low surface brightness galaxy UGC 7321. We find that in each case the stellar disc by itself is barely stable and it is the dark matter halo that stabilizes the disc against local, axisymmetric gravitational ins...
Job shop scheduling problem with late work criterion
Piroozfard, Hamed; Wong, Kuan Yew
2015-05-01
Scheduling is considered as a key task in many industries, such as project based scheduling, crew scheduling, flight scheduling, machine scheduling, etc. In the machine scheduling area, the job shop scheduling problems are considered to be important and highly complex, in which they are characterized as NP-hard. The job shop scheduling problems with late work criterion and non-preemptive jobs are addressed in this paper. Late work criterion is a fairly new objective function. It is a qualitative measure and concerns with late parts of the jobs, unlike classical objective functions that are quantitative measures. In this work, simulated annealing was presented to solve the scheduling problem. In addition, operation based representation was used to encode the solution, and a neighbourhood search structure was employed to search for the new solutions. The case studies are Lawrence instances that were taken from the Operations Research Library. Computational results of this probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm were compared with a conventional genetic algorithm, and a conclusion was made based on the algorithm and problem.
Accessibility and inclusion informational
Mônica Sena de Souza
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.
Greenberg, Steven A
2016-12-01
Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an enigmatic progressive disease of skeletal muscle. This review provides a summary of the clinical and pathophysiologic aspects of IBM. The development of diagnostic blood testing for IBM followed from the discovery of a B-cell pathway in IBM muscle and circulating autoantibodies against NT5C1A, further establishing IBM's status as an autoimmune disease. The key role of cytotoxic T cells in IBM is further supported by the identification of a link between IBM and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The testing of research diagnostic criteria in patients is improving its accuracy. Increases in estimated prevalences may be due to a combination of true increases and improved recognition of disease. IBM has high unmet medical need. Advances in the mechanistic understanding of IBM as an autoimmune disease will drive effective therapeutic approaches. The identification of a B-cell pathway has resulted in the first identification of an IBM autoantigen and emphasized its status as an autoimmune disease. The recognition that large granular lymphocyte CD8+ T-cell expansions are present in both blood and muscle provides additional biomarkers for IBM and suggests a mechanistic relationship to the neoplastic disease T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia.
Habitat selection of juvenile sole (Solea solea L.): Consequences for shoreface nourishment
Post, Marjolein H. M.; Blom, Ewout; Chen, Chun; Bolle, Loes J.; Baptist, Martin J.
2017-04-01
The shallow coastal zone is an essential nursery habitat for juvenile flatfish species such as sole (Solea solea L.). The increased frequency of shoreface nourishments along the coast is likely to affect this nursery function by altering important habitat conditions, including sediment grain size. Sediment preference of juvenile sole (41-91 mm) was studied in a circular preference chamber in order to understand the relationship between grain size and sole distribution. The preference tests were carried out at 11 °C and 20 °C to reflect seasonal influences. The juveniles showed a significant preference for finer sediments. This preference was not length dependent (within the length range tested) nor affected by either temperatures. Juvenile sole have a small home range and are not expected to move in response to unfavourable conditions. As a result, habitat alterations may have consequences for juvenile survival and subsequently for recruitment to adult populations. It is therefore important to carefully consider nourishment grain size characteristics to safeguard suitable nursery habitats for juvenile sole.
Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana
Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong
2011-01-01
Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…
Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools
Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.
2015-01-01
Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…
Friendship in Inclusive Physical Education
Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A.
2009-01-01
Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical…
Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools
Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.
2015-01-01
Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…
Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey
Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil
2016-01-01
Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…
Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain
Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema
2016-01-01
This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…
Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices
Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair
2011-01-01
In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…
Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices
Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair
2011-01-01
In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…
Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment
Andersen, John; Siim, Birte
2004-01-01
identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...
Sensory bases and the mode of feeding behavior of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis
WANG Xinan; MA Aijun
2009-01-01
We conducted behavior experiments on the roles of vision, olfaction, and the lateral line in feeding in tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günter. Chemical cues from the prey alone could not elicit any searching or attacking behavior by the fish; only when moving foods were presented, the chemical nature of the foods affected feeding. In addition, we found that normal tongue sole did not accurately recognize moving artificial prey of different shapes. Neither chemosense nor vision plays an important role in prey detection. Reactions to moving objects and the response of the oropharyngeal cavity to different foods showed that the (eyeless) tongue sole use mainly the lateral line for prey detection and capture. Gustation in the oropharyngeal cavity is essential for the fish to swallow its prey.
A marked bounding box method for image data reduction and reconstruction of sole patterns
Wang, Xingyue; Wu, Jianhua; Zhao, Qingmin; Cheng, Jian; Zhu, Yican
2012-01-01
A novel and efficient method called marked bounding box method based on marching cubes is presented for the point cloud data reduction of sole patterns. This method is characterized in that each bounding box is marked with an index during the process of data reduction and later for use of data reconstruction. The data reconstruction is implemented from the simplified data set by using triangular meshes, the indices being used to search the nearest points from adjacent bounding boxes. Afterwards, the normal vectors are estimated to determine the strength and direction of the surface reflected light. The proposed method is used in a sole pattern classification and query system which uses OpenGL under Visual C++ to render the image of sole patterns. Digital results are given to demonstrate the efficiency and novelty of our method. Finally, conclusion and discussions are made.
Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.
Bauserman, Robert
2002-03-01
The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents.
Vrieze, Scott I.
2012-01-01
This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…
A Reconsideration of the Extension Strain Criterion for Fracture and Failure of Rock
Wesseloo, J.; Stacey, T. R.
2016-12-01
The complex behaviours of rocks and rock masses have presented paradoxes to the rock engineer, including the fracturing of seemingly strong rock under low stress conditions, which often occurs near excavation boundaries. The extension strain criterion was presented as a fracture initiation criterion under these conditions (Stacey in Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 18:469-474, 1981). This criterion has been used successfully by some and criticised by others. In this paper, we review the literature on the extension strain criterion and present a case for the correct interpretation of the criterion and the conditions suitable for its use. We argue that the extension strain criterion can also be used to provide an indication of damage level under conditions of relatively low confining stress. We also present an augmentation of the criterion, the ultimate extension strain, which is applicable under extensional loading conditions when σ 2 is similar in magnitude to σ 1.
Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert
2016-04-01
Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating
Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)
Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim
2015-01-01
Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT
Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT
Chaabene
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Background Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1 as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%. Results Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large] as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]. Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the
Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles
Castro, Armando Mares
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.
Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Jiménez-López, Diego; García-Crespo, Ángel; Blanco-Iglesias, Borja
eLearning educative processes are a challenge for educative institutions and education professionals. In an environment in which learning resources are being produced, catalogued and stored using innovative ways, SOLE provides a platform in which exam questions can be produced supported by Web 2.0 tools, catalogued and labeled via semantic web and stored and distributed using eLearning standards. This paper presents, SOLE, a social network of exam questions sharing particularized for Software Engineering domain, based on semantics and built using semantic web and eLearning standards, such as IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification 2.1.
Sónia Batista
2014-06-01
weight of 50.6 ± 1.2 g. PRO1 groups had significantly lower weight gain and higher feed conversion ratio (11.9 ± 1.9 and 2.2 ± 0.4, respectively compared to NO groups (17.4 ± 1.9 and 1.5 ± 0.1 respectively. Growth performance from PP35 and PP72 groups did not differ, suggesting that sole can cope well with diets containing high plant protein levels, as already reported by Silva et al. (2009. At 3 and 73 days of feeding trial, the immune parameters analysed did not present differences among treatments, indicating that these may not be the most appropriate sampling times to detect the influence of probiotic administration in Senegalese sole. Plasma peroxidase content (EU mL-1; Figure I was not affected by PP level, but was significantly changed by probiotic administration at 38 days of feeding. PRO1 groups presented higher plasma peroxidase content (79.3 ± 18.6 comparing to PRO2 groups (40.1 ± 10.3, but were not statistically different from NO groups (57.2 ± 14.0. Plasma lysozyme content (EU mL-1; Figure II and ACH50 (Units ml-1; Figure III were not affected by probiotic administration. However, fish fed PP72 diets had higher lysozyme and ACH50 levels at 38 days (1018 ± 204 and 257 ± 21, respectively than fish fed PP35 diets (646 ± 154 and 183 ± 17, respectively. Also at 17 days, fish fed PP72 diets had higher lysozyme (345 ± 82 comparing to fish fed PP35 diets (175 ± 37. In conclusion, the results of our study suggested that high plant protein inclusion levels may affect Senegalese sole immune status, without affecting growth performance. Multi-species probiotic (PRO1 was more effective in stimulating the humoral innate immune parameters than Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PRO2. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether dietary probiotic supplementation may induce higher resistance against stress conditions and pathogens in sole. Figure 1 – Effects on plasma peroxidase content of Senegalese sole juveniles after 3, 17, 38 and 73 days of feeding the dietary
Position Mooring Control Based on a Structural Reliability Criterion
Fang, Shaoji; Leira, Bernt J.; Blanke, Mogens
2013-01-01
is achieved using structural reliability indices in a cost function, where both the mean mooring-line tension and dynamic effects are considered. An optimal set-point is automatically produced without need for manual interaction. The parameters of the extreme value distribution are calculated on-line thereby...... adapting the set-point calculations to the prevailing environment. In contrast to earlier approaches, several mooring line are simultaneously accounted for by the algorithm, not only the most critical one. Detailed simulations illustrate the features of the new method and it is shown that the structural...... reliability criterion based algorithm ensures the safety of mooring lines in a variety of external environmental conditions and also in situations of failure of a single line....
Some remarks on Relativistic Diffusion and the Spectral Dimension Criterion
Muniz, C R; Filho, R N Costa; Bezerra, V B
2014-01-01
The spectral dimension $d_s$ for high energies is calculated using the Relativistic Schr\\"{o}dinger Equation Analytically Continued (RSEAC) instead of the so-called Telegraph's Equation (TE), in both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) regimens. Regarding the TE, the recent literature presents difficulties related to its stochastic derivation and interpretation, advocating the use of the RSEAC to properly describe the relativistic diffusion phenomena. Taking into account that the Lorentz symmetry is broken in UV regime at Lifshitz point, we show that there exists a degeneracy in very high energies, meaning that both the RSEAC and the TE correctly describe the diffusion processes at these energy scales, at least under the spectral dimension criterion. In fact, both the equations yield the same result, namely, $d_s = 2$, a dimensional reduction that is compatible with several theories of quantum gravity. This result is reached even when one takes into account a cosmological model - the De Sitter one - for a flat...
Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion
Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.
2016-05-01
Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.
The alternative DSM-5 personality disorder traits criterion
Bach, Bo; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bo, Sune
2016-01-01
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured...... with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal...... of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of all 3 PID-5 forms, simultaneously, based on a Danish sample (N = 1376) of 451 psychiatric outpatients and 925 community-dwelling participants. Scale reliability and factorial validity were satisfactory across all 3 PID-5 forms. The correlational...
Criterion and Incremental Validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire
Christos A. Ioannidis
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Although research on emotion regulation (ER is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003, which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality traits. It also extended the evidence for the measure’s criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203 completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.
Bifurcation criterion of faults in complex nonlinear systems
Zhang, Yagang, E-mail: yagangzhang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Department of Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Mathematics Institute, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Wang, Zengping [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China)
2014-03-01
In this paper, we introduce bifurcation theory into complex nonlinear systems. We adopt a novel approach to identify faults in electric circuit systems. After accidents occur without warning, with large numbers of complicated and high-precision calculations, we use bifurcation results of corresponding amplitude and frequency (period) to analyze their universal characteristics. Based on super attractive parameters, we have got the universal constant 4.6692… . The results from the present investigation imply that each fault in an electric circuit system must correspond to one or more bifurcation locations, which will provide a bifurcation criterion of faults in complex nonlinear systems. This research will have a significant theoretical value and engineering practical significance.
Energy Criterion of Oil Film Failure during Friction
S.V. Fedorov
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The concepts developed by the thermodynamic theory of solid body strength and fracture are used to examine the conditions of lubricant film failure. We obtain a quantitative criterion that defines the lubricant film "defectness" - the critical value (constant for a given mineral oil of the internal (thermal energy density in the volume of the lubricant film. We propose analytic relations for evaluating scuffing in friction with lubrication and verify them experimentally on a full-scale stand for testing actual sliding bearings. We show the constancy of the critical value of the internal (thermal energy density in the volume of the oil film at the moment of scuffing for an inactive mineral oil.
Metal-insulator transition: the Mott criterion and coherence length
Pergament, A
2003-01-01
On the basis of the Mott criterion for metal-insulator transition (MIT), an expression for the correlation length, identical to that for the coherence length in the theory of superconductivity, is obtained. This correlation length characterizes the size of an electron-hole pair (in an excitonic insulator) or the effective Bohr radius (as, e.g., in doped semiconductors). The relation obtained is used for calculation of the coherence length in vanadium dioxide. The presence of two characteristic coherence lengths (xi sub 1 approx 20 A and xi sub 2 approx 2 A) is found. This is associated with the specific features of the transition mechanism in VO sub 2 : this mechanism represents a combination of the purely electronic Mott-Hubbard contribution and the structural (Peierls-like) one. It is shown, however, that the driving force of the MIT in VO sub 2 is the electron-correlation Mott-Hubbard transition.
A general Lipschitz uniqueness criterion for scalar ordinary differential equations
Josef Diblik
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The classical Lipschitz-type criteria guarantee unique solvability of the scalar initial value problem $\\dot x=f(t,x$, $x(t_0=x_0,$ by putting restrictions on $|f(t,x-f(t,y|$ in dependence of $|x-y|$. Geometrically it means that the field differences are estimated in the direction of the $x$-axis. In 1989, Stettner and the second author could establish a generalized Lipschitz condition in both arguments by showing that the field differences can be measured in a suitably chosen direction $v=(d_{t},d_{x}$, provided that it does not coincide with the directional vector $(1,f(t_{0},x_{0}$. Considering the vector $v$ depending on $t$, a new general uniqueness result is derived and a short proof based on the implicit function theorem is developed. The advantage of the new criterion is shown by an example. A comparison with known results is given as well.
Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire.
Ioannidis, Christos A; Siegling, A B
2015-01-01
Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.
QV modal distance displacement - a criterion for contingency ranking
Rios, M.A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Zapata, C.J. [Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, josesan@uniandes.edu.co, cjzapata@utp.edu.co
2009-07-01
This paper proposes a new methodology using concepts of fast decoupled load flow, modal analysis and ranking of contingencies, where the impact of each contingency is measured hourly taking into account the influence of each contingency over the mathematical model of the system, i.e. the Jacobian Matrix. This method computes the displacement of the reduced Jacobian Matrix eigenvalues used in voltage stability analysis, as a criterion of contingency ranking, considering the fact that the lowest eigenvalue in the normal operation condition is not the same lowest eigenvalue in N-1 contingency condition. It is made using all branches in the system and specific branches according to the IBPF index. The test system used is the IEEE 118 nodes. (author)
Biomechanical analysis of injury criterion for child and adult dummies.
Sances, A
2000-01-01
The development of human injury tolerance is difficult because of the physical differences between humans and animals, the available dummies, and tissue of the cadaver. Furthermore, human volunteer testing can clearly only be done at subinjurious levels. While considerable biomechanical injury evidence exists for the adult human based on cadaveric studies, little information is available for the pediatric population. However, some material is available from skull bone modulus studies and from the fetal tendon strength and early pediatric studies of the newborn. A review of living human, animal, and human cadaveric studies, which forms the basis for head-neck injury criterion are given. Examples of the use of the Hybrid III dummy for injury prediction such as in the Malibu rollover tests and air bag mechanisms show neck injury levels are considerably above the proposed Malibu 2000 N level.
Validation of criterion-referenced archery cutting scores.
Ishee, J H; Titlow, L W
1993-04-01
This study investigated an empirical method for setting optimal cutting scores for a criterion-referenced archery test. The classification-outcome probabilities and approaches to validity suggested by Berk were utilized. Pretest scores were obtained on 35 uninstructed college-age women on six ends (six arrows each) from 20 yards (18.3 m) after an unrecorded warm-up end. Posttest scores were after 15 weeks of instruction. Score distributions were the primary determinant for accurately classifying students as true mastery and true nonmastery. Accuracy is a function of the amount of overlap between distributions. Using the point at which the distributions overlapped, classification accuracy was estimated. Probabilities associated with 80 points were p(TM) + p(TN) = .83 and p(FM) + p(FN) = .14. Scores above and below 80 points had lower probabilities of classification accuracy. Reliability estimated using Kappa was .59. Statistical validity of the cutting score (phi) was .68.
New criterion of material resistance for brittle fracture
M. Maj
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Wide variety of cast material applications and efforts to find optimum fields for casting operation are the reasons why it is so important to collect as many data on the properties of materials as possible. The problem of primary importance is to know how these materials will behave under the normally and rapidly changing loads, in other words – to know their fatigue strength. This study gives a short characteristic of fatigue tests and compares various data collected during measurements of the low-cycle fatigue strength coefficient K with the values of constant KIc, representing fracture toughness. The results of the investigations described here have revealed some important correlations that exist between the total elongation A5 and the proposed brittleness criterion B, conventional stress K, and fracture toughness KIc. The development of measurements seems to be of great importance and opens the field for further studies on practical implementation of this method.
Landau criterion for an anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensate
Yu, Zeng-Qiang
2017-03-01
In this work we discuss the Landau criterion for anisotropic superfluidity. To this end we consider a pointlike impurity moving in a uniform Bose-Einstein condensate with either interparticle dipole-dipole interaction or Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. In both cases we find that the Landau critical velocity vc is generally smaller than the sound velocity in the moving direction. Beyond vc, the energy dissipation rate is explicitly calculated via a perturbation approach. In the plane-wave phase of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose gas, the dissipationless motion is suppressed by the Raman coupling even in the direction orthogonal to the recoil momentum. Our predictions can be tested in the experiments with ultracold atoms.
SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY
Silvija Vlah Jerić
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.
An Improved Ductile Fracture Criterion for Fine-blanking Process
ZHAO Zhen; ZHUANG Xin-cun; XIE Xiao-long
2008-01-01
In order to accurately simnulate the fine-blanking process,a suitable ductile fracture is significant.So an evaluation strategy based on experimental and corresponding simulation results of tensile,compression,torsion and fine-blanking test is designed to evaluate five typical ductile fracture criteria,which are widely-used in metal forming process.The stress triaxiality and ductile damage of each test specimen are analyzed.The results show that none of these five criteria is sufficient for all tests.Furthermore,an improved fracture criterion based on Rice and Tracey model,taking the influence of both volume change and shape change of voids into account,is proposed.The characterization of this model for fine-blanking process is easily done by the tensile test and the prediction result shows good.
A criterion for lattice supersymmetry: cyclic Leibniz rule
Kato, Mitsuhiro; So, Hiroto
2013-01-01
It is old folklore that the violation of Leibniz rule on a lattice is an obstruction for constructing a lattice supersymmetric model. While it is still true for full supersymmetry, we show that a slightly modified form of the Leibniz rule, which we call cyclic Leibniz rule (CLR), is actually a criterion for the existence of partial lattice supersymmetry. In one dimension, we find sets of lattice difference operator and field multiplication smeared over lattice which satisfy the CLR under some natural assumptions such as translational invariance and locality. Thereby we construct a model of supersymmetric lattice quantum mechanics without spoiling locality. The CLR relation is coincident with the condition that the vanishing of the so-called surface term in the construction by lattice Nicolai map. We can construct superfield formalism with arbitrary superpotential. This also enables us to apply safely a localization technique to our model, because the kinetic term and the interaction terms of our model are ind...
SME Support Programs in Europe: Granting and Evaluation criterion
Antonia Madrid Guijarro
2005-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the situation of the support programs to SME in Europe. We identify the main support programs to this kind of firms and analyze the general criterion used to grant and evaluate these programs by the different agencies using a phone survey. Our sample is formed by 44 agencies included in EURADA which represent a coverage of 33,3%. The result show that the support program that will be increased in a higher number of agencies is the one related to "innovation and technological development", and the one that will be decreased in a higher number of agencies is the one related to "reestructuration of declining firms".
Continuous control of chaos based on the stability criterion.
Yu, Hong Jie; Liu, Yan Zhu; Peng, Jian Hua
2004-06-01
A method of chaos control based on stability criterion is proposed in the present paper. This method can stabilize chaotic systems onto a desired periodic orbit by a small time-continuous perturbation nonlinear feedback. This method does not require linearization of the system around the stabilized orbit and only an approximate location of the desired periodic orbit is required which can be automatically detected in the control process. The control can be started at any moment by choosing appropriate perturbation restriction condition. It seems that more flexibility and convenience are the main advantages of this method. The discussions on control of attitude motion of a spacecraft, Rössler system, and two coupled Duffing oscillators are given as numerical examples.
Inclusive education and social exclusion
Maria Luisa Bissoto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.
ADDED VALUE AS EFFICIENCY CRITERION FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS
L. M. Korotkevich
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Literary analysis has shown that the majority of researchers are using classical efficiency criteria for construction of an optimization model for production process: profit maximization; cost minimization; maximization of commercial product output; minimization of back-log for product demand; minimization of total time consumption due to production change. The paper proposes to use an index of added value as an efficiency criterion because it combines economic and social interests of all main interested subjects of the business activity: national government, property owners, employees, investors. The following types of added value have been considered in the paper: joint-stock, market, monetary, economic, notional (gross, net, real. The paper makes suggestion to use an index of real value added as an efficiency criterion. Such approach permits to bring notional added value in comparable variant because added value can be increased not only due to efficiency improvement of enterprise activity but also due to environmental factors – excess in rate of export price increases over rate of import growth. An analysis of methods for calculation of real value added has been made on a country-by-country basis (extrapolation, simple and double deflation. A method of double deflation has been selected on the basis of the executed analysis and it is counted according to the Laspeyires, Paasche, Fischer indices. A conclusion has been made that the used expressions do not take into account fully economic peculiarities of the Republic of Belarus: they are considered as inappropriate in the case when product cost is differentiated according to marketing outlets; they do not take account of difference in rate of several currencies and such approach is reflected in export price of a released product and import price for raw material, supplies and component parts. Taking this into consideration expressions for calculation of real value added have been specified
Decomposition Criterion-based Redundancy Removal in Mechanical Structures
A. N. Bozhko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The most important design solutions of production engineering for the assembly operation are an assembly sequence and assembly chart. Both are closely linked with each other and therefore are recorded in the single process flow sheet that is an assembly chart.Capability for successive order assembling and splitting into assembly units depends on a set of the product design properties from which the main ones are position mechanical connections used to locate details within a product. An adequate mathematical model of the mechanical connections of technical system is a hyper graph. It allows us to give the correct description of the location relation of variable-locality.The analysis of the array of drawings shows that many designs contain redundant mechanical connections. The inequality is a criterion of redundancy, where |X| is the number of tops of the hyper graph (details, and |R| is the number of hyper edges (full assembly bases. Excess of mutual coordination is a harmful phenomenon which at designing stage exhibits as unsolvable dimension chains, while at the assembly stage it shows as relocation. Redundant connections should be removed from a design at the earliest design-for-manufacturing stages. Removal of connections generates mechanical structures with different assembly properties. The work offers some important criteria of generation of irredundant mechanical structures. The paper considers in detail a maximum decomposition criterion, which allows us to receive structures with the greatest capability to split into assembly units. It shows that such structures exhibit high flexibility in assembling and are adaptable to various specifications and production processes.
PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW
MARIUS ANDREESCU
2011-04-01
Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and
PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW
Marius ANDREESCU
2011-08-01
Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and
Shifts in the timing of spawning in sole linked to warming sea temperatures
Fincham, J.I.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Engelhard, G.H.
2013-01-01
Phenotypic traits such as peak spawning time may vary within and differ between populations in relation to environmental factors, such as temperature. Sole (Solea solea) is a valuable, commercially exploited species that spawns in late winter or spring. The date of peak spawning was estimated for ea
40 CFR 1054.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1054.620 Section 1054.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... competition teams, professional competitors, or other qualified competitors. For replacement engines, the...
2010-08-31
... Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2010, Public Law 111-84. Section 811 addresses requirements for the justification and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... business under the Small Business Administration's 8(a) business development program, including...
Savvidis, E; von der Decken, C B
1999-04-01
We investigated the contact forces acting on the sole of the foot of healthy persons and coxarthrosis patients climbing and descending stairs. The sole contact forces were determined using an experimental set-up comprising a stair construction provided with an integrated measuring step. In healthy subjects, the forces acting on the soles of the feet while climbing stairs were found to be 1.2 times their body weight. With regard to descending stairs, a distinction must be made between "hard" and "soft" walkers. In the case of "hard" walkers, the forces acting on the soles may be as much as 2.6 times body weight. These forces can be reduced by the wearing of shock-absorbing shoes. In coxarthrosis and prostheses-bearing patients, all movements are executed more slowly when climbing or descending stairs, so that only small dynamic forces arise. The greatest loads are about 1.2 times the patient's own weight. In these patients, an effective reduction by shockabsorbing footwear is not possible.
Comparative Economic Study of Mixed and Sole Cassava Cropping Systems in Nigeria
J. O. Ajayi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Agricultural economists continue to argue if mixed or sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable and in terms of yield and returns to farmers particularly for Nigeria which is the world’s largest producer of the crop. The study was carried out to analyse the economics comparatively of mixed and sole cassava cropping systems in Nigeria. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between March and April, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred and eighty (480 respondents across the six major cassava-producing states in Nigeria (Benue, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Kogi, Ondo, and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and comparative budgetary analysis. The study showed that mixed cropping system is more male-dominated than sole cropping system. The study also revealed that sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable than mixed cassava cropping system while the later provides opportunities of all-year-round farm incomes to serve as a better poverty- alleviating mechanism.
Inclusão e governamentalidade Inclusion and governmentality
Alfredo Veiga-Neto
2007-10-01
Full Text Available O artigo parte dos conceitos de governamento, biopoder, norma e governamentalidade para argumentar no sentido de que as políticas de inclusão - especialmente as políticas de inclusão escolar - são dispositivos biopolíticos para o governamento e o controle das populações. Tomam-se esses e outros conceitos foucaultianos como ferramentas analíticas para argumentar que é preciso examinar as políticas e práticas inclusivas sem assumir antecipadamente qualquer juízo de valor sobre elas. Entendendo a diferença como manifestação da diversidade, e o diferente como um exótico, um portador de algo que os outros não possuem, as políticas de inclusão - nos modos como vêm sendo formuladas e em parte executadas no Brasil - parecem ignorar a própria diferença. Assim, ao invés de promoverem uma educação para todos, elas correm o risco de realizar uma inclusão excludente das diferenças. Discute-se a distinção entre campanhas públicas e políticas de inclusão em termos dos âmbitos em que ambas se efetivam.Based on the concepts of government, biopower, norm and governmentality, this paper argues that the inclusion policies - especially those of school inclusion - are biopolitical devices to govern and control the populations. These and other concepts by Foucault are used as analytical tools to argue that we have to explore the including policies and practices without any previous value judgment on them. Since they understand the difference as a manifestation of diversity, and the different as the exotic, what carries something the others do not have, the inclusion policies - as they are being formulated and partly enforced in Brazil - seem to ignore difference itself. Thus, instead of promoting education for all, they may lead to an inclusion that excludes the differences. The text finally discusses the distinction between public campaigns and inclusion policies in terms of the settings in which both take place.
Inclusion bodies: a new concept
García-Fruitós Elena
2010-01-01
Abstract In the last decades, the understanding of inclusion body biology and consequently, of their properties and potential biotechnological applications have dramatically changed. Therefore, the development of new purification protocols aimed to preserve those properties is becoming a pushing demand.
Inclusion bodies: a new concept.
García-Fruitós, Elena
2010-11-01
In the last decades, the understanding of inclusion body biology and consequently, of their properties and potential biotechnological applications have dramatically changed. Therefore, the development of new purification protocols aimed to preserve those properties is becoming a pushing demand.
Teacher preparedness for inclusive education
lynette
education system, it is often asked whether educators in the class are prepared and ready for inclusive .... in the findings: the first being that teachers who include learners with cognitive disabilities ..... Class size is a problem. •. Lack of facilities.
Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress
Nabarro, FRN
1996-02-01
Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...
EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION AND CRITICAL PEDAGOGY
Silvia Molina
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This article outlines the basic principles of educational inclusion, focusingspecifically on the inclusion of disabled students in mainstream classrooms, and arguesthat inclusive education should be understood as a process of transforming traditionalschools into spaces of learning for all students. The article uses the lens of critical pedagogyto argue that exclusionary educational practices have been developed through themedicalization of learning disabilities which focused on the disability rather than theabilities of disabled students. Following the same line of thinking, the article providesscientific evidence to debunk myths related to the education of disabled students; especiallymyths that contributed to their exclusion from mainstream classrooms. Finally,based on the Learning Communities model, we provide some concrete strategies fortransforming mainstream classrooms into fully inclusive environments.
Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.
2007-01-01
reflected dietary composition, neither standard growth nor larval survival were significantly related to the absolute concentrations of ARA, EPA and DHA or their ratios. This suggests low requirements for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in common sole. Malpigmentation was significantly related...... to increased dietary ARA content. However, pigmentation was not affected by inclusion levels of EPA or DHA when ARA was high. This, and no relation between DHA: EPA or ARA: EPA ratios and pigmentation and only a weak relation to ARA: DHA ratio, advocate for that it is the absolute concentration of ARA...... resulted in a lower growth rate, which suggests that visual aberrations affected prey capture. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Lopes, Graciliana; Castro, Luís Filipe Costa; Valente, Luísa Maria Pinheiro
2017-05-24
The long term effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by increasing the levels of vegetable oils (VO), 0% (CTR), 50% (VO50) and 100% (VO100), in diets for Senegalese sole were evaluated in terms of skeletal muscle cellularity and expression of related genes. After 140 days of feeding, all fish had similar body weight and length. The inclusion of 50% VO did not result in differences in muscle cellularity, but dorsal muscle cross-sectional area and fast-twitch fibre diameter increased in fish fed total FO substitution, whilst fibre density was reduced (P muscle hypertrophic growth, but not hyperplastic growth, and associated with a nutritional modulation of fgf6 by dietary VO. This study indicates that 50% VO does not affect the muscle phenotype, but total FO substitution stimulates muscle hypertrophy.
ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund: Social Inclusion Survey: Staff Perceptions on Social Inclusion
Mary S. Thompson
2007-01-01
This paper is intended to contribute to the promotion of social inclusion as a cross-cutting priority in the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), a key issue in the Bank's Renewed Strategic Framework, as a key approach to reducing poverty and inequality in Latin America. It is based upon a staff opinion survey, designed and implemented under the framework of the IDB-UK ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund, to assess how staff view social inclusion as an operational approach. The results of th...
ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund: Social Inclusion Survey: Staff Perceptions on Social Inclusion
Mary S. Thompson
2007-01-01
This paper is intended to contribute to the promotion of social inclusion as a cross-cutting priority in the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), a key issue in the Bank's Renewed Strategic Framework, as a key approach to reducing poverty and inequality in Latin America. It is based upon a staff opinion survey, designed and implemented under the framework of the IDB-UK ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund, to assess how staff view social inclusion as an operational approach. The results of th...
Jalali, Nima; Vilke, Gary M; Korenevsky, Melissa; Castillo, Edward M; Wilson, Michael P
2014-06-01
Pain symptoms related to cardiac ischemia can vary greatly from patient to patient. However, should emergency physicians consider the possibility of myocardial infarction in patients who present solely with dental pain? This is a systematic review of the literature investigating the incidence of jaw, tooth, or facial pain as the sole symptom of cardiac ischemia. Studies investigating jaw, tooth, or facial pain of cardiac origin were identified using the PubMed database. All English studies in which cardiac pain originated in the face, teeth, or jaw were screened for inclusion. Data were abstracted from each study utilizing a structured review process, and rated for methodological quality. Eighteen studies met study criteria: 16 were case reports, and the remaining 2 were prospective cohort studies. After quality assessment and categorization, nine reports were categorized as weak, eight moderate, and one strong methodological quality. Cardiac ischemia may present in no anatomic location other than face or jaw. However, despite frequent claims in the literature to the contrary, the lack of methodological quality of the studies investigated impedes a firm conclusion of face, jaw, or tooth pain as the only symptom of cardiac insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rao, G. V.; Shore, C. P.; Narayanaswami, R.
1977-01-01
A thermal optimality criterion is presented for sizing members of heated structures with multiple temperature constraints. The optimality criterion is similar to an existing optimality criterion for design of mechanically loaded structures with displacement constraints. Effectiveness of the thermal optimality criterion is assessed by applying it to one- and two-dimensional thermal problems where temperatures can be controlled by varying the material distribution in the structure. Results obtained from the optimality criterion agree within 2 percent with results from a closed-form solution and with results from a mathematical programming technique. The thermal optimality criterion augments existing optimality criteria for strength and stiffness related constraints and offers the possibility of extension of optimality techniques to sizing structures with combined thermal and mechanical loading.
Validation of a Criterion for Cam Mechanisms Optimization Using Constraints upon Cam’s Curvature
Stelian Alaci
2016-06-01
Full Text Available For the mechanism with rotating cam and knife-edge follower, an optimization criterion by means of imposed constraints upon cam’s curvature is expressed in a special coordinate system. Thus, stating the optimization criterion in the coordinate system defined by the mechanisms constructive parameters -eccentricity and minimum follower’s stroke, a contour is obtained for any position of the mechanism. The optimization criterion assumes establishing the position of the characteristic point of the mechanism with respect to this contour. Fulfillment of optimization criterion assumes that the characteristic point is positioned in the same manner with respect to all contours. The optimization criterion is simplified when considering the envelope of the contours. The method is exemplified using two mechanisms, with the cams priori satisfying the criterion.
Validation of Hoek-Brown failure criterion charts for rock slopes
A.M. Nekouei; K. Ahangari
2013-01-01
Although stability charts suggested by Hoek and Bray on the basis of Mohr-Coulomb criterion are used for rock slopes, but complete and precise recognition is required for distinguishing cohesive strength and Mohr-Coulomb equivalent internal friction angle for rock mass. The paper by Lia et al. [6] is the only one that introduced rock slope charts according to Hoek-Brown failure criterion. In this paper, at first, this type of charts is introduced. Then, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion charts [2] are compared and validated with Hoek-Brown failure criterion ones [6]. Next, Bishop method utilizing Slide software is compared with Hoek-Brown failure criterion stability charts. Average standard deviation (ASD), root mean square error (RMSE) and variance account for (VAF) were used for the comparison. According to the results, because of high distribution and very low correlation among the comparisons, Hoek-Brown failure crite-rion charts are not efficient.
ICF Ignition, the Lawson Criterion, and Comparison with MFE Ignition
Betti, R.
2009-11-01
The Lawson criterion, which determines the onset of thermonuclear ignition, is usually expressed through the product pτ > 10 atm . s, where p is the plasma pressure in atm and τ is the energy confinement time in seconds. In magnetic fusion devices, both the pressure and confinement time are routinely measured and the performance of each discharge can be assessed by comparing the value of pτ with respect to the ignition value (10 atm . s). In inertial confinement fusion, both p and τ cannot be directly measured and the performance of surrogate and/or subignited ICF implosions cannot be assessed with respect to the ignition condition. This makes it difficult to compare the performance of ICF implosions with that of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) discharges. Here, we define the meaning of ignition in ICF implosions and compare it to MFE ignition. We then show that a multidimensional ignition condition for inertial confinement fusion can be cast in a form that depends on three measurable parameters of the compressed-fuel assembly: the hot-spot ion temperature T, the neutron yield normalized to the 1-D prediction (yield over clean or YOC) and the total areal density ρR, which includes the cold shell's contribution. A family of marginal-ignition curves are derived in the ρR--T plane.footnotetext C. D. Zhou and R. Betti, Phys. Plasmas 15, 102707 (2008). On this plane, hydrodynamic-equivalent curves show how a given implosion would perform with respect to the ignition condition when the laser-driver energy is varied. Such a criterion can be used to measure the ignition marginfootnotetext D. S. Clark, S. W. Haan, and J. D. Salmonson, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056305 (2008). of NIF targets and to predict the performance of OMEGA targets when scaled up to NIF energies. This work has been supported by the US Department of Energy under Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-FC02-ER54789 and DE-FC52-08NA28302.
Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Hirth, Greg; Yamato, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile
2016-04-01
Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500 m thick highly strained metamorphic rock units found beneath mylonitic banded peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites, as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are mainly composed of metabasalts deriving from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and metamorphosed up to granulite-facies conditions by heat transfer from the mantle wedge. Pressure-temperature peak conditions are usually estimated at 1.0±0.2 GPa and 800±100°C. The absence of HP-LT metamorphism overprint implies that metamorphic soles have been formed and exhumed during subduction infancy. In this view, metamorphic soles were strongly deformed during their accretion to the mantle wedge (corresponding, now, to the base of the ophiolite). Therefore, metamorphic soles and banded peridotites are direct witnesses of the dynamics of early subduction zones, in terms of thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology evolution across the nascent slab interface. Based on fieldwork and EBSD analyses, we present a detailed (micro-) structural study performed on samples coming from the Sumeini window, the better-preserved cross-section of the metamorphic sole of Oman. Large differences are found in the deformation (CPO, grain size, aspect ratio) of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase, related to mineralogical changes linked with the distance to the peridotite contact (e.g., hardening due to the appearance of garnet and clinopyroxene). To model the incipient slab interface in laboratory, we carried out 5 hydrostatic annealing and simple-shear experiments on Griggs solid-medium apparatus. Deformation experiments were conducted at axial strain rates of 10-6 s-1. Fine-grained amphibolite was synthetized by adding 1 wt.% water to a (Mid-Ocean Ridge) basalt powder as a proxy for the metamorphic sole (amphibole + plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± garnet assemblage). To synthetize garnet, 2 experiments were carried out in hydrostatic conditions and with deformation at
Probability Criterion for a Dynamic Financial Model with Short-Selling Allowed
韩其恒; 唐万生; 李光泉
2003-01-01
Probability criterion has its practical significance, and its investment decision-making is determined by the expected discounted wealth. In a complete, standard financial market with short-selling allowed, this paper probes into the investment decision-making with probability criterion. The upper limit of criterion function is obtained. The corresponding discounted wealth process and hedging portfolio process are provided. Finally, an illustrative example of one-dimensional constant-coefficient financial market is given.
Generalized cost-criterion-based learning algorithm for diagonal recurrent neural networks
Wang, Yongji; Wang, Hong
2000-05-01
A new generalized cost criterion based learning algorithm for diagonal recurrent neural networks is presented, which is with form of recursive prediction error (RPE) and has second convergent order. A guideline for the choice of the optimal learning rate is derived from convergence analysis. The application of this method to dynamic modeling of typical chemical processes shows that the generalized cost criterion RPE (QRPE) has higher modeling precision than BP trained MLP and quadratic cost criterion trained RPE (QRPE).
Prip Karen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet. Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture, reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain
An analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of sole registered births and infant deaths.
Messer, Julie
2011-01-01
Differences in birth characteristics and infant mortality rates by marital status and birth registration type reflect complex underlying factors. In particular, births registered solely by the mother are seen as a disadvantaged group. This article analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of births by registration type and parents' marital status and explores these differences for health outcomes. Birth notifications data from the NHS Numbers for Babies system was linked to birth registration data held by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for births occurring in 2007 and 2008 in England and Wales. This dataset was further linked to death registration data to identify infants who died before their first birthday.Regression analysis was used to compare factors and health outcomes across marital and registration status groups. Regression models were calculated to determine the main risk factors for poor outcomes. The registration groups differed in the age of the mother at birth, the proportion of young mothers, ethnic group distribution and measures of deprived circumstances. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups were similar in the proportion of young mothers and the deprivation indices. The groups also differed in the proportion of low birthweight and premature babies. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups both had higher percentages of 'small for gestational age' babies compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. The stillbirth rate was highest in the sole registered group. Both the joint registered-different address and sole registered groups had higher infant mortality rates compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that low birthweight was a key factor in infant mortality. Births registered solely by the mother were found to be a disadvantaged group but were also similar to the joint
About wave field modeling in hierarchic medium with fractal inclusions
Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey
2014-05-01
The processes of oil gaseous deposits outworking are linked with moving of polyphase multicomponent media, which are characterized by no equilibrium and nonlinear rheological features. The real behavior of layered systems is defined as complicated rheology moving liquids and structural morphology of porous media. It is eargently needed to account those factors for substantial description of the filtration processes. Additionally we must account also the synergetic effects. That allows suggesting new methods of control and managing of complicated natural systems, which can research these effects. Thus our research is directed to the layered system, from which we have to outwork oil and which is a complicated hierarchic dynamical system with fractal inclusions. In that paper we suggest the algorithm of modeling of 2-d seismic field distribution in the heterogeneous medium with hierarchic inclusions. Also we can compare the integral 2-D for seismic field in a frame of local hierarchic heterogeneity with a porous inclusion and pure elastic inclusion for the case when the parameter Lame is equal to zero for the inclusions and the layered structure. For that case we can regard the problem for the latitude and longitudinal waves independently. Here we shall analyze the first case. The received results can be used for choosing criterions of joined seismic methods for high complicated media research.If the boundaries of the inclusion of the k rank are fractals, the surface and contour integrals in the integral equations must be changed to repeated fractional integrals of Riman-Liuvill type .Using the developed earlier 3-d method of induction electromagnetic frequency geometric monitoring we showed the opportunity of defining of physical and structural features of hierarchic oil layer structure and estimating of water saturating by crack inclusions. For visualization we had elaborated some algorithms and programs for constructing cross sections for two hierarchic structural
Weathers, Frank W; Keane, Terence M
2007-04-01
The Criterion A problem in the field of traumatic stress refers to the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and involves a number of fundamental issues regarding the definition and measurement of psychological trauma. These issues first emerged with the introduction of PTSD as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) and continue to generate considerable controversy. In this article, the authors provide an update on the Criterion A problem, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the DSM definition of the stressor criterion and the ongoing debate regarding broad versus narrow conceptualizations of traumatic events.
A Criterion for Maximally Six-Qubit Entangled States via Coefficient Matrix
Yu, Yan; Zha, Xin Wei; Li, Wei
2017-03-01
In a recent paper (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor 45, 075308 (2012)), Li et al. established the coefficient matrix of six-qubit entangled states. With an emphasis on six qubits, we present a new criterion for maximally six-qubit entangled states via those coefficient matrices. By calculating the determinants of coefficient matrix, one use the criterion that characterize these states. Moreover, the criterion via the coefficient matrices gives rise to the combination of maximally multi-qubit entangled state(MMES) and matrix, and we believe that the new criterion can play an important role in quantum information.
Applicability and generality of the modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion
Li, Yanwen; Wang, Lumin; Liu, Jingfang; Huang, Zhen
2013-03-01
A generally applicable criterion for all mechanism mobility has been an active domain in mechanism theory lasting more than 150 years. It is stated that the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion for mobility has been successfully used to solve the mobility of many more kinds of mechanisms, but never before has anyone proven the applicability and generality of the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion in theory. In order to fill the gap, the applicability and generality of the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach Criterion of mechanism mobility is systematically demonstrated. Firstly, the mobility research background and the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion are introduced. Secondly, some new definitions, such as half local freedom, non-common constraint space of a mechanism and common motion space of a mechanism, etc, are given to demonstrate the correctness and broad applicability of the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion. Thirdly, the general applicability of the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion is demonstrated based on screw theory. The mobilities of the classical DELASSUS mechanisms and a modern planar parallel mechanism, are determined through the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion, which are as examples to show the practical application of the Modified Grübler-Kutzbach criterion.
Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...
Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements
Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design....
Tang Zhili; Dong Jun
2009-01-01
complete and complete decisions of the leader and followers respectively. Several design examples illustrate the efficiency of the coupling algorithms for multi-criterion aerodynamic design optimization problems.
Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements
Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design....
Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements
Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars
2006-01-01
The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...
Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation
Gebbie, Geoffrey; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin
2017-07-01
The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR) has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task - a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere-ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.
Controllability, not chaos, key criterion for ocean state estimation
G. Gebbie
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The Lagrange multiplier method for combining observations and models (i.e., the adjoint method or 4D-VAR has been avoided or approximated when the numerical model is highly nonlinear or chaotic. This approach has been adopted primarily due to difficulties in the initialization of low-dimensional chaotic models, where the search for optimal initial conditions by gradient-descent algorithms is hampered by multiple local minima. Although initialization is an important task for numerical weather prediction, ocean state estimation usually demands an additional task – a solution of the time-dependent surface boundary conditions that result from atmosphere–ocean interaction. Here, we apply the Lagrange multiplier method to an analogous boundary control problem, tracking the trajectory of the forced chaotic pendulum. Contrary to previous assertions, it is demonstrated that the Lagrange multiplier method can track multiple chaotic transitions through time, so long as the boundary conditions render the system controllable. Thus, the nonlinear timescale poses no limit to the time interval for successful Lagrange multiplier-based estimation. That the key criterion is controllability, not a pure measure of dynamical stability or chaos, illustrates the similarities between the Lagrange multiplier method and other state estimation methods. The results with the chaotic pendulum suggest that nonlinearity should not be a fundamental obstacle to ocean state estimation with eddy-resolving models, especially when using an improved first-guess trajectory.
Nonlinear viscoelasticity and generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels
Divoux, Thibaut; Keshavarz, Bavand; Manneville, Sébastien; McKinley, Gareth
2016-11-01
Biopolymer gels display a multiscale microstructure that is responsible for their solid-like properties. Upon external deformation, these soft viscoelastic solids exhibit a generic nonlinear mechanical response characterized by pronounced stress- or strain-stiffening prior to irreversible damage and failure, most often through macroscopic fractures. Here we show on a model acid-induced protein gel that the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of the gel can be described in terms of a 'damping function' which predicts the gel mechanical response quantitatively up to the onset of macroscopic failure. Using a nonlinear integral constitutive equation built upon the experimentally-measured damping function in conjunction with power-law linear viscoelastic response, we derive the form of the stress growth in the gel following the start up of steady shear. We also couple the shear stress response with Bailey's durability criteria for brittle solids in order to predict the critical values of the stress σc and strain γc for failure of the gel, and how they scale with the applied shear rate. This provides a generalized failure criterion for biopolymer gels in a range of different deformation histories. This work was funded by the MIT-France seed fund and by the CNRS PICS-USA scheme (#36939). BK acknowledges financial support from Axalta Coating Systems.
A novel SURE-based criterion for parametric PSF estimation.
Xue, Feng; Blu, Thierry
2015-02-01
We propose an unbiased estimate of a filtered version of the mean squared error--the blur-SURE (Stein's unbiased risk estimate)--as a novel criterion for estimating an unknown point spread function (PSF) from the degraded image only. The PSF is obtained by minimizing this new objective functional over a family of Wiener processings. Based on this estimated blur kernel, we then perform nonblind deconvolution using our recently developed algorithm. The SURE-based framework is exemplified with a number of parametric PSF, involving a scaling factor that controls the blur size. A typical example of such parametrization is the Gaussian kernel. The experimental results demonstrate that minimizing the blur-SURE yields highly accurate estimates of the PSF parameters, which also result in a restoration quality that is very similar to the one obtained with the exact PSF, when plugged into our recent multi-Wiener SURE-LET deconvolution algorithm. The highly competitive results obtained outline the great potential of developing more powerful blind deconvolution algorithms based on SURE-like estimates.
The effects of criterion variability on relative operating characteristics
Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven Natl. Lab., Bldg. 130, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Emmerich, D.S. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11974 (United States)
1995-05-01
The form of the relative operating characteristic (ROC) describing auditory detection typically differs from that expected based on the assumption that the observer`s responses reflect underlying distributions that are normal and of equal variance [e.g., Green and Swets, {ital Signal} {ital Detection} {ital Theory} {ital and} {ital Psychophysics}]. Specifically, it is found that binormal ROCs often have slopes less than one, and are not strictly linear [Watson {ital et} {ital al}., 283--288 (1964)]. It has been suggested that nonlinear binormal ROCs may be the result of extreme criteria being more variable than those more centrally positioned [Emmerich and Binder, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 {bold 65}, S59 (1979)]. The forms of rating ROCs obtained in an experiment designed to reveal the effects of such variability were consistent with the proposition that criteria associated with ``no`` responses are more variable than those associated with ``yes`` responses. Criterion operating characteristics [Wickelgren, J. Math. Psychol. {bold 5}, 102--122], which reflect the relative locations and variances of the boundaries of confidence categories, favored the same interpretation. It is concluded that the variability of criteria defining categories of rated confidence is sizable and not necessarily constant across criteria, and that such variability significantly influences the forms of empirical ROCs determined using confidence ratings in auditory signal detection.
Centration-distortion error: a criterion of perceptual dysfunction.
Mecke, V
This was a study to determine whether centration, as a perceptual process, could be a criterion for differentiating between neurologically impaired and emotionally disturbed children. Centration was defined by Piaget as a prolonged involuntary attachment of a sensory modality to one part of a field, causing perceptual errors of exaggerations and distortions. It is hypothesized that centration would affect motor behavior, producing effects on drawing tasks characterized by separation of designs or their parts, coincident with distortions of the figures drawn. The neurologically impaired children were identified as having primary difficulties with perception whereas the emotionally disturbed children would have primary difficulties with intellection. The centration-distortion error would characterize the drawing of the neurologically impaired but not those of the emotionally disturbed children. A sample of 44 children was selected, each with EEG records, psychological tests and psychiatric interviews used as differential criteria for the groups. Eleven children were diagnosed as having minimal brain damage, 33 as emotionally disturbed. Three psychologists scored the Bender Gestalt tests, blind, for indicators of brain injury and emotional disturbance as defined by Koppitz' criteria, and for the centration-distortion error. The hypothesis was upheld at the .001 level of confidence, validating an earlier pilot study.
Development of a wrinkled pipeline fatigue ultimate limit state criterion
Semiga, V.; Tiku, S.; Dinovitzer, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada); Zhou, J.; Sen, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2009-07-01
This paper described research currently being conducted to develop a mechanics-based wrinkle ultimate limit state for evaluating the long-term integrity of wrinkled pipeline segments. Efforts included testing and non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of small-scale and full-scale wrinkled pipeline segments. The aim of the program was to develop a set of monotonic and cyclic material properties for use in designing a failure assessment procedure. A failure criterion has also been developed to predict the fatigue life of experimental pipeline specimens. An experimental material properties database was developed for several pipeline materials ranging from API grade X60 to X100 steel pipelines. Multiple monotonic tensile tests were conducted for all materials used in the program. Experimental stress-strain curves were used to develop finite element material models during the modelling phase of the project. Complete strain life curves were also obtained. A small scale strip test was developed to predict the fatigue life of strip test specimens. Nonlinear kinematic material models were also developed. Results of the program to date indicate that the finite element method (FEM) model is capable of accurately estimating the cyclic fatigue life of pipelines with wrinkles. It was concluded that the FEM model will also be used to examine the interactions between soil and buried pipelines. 6 refs., 14 figs.
Wang-Landau sampling: a criterion for halting the simulations.
Caparica, A A
2014-04-01
In this work we propose a criterion to finish the simulations of the Wang-Landau sampling. Instead of determining a final modification factor for all simulations and every sample size, we investigate the behavior of the temperature of the peak of the specific heat during the simulations and finish them when this value varies below a given limit. As a result, different runs stop at different final modification factors. We show that in place of the temperature of the peak of the specific heat one can adopt alternatively the integrated heat transfer as a reference quantity. We apply this technique to the two-dimensional Ising model and a homopolymer. We verify that for the Ising model the mean order of the final modification factors is roughly the same for all lattice sizes, but for the homopolymer the order of the final modification factors increases with increasing polymer sizes. The results show that the simulations can be halted much earlier than is conventional in Wang-Landau sampling, but manifold finite-size simulations are required in order to obtain accurate results. A brief application to the three-dimensional Ising model is also available.
An Analytic Criterion for Turbulent Disruption of Planetary Resonances
Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C.
2017-03-01
Mean motion commensurabilities in multi-planet systems are an expected outcome of protoplanetary disk-driven migration, and their relative dearth in the observational data presents an important challenge to current models of planet formation and dynamical evolution. One natural mechanism that can lead to the dissolution of commensurabilities is stochastic orbital forcing, induced by turbulent density fluctuations within the nebula. While this process is qualitatively promising, the conditions under which mean motion resonances can be broken are not well understood. In this work, we derive a simple analytic criterion that elucidates the relationship among the physical parameters of the system, and find the conditions necessary to drive planets out of resonance. Subsequently, we confirm our findings with numerical integrations carried out in the perturbative regime, as well as direct N-body simulations. Our calculations suggest that turbulent resonance disruption depends most sensitively on the planet–star mass ratio. Specifically, for a disk with properties comparable to the early solar nebula with α ={10}-2, only planet pairs with cumulative mass ratios smaller than ({m}1+{m}2)/M≲ {10}-5∼ 3{M}\\oplus /{M}ȯ are susceptible to breaking resonance at semimajor axis of order a∼ 0.1 {au}. Although turbulence can sometimes compromise resonant pairs, an additional mechanism (such as suppression of resonance capture probability through disk eccentricity) is required to adequately explain the largely non-resonant orbital architectures of extrasolar planetary systems.
A Physics-Based Temperature Stabilization Criterion for Thermal Testing
Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.
2009-01-01
Spacecraft testing specifications differ greatly in the criteria they specify for stability in thermal balance tests. Some specify a required temperature stabilization rate (the change in temperature per unit time, dT/dt), some specify that the final steady-state temperature be approached to within a specified difference, delta T , and some specify a combination of the two. The particular values for temperature stabilization rate and final temperature difference also vary greatly between specification documents. A one-size-fits-all temperature stabilization rate requirement does not yield consistent results for all test configurations because of differences in thermal mass and heat transfer to the environment. Applying a steady-state temperature difference requirement is problematic because the final test temperature is not accurately known a priori, especially for powered configurations. In the present work, a simplified, lumped-mass analysis has been used to explore the applicability of these criteria. A new, user-friendly, physics-based approach is developed that allows the thermal engineer to determine when an acceptable level of temperature stabilization has been achieved. The stabilization criterion can be predicted pre-test but must be refined during test to allow verification that the defined level of temperature stabilization has been achieved.
Becoming Inclusive: A Code of Conduct for Inclusion and Diversity.
Schmidt, Bonnie J; MacWilliams, Brent R; Neal-Boylan, Leslie
There are increasing concerns about exclusionary behaviors and lack of diversity in the nursing profession. Exclusionary behaviors, which may include incivility, bullying, and workplace violence, discriminate and isolate individuals and groups who are different, whereas inclusive behaviors encourage diversity. To address inclusion and diversity in nursing, this article offers a code of conduct. This code of conduct builds on existing nursing codes of ethics and applies to nursing students and nurses in both educational and practice settings. Inclusive behaviors that are demonstrated in nurses' relationships with patients, colleagues, the profession, and society are described. This code of conduct provides a basis for measureable change, empowerment, and unification of the profession. Recommendations, implications, and a pledge to action are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
T.M.B Garlet
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Mentha x gracilis Sole é um híbrido que produz óleos essenciais ricos em monoterpenos. Tendo em vista a propagação clonal desta planta, segmentos nodais provenientes de plantas assépticas, foram cultivados em meio de Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 µM de cinetina, benzilaminopurina (BAP ou thidiazuron (TDZ. Após 30 dias, as plantas foram transferidas para meio MS não suplementado com citocinina. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos em meio suplementado com 2 µM de TDZ, mostrando ser método viável para a produção rápida de grande número de mudas. Após a transferência das plantas para a casa de vegetação, as plantas propagadas com TDZ apresentam maior número de tricomas glandulares.Mentha x gracilis Sole is a hybrid that produces essential oils rich in monoterpenes. Aimed at the clonal propagation of this plant, nodal segments from aseptic plants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MSO medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 µM kinetin, benzyl adenine (BAP or thidiazuron (TDZ. After 30 days, plants were transferred to MOS medium without cytokinin supplementation. The best results were obtained in medium supplemented with 2 µM TDZ, which proved to be a viable method for the rapid production of a large number of seedlings. After transference to the greenhouse, plants propagated with TDZ had a larger number of glandular trichomes.
MIAO Guidong; XU Ying; WANG Di; CHEN Songlin; FAN Tingjun; TIAN Yongsheng
2011-01-01
Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a promising species for aquaculture in China.The wild population of C.semilaevis is under threat from environmental factors.Microsatellite markers are very suitable for assessing genetic diversity.Four microsatellite-enriched libraries of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were constructed,from which 57 polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and characterized.The polymorphism of these microsatellites was assessed by genotyping in 30 individual fish.The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 11,with an average of 4.614 alleles per locus.The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 1.0000 and from 0.0966 to 0.8847 respectively.Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.0905 to 0.862.These markers would be useful for population structure assessment,genetic linkage map construction and parentage analysis for this species.
A rare case of dumb-bell lipoma of the sole.
Satish, Chetan
2011-12-01
A rare case of dumb-bell shaped lipoma of sole of foot in a middle aged lady which had crippled her life for almost a decade in-spite of multiple surgeries. She was initially misdiagnosed to have a corn on her sole and had undergone 3 surgeries spanning about 5 years. Due to the big size of the soft tissue swelling an MRI was done which showed a dumb-bell shaped swelling of foot. A major portion of swelling was lying deep to the plantar fascia after breaching the fascia. She underwent an excision of the swelling and is free of any recurrence after 2 years. She is now able to walk with a normal gait.
Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea
Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent
2013-01-01
correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...
Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water with Sodium Citrate as Sole Carbon Source
YAN Bo; ZHAO Lin; TAN Xin
2005-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of using sodium citrate(NaC6H5O6*2H2O)as sole carbon source for nitrate removal from drinking water.With sodium citrate as sole carbon source, batch experiments have been conducted to study the law of denitrification influenced by pH, C/N and temperature. Results show that a denitrification rate reaching 1.32 g NO-3-N /(g Biomass*d) was obtained when pH was at 7.5,C/N at 1.7(atom ratio), and temperature from 20 ℃ to 30 ℃. The results also show that denitrification rate with sodium citrate as carbon source approaches to that with methanol as carbon source.
Facco, E; Pasquali, S; Zanette, G; Casiglia, E
2013-09-01
A female patient with multiple chemical sensitivity and previous anaphylactoid reactions to local anaesthetics was admitted for removal of a thigh skin tumour under hypnosis as sole anaesthesia. The hypnotic protocol included hypnotic focused analgesia and a pre-operative pain threshold test. After inducing hypnosis, a wide excision was performed, preserving the deep fascia, and the tumour was removed; the patient's heart rate and blood pressure did not increase during the procedure. When the patient was de-hypnotised, she reported no pain and was discharged immediately. Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.
Size selectivity of sole gill nets fished in the North Sea
Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Wileman, D.
1999-01-01
, plaice and cod for each setting of the gear. It was found that a hi-normal form for the selection curve gave the best fits. Mean selection curves were then estimated by combining sets using a model of between-set variation. The ratio between length of maximum retention and mesh size was estimated to be 3.......28 for sole, 2.60 for plaice and 4.56 for cod. Selection curves were also fitted to the catch data pooled over all sets. The model deviance for the sole and plaice data indicated lack of lit when pooling the catch data. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Social inclusion and mental health.
Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather
2010-09-01
Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.
Numerical Simulation of Systems of Shear Bands in Ductile Metal with Inclusions
Plohr, JeeYeon N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division
2016-08-11
These are slides for a presentation on numerical simulation of systems of shear bands in ductile metal with inclusions, performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The conclusions are the following: A shear band is much thinner (0.1 μm) than the spacing between inclusions (100μm). Therefore fully resolved simulation is not feasible; asymptotic analysis allows modeling of a shear band as a velocity discontinuity within a moderately sized cell; formation criterion (critical strain) is determined by rate-dependent viscoplastic flow rule; inclusions cause shear bands to form at smaller strain; under expansion, shear bands form at the same strain than under compression; this can be applied to crystal plasticity.
Partial duplication 2p as the sole abnormality in two cases with anencephaly.
Thangavelu, Maya; Frolich, Gary; Rogers, David
2004-01-15
Anencephaly/NTD has been observed in aneuploid and non-aneuploid individuals. We present two cases of anencephaly diagnosed prenatally with partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 2 as the sole abnormality. The absence of aneuploidy involving other regions of the genome in these cases, further substantiates suggestions of the existence of a gene or genes on the short arm of chromosome 2 critical in the development of the central nervous system.
Li Jiang; Hengde Li
2016-01-01
Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happen in insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudomales, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth ...
Sustainable Production of Ammonia solely using Solar Power, Water, and Air
Call, Friedemann; Felinks, Jan; Lange, Matthias; Sattler, Christian
2015-01-01
A process is proposed capable to produce ammonia solely from sun, water and air and therewith promising to replace the million-ton consumption of natural gas with solar production of hydrogen and nitrogen. While several routes for solar hydrogen production were important research subjects for decades, an innovative and sustainable nitrogen generation is still missing. Our approach to produce nitrogen is based on a novel air separation: a thermochemical cycle based on ...
Omorodion Oriri Asemota; O.P.G. Nmorsi; Isaac, C.; E M Odoya; Akinseye, J; Isaac, O
2014-01-01
Background: Geohelminth infections are predominant in Nigeria and communities at greatest risks are those with poor environmental/sanitary conditions and unhygienic habits. Chemokine ligands (CXCL) a class under chemokine group play important roles in the immune system by either mediating susceptible or protective immune responses to parasitic infections. Aim: This study was to assess the impact of Ascaris lumbricoides sole infection and co-infection on some serum chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL9, an...
Mechanical stimulation of the foot sole in a supine position for ground reaction force simulation
2014-01-01
Background:\\ud To promote early rehabilitation of walking, gait training can start even when patients are on bed rest. Supine stepping in the early phase after injury is proposed to maximise the beneficial effects of gait restoration. In this training paradigm, mechanical loading on the sole of the foot is required to mimic the ground reaction forces that occur during overground walking. A pneumatic shoe platform was developed to produce adjustable forces on the heel and the forefoot with an ...
Chauvigné, François; Ollé, Judith; González, Wendy; Duncan, Neil; Giménez, Ignacio
2017-01-01
Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole’s natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species. PMID:28329024
Impact of climate and hydrodynamics on sole larval immigration towards the Tagus estuary, Portugal
Vinagre, C.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.
2007-12-01
Spawning grounds of the soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, are distant from the estuarine nurseries where juveniles concentrate. Recruitment of these species is highly dependent on the success of the larval migration towards the inshore nursery grounds. Unfavourable climate and hydrodynamic circulation may lead to high mortality rates at this stage. The relation between river drainage, NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity over the three months prior to the end of the estuarine colonization and the densities of S. solea and S. senegalensis in the nursery grounds were investigated for both species based on a discontinuous historical dataset (from 1988 to 2006) for the Tagus estuary. Multiple linear regression models were developed for sole density and environmental data (separately for each species). Results showed that river drainage is positively correlated with juveniles' densities of both species, possibly due to the existence of chemical cues used by larvae for movement orientation. NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity relations with soles densities were non-significant. It was concluded that the high complexity of the Portuguese upwelling system makes it hard to detect causal relations of the environmental variables tested. The importance of river flow for coastal ecosystems was stressed. Since climate change scenarios predict a strong decrease in rain fall over the Portuguese river basins, as well as a concentrated period of heavy rain in winter, it was hypothesised that future river drainage decrease over much of the year may lead to lower recruitment success for soles, especially for S. senegalensis.
An overview of the understanding of ions containing solely fluorine atoms.
Ponikvar-Svet, Maja; Edwards, Kathleen F; Liebman, Joel F
2013-01-01
We discuss in the current paper ions containing solely fluorine atoms, F-, F2- and F3-, their corresponding cationic and/or multiply charged counterparts. While the emphasis of the paper is on gas phase species, their energetics and reactions, aqueous solutions are also discussed. In particular, biomedical and analytical aspects of F- are also considered. The new trichotomy of convenience, anthropocentrism and folksonomy is also applied to the understanding of our fluorine-containing ions.
Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Knott, Arnold;
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new self-oscillating resonant gate drive composed solely of passive components. The gate drive can be used in various resonant converters and inverters and can be used for both low and high side gate drive. The paper presents examples of how higher order harmonics can be use...... Frequency (VHF) range, all showing good results with peak efficiency up to 82% and output regulation from 70% to full load without bursting....
Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis
Wanis H. Ibrahim
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis.
Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer
Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.
2013-02-01
Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.
Kreiner, Marcelo; Álvarez, Ramón; Michelis, Virginia; Waldenström, Anders; Isberg, Annika
2016-04-01
We recently found craniofacial pain to be the sole symptom of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 4% of patients. We hypothesized that this scenario is also true for symptoms of prodromal (pre-infarction) angina. We studied 326 consecutive patients who experienced myocardial ischemia. Intra-individual variability analyses with respect to ECG findings and pain characteristics were performed for those 150 patients who experienced at least one recurrent ischemic episode. AMI patients (n=113) were categorized into two subgroups: "abrupt onset" (n=81) and "prodromal angina" (n=32). Age, gender and risk factor comparisons were performed between groups. Craniofacial pain constituted the sole prodromal symptom of an AMI in 5% of patients. In those who experienced two ischemic episodes, women were more likely than men to experience craniofacial pain in both episodes (ppain quality descriptors "pressure" and "burning". This study is to our knowledge the first to report that craniofacial pain can be the only symptom of a pre-infarction angina. Craniofacial pain constitutes the sole prodromal AMI symptom in one out of 20 AMI patients. Recognition of this atypical symptom presentation is low because research on prodromal AMI symptoms has to date studied only patients with chest pain. To avoid a potentially fatal misdiagnosis, awareness of this clinical presentation needs to be brought to the attention of clinicians, researchers and the general public.
Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking
Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki
The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.
Jiang, Li; Li, Hengde
2017-02-09
Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happen in insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudomales, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth rate of male fish during a 2-yr growth period. Here, we identified a locus with large controlling effect on sex reversal in the half-smooth tongue sole through genome-wide association study with high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This SNP is located at the third intron of the F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 17 (FBXL17) gene on the Z chromosome, and it has two alleles, A and T. Genetic females with Z(A)W genotypes will never reverse into phenotypic males, but those with Z(T)W genotypes can sometimes undergo sex reversal. This SNP explains 82.7% of the genetic variation, or 58.4% of the phenotypic variation. Based on our results, a reproductive management program could be developed to improve the phenotypic female ratio in aquaculture, and elucidate the mechanism of sex reversal in half-smooth tongue sole. We expect that these findings will have a substantial impact on the population management in many harvested species where sex reversal occurs. Copyright © 2017 Jiang and Li.
Daily feeding and protein metabolism rhythms in Senegalese sole post-larvae
Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Fish hatcheries must adapt larval feeding protocols to feeding behavior and metabolism patterns to obtain more efficient feed utilization. Fish larvae exhibit daily ingesting rhythms rather than ingesting food continuously throughout the day. The aim of this study was to determine the daily patterns of feed intake, protein digestibility, protein retention and catabolism in Senegalese sole post-larvae (Solea senegalensis; 33 days post-hatching) using 14C-labeled Artemia protein and incubation in metabolic chambers. Sole post-larvae were fed at 09:00, 15:00, 21:00, 03:00 and 09:00+1 day; and those fed at 09:00, 21:00, 03:00 and 09:00+1 day showed significantly higher feed intake than post-larvae fed at 15:00 h (P=0.000). Digestibility and evacuation rate of ingested protein did not change during the whole cycle (P=0.114); however, post-larvae fed at 21:00 and 03:00 h showed the significantly highest protein retention efficiency and lowest catabolism (P=0.002). Therefore, results confirm the existence of daily rhythmicity in feeding activity and in the utilization of the ingested nutrients in Senegalese sole post-larvae. PMID:27895049
Simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material.
Jeong, Seung-Mi; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Oh, Ji-Hyeon; Fang, Yiqin; Choi, Byung-Ho
2014-09-01
Recently, several authors have shown that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using autologous platelet-rich fibrin as the sole filling material is a reliable procedure promoting bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material on bone formation in a canine sinus model. An implant was placed after sinus membrane elevation in the maxillary sinus of six adult female mongrel dogs. The resulting space between the membrane and sinus floor was filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin retrieved from each dog. The implants were left in place for six months. Bone tissue was seen at the lower part of the implants introduced into the sinus cavity. The height of the newly formed bone around the implants ranged from 0 mm to 4.9 mm (mean; 2.6 ± 2.0 mm) on the buccal side and from 0 mm to 4.2 mm (mean; 1.3 ± 1.8 mm) on the palatal side. The findings from this study suggest that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material is not a predictable and reproducible procedure, especially with respect to the bone formation around the implants in the sinus cavity.
Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N
2016-11-01
The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.
Li Jiang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happen in insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis, some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudomales, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth rate of male fish during a 2-yr growth period. Here, we identified a locus with large controlling effect on sex reversal in the half-smooth tongue sole through genome-wide association study with high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. This SNP is located at the third intron of the F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 17 (FBXL17 gene on the Z chromosome, and it has two alleles, A and T. Genetic females with ZAW genotypes will never reverse into phenotypic males, but those with ZTW genotypes can sometimes undergo sex reversal. This SNP explains 82.7% of the genetic variation, or 58.4% of the phenotypic variation. Based on our results, a reproductive management program could be developed to improve the phenotypic female ratio in aquaculture, and elucidate the mechanism of sex reversal in half-smooth tongue sole. We expect that these findings will have a substantial impact on the population management in many harvested species where sex reversal occurs.
Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast
Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.
2017-08-01
Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.
The Sociology of Social Inclusion
Dan Allman
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This article looks at social inclusion from a sociological perspective. It argues that sociology complements biological and other natural order explanations of social stratification. The article interrogates a variety of forms of social integration, including ostracism within 5th century b.c. Greece, 19th-century solidarism, and Goffman’s mid-20th-century work on stigma. It does so to demonstrate how in each of these contexts, social inclusion and exclusion can function as apparati that problematize people on the margins, and by extension, contribute to their governance and control. The article proposes that sociology provides a valuable orientation from which to consider social inclusion because it illuminates how social integration maintains and manages the ways in which people move about and through their socially stratified worlds.
The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion
Lubet, Alex
2009-01-01
The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…
The Contours of Inclusion: Inclusive Arts Teaching and Learning
Glass, Don; Henderson, Bill; Barnum, Leah; Kronenberg, Deborah; Blair, Kati; Jenkins, Richard; Hurel, Nicole Agois
2010-01-01
The purpose of this publication is to share models and case examples of the process of inclusive arts curriculum design and evaluation. The first section explains the conceptual and curriculum frameworks that were used in the analysis and generation of the featured case studies (i.e. Understanding by Design, Differentiated Instruction, and…
Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education
Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.
2004-01-01
Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…
A Topological Criterion for Filtering Information in Complex Brain Networks
Latora, Vito; Chavez, Mario
2017-01-01
In many biological systems, the network of interactions between the elements can only be inferred from experimental measurements. In neuroscience, non-invasive imaging tools are extensively used to derive either structural or functional brain networks in-vivo. As a result of the inference process, we obtain a matrix of values corresponding to a fully connected and weighted network. To turn this into a useful sparse network, thresholding is typically adopted to cancel a percentage of the weakest connections. The structural properties of the resulting network depend on how much of the inferred connectivity is eventually retained. However, how to objectively fix this threshold is still an open issue. We introduce a criterion, the efficiency cost optimization (ECO), to select a threshold based on the optimization of the trade-off between the efficiency of a network and its wiring cost. We prove analytically and we confirm through numerical simulations that the connection density maximizing this trade-off emphasizes the intrinsic properties of a given network, while preserving its sparsity. Moreover, this density threshold can be determined a-priori, since the number of connections to filter only depends on the network size according to a power-law. We validate this result on several brain networks, from micro- to macro-scales, obtained with different imaging modalities. Finally, we test the potential of ECO in discriminating brain states with respect to alternative filtering methods. ECO advances our ability to analyze and compare biological networks, inferred from experimental data, in a fast and principled way. PMID:28076353
Criterion-based (proficiency) training to improve surgical performance.
Fried, Marvin P; Kaye, Rachel J; Gibber, Marc J; Jackman, Alexis H; Paskhover, Boris P; Sadoughi, Babak; Schiff, Bradley; Fraioli, Rebecca E; Jacobs, Joseph B
2012-11-01
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether training otorhinolaryngology residents to criterion performance levels (proficiency) on the Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator produces individuals whose performance in the operating room is at least equal to those who are trained by performing a fixed number of surgical procedures. DESIGN Prospective cohort. SETTING Two academic medical centers in New York City. PARTICIPANTS Otorhinolaryngology junior residents composed of 8 experimental subjects and 6 control subjects and 6 attending surgeons. INTERVENTION Experimental subjects achieved benchmark proficiency criteria on the Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulator; control subjects repeated the surgical procedure twice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Residents completed validated objective tests to assess baseline abilities. All subjects were videotaped performing an initial standardized surgical procedure. Residents were videotaped performing a final surgery. Videotapes were assessed for metrics by an expert panel. RESULTS Attendings outperformed the residents in most parameters on the initial procedure. Experimental and attending groups outperformed controls in some parameters on the final procedure. There was no difference between resident groups in initial performance, but the experimental subjects outperformed the control subjects in navigation in the final procedure. Most important, there was no difference in final performance between subgroups of the experimental group on the basis of the number of trials needed to attain proficiency. CONCLUSIONS Simulator training can improve resident technical skills so that each individual attains a proficiency level, despite the existence of an intrinsic range of abilities. This proficiency level translates to at least equal, if not superior, operative performance compared with that of current conventional training with finite repetition of live surgical procedures.
BOUNDEDNESS CRITERION FOR SOME COMMUTATORS OF LINEAR OPERATORS
Chen Wengu; Hu Guoen
2001-01-01
The paper is to establish a boundedness criterion for somecommutators of linear operators when these linear operators don't satisfy the general Ap weight estimates but satisfy some radial weight estimates. CLC Number：O17 Document ID：AFoundation Item：The paper was partly supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 19901021) and Beijing Education Commission Foundation, Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (1013006). References：[1]Coifman,R. and Meyer,Y. ,Au déla Des Opérateurs Pseudo-Différentiles,Astérisque 57(1978),1-185.[2]Alvarez,J. ,Bagby,R. ,Kurtz,D. and Pérez,C. ,Weighted Estimates for Commutators of Linear Operators,Studia Math. 104 (1993),195-[2]09.[3]Hu G. and Lu S. Z. ,The Commutator of the Bochner-Riesz Operator,Tohoku Math. J. 48(1996) ,259-266.[4]Duoandikoetxea,J. ,Weighted Norm Inequalities for Homogeneous Singular Integrals,Trans.Amer,Math. Soc.[3]36(1993),869-880.[5]Stein,E. M. and Weiss,G. ,Interpolation of Operators with Change of Measures,Trans.Amer. Math. Soc. 87(1958),159-172.[6]Zaanea,A. C. ,Interpolation,North-Holland,1967.[7]Ding Y. and Lu S. Z. ,Weighted Lp-Bounedness for Higher Order Commutators of Oscillatory Singular Integrals,Tohoku Math. J. 48(1996),437-449.Manuscript Received：1999年12月22日Published：2001年9月1日
Goldenhar Syndrome and full inclusion
Claus Dieter Stobäus; Carla Rejane Crixel Fernandes
2014-01-01
We discuss the information included in Fernandes’ Monograph and opinions of his advisor (Stobäus), centered in interfaces with Special Education/Full Inclusion, pointing anatomic-functional elements of this Syndrome, reviewing difficulties encountered in full inclusion, by an interview with his mother and teacher. http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X4444 Discutimos elementos da Monografia de Conclusão de Curso de Fernandes com opiniões de seu orientador (Stobäus), centrando em interfaces com...
Inclusion body myositis and myopathies.
Sivakumar, K; Dalakas, M C
1997-10-01
Sporadic inclusion body myositis is a frequent, acquired, adult-onset vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles with a distinct, easily identifiable clinical pattern. Although its primary cause is still unknown, autoimmune, viral, and degenerative processes, alone or in combination, are being considered. A uniform and sustained therapeutic response using the currently available immunomodulatory agents has not yet been achieved. Hereditary, inherited noninflammatory rimmed vacuolar myopathies with similar histologic features, collectively called hereditary inclusion body myopathies, are being redefined with the use of molecular genetics. The implications of the recent advances in clinical and basic sciences are discussed in the present review.
Oxidative refolding from inclusion bodies.
Nelson, Christopher A; Lee, Chung A; Fremont, Daved H
2014-01-01
This protocol describes the growth and purification of bacterial inclusion body proteins with an option to selenomethionine label the targeted protein through feedback inhibition of methionine biosynthesis in common (non-auxotrophic) strains of E. coli. The method includes solubilization of inclusion body proteins by chemical denaturation and disulfide reduction, renaturation of the solubilized material through rapid dilution by pulsed injection into refolding buffer containing arginine and a mixture of oxidized and reduced glutathione, recovery of the recombinant protein using a stirred cell concentrator, and removal of the aggregated or misfolded fraction by passage over size-exclusion chromatography. The quality of the resulting protein can be assessed by SDS-PAGE.
Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion
Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley
2014-01-01
This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used to…
Interpreting Inclusivity: An Endeavour of Great Proportions
Berlach, Richard George; Chambers, Dianne Joy
2011-01-01
Commencing with a historical account of how special needs education has informed the inclusivity debate, the authors consider the knotty problem of what is meant by inclusivity. An examination of the characteristics of inclusivity is then undertaken, and a functional school-based inclusivity framework--a three-faceted model--is proposed. The model…
Wessel, N; Ménard, D; Pichavant-Rafini, K; Ollivier, H; Le Goff, J; Burgeot, T; Akcha, F
2012-02-01
The fluoranthene (Fluo) is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human food and in marine compartments. However, the existing data on its genotoxicity is poor and controversial. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the potential genotoxicity of Fluo in sole and its possible effect on CYP450 modulation. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed for 24 h to a range of Fluo concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μM in both culture flasks and microplate wells. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as an indicator of the activity of the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring both DNA strand breaks and DNA adducts by the alkaline comet assay and the postlabeling technique respectively. Calf thymus DNA was also exposed to Fluo in the presence of sole liver microsomes in order to check for Fluo DNA adduct formation. In sole hepatocytes, Fluo was shown to induce a decrease in the EROD activity in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant genotoxic effect was observed in terms of DNA strand breakage from an exposure concentration of 5 μM: despite a concentration-dependent effect was observed, it did not follow a linear dose-response. The response was similar whatever the way of exposure in flasks or in wells. One reproducible adduct was detected in the hepatocytes exposed to the highest concentrations of Fluo. The formation of Fluo adducts was confirmed by the detection of one reproducible adduct following in vitro exposure of calf thymus DNA to 100 and 200 μM of Fluo in the presence of sole microsomes. These results demonstrate the potential of sole hepatocytes to metabolize Fluo in 24 h into reactive species, able to induce genotoxicity by DNA strand breakage and DNA adduct formation. Moreover, a miniaturized cell exposure system was validated for further experiments using fewer amounts of hepatocytes and contaminants, and allowing exposure to PAH metabolites. Copyright
Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.
2008-06-01
The soles Solea solea and Solea senegalensis are marine flatfish that use coastal and estuarine nursery grounds, which generally present high food availability, refuge from predators and favourable conditions for rapid growth. Two important nursery grounds for these species juveniles have been identified in the Tagus estuary, one in the upper part of the estuary (nursery A) and another in the south bank (nursery B). While S. solea is only present at the uppermost nursery area, S. senegalensis is present at both nurseries. Although they are among the most important predators in these nursery grounds, there are no estimates on their food consumption or on the carrying capacity of the system for soles. The Elliott and Persson [1978. The estimation of daily rates of food consumption for fish. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 977-993] model was used to estimate food consumption of both species juveniles in both nursery areas, taking into account gastric evacuation rates (previously determined) and 24 h sampling surveys, based on beam-trawl catches carried out every 3 h, in the summer of 1995. Monthly beam trawls were performed to determine sole densities over the summer. Density estimates and daily food consumption values were used to calculate total consumption over the summer period. Sediment samples were taken for the estimation of prey densities and total biomass in the nursery areas. Daily food consumption was lower for S. solea (0.030 g wet weight d -1) than for S. senegalensis (0.075 g wet weight d -1). It was concluded that thermal stress may be an important factor hindering S. solea's food consumption in the warmer months. Total consumption of S. solea over the summer (90 days) was estimated to be 97 kg (wet weight). Solea senegalensis total consumption in nursery A was estimated to be 103 kg, while in nursery B it was 528 kg. Total prey biomass estimated for nursery A was 300 tonnes, while for nursery B it was 58 tonnes. This suggests that food is not a limiting
Chirikov criterion of resonance overlapping for the model of molecular dynamics
Guzev, M A
2012-01-01
The chaotic dynamics in a cell of particles' chain interacting by means of Lennard-Jones potential is considered. Chirikov criterion of resonance over- lapping is used as the condition of chaos. The asymptotic representation for this function at low and high energies is obtained for the function corresponding to the criterion.
Evaluation of Regression Models of Balance Calibration Data Using an Empirical Criterion
Ulbrich, Norbert; Volden, Thomas R.
2012-01-01
An empirical criterion for assessing the significance of individual terms of regression models of wind tunnel strain gage balance outputs is evaluated. The criterion is based on the percent contribution of a regression model term. It considers a term to be significant if its percent contribution exceeds the empirical threshold of 0.05%. The criterion has the advantage that it can easily be computed using the regression coefficients of the gage outputs and the load capacities of the balance. First, a definition of the empirical criterion is provided. Then, it is compared with an alternate statistical criterion that is widely used in regression analysis. Finally, calibration data sets from a variety of balances are used to illustrate the connection between the empirical and the statistical criterion. A review of these results indicated that the empirical criterion seems to be suitable for a crude assessment of the significance of a regression model term as the boundary between a significant and an insignificant term cannot be defined very well. Therefore, regression model term reduction should only be performed by using the more universally applicable statistical criterion.
Rutherford, William J.; Corbin, Charles B.
1994-01-01
This study established criterion-referenced standards for selected tests of arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance in college females. Tests of trained and untrained students using the contrasting groups method yielded criterion cutoff scores that classified subjects as trained or untrained based on upper arm and shoulder girdle resistance…
The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?
Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven
2015-01-01
The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…
Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
2012-01-01
In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…
V.S. Petrushin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.
A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder
Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.
2011-01-01
Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method: A total of…
Sufficient Conditions for Dynamical Output Feedback Stabilization Via the Circle Criterion
2003-01-01
This paper suggests sufficient conditions for asymptotically stable dynamical output feedback controller design based on the circle criterion. It is shown that a dynamic output feedback stabilization problem with impending problems of finite escape time, previously attacked by observer-based design, can be successfully solved using circle criterion design. Stability of the closed-loop system is global and robust to parameter uncertainty.
A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder
Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.
2011-01-01
Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…
Evidence for the Criterion Validity and Clinical Utility of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory
Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J.
2012-01-01
In this study, the authors evaluated aspects of criterion validity and clinical utility of the grandiosity and vulnerability components of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) using two undergraduate samples (N = 299 and 500). Criterion validity was assessed by evaluating the correlations of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic…
Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield
2012-01-01
This criterion focuses on the social context of forestsâthe laws, policies, administrative rules, and social and economic institutionsâthat governs forest resource management and use. What society permits or restricts, encourages or discourages all influence the sustainability of forest resources. Criterion 7 captures this by turning attention to all the different...
Behnke, Ralph R.; Sawyer, Chris R.
1998-01-01
Integrates and amalgamates norm-referenced and criterion-referenced perspectives in a manner that is particularly appropriate for use in basic or introductory speech communication performance courses. Notes that students prefer criterion-referenced grading for performances but prefer norm-referenced grading for content components of the course.…
A criterion-related validity study of the nursing-care dependency (NCD) scale
Dijkstra, A.; Buist, G.; Dassen, Th.W.N.
1998-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine some aspects of the criterion-related validity of the Nursing-Care Dependency (NCD) scale. This 15-item counting scale has recently been developed for assessing the care dependency of demented or mentally handicapped in-patients. Its criterion-related validit
A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder
Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.
2011-01-01
Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…
Maximum twin shear stress factor criterion for sliding mode fracture initiation
黎振兹; 李慧剑; 黎晓峰; 周洪彬; 郝圣旺
2002-01-01
Previous researches on the mixed mode fracture initiation criteria were mostly focused on opening mode fracture. In this study, the authors proposed a new criterion for mixed mode sliding fracture initiation, which is the maximum twin shear stress factor criterion. The authors studied a finite width plate with central slant crack, subject to a far-field uniform uniaxial tensile or compressive stress.
The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?
Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven
2015-01-01
The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When…
Heffernan, Neil; Otoshi, Junko
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a classroom-based inquiry using quantitative methods conducted with Japanese EFL students' writing practice using ETS's Criterion. The purpose of the study is to examine the actual effects of teachers' feedback on students' writing on Criterion. Twelve university students in Japan participated in this study, while completing…
INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS
Irena NOVACHEVSKA
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the preschool staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.
49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...
Schram, E.; Bierman, S.M.; Teal, L.R.; Vis, van de H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.
2013-01-01
Dover sole (Solea solea) is an obligate ectotherm with a natural thermal habitat ranging from approximately 5 to 27°C. Thermal optima for growth lie in the range of 20 to 25°C. More precise information on thermal optima for growth is needed for cost-effective Dover sole aquaculture. The main objecti
26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.
2010-04-01
... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock... if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought....
Ochrana František
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.
Billur Barshan
2008-12-01
Full Text Available An objective error criterion is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of maps of unknown environments acquired by making range measurements with different sensing modalities and processing them with different techniques. The criterion can also be used for the assessment of goodness of fit of curves or shapes fitted to map points. A demonstrative example from ultrasonic mapping is given based on experimentally acquired time-of-flight measurements and compared with a very accurate laser map, considered as absolute reference. The results of the proposed criterion are compared with the Hausdorff metric and the median error criterion results. The error criterion is sufficiently general and flexible that it can be applied to discrete point maps acquired with other mapping techniques and sensing modalities as well.
Inclusive Education in the United States
C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis
1996-01-01
School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...
Inclusion in the Microsoft Workforce
Exceptional Parent, 2008
2008-01-01
Since 1975, Microsoft has been a worldwide leader in software, services, and solutions that help people and businesses realize their full potential. Loren Mikola, the Disability Inclusion Program Manager at Microsoft, ensures that this technology also reaches and includes the special needs population and, through the hiring of individuals with…
Inclusive Education and the Arts
Allan, Julie
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…
Grasping the Promise of Inclusion.
Rudd, Fern
A teacher and mother of a child with mental retardation examined the history and current status of the inclusion movement. A review of the historical background considers the origins of special education, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, major court cases, and requirements of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with…
Leveraging Technology for Educational Inclusion
Subramaniam, Sudha; Subramaniam, Radha
2017-01-01
The divides created by inequalities of income, lopsided growth and by the vicious circle of poverty has ensnared learning and delayed the planned strategies for educational inclusion. India's eighth Five-Year Plan prioritised and allocated increased funding for education with focus on reach-out to the remote interiors and rural India. However,…
Error bounds for set inclusions
ZHENG; Xiyin(郑喜印)
2003-01-01
A variant of Robinson-Ursescu Theorem is given in normed spaces. Several error bound theorems for convex inclusions are proved and in particular a positive answer to Li and Singer's conjecture is given under weaker assumption than the assumption required in their conjecture. Perturbation error bounds are also studied. As applications, we study error bounds for convex inequality systems.
Students' responses to inclusive design
Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte
2013-01-01
This paper looks at how the use of inclusive design (ID) methods affects students' work processes in designing welfare technology. Work diaries showed students sub-divided their project: problem solving, data gathering and ideation, among others. This shows how the design problem was resolved...
Inclusive Hard Diffraction at HERA
Proskuryakov, Alexander
2010-01-01
Recent data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments on hard inclusive diffraction are discussed. Results of QCD analyses of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering processes are reported. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet measurements.
Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education
Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole
2016-01-01
The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects the di...
Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education
Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole
2016-01-01
The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects the di...
Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia
Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja
2016-01-01
This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…
Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia
Kemp, Coral R.
2016-01-01
From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…
Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality
Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.
2011-01-01
Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. Howev...
Taking Inclusion into the Future.
Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner; Gartner, Alan
1998-01-01
According to the reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997), education of disabled children should produce outcomes akin to those expected of "regular" students, and disabled students should be educated with other kids. Implementing inclusive programs will require visionary leadership, educator collaboration,…
Inclusive Education and the Arts
Allan, Julie
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…
Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions
Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K
2008-02-20
Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.
Antonio José Bermúdez
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance of congenital anomalies receives importance in the world-wide context of eradicating the congenital rubella syndrome. Objective: To identify the congenital anomalies and to consider the low birth weight a criterion to test IgM for the complex TORCH. Methodology: Surveillance of the congenital specific and non specific anomalies of the congenital rubella syndrome(CRS and low birth weight in ten hospitals. It was considered as case, everything new born with some congenital anomaly or low weight for the gestational age. Serum tests for rubella, toxoplasmosis, citomegalovirus, herpes and parvovirus were practiced. For the negative cases cariotype was performed. Results: A total of 840 cases were selected, 669 by low weight for the gestational age, 52 by anomalies not related to CRS, 52; by anomalies that could be related to the CRS, 105. The most frequent anomalies were congenital heart diseases, 5.1%; hepatosplenomegalies, 3.9%; and microcephalies, 1.2%. There were confirmatory IgM titles for rubella in 0.5% of cases; toxoplasmosis 1.4%; citomegalovirus 1.5%; parvovirus 1.2%; herpes 0.5%; and positive test for congenital syphilis, 3.7%. In total there were 8.8% positive results for any congenital infectious disease. The relative risk for low birth weight having IgM positive rubella was RR = 2.83 (IC: 1.26:6.36-0.95. Discussion and conclusions: The surveillance for CRS, through the monitoring of febrile in the first year and by the presence of some specific congenital anomalies, could be improved in sensitivity by means of the routine monitoring of congenital anomalies, with the inclusion of low birth weight, like a selecting criterion to study the infectious agents.
Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis
Ignacio Carazo
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg. The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12 began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.
Latitudinal comparison of spawning season and growth of 0-group sole, Solea solea (L.)
Vinagre, C.; Amara, R.; Maia, A.; Cabral, H. N.
2008-07-01
0-Group sole, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in four nursery grounds: two on the Northern French coast and two on the Portuguese coast. Juvenile sole were collected at the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1992, in the Authie estuary (Eastern English Channel) in 1997, and in the Douro and Tagus estuary (Northern and central Portugal, respectively) in 2005. Left lapilli otoliths were used to estimate age and investigate variability in growth rates and hatch dates. In the French study areas nursery colonisation ended in early June in the Vilaine estuary and in late June in the Authie estuary. In the Portuguese estuaries nursery colonisation ended in May in the Douro estuary and in late June in the Tagus estuary. Growth rates were higher in the Portuguese estuaries, 0.767 mm d -1 in the Tagus estuary and 0.903 mm d -1 in the Douro estuary. In the French nurseries, growth rates were estimated to be 0.473 mm d -1 in the Villaine estuary and 0.460 mm d -1 in the Authie estuary. Data on growth rates from other studies shows that growth rates are higher at lower latitudes, probably due to higher water temperature. Spawning took place between early January and early April in the Villaine estuary's coastal area in 1992. In 1997, in the Authie estuary spawning started in late January and ended in early April. On the Douro estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-January and ended in late March, in 2005, while on the Tagus estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-February and ended in mid-April, in the same year. Literature analysis of the spawning period of sole along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 38°N to 55°N in the Northeast Atlantic indicated that there is a latitudinal trend, in that spawning starts sooner at lower latitudes. Results support that local conditions, particularly hydrodynamics, may overrule general latitudinal trends.
Pacchiarini, T; Olague, E; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E
2014-05-01
Busulfan, a cytotoxic alkylating agent used for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has effects in mammalian germ cells. In fish species, the use of this compound is of special interest in intra and interspecies germ cell transplants. To determine the effects of busulfan in fish a previous range finding experiment was designed. Survival and growth rate of 150-days after hatching (150DAH) Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was determined. In a second experiment, the effects of a sublethal busulfan dose in fish germ cell depletion and in somatic tissues were analysed. Sublethal effects of several busulfan treatments (B10-10 days after injection, B20-20 days after injection, B20÷-20 days after injection with double injection) were determined in somatic and gonadal tissues. Alterations were registered through histopathological techniques, TUNEL (cell apoptosis) and quantified at molecular level (Q-PCR analyses) using the vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 mRNAs) as molecular markers for germinal cells in Senegalese sole juveniles. Several sublethal effects were observed with 40 mg kg⁻¹ busulfan, a non-lethal dose, such as: pyknosis in liver, increase of melanomacrophage centres and blood stagnation in spleen and interruption of gonadal development. Females were more affected by busulfan treatments than males in terms of germ cell disruption, since a significant decrease in the expression of both Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 markers was found in the gonad of treated females rather than males. At 10 days post-treatment (B10), females already presented a decrease in germ cell proliferation, as confirmed by Q-PCR. Ssvasa expression proved to be a reliable tool for the direct evaluation of the effects of busulfan on Senegalese sole gonadal development, proving that busulfan can be a suitable treatment for causing transient sterility in recipient gonads for germ cell transplantation.
Williams, Sheri
1989-01-01
This article stresses the importance of local PTA involving all parents in their programs, especially parents from minority groups. This article includes a checklist for rating local PTA. Also included is a brief case study of one PTA's successful efforts to increase the ethnic and language diversity of its membership. (IAH)
Somashekarappa Dhananjaya
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations.
Softer, higher-friction flooring improves gait of cows with and without sole ulcers.
Flower, F C; de Passillé, A M; Weary, D M; Sanderson, D J; Rushen, J
2007-03-01
We studied dairy cows (n = 30) walking on concrete and on a soft, high-friction composite rubber surface to examine how flooring influenced gait and how this differed for cows with hoof lesions. Cows had hooves trimmed 9 wk after the trial and were classified as either with or without sole ulcers. Video recordings of the cows while walking were digitized using motion analysis software to calculate stride variables (length, height, overlap, duration, proportion of triple support, and speed). Gait was scored by a subjective scoring system (1 = sound to 5 = severely lame) and by a continuous visual analog scale for each of 7 gait attributes. Cows with sole ulcers walking on a composite rubber surface had longer strides (156.9 +/- 2.6 vs. 149.6 +/- 2.6 cm), higher stride heights (9.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 8.8 +/- 0.3 cm), more stride overlap (0.4 +/- 2.0 vs. -4.3 +/- 2.0 cm), shorter periods of triple support (3 legs in ground contact; 68.6 +/- 2.0 vs. 73.8 +/- 2.0%), walked faster (1.22 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.04 m/s) and had lower overall gait scores (2.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.1), better tracking-up (19 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 2), better joint flexion (29 +/- 2 vs. 33 +/- 2), more symmetric steps (31 +/- 3 vs. 36 +/- 3), and less reluctance to bear weight on their legs (12 +/- 2 vs. 16 +/- 2) compared with walking on concrete. Similar results were found for cows without sole ulcers. Most of the subjective gait measures could distinguish between cows with and without sole ulcers, but this was not the case for kinematic measures other than stride height. Cows with higher gait scores (more severe lameness) showed the greatest improvement in stride length (r = -0.51), triple support (r = 0.59), swing duration (r = -0.44), overall gait score (r = 0.46), and reluctance to bear weight (r = 0.66) when walking on the rubber surface compared with cows with lower gait scores. These results indicate that rubber flooring provides a more secure footing and is more comfortable to walk on
Why sole-supplier vaccine markets may be here to stay.
Danzon, Patricia; Pereira, Nuno Sousa
2005-01-01
Given the structure of costs, demand, and competition, vaccine markets reach long-run equilibrium with one or very few suppliers at any point in time. Sole suppliers are less likely to exit and may have lower total social costs. Vaccine markets are dynamically competitive, with new, superior products displacing older, inferior products. Measures to address short-run supply disruptions include inventories, foreign sourcing, and improved technologies. Increasing the relative prices paid for new vaccines to levels that more closely reflect their social value compared to other new drugs and biologics is essential to achieving appropriate incentives for allocation of pharmaceutical R and D.
Dhananjaya, Somashekarappa; Manjunatha, Narayana; Manjunatha, Rajashekaaiah; Kumar, Seetharamarao Udaya
2015-01-01
Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations.
Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley
Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;
2007-01-01
.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown in a pot experiment as sole crops and intercrops with or without the addition of S in the form of gypsum. At three consecutive harvests total aboveground biomass and corresponding soil samples were taken for analysis. Harvested biomass was analysed for total S and N...... the pea component came to dominate the intercrop both with respect to yield and nutrient accumulation, accounting for 77% of total dry matter production, 90% of N uptake and 85% of S uptake, averaged across S treatments. LER values calculated on the basis of total aboveground dry matter, and N and S...
Severe depression as the sole symptom of affective focal status epilepticus.
Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Noachtar, Soheyl
2014-05-14
Depression as well as fear, joy and anger have been described as the semiological features of focal epileptic seizures. When emotions present as the sole symptoms of epileptic seizures, they may easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder. We describe a patient with affective focal status epilepticus, secondary to limbic encephalitis, in which depression was the only clinical manifestation. Through EEG correlates the epileptic nature of depression could be proven. Furthermore, we discuss the association between epilepsy and depression, as well as the link between ictal depression and suicidal rates.
Discriminating bot accounts based solely on temporal features of microblog behavior
Pan, Junshan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hanping
2016-05-01
As the largest microblog service in China, Sina Weibo has attracted numerous automated applications (known as bots) due to its popularity and open architecture. We classify the active users from Sina Weibo into human, bot-based and hybrid groups based solely on the study of temporal features of their posting behavior. The anomalous burstiness parameter and time-interval entropy value are exploited to characterize automation. We also reveal different behavior patterns among the three types of users regarding their reposting ratio, daily rhythm and active days. Our findings may help Sina Weibo manage a better community and should be considered for dynamic models of microblog behaviors.
A new elliptic-parabolic yield surface model revised by an adaptive criterion for granular soils
无
2010-01-01
An adaptive criterion for shear yielding as well as shear failure of soils is proposed in this paper to address the fact that most criteria,including the Mohr-Coulomb criterion,the Lade criterion and the Matsuoka-Nakai criterion,cannot agree well with the experimental results when the value of the intermediate principal stress parameter is too big.The new criterion can adjust an adaptive parameter based on the experimental results in order to make the theoretical calculations fit the test results more accurately.The original elliptic-parabolic yield surface model can capture both soil contraction and dilation behaviors.However,it normally over-predicts the soil strength due to its application of the Extended Mises criterion.A new elliptic-parabolic yield surface mode is presented in this paper,which introduces the adaptive criterion in three-dimensional principal stress space.The new model can well model the stress-strain behavior of soils under general stress conditions.Compared to the original model which can only simulate soil behavior under triaxial compression conditions,the new model can simulate soil behaviors under both triaxial compression conditions and general stress conditions.
章顺虎; 赵德文; 陈晓东
2015-01-01
In order to overcome the nonlinearity of Mises criterion, a new linear yield criterion with a dodecagon shape of the same perimeter as Mises criterion was derived by means of geometrical analysis. Its specific plastic work rate expressed as a linear function of the yield stress, the maximum and minimum strains was also deduced and compared with that of Mises criterion. The physical meaning of the proposed yield criterion is that yielding of materials begins when the shear yield stress τs reaches the magnitude of 0.594σs. By introducing the Lode parameter, validation of evolution expressions of the proposed yield criterion with those based on Tresca, Mises and TSS criteria as well as available classical yield experimental results of various metals shows that the present results intersect with Mises results and coincide well with experimental data. Moreover, further application to the limit analysis of circle plate as an example is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed yield criterion, and the subsequent comparison of limit loads with the Tresca analytical solutions and Mises numerical results shows that the present results are higher than the Tresca analytical results, and are in good agreement with the Mises numerical results.
Efficiency of event-based sampling according to error energy criterion.
Miskowicz, Marek
2010-01-01
The paper belongs to the studies that deal with the effectiveness of the particular event-based sampling scheme compared to the conventional periodic sampling as a reference. In the present study, the event-based sampling according to a constant energy of sampling error is analyzed. This criterion is suitable for applications where the energy of sampling error should be bounded (i.e., in building automation, or in greenhouse climate monitoring and control). Compared to the integral sampling criteria, the error energy criterion gives more weight to extreme sampling error values. The proposed sampling principle extends a range of event-based sampling schemes and makes the choice of particular sampling criterion more flexible to application requirements. In the paper, it is proved analytically that the proposed event-based sampling criterion is more effective than the periodic sampling by a factor defined by the ratio of the maximum to the mean of the cubic root of the signal time-derivative square in the analyzed time interval. Furthermore, it is shown that the sampling according to energy criterion is less effective than the send-on-delta scheme but more effective than the sampling according to integral criterion. On the other hand, it is indicated that higher effectiveness in sampling according to the selected event-based criterion is obtained at the cost of increasing the total sampling error defined as the sum of errors for all the samples taken.
Friendship in inclusive physical education.
Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A
2009-07-01
Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.
Inclusive breakup of Borromean nuclei
Hussein, Mahir S; Frederico, Tobias
2016-01-01
We derive the inclusive breakup cross section of a three-fragment projectile nuclei, $a = b +x_1 + x_2$, in the spectator model. The resulting four-body cross section for observing $b$, is composed of the elastic breakup cross section which contains information about the correlation between the two participant fragments, and the inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section. This latter cross section is found to be a non-trivial four-body generalization of the Austern formula \\cite{Austern1987}, which is proportional to a matrix element of the form, $\\langle\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1},{x_2}}\\left|\\left[W_{{x_1}} + W_{{x_2}} + W_{3B}\\right]\\right|\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1}, {x_2}}\\rangle$. The new feature here is the three-body absorption, represented by the imaginary potential, $W_{3B}$. We analyze this type of absorption and supply ideas of how to calculate its contribution.
STUDENTS’ RESPONSES TO INCLUSIVE DESIGN
Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte
2012-01-01
This paper looks at how students’ design process responds to the requirements of inclusive design. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss....... This technology is designed help to citizens to be 'master of his or her own life' while off-setting capability changes due declining physical ability. Welfare technology includes smarter working practices or service concepts, which frees up labor resources and it also covers robotics, telemedicine, IT solutions...... and intelligent devices. This paper will show the results of students' work with the problem of changed demographics and emerging needs in products and services. In so doing it looks at how the use of inclusive design methods affects students´work processes. This is done by the use of work diaries which provided...
Inclusive Design in Assisted Instruction
Gabriel ZAMFIR
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation [1]. The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes [2]. While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments [3]. This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.
Inclusive distributions near kinematic thresholds
Gardi, E
2006-01-01
The main challenge in computing inclusive cross sections and decay spectra in QCD is posed by kinematic thresholds. The threshold region is characterized by stringent phase-space constraints that are reflected in large perturbative corrections due to soft and collinear radiation as well as large non-perturbative effects. Major progress in addressing this problem was made in recent years by Dressed Gluon Exponentiation (DGE), a formalism that combines Sudakov and renormalon resummation in moment space. DGE has proven effective in extending the range of applicability of perturbation theory well into the threshold region and in identifying the relevant non-perturbative corrections. Here we review the method from a general perspective using examples from deep inelastic structure functions, event-shape distributions, heavy-quark fragmentation and inclusive decay spectra. A special discussion is devoted to the applications of DGE to radiative and semileptonic B decays that have proven valuable for the interpretatio...
仿人机器人跑步稳定性准则%Stability Criterion for Humanoid Running
李朝晖; 黄强; 李科杰
2005-01-01
A humanoid robot has high mobility but possibly risks of tipping over. Until now, one main topic on humanoid robots is to study the walking stability; the issue of the running stability has rarely been investigated. The running is different from the walking, and is more difficult to maintain its dynamic stability. The objective of this paper is to study the stability criterion for humanoid running based on the whole dynamics. First, the cycle and the dynamics of running are analyzed. Then, the stability criterion of humanoid running is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion is illustrated by a dynamic simulation example using a dynamic analysis and design system (DADS).
A new variant selection criterion for twin variants in titanium alloys. Pt. 2
Schuman, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mecanique des Materiaux, LEM3, CNRS 7239, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Ile du Saulcy, Metz (France); Bao, Lei; Lecomte, Jean Sebastien; Zhang, Yudong; Raulot, Jean Marc; Philippe, Marie Jeanne; Esling, Claude [LEM3, CNRS 7239, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Ile du Saulcy, Metz (France)
2012-05-15
A new selection criterion to explain the activation of the twinning variant is proposed. This criterion is based on the calculation of the deformation energy to create a primary twin. The calculation takes into account the effect of the grain size using a Hall-Petch type relation. This criterion allows to obtain a very good prediction for the twin family selection and twin variant selection. The calculations are compared with the experimental results obtained on T40 (ASTM grade 2) deformed by Channel Die compression. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Latent Class Analysis of Incomplete Data via an Entropy-Based Criterion.
Larose, Chantal; Harel, Ofer; Kordas, Katarzyna; Dey, Dipak K
2016-09-01
Latent class analysis is used to group categorical data into classes via a probability model. Model selection criteria then judge how well the model fits the data. When addressing incomplete data, the current methodology restricts the imputation to a single, pre-specified number of classes. We seek to develop an entropy-based model selection criterion that does not restrict the imputation to one number of clusters. Simulations show the new criterion performing well against the current standards of AIC and BIC, while a family studies application demonstrates how the criterion provides more detailed and useful results than AIC and BIC.
A Less Conservative Stability Criterion for Delayed Stochastic Genetic Regulatory Networks
Tingting Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of stability analysis for delayed stochastic genetic regulatory networks. By introducing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing delay-range partition approach, a new stability criterion is given to ensure the mean square stability of genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays and stochastic disturbances. The stability criterion is given in the form of linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily tested by the LMI Toolbox of MATLAB. Moreover, it is theoretically shown that the obtained stability criterion is less conservative than the one in W. Zhang et al., 2012. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate our theory.
Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A
2017-05-15
New criterion of the predictive potential of quantitative structure-property/activity relationships (QSPRs/QSARs) is suggested. This criterion is calculated with utilization of the correlation coefficient between experimental and calculated values of endpoint for the calibration set, with taking into account the positive and negative dispersions between experimental and calculated values. The utilization of this criterion improves the predictive potential of QSAR models of dermal permeability coefficient, logKp (cm/h). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ÖZOĞUL, Yeşim; BOĞA, Esmeray KULEY; Tokur, Bahar; Özoğul, Fatih
2011-01-01
The quality of wild common sole (Solea solea) stored in ice was investigated by chemical (K value, biogenic amines, protein degradation (SDS and SDS-PAGE), pH, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), tiobarbituric acid (TBA) analyses), sensory (raw and cooked fish) and microbiological methods. The quality of common sole decreased on day 16 (fair quality- B) and they were no longer acceptable on day 20 (unacceptable quality-C). When common sole were ...