Sample records for sole fe source

  1. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  2. Region 9 Sole Source Aquifers

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 7 polygons representing 6 individual sole source aquifer boundaries and one streamflow source area in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Various efforts were...

  3. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  4. Sole Source Aquifers for NY and NJ

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer is the designated sole source aquifers of New York and New Jersey. A Sole Source Aquifer, is an aquifer that supplies 50% or more of the drinking water...

  5. National Sole Source Aquifer GIS Layer

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains indexes and Esri shape files of boundaries of the designated sole source aquifers and related aquifer boundaries. Data provide a vector...

  6. EPA Region 6 Sole Source Aquifers in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (1996) [sole_source_aquifers_LA_EPA_1996

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Polygon layer of EPA Region 6 sole source aquifers in Louisiana. The sole source aquifers represented are Chicot and Southern Hills in Louisiana/Mississippi.

  7. Sole Source Aquifer Program | Drinking Water in New ...


    The Safe Drinking Water Act gives EPA the authority to designate aquifers which are the sole or principal drinking water source for an area, and which, if contaminated, would create a significant hazard to public health.

  8. Second Sourcing vs. Sole Sourcing with Capacity Investment and Asymmetric Information

    Cuihong Li; Laurens G. Debo


    We study the decision of a manufacturer (the buyer), expecting new sourcing opportunities in the future, in selecting between sole- and second-sourcing strategies for a noncommodity component. In a sole-sourcing strategy, the buyer commits to sourcing from a single supplier (the incumbent) over the entire horizon. In a second-sourcing strategy, the buyer keeps the option open to source from a new supplier (the entrant) in the future. Supplier costs are private information, and the incumbent's...

  9. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.


    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  10. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...


    ... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Aquifer System located in Kitsap County, Washington is the sole or principle source of drinking water...

  11. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...


    ... Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2010, Public Law 111-84. Section 811 addresses requirements for the justification and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... business under the Small Business Administration's 8(a) business development program, including...

  12. Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water with Sodium Citrate as Sole Carbon Source

    YAN Bo; ZHAO Lin; TAN Xin


    This paper investigates the effect of using sodium citrate(NaC6H5O6*2H2O)as sole carbon source for nitrate removal from drinking water.With sodium citrate as sole carbon source, batch experiments have been conducted to study the law of denitrification influenced by pH, C/N and temperature. Results show that a denitrification rate reaching 1.32 g NO-3-N /(g Biomass*d) was obtained when pH was at 7.5,C/N at 1.7(atom ratio), and temperature from 20 ℃ to 30 ℃. The results also show that denitrification rate with sodium citrate as carbon source approaches to that with methanol as carbon source.

  13. Growth kinetics and toxicity of Enterobacter cloacae grown on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate as sole carbon source.

    Khleifat, Khaled M; Tarawneh, Khaled A; Ali Wedyan, Mohammad; Al-Tarawneh, Amjad A; Al Sharafa, Khalid


    A successful attempt was made to isolate linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)-degrading bacteria from soil irrigated with wastewater. The isolated bacteria were able to use LAS as sole carbon and energy source. Maximum growth rates on LAS reached only 0.27 h(-1). 16S-rRNA sequencing and fatty-acid analysis placed the bacteria in the genus Enterobacter cloacae. The growth curves of E. cloacae both in the presence of and the absence of LAS were monitored using measurements of optical density at 600 nm in two different media, nutrient broth and M9 minimal medium, and were modeled mathematically. Growth in NB fit the Riccati and Voltera models, indicating that LAS is not toxic to E. cloacae cells. However, growth of E. cloacae in LAS-containing MM fit the Riccati and Voltera models, whereas growth in LAS-free MM fit the Riccati model only. Furthermore, the kinetic data shown were modeled by Monod's, Andrew's, and Tessier's specific growth rate equations, coupled with the rate of consumption of different concentrations of LAS as sole carbon and energy source, and we determined that Andrew's model best fit these data adequately as a result of the cell-inhibitory effect.

  14. Biological phosphorus removal in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor with starch as sole carbon source.

    Luo, Dacheng; Yuan, Linjiang; Liu, Lun; Chai, Lu; Wang, Xin


    In traditional biological phosphorus removal (BPR), phosphorus release in anaerobic stage is the prerequisite of phosphorus excessive uptake in aerobic conditions. Moreover, when low molecular weight of the organic substance such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) is scarce in bulk liquid or anaerobic condition does not exist, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) have difficulty removing phosphorus. However, in this work, phosphorus removal in two anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was observed when starch was supplied as a sole carbon source. The relations of the BPR with idle period were investigated in the two identical SBRs; the idle times were set to 0.5 hr (R1) and 4 hr (R2), respectively. Results of the study showed that, in the two SBRs, phosphorus concentrations of 0.26-3.11 mg/L in effluent were obtained after aeration when phosphorus concentration in influent was about 8 mg/L. Moreover, lower accumulations/transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and higher transformation of glycogen occurred in the SBRs, indicating that glycogen was the main energy source that was different from the traditional mechanism of BPR. Under the different idle time, the phosphorus removal was a little different. In R2, which had a longer idle period, phosphorus release was very obvious just as occurs in a anaerobic-aerobic regime, but there was a special phenomenon of chemical oxygen demand increase, while VFAs had no notable change. It is speculated that PAOs can assimilate organic compounds in the mixed liquor, which were generated from glycolysis by fermentative organisms, coupled with phosphorus release. In R1, which had a very short idle period, anaerobic condition did not exist; phosphorus removal rate reached 63%. It is implied that a new metabolic pathway can occur even without anaerobic phosphorus release when starch is supplied as the sole carbon source.

  15. Carbon utilization profiles of river bacterial strains facing sole carbon sources suggest metabolic interactions.

    Goetghebuer, Lise; Servais, Pierre; George, Isabelle F


    Microbial communities play a key role in water self-purification. They are primary drivers of biogenic element cycles and ecosystem processes. However, these communities remain largely uncharacterized. In order to understand the diversity-heterotrophic activity relationship facing sole carbon sources, we assembled a synthetic community composed of 20 'typical' freshwater bacterial species mainly isolated from the Zenne River (Belgium). The carbon source utilization profiles of each individual strain and of the mixed community were measured in Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays PM1 and PM2A microplates that allowed testing 190 different carbon sources. Our results strongly suggest interactions occurring between our planktonic strains as our synthetic community showed metabolic properties that were not displayed by its single components. Finally, the catabolic performances of the synthetic community and a natural community from the same sampling site were compared. The synthetic community behaved like the natural one and was therefore representative of the latter in regard to carbon source consumption. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Culture strategies for lipid production using acetic acid as sole carbon source by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Jia-Nan; Lu, Li-Jun; Peng, Kai-Ming; Yang, Gao-Xiang; Liu, Jia


    Rhodosporidium toruloides AS 2.1389 was tested using different concentrations of acetic acid as a low-cost carbon source for the production of microbial lipids, which are good raw materials for biodiesel production. It grew and had higher lipid contents in media containing 4-20 g/L acetic acid as the sole carbon source, compared with that in glucose-containing media under the same culture conditions. At acetic acid concentrations as high as 20 g/L and the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 200 in a batch culture, the highest biomass production was 4.35 g/L, with a lipid content of 48.2%. At acetic acid concentrations as low as 4 g/L, a sequencing batch culture (SBC) with a C/N of 100 increased biomass production to 4.21 g/L, with a lipid content of 38.6%. These results provide usable culture strategies for lipid production by R. toruloides AS 2.1389 when using diverse waste-derived volatile fatty acids.

  17. Saliva as the Sole Nutritional Source in the Development of Multispecies Communities in Dental Plaque.

    Jakubovics, Nicholas S


    Dental plaque is a polymicrobial biofilm that forms on the surfaces of teeth and, if inadequately controlled, can lead to dental caries or periodontitis. Nutrient availability is the fundamental limiting factor for the formation of dental plaque, and for its ability to generate acid and erode dental enamel. Nutrient availability is also critical for bacteria to grow in subgingival biofilms and to initiate periodontitis. Over the early stages of dental plaque formation, micro-organisms acquire nutrients by breaking down complex salivary substrates such as mucins and other glycoproteins. Once dental plaque matures, dietary carbohydrates become more important for supragingival dental plaque, and gingival crevicular fluid forms the major nutrient source for subgingival microorganisms. Many species of oral bacteria do not grow in laboratory monocultures when saliva is the sole nutrient source, and it is now clear that intermicrobial interactions are critical for the development of dental plaque. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the key metabolic requirements of some well-characterized oral bacteria, and the nutrient webs that promote the growth of multispecies communities and underpin the pathogenicity of dental plaque for both dental caries and periodontitis.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Onuma, F; Kimpara, N; Nakahara, T


    Various soil samples were screened for the presence of microorganisms which have the ability to degrade polyurethane compounds. Two strains with good polyurethane degrading activity were isolated. The more active strain was tentatively identified as Comamonas acidovorans. This strain could utilize polyester-type polyurethanes but not the polyether-type polyurethanes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Adipic acid and diethylene glycol were probably the main degradation products when polyurethane was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. When ammonium nitrate was used as nitrogen source, only diethylene glycol was detected after growth on polyurethane.

  19. Continuous operation of an ultra-low-power microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source.

    Lee, Inyoung; Sode, Takashi; Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Lowe, Christopher Robin; Sode, Koji


    An ultimate goal for those engaged in research to develop implantable medical devices is to develop mechatronic implantable artificial organs such as artificial pancreas. Such devices would comprise at least a sensor module, an actuator module, and a controller module. For the development of optimal mechatronic implantable artificial organs, these modules should be self-powered and autonomously operated. In this study, we aimed to develop a microcontroller using the BioCapacitor principle. A direct electron transfer type glucose dehydrogenase was immobilized onto mesoporous carbon, and then deposited on the surface of a miniaturized Au electrode (7mm(2)) to prepare a miniaturized enzyme anode. The enzyme fuel cell was connected with a 100 μF capacitor and a power boost converter as a charge pump. The voltage of the enzyme fuel cell was increased in a stepwise manner by the charge pump from 330mV to 3.1V, and the generated electricity was charged into a 100μF capacitor. The charge pump circuit was connected to an ultra-low-power microcontroller. Thus prepared BioCapacitor based circuit was able to operate an ultra-low-power microcontroller continuously, by running a program for 17h that turned on an LED every 60s. Our success in operating a microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source indicated the probability of realizing implantable self-powered autonomously operated artificial organs, such as artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh


    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  1. Yeast species utilizing uric acid, adenine, n-alkylamines or diamines as sole source of carbon and energy.

    Middelhoven, W J; De Kievit, H; Biesbroek, A L


    Yeast strains utilizing uric acid, adenine, monoamines or diamines as sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from several soil samples by the enrichment culture method. The most common species was Trichosporon cutaneum. Strains of Candida catenulata, C. famata, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa, Cryptococcus laurentii, Stephanoascus ciferrii and Tr. adeninovorans were also isolated. All strains utilizing uric acid as sole carbon source utilized some primary n-alkyl-l-amines, hydroxyamines or diamines as well. The ascomycetous yeast strains showing these characteristics all belonged to species known to assimilate hydrocarbons. Type strains of hydrocarbon-positive yeast species which were not found in the enrichment cultures generally assimilated putrescine, some type strains also butylamine or pentylamine, but none assimilated uric acid. Methanol-positive species were not isolated. Type strains of methanol-positive and of hydrocarbon-negative species did not assimilate uric acid, butylamine or putrescine. Assimilation of putrescine as sole source of carbon and energy may be a valuable diagnostic criterion in yeast taxonomy.

  2. Defense Contracting: DOD’s Use of Class Justifications for Sole-Source Contracts


    under these class justifications included: • The Army’s Counter Narco -Terrorism Program covered technology development and application, training... Narco -Terrorism Program $0 – no cost modification one responsible source Counter Narco - Terrorism Army Counter Narcotics Transnational Threats...Project Not identifiable one responsible source Counter Narco - Terrorism Air Force Local Exchange Services (dial tone) $3 Unusual and

  3. Functional diversity of the microbial community in healthy subjects and periodontitis patients based on sole carbon source utilization.

    Yifei Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is one of the most common forms of biofilm-induced diseases. Most of the recent studies were focus on the dental plaque microbial diversity and microbiomes. However, analyzing bacterial diversity at the taxonomic level alone limits deeper comprehension of the ecological relevance of the community. In this study, we compared the metabolic functional diversity of the microbial community in healthy subjects and periodontitis patients in a creative way--to assess the sole carbon source utilization using Biolog assay, which was first applied on oral micro-ecology assessment. Pattern analyses of 95-sole carbon sources catabolism provide a community-level phenotypic profile of the microbial community from different habitats. We found that the microbial community in the periodontitis group had greater metabolic activity compared to the microbial community in the healthy group. Differences in the metabolism of specific carbohydrates (e.g. β-methyl-D-glucoside, stachyose, maltose, D-mannose, β-methyl-D-glucoside and pyruvic acid were observed between the healthy and periodontitis groups. Subjects from the healthy and periodontitis groups could be well distinguished by cluster and principle component analyses according to the utilization of discriminate carbon sources. Our results indicate significant difference in microbial functional diversity between healthy subjects and periodontitis patients. We also found Biolog technology is effective to further our understanding of community structure as a composite of functional abilities, and it enables the identification of ecologically relevant functional differences among oral microbial communities.

  4. Astaxanthin hyperproduction by Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) with raw coconut milk as sole source of energy.

    Domíguez-Bocanegra, A R; Torres-Muñoz, J A


    Natural carbon sources, such as those present in cane sugar molasses and grape juice, promote the synthesis of astaxanthin in different Phaffia rhodozyma yeasts. One of these, coconut milk, has a very rich nutrient composition. The aim of this work was to investigate the utility of coconut milk as sole source of energy for astaxanthin pigment production by P. rhodozyma strains. Currently, coconut pulp is widely used in industrial processes in Mexico for the production of shampoos, candies, food, etc. However, coconut milk is a waste product. We show that coconut milk enhances astaxanthin production. The fermentation yielded 850 microg/g yeast with the NRRL-10921 wild-type strain and 1850 microg/g yeast with the mutated R1 strain. Production was better than reported results employing other natural carbon sources.


    Teresa Krzyśko-Łupicka


    The results of growth kinetics of the studied Fusarium fungi in the presence of N-(2-pirydyloamino methyle-nobisphosphonic acid, were expressed by dry weight [g·dm-3]. Only Fusarium oxysporum XVI has been capa-ble to grow in acidic medium (pH 4.0 using N-(2-pirydylamino methylene-bisphosphonic acid as an alterna-tive source of phosphorus. In these conditions the N-(2-pirydylamino methylenebisphosphonic acid degrada-tion was carried out to utilize phosphorus compounds as a source of nutrient components for this strain. The presence of N-(2-pirydylamino methylenebisphosphonic acid receded a growth rate of mycelium but did not have an effect on spores of tested fungi.

  6. The activated sludge metabolic characteristics changing sole carbon source from readily biodegradable acetate to toxic phenol.

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Song, Jiamei


    A sequencing batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of carbon sources on the metabolism of activated sludge. Acetate and phenol, with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 330-350 mg L(-1), was used as the carbon source in Periods I and II, respectively. Acetate decreased in the initial 120 min with the intracellular storage materials (XSTO), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the soluble microbial products (SMP) accumulating to 131.0 mg L(-1), 347.5 mg L(-1), and 35.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Then, XSTO and EPS decreased to 124.5 mg L(-1) and 340.0 mg L(-1), respectively, in the following 120 min. When acetate was replaced by phenol, it could not be used at the beginning due to its toxicity. The XSTO decreased from 142 mg L(-1) to 54.6 mg L(-1) during the aeration period. The EPS had a significant increase, with the highest value of 618.1 mg L(-1), which then decreased to 245.6 mg L(-1) at 240 min. The phenol was gradually degraded with the acclimation and it can be fully degraded 18 d later. Meanwhile, the usage ratio of the internal carbon source decreased. The effluent SMP in Period II was 1.7 times that in Period I.

  7. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)


    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  8. A bacterium capable of using phytol as its sole carbon source, isolated from algal sediment of Mud Lake, Florida.

    Hoag, K B; Bradley, W H; Tousimis, A J; Price, D L


    A species of Flavobacterium that consistently attacks pure phytol and can use it as a sole source of carbon has been isolated from the blue-green algal sediment of Mud Lake, Florida. Biochemical tests demonstrate that this bacterium also readily uses various other organic compounds. This bacterium may account for the degradation products of chlorophyll and its side chain phytol, which have been found in the Mud Lake algal sediment. Phytol and its degradation products play a role in Refsum's disease, but phytol is also the most promising precursor of the isoprenoid hydrocarbons found in oil shale of the Green River Formation (Eocene) of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The discovery of this species of Flavobacterium is a significant product of a protracted study of the bacteriology, phycology, zoology, and geochemistry of the algal sediment forming in Mud Lake, which is believed to be a modern analogue of the kind of algal sediment that, through geologic time, became oil shale.

  9. Degradation of o-chloronitrobenzene as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources by Pseudomonas putida OCNB-1

    WU Haizhen; WEI Chaohai; WAMG Yaqin; HE Qincong; LIANG Shizhong


    A bacterial strain that utilized o-chloronitrobenzene (o-CNB) as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy sources was isolated from an activated sludge collected from an industrial waste treatment plant. It was identified as Pseudomonas putida based on its morphology, physiological, and biochemical characteristics with an automatic biometrical system and the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Microcosm study showed that the biodegradation of o-CNB was optimized at culture medium pH 8.0 and temperature of 32℃. At these conditions, the strain degraded 85% of o-CNB at a starting concentration of 1.1 mmol/L in 42 h. o-Chloroaniline was identified as the major metabolite with both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study showed that o-chloronitrobenzene degradation by Pseudomonas putida OCNB-1 was initiated by aniline dioxyenase, nitrobenzene reductase and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase.

  10. Growth of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556 on different sugar combinations as sole carbon and energy source.

    Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; de Carvalho, Nuno Miguel Barbosa; Gombert, Andreas Karoly


    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus has been pointed out as a promising microorganism for a variety of industrial bioprocesses. Although genetic tools have been developed for this yeast and different potential applications have been investigated, quantitative physiological studies have rarely been reported. Here, we report and discuss the growth, substrate consumption, metabolite formation, and respiratory parameters of K. marxianus CBS 6556 during aerobic batch bioreactor cultivations, using a defined medium with different sugars as sole carbon and energy source, at 30 and 37 °C. Cultivations were carried out both on single sugars and on binary sugar mixtures. Carbon balances closed within 95 to 101 % in all experiments. Biomass and CO2 were the main products of cell metabolism, whereas by-products were always present in very low proportion (<3 % of the carbon consumed), as long as full aerobiosis was guaranteed. On all sugars tested as sole carbon and energy source (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, and galactose), the maximum specific growth rate remained between 0.39 and 0.49 h(-1), except for galactose at 37 °C, which only supported growth at 0.31 h(-1). Different growth behaviors were observed on the binary sugar mixtures investigated (glucose and lactose, glucose and galactose, lactose and galactose, glucose and fructose, galactose and fructose, fructose and lactose), and the observations were in agreement with previously published data on the sugar transport systems in K. marxianus. We conclude that K. marxianus CBS 6556 does not present any special nutritional requirements; grows well in the range of 30 to 37 °C on different sugars; is capable of growing on sugar mixtures in a shorter period of time than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is interesting from an industrial point of view; and deviates tiny amounts of carbon towards metabolite formation, as long as full aerobiosis is maintained.

  11. Isolation of bacteria capable of growth with 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin as the sole carbon and energy sources.

    Guttman, Lior; van Rijn, Jaap


    Using a relatively simple enrichment technique, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB)-biodegrading bacteria were isolated from a digestion basin in an aquaculture unit. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated one of the three isolates with the Gram-positive genus Rhodococcus, while the other two isolates were found to be closely related to the Gram-negative family Comamonadaceae (Variovorax and Comamonas). Growth rates and geosmin and MIB removal rates by the isolates were determined under aerated and nonaerated conditions in mineral medium containing either of the two compounds as the sole carbon and energy source. All isolates exhibited their fastest growth under aerobic conditions, with generation times ranging from 3.1 to 5.7 h, compared to generation times of up to 19.1 h in the nonaerated flasks. Incubation of the isolates with additional carbon sources caused a significant increase in their growth rates, while removal rates of geosmin and MIB were significantly lower than those for incubation with only geosmin or MIB. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, members of the genera Rhodococcus and Comamonas were detected in geosmin- and MIB-enriched sludge from the digestion basin.

  12. Light intensity and quality from sole-source light-emitting diodes impact growth, morphology, and nutrient content of Brassica microgreens

    Multi-layer vertical production systems using sole-source (SS) lighting can be used for microgreen production; however, traditional SS lighting can consume large amounts of electrical energy. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer many advantages over conventional light sources including: high photoelec...

  13. Isolation and characterization of a Sinorhizobium fredii mutant that cannot utilize proline as the sole carbon and nitrogen source

    HUANG Sheng; BAI Xueliang; MA Qingsheng; TANG Xianlai; WU Bo


    Sinorhizobium fredii strain HN01 can use proline as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A mutant strain GXHN100 unable to catabolize proline was screened from 6000 Tn5gusA5 random insertional mutants of S.fredii strain HN01. Sequencing analysis showed that an open reading frame, named pmrA (proline metabolic relative), was inserted by the Tn5gusA5. A positive clone, named pGXHN100 which containing 3.3kb foreign DNA fragment of S.fredii strain HN01, was isolated from a partial gene library of S.fredii HN01 by colony in situ hybridization. Sequence analysis showed that pGXHN100 contained the entire pmrA gene. The 3.3kb DNA fragment of pGXHN100 was cloned into a broad-host-range cosmid vector pLAFR3 to form plasmid pGXHN200 which was subsequently introduced into GXHN100 to form a complemented strain GXHN200. Plant test showed that GXHN100 was effective and no obvious changes in nitrogenase activity comparing with parental strain. But GXHN100 nodulated 2 days later on soybean and its nodulation efficiency and competitiveness were decreased. The complemented strain GXHN200 restored the nodulation efficiency and competitiveness of GXHN100 to the wild type.

  14. Old Soles

    Yu Yan


    Amid the rhythmic tap-dance of production inside Neiliansheng's factory in Xicheng District of Beijing,He Kaiying,a master of Neiliansheng cloth shoes,was teaching an apprentice to draw the outline of a sole.The 56-year-old senior shoemaker guides three young apprentices,passing on traditional shoemaking skills that have been in place since the company's establishment. Neiliansheng,which means "unstopped promotions in official ranks" in Chinese,is a classic cloth shoe brand created in Beijing in 1853.It once provided shoes for emperors and royal court officials.At that time,wearing the court shoes of Neiliansheng was a fashion statement in Beijing and a mark of high status.

  15. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming


    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime

  16. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. IPN 2508, 07360 México DF, México (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Process for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76320, México (Mexico); Thalasso, Frederic, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. IPN 2508, 07360 México DF, México (Mexico)


    Highlights: • Microrespirometry was used to characterize aerobic granules. • Kinetic parameters for 4-chorophenol degradation were determined. • Intrinsic and apparent kinetic parameters were quantified and contrasted. • Aerobic granules presented lower μ{sub max} and higher K{sub S} than disaggregated granules. • Microrespirometry can be useful in model development and calibration. - Abstract: In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9 kg COD m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems.

  17. Proliferation and function of microbodies in the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora during growth on oleic acid or D-alanine as the sole carbon source

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten


    The nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora is able to grow on oleic acid or D-alanine as the sole carbon source. During growth on oleic acid, activities of enzymes of the beta-oxidation pathway, but not catalase, were induced. In the presence of D-alanine, both D-amino acid oxidase and catalas

  18. Mineralization of melamine and cyanuric acid as sole nitrogen source by newly isolated Arthrobacter spp. using a soil-charcoal perfusion method.

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Sakakibara, Futa; Ito, Koji; Takasu, Eiichi; Naokawa, Takuji; Fujii, Kunihiko


    Melamine belongs to the s-triazine family, and industrially used as raw product in many ways all over the world. Melamine has been reported for human harmful effects and detected from some crops, soil and water. To remove melamine from the polluted environment, the efficient melamine-mineralizing microorganisms have been needed. We newly isolated three melamine-degrading bacteria from the same upland soil sample using soil-charcoal perfusion method. These bacteria were classified as Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP and Microbacterium sp. ZEL by 16S rRNA genes sequencing analysis. Both Arthrobacter species completely degraded melamine within 2 days, and consumed melamine as a sole nitrogen source. Both strains also grew in cyanuric acid as sole nitrogen source, and released small quantities of ammonium ions. These strains are the first identified bacteria that can mineralize both melamine and cyanuric acid as sole initial nitrogen source in Arthrobacter sp. Although ammeline and ammelide intermediates were detected, these strains possess none of the known genes encoding melamine degrading enzymes. Since the Arthrobacter strains also degraded melamine in a high pH liquid medium, they present as potential bioremediation agents in melamine-polluted environments.

  19. Bioavailability of Fe(III) in Loess Sediments: An Important Source of Electron Acceptors

    Bishop, Michael E.; Jaisi, Deb P.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Ji, Junfeng


    A quantitative study was conducted to understand if Fe (III) in loess sediments is available for microbial respiration by using a common metal reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens, CN32. The loess samples were collected from three different sites: St. Louis (Peoria), Missouri, USA; Huanxia (HX) and Yanchang (YCH), Shanxi Province of China. Wet chemical analyses indicated that the total Fe concentration for the three samples was 1.69%, 2.76%, and 3.29%, respectively, of which 0.48%, 0.67%, and 1.27% was Fe(III). All unreduced loess sediments contained iron oxides and phyllosilicates (smectite, illite, chlorite, vermiculite), in addition to common minerals such as quartz, feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, and dolomite. Bioreduction experiments were performed at a loess concentration of 20 mg/mL using lactate as the sole electron donor, Fe(III) in loess as the sole electron acceptor in the presence and absence of anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate (AQDS) as an electron shuttle. Experiments were performed in non-growth (bicarbonate buffer) and growth (M1) media with a cell concentration of ~2.8 x 107 and 2.1 x 107 cells/mL, respectively. The unreduced and bioreduced solids were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy, diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) methods. Despite many similarities among the three loess samples, the extent and rate of Fe (III) reduction varied significantly. For example, in presence of AQDS the extent of reduction in the non-growth experiment was 25% in HX, 34% in Peoria, and 38% in YCH. The extent of reduction in the growth experiment was 72% in HX, 94% in Peoria, and 56% in YCH. The extent of bioreduction was lower in absence of AQDS. Overall, AQDS and the M1 growth medium significantly enhanced the rate and extent of bioreduction. Fe(III) in iron oxides and Fe(III)-containing phyllosilicates was bioreduced. Biogenic illite, siderite, and

  20. Characterization of a newly isolated freshwater Eustigmatophyte alga capable of utilizing far-red light as its sole light source.

    Wolf, Benjamin M; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Magdaong, Nikki Cecil M; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Blankenship, Robert E


    Oxygenic phototrophs typically utilize visible light (400-700 nm) to drive photosynthesis. However, a large fraction of the energy in sunlight is contained in the far-red region, which encompasses light beyond 700 nm. In nature, certain niche environments contain high levels of this far-red light due to filtering by other phototrophs, and in these environments, organisms with photosynthetic antenna systems adapted to absorbing far-red light are able to thrive. We used selective far-red light conditions to isolate such organisms in environmental samples. One cultured organism, the Eustigmatophyte alga Forest Park Isolate 5 (FP5), is able to absorb far-red light using a chlorophyll (Chl) a-containing antenna complex, and is able to grow under solely far-red light. Here we characterize the antenna system from this organism, which is able to shift the absorption of Chl a to >705 nm.

  1. Production of FucoPol by Enterobacter A47 using waste tomato paste by-product as sole carbon source.

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Sevrin, Chantal; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M


    Out-of-specification tomato paste, a by-product from the tomato processing industry, was used as the sole substrate for cultivation of the bacterium Enterobacter A47 and production of FucoPol, a value-added fucose-rich extracellular polysaccharide. Among the different tested fed-batch strategies, pH-stat, DO-stat and continuous substrate feeding, the highest production (8.77gL(-1)) and overall volumetric productivity (2.92gL(-1)d(-1)) were obtained with continuous substrate feeding at a constant flow rate of 11gh(-1). The polymer produced had the typical FucoPol composition (37mol% fucose, 27mol% galactose, 23mol% glucose and 12mol% glucuronic acid, with an acyl groups content of 13wt%). The average molecular weight was 4.4×10(6)Da and the polydispersity index was 1.2. This study demonstrated that out-of-specification tomato paste is a suitable low-cost substrate for the production of FucoPol, thus providing a route for the valorization of this by-product into a high-value microbial product.

  2. Utilization of DNA as a Sole Source of Phosphorus, Carbon, and Energy by Shewanella spp.: Ecological and Physiological Implications for Dissimilatory Metal Reduction▿

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Ammons, Christine; Culley, David E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.; McLean, Jeff S.; Romine, Margaret F.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alexander S.


    The solubility of orthophosphate (PO43−) in iron-rich sediments can be exceedingly low, limiting the bioavailability of this essential nutrient to microbial populations that catalyze critical biogeochemical reactions. Here we demonstrate that dissolved extracellular DNA can serve as a sole source of phosphorus, as well as carbon and energy, for metal-reducing bacteria of the genus Shewanella. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and Shewanella sp. strain W3-18-1 all grew with DNA but displayed different growth rates. W3-18-1 exhibited the highest growth rate with DNA. While strain W3-18-1 displayed Ca2+-independent DNA utilization, both CN32 and MR-1 required millimolar concentrations of Ca2+ for growth with DNA. For S. oneidensis MR-1, the utilization of DNA as a sole source of phosphorus is linked to the activities of extracellular phosphatase(s) and a Ca2+-dependent nuclease(s), which are regulated by phosphorus availability. Mass spectrometry analysis of the extracellular proteome of MR-1 identified one putative endonuclease (SO1844), a predicted UshA (bifunctional UDP-sugar hydrolase/5′ nucleotidase), a predicted PhoX (calcium-activated alkaline phosphatase), and a predicted CpdB (bifunctional 2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 2′ phosphodiesterase/3′ nucleotidase), all of which could play important roles in the extracellular degradation of DNA under phosphorus-limiting conditions. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the ability to use exogenous DNA as the sole source of phosphorus is widespread among the shewanellae, and perhaps among all prokaryotes, and may be especially important for nutrient cycling in metal-reducing environments. PMID:18156329

  3. The Power of Biocatalysis: A One‐Pot Total Synthesis of Rhamnolipids from Butane as the Sole Carbon and Energy Source

    Gehring, Christian; Wessel, Mirja; Schaffer, Steffen


    Abstract Microbially derived surfactants, so‐called biosurfactants, have drawn much attention in recent years and are expected to replace current petrochemical surfactants, owing to their environmental and toxicological benefits. One strategy to support that goal is to reduce production costs by replacing relatively expensive sugars with cheaper raw materials, such as short‐chain alkanes. Herein, we report the successful one‐pot total synthesis of rhamnolipids, a class of biosurfactants with 12 stereocenters, from butane as sole carbon and energy source through the design of a tailored whole‐cell biocatalyst. PMID:28032017

  4. On the autarchic use of solely PIXE data in particulate matter source apportionment studies by receptor modeling

    Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nava, S., E-mail: [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)-Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples allows simultaneous detection of several elements, including important tracers of many particulate matter sources. This capability, together with the possibility of analyzing a high number of samples in very short times, makes PIXE a very effective tool for source apportionment studies by receptor modeling. However, important aerosol components, like nitrates, OC and EC, cannot be assessed by PIXE: this limitation may strongly compromise the results of a source apportionment study if based on PIXE data alone. In this work, an experimental dataset characterised by an extended chemical speciation (elements, EC–OC, ions) is used to test the effect of reducing input species in the application of one of the most widely used receptor model, namely Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The main effect of using only PIXE data is that the secondary nitrate source is not identified and the contribution of biomass burning is overestimated, probably due to the similar seasonal pattern of these two sources.

  5. Growth of Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 on nitroglycerin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    Husserl, Johana; Spain, Jim C; Hughes, Joseph B


    Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 was isolated from nitroglycerin-contaminated soil by selective enrichment. Detection of transient intermediates and simultaneous adaptation studies with potential intermediates indicated that the degradation pathway involves the conversion of nitroglycerin to glycerol via 1,2-dinitroglycerin and 1-mononitroglycerin, with concomitant release of nitrite. Glycerol then serves as the source of carbon and energy.

  6. Growth of Arthrobacter sp. Strain JBH1 on Nitroglycerin as the Sole Source of Carbon and Nitrogen ▿

    Husserl, Johana; Spain, Jim C.; Hughes, Joseph B.


    Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 was isolated from nitroglycerin-contaminated soil by selective enrichment. Detection of transient intermediates and simultaneous adaptation studies with potential intermediates indicated that the degradation pathway involves the conversion of nitroglycerin to glycerol via 1,2-dinitroglycerin and 1-mononitroglycerin, with concomitant release of nitrite. Glycerol then serves as the source of carbon and energy. PMID:20061454

  7. Optimal Medium Composition to Enhance Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Production by Ralstonia eutropha Using Cane Molasses as Sole Carbon Source

    Ali Bozorg


    Full Text Available In order to reduce the costs associated with Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production of Ralstonia eutropha were studied in batch culture on different carbon sources. Experiments were designed and conducted to not only lower the cost of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by using inexpensive substrates, but also to increase Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by optimizing the culture medium composition. Low cost, abundant carbon sources, including cane molasses, beet molasses, soya bean, and corn steep liquor were used to investigate the possibility of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production in such renewable carbon sources. Based on the experimental results, cane molasses with production of 0.49 g/L Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was selected as the most efficient carbon source. To improve bacterial growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, different chemicals were then used to pretreat the cane molasses. Sulfuric acid, with 33% enhancement in Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, revealed the highest efficiency in removing heavy metals and suspended impurities and was used to pretreat cane molasses in the subsequent experiments. Additionally, to make the process even more efficient and ultimately more effective, urea and corn steep liquor were used as nitrogen/minerals and vitamin sources, respectively. Using the Response Surface Methodology and through a 2n factorial Central Composite Design, the medium composition was then optimized, and maximum biomass concentration of 5.03 g/L and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.63 g/L were obtained.

  8. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami


    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  9. The marine isolate Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y shows specific adaptation to use the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

    Notomista, Eugenio; Pennacchio, Francesca; Cafaro, Valeria; Smaldone, Giovanni; Izzo, Viviana; Troncone, Luca; Varcamonti, Mario; Di Donato, Alberto


    Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y, isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from a closed bay in the harbour of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy), uses fuels as its sole carbon and energy source. Like some other Sphingomonads, this strain can grow as either planktonic free cells or sessile-aggregated flocks. In addition, this strain was found to grow as biofilm on several types of solid and liquid hydrophobic surfaces including polystyrene, polypropylene and diesel oil. Strain PP1Y is not able to grow on pure alkanes or alkane mixtures but is able to grow on a surprisingly wide range of aromatic compounds including mono, bi, tri and tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. During growth on diesel oil, the organic layer is emulsified resulting in the formation of small biofilm-coated drops, whereas during growth on aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in paraffin the oil layer is emulsified but the drops are coated only if the mixtures contain selected aromatic compounds, like pyrene, propylbenzene, tetrahydronaphthalene and heterocyclic compounds. These peculiar characteristics suggest strain PP1Y has adapted to efficiently grow at the water/fuel interface using the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

  10. Genome-enabled analysis of the utilization of taurine as sole source of carbon or of nitrogen by Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1.

    Denger, Karin; Smits, Theo H M; Cook, Alasdair M


    A degradative pathway for taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 was proposed by Brüggemann et al. (2004) (Microbiology 150, 805-816) on the basis of a partial genome sequence. In the present study, R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 was found to grow exponentially with taurine as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. When taurine was the sole source of nitrogen in succinate-salts medium, the taurine was rapidly degraded, and most of the organic nitrogen was excreted as the ammonium ion, which was then utilized for growth. Most of the enzymes involved in dissimilation, taurine dehydrogenase (TDH), sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase (Xsc) and phosphate acetyltransferase (Pta), were found to be inducible, and evidence for transcription of the corresponding genes (tauXY, xsc and pta), as well as of tauKLM, encoding the postulated TRAP transporter for taurine, and of tauZ, encoding the sulfate exporter, was obtained by reverse-transcription PCR. An additional branch of the pathway, observed by Novak et al. (2004) (Microbiology 150, 1881-1891) in R. sphaeroides TAU3, involves taurine : pyruvate aminotransferase (Tpa) and a presumptive ABC transporter (NsbABC). No evidence for a significant role of this pathway, or of the corresponding alanine dehydrogenase (Ald), was obtained for R. sphaeroides 2.4.1. The anaplerotic pathway needed under these conditions in R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 seems to involve malyl-CoA lyase, which was synthesized inducibly, and not malate synthase (GlcB), whose presumed gene was not transcribed under these conditions.

  11. Key enzymes enabling the growth of Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 with nitroglycerin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B; Spain, Jim C


    Flavoprotein reductases that catalyze the transformation of nitroglycerin (NG) to dinitro- or mononitroglycerols enable bacteria containing such enzymes to use NG as the nitrogen source. The inability to use the resulting mononitroglycerols limits most strains to incomplete denitration of NG. Recently, Arthrobacter strain JBH1 was isolated for the ability to grow on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, but the enzymes and mechanisms involved were not established. Here, the enzymes that enable the Arthrobacter strain to incorporate NG into a productive pathway were identified. Enzyme assays indicated that the transformation of nitroglycerin to mononitroglycerol is NADPH dependent and that the subsequent transformation of mononitroglycerol is ATP dependent. Cloning and heterologous expression revealed that a flavoprotein catalyzes selective denitration of NG to 1-mononitroglycerol (1-MNG) and that 1-MNG is transformed to 1-nitro-3-phosphoglycerol by a glycerol kinase homolog. Phosphorylation of the nitroester intermediate enables the subsequent denitration of 1-MNG in a productive pathway that supports the growth of the isolate and mineralization of NG.

  12. New locus (ttr) in Escherichia coli K-12 affecting sensitivity to bacteriophage T2 and growth on oleate as the sole carbon source.

    Morona, R; Henning, U


    The nature of resistance to phage T2 in Escherichia coli K-12 was investigated by analyzing a known phage T2-resistant mutant and by isolating new T2-resistant mutants. It was found that mutational alterations at two loci, ompF (encoding the outer membrane protein OmpF) and ttr (T-two resistance), are needed to give full resistance to phage T2. A ttr::Tn10 mutation was isolated and was mapped between aroC and dsdA, where the fadL gene (required for long-chain fatty acid transport) is located. The receptor affected by ttr was the major receptor used by phage T2 and was located in the outer membrane. Phage T2 was thus able to use two outer membrane proteins as receptors. All strains having a ttr::Tn10 allele and most of the independently isolated phage T2-resistant mutants were unable to grow on oleate as the sole carbon and energy source, i.e., they had the phenotype of fadL mutants. The gene fadL is known to encode an inner membrane protein. The most likely explanation is that fadL and ttr are in an operon and that ttr encodes an outer membrane protein which functions in translocating long-chain fatty acids across the outer membrane and also as a receptor for phage T2.

  13. Impacts of high β-galactosidase expression on central metabolism of recombinant Pichia pastoris GS115 using glucose as sole carbon source via (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    Nie, Yongsheng; Huang, Mingzhi; Lu, Junjie; Qian, Jiangchao; Lin, Weilu; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang


    The yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 is a widely used microbial cell factory for the production of heterologous protein. In order to reveal the impacts of high heterologous protein expression on the central metabolism of Pichia pastoris GS115 using glucose as sole carbon source, we engineered a high β-galactosidase expression strain P. pastoris G1HL and a low expression control strain P. pastoris GHL through controlling the initiation strength of constitutive promoter pGAP. The carbon flux distributions in these two strains were quantified via (13)C metabolic flux analysis. Compared to the control strain, G1HL showed a lower growth rate, a higher flux through glycolysis pathway, a higher flux through pentose phosphate pathway, and a lower flux through by-products secretion pathway. The metabolic flux redistribution in G1HL was thought to compensate the increased redox cofactors and energy demands caused by the high protein expression. Although the fluxes through Krebs cycle in two engineered strains were almost the same, they were significantly lower than those in wild strain. The enhanced expression of β-galactosidase by glutamate supplementation demonstrated the potential of P. pastoris GS115 to catabolize more carbon through the Krebs cycle for even higher protein expression. In conclusion, our work indicates that P. pastoris GS115 can readjusts the central metabolism for higher heterologous protein expression and provides strategies for strain development or process optimization for enhancing production of heterologous protein.

  14. A comparison of sole carbon source utilization patterns and phospholipid fatty acid profiles to detect changes in the root microflora of hydroponically grown crops.

    Khalil, S; Bååth, E; Alsanius, B; Englund, J E; Sundin, P; Gertsson, U E; Jensén, P


    Sole carbon source utilization (SCSU) patterns and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were compared with respect to their potential to characterize root-inhabiting microbial communities of hydroponically grown crops. Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum cv. Evident), lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids), and four different cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cvs. Gitana, Armada, Aromata, and Elin) were grown in 1-L black plastic beakers placed in a cultivation chamber with artificial light. In addition to the harvest of the plants after 6 weeks, plants of one tomato cultivar, cv. Gitana, were also harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. The cultivation in this study was performed twice. Principal component analysis was used to analyze the data. Both characterization methods had the ability to discriminate between the root microflora of different plant species, cultivars, and one tomato cultivar at different ages. Differences in both SCSU patterns and PLFA profiles were larger between plant species than between cultivars, but for both methods the largest differences were between the two cultivations. Still, the differences between treatments were always due to differences in the same PLFAs in both cultivations. This was not the case for the SCSU patterns when different plant ages were studied. Furthermore, PLFA profiles showed less variation between replicates than did SCSU patterns. This larger variation observed among the SCSU data indicates that PLFA may be more useful to detect changes in the root microflora of hydroponically grown crops than the SCSU technique.

  15. [Effects of two typical substrates as the sole carbon source on biological phosphorus removal with a single-stage oxic process].

    Liu, Yi-Lin; Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Zou, Gao-Long; Jia, Bin; Zeng, Tian-Jing; Ding, Yan; Zeng, Guang-Ming


    To investigate the performances of phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with single-stage oxic process using synthetical wastewater, glucose (R1) and acetate (R2) were fed to two SBRs as the sole carbon source, respectively. The operation run mode was determined to be: influent --> aeration (4 h) --> settling (8 h) --> effluent. The results showed that the performance of phosphorus removal in R1 was higher than that in R2 after steady-operation. Total phosphorus (TP) removed per MLVSS in R1 and R2 were 7.2-7.7 and 3.8-4.6 mg x g(-1) during aeration, respectively, but the rate of phosphorus release at the two reactors were 3.6-3.8 and 2.7-3.1 mg x g(-1) during the idle zone, respectively. The energy storage of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was constant nearly in R1 during the whole period, but glycogen was accumulated to the maximum value at 30 minutes of aeration, and then was decreased to the initial level. However in R2, PHA and glycogen were both accumulated at about 45 minutes of aeration. This phenomenon suggested that glycogen is the main energy source for metabolism during aerobic period in R1, and the main energy resource come from the decomposition of PHA and the hydrolysis of glycogen in R2. The facts showed that glycogen could replace PHAs to supply energy for phosphate uptake and polyphosphate accumulation in such a single-stage oxic process. Since glycogen accumulated in R1 was more than that in R2, the efficiency of phosphorus removal in R1 was higher than that in R2.

  16. Comparison of LiFePO4 from different sources

    Striebel, Kathryn; Shim, Joongpyo; Srinivasan, Venkat; Newman, John


    The lithium iron phosphate chemistry is plagued by the poor conductivity and slow diffusion in the solid phase. In order to alleviate these problems, various research groups have adopted different strategies including decreasing the particle sizes, increasing the carbon content, and adding dopants. In this study, we obtained LiFePO{sub 4} powders and/or electrodes from six different sources and used a combined model-experimental approach to compare the performance. Samples ranged from 0.4% to 15% ''in-situ'' carbon. In addition, particle sizes varied by as much as an order of magnitude between samples. The study detailed in this manuscript allows us to provide insight into the relative importance of the conductivity of the samples compared to the particle size, the impact of having a distribution in particle sizes, and ideas for making materials in order to maximize the power capability of this chemistry.

  17. Comparison of LiFePO4 from different sources

    Striebel, Kathryn; Shim, Joongpyo; Srinivasan, Venkat; Newman, John


    The lithium iron phosphate chemistry is plagued by the poor conductivity and slow lithium diffusion in the solid phase. In order to alleviate these problems, various research groups have adopted different strategies including decreasing the particle sizes, increasing the carbon content, and adding dopants. In this study we obtained LiFePO4 electrodes from six different sources and used a combined model-experimental approach to compare the performance. Samples ranged from one with no carbon coating to one with 15 percent coating. In addition, particle sizes varied by as much as a order of magnitude between samples. The study detailed in this manuscript allows us to provide insight into the relative importance of the conductivity of the samples compared to the particle size, the impact of dopant on performance and ideas for making materials in order to maximize the power capability of this chemistry.

  18. A novel pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum sp. nov., capable of growth on thiocyanate or cyanate as sole nitrogen sources.

    Wood, A P; Kelly, D P; McDonald, I R; Jordan, S L; Morgan, T D; Khan, S; Murrell, J C; Borodina, E


    The isolation and properties of a novel species of pink-pigmented methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, are described. This organism satisfied all the morphological, biochemical, and growth-substrate criteria to be placed in the genus Methylobacterium. Sequencing of the gene encoding its 16S rRNA confirmed its position in this genus, with its closest phylogenetic relatives being M. rhodesianum, M. zatmanii and M. extorquens, from which it differed in its ability to grow on several diagnostic substrates. Methanol-grown organisms contained high activities of hydroxypyruvate reductase -3 micromol NADH oxidized min-1 (mg crude extract protein)-1], showing that the serine pathway was used for methylotrophic growth. M. thiocyanatum was able to use thiocyanate or cyanate as the sole source of nitrogen for growth, and thiocyanate as the sole source of sulfur in the absence of other sulfur compounds. It tolerated high concentrations (at least 50 mM) of thiocyanate or cyanate when these were supplied as nitrogen sources. Growing cultures degraded thiocyanate to produce thiosulfate as a major sulfur end product, apparently with the intermediate formation of volatile sulfur compounds (probably hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide). Enzymatic hydrolysis of thiocyanate by cell-free extracts was not demonstrated. Cyanate was metabolized by means of a cyanase enzyme that was expressed at approximately sevenfold greater activity during growth on thiocyanate [Vmax 634 +/- 24 nmol NH3 formed min-1 (mg protein)-1] than on cyanate [89 +/- 9 nmol NH3 min-1 (mg protein)-1]. Kinetic study of the cyanase in cell-free extracts showed the enzyme (1) to exhibit high affinity for cyanate (Km 0.07 mM), (2) to require bicarbonate for activity, (3) to be subject to substrate inhibition by cyanate and competitive inhibition by thiocyanate (Ki 0.65 mM), (4) to be unaffected by 1 mM ammonium chloride, (5) to be strongly inhibited by selenocyanate, and (6) to be slightly inhibited by 5 m

  19. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethylene and phenol co-contaminants in groundwater by a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide as the sole oxygen source.

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Shi-yang; Wang, Xiao-li; Yang, Jie; Gu, Ji-dong; Zhu, Rui-li; Wang, Ping; Lin, Kuang-fei; Liu, Yong-di


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and phenol were often found together as co-contaminants in the groundwater of industrial contaminated sites. An effective method to remove TCE was aerobic biodegradation by co-metabolism using phenol as growth substrates. However, the aerobic biodegradation process was easily limited by low concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in groundwater, and DO was improved by air blast technique with difficulty. This study enriched a bacterial community using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the sole oxygen source to aerobically degrade TCE by co-metabolism with phenol in groundwater. The enriched cultures were acclimatized to 2-8 mM H2O2 which induced catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase to decompose H2O2 to release O2 and reduce the toxicity. The bacterial community could degrade 120 mg/L TCE within 12 days by using 8 mM H2O2 as the optimum concentration, and the TCE degradation efficiency reached up to 80.6%. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing showed that Bordetella, Stenotrophomonas sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Variovorax sp. and Sphingobium sp. were the dominant species in the enrichments, which were clustered in three phyla: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction detection proved that phenol hydroxylase (Lph) gene was involved in the co-metabolic degradation of phenol and TCE, which indicated that hydroxylase might catalyse the epoxidation of TCE to form the unstable molecule TCE-epoxide. The findings are significant for understanding the mechanism of biodegradation of TCE and phenol co-contamination and helpful for the potential applications of an aerobic bioremediation in situ the contaminated sites.

  20. Iron deficiency chlorosis in plants as related to Fe sources in soil

    Díaz, I.; Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; del Campillo, M. C.; Torrent, J.


    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a relevant agricultural problem in many areas of the World where calcareous soils are dominant. Although this problem has been traditionally ascribed to the pH-buffering effect of soil carbonates, the content and type of Fe oxides in soil contribute to explain Fe uptake by plants and the incidence of this problem. During the last two decades, it has been demonstrated Fe extraction with oxalate, related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides, was well-correlated with the chlorophyll content of plants and thus with the incidence of IDC. This reveals the contribution of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil to Fe availability to plants in calcareous soils, previously shown in microcosm experiments using ferrihydrite as Fe source in the growing media. In order to supply additional information about the contribution of Fe sources in soil to explain the incidence of IDC and to perform accurate methods to predict it, a set of experiments involving different methods to extract soil Fe and plant cultivation in pots to correlate amounts of extracted Fe with the chlorophyll content of plants (measured using the SPAD chlorophyll meter) were performed. The first experiment involved 21 soils and white lupin cultivation, sequential Fe extraction in soil to study Fe forms, and single extractions (DTPA, rapid oxalate and non-buffered hydroxylamine). After that, a set of experiments in pot involving growing of grapevine rootstocks, chickpea, and sunflower were performed, although in this case only single extractions in soil were done. The Fe fraction more closely related to chlorophyll content in plants (r = 0.5, p citrate + ascorbate (CA) extraction, which was the fraction that releases most of the Fe related to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, thus revealing the key role of these compounds in Fe supply to plants. Fe extracted with CA was more correlated with chlorophyll content in plants that oxalate extractable Fe, probably due to a more

  1. CHROMagar Candida as the Sole Primary Medium for Isolation of Yeasts and as a Source Medium for the Rapid-Assimilation-of-Trehalose Test

    Murray, Melissa P.; Zinchuk, Riva; Larone, Davise H.


    The chromogenic medium BBL CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was evaluated as a sole primary medium for the isolation of yeasts from clinical specimens in which yeasts are the primary concern. Additionally, the reliability of the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose (RAT) test in yielding correct results with isolates taken from CAC was assessed. A total of 270 throat, urine, and genital (TUG) specimens were streaked onto CAC, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and Mycosel (MYC). A t...

  2. SoleSound

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie;


    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...

  3. Forest Fires as a Possible Source of Isotopically Light Marine Fe Aerosols

    Tegler, L. A.; Sherry, A. M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.


    Iron (Fe) is an important limiting micronutrient for primary productivity in many high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. These marine systems receive a significant fraction of their Fe from atmospheric deposition, which is thought to be dominated by mineral dust with an Fe isotopic composition at or above 0‰. However, Mead et al. (2013) observed isotopically light Fe in marine aerosols smaller than 2.5 μm, which is difficult to reconcile with known sources of marine aerosols. Based on previous experimental work, we hypothesize that biomass burning is the source of isotopically light Fe in atmospheric particles and suggest that biomass burning might represent an underappreciated source of Fe to marine ecosystems. While Guelke et al (2007) demonstrated that Fe in agricultural plants is isotopically light, few studies have examined the Fe isotope composition of naturally occurring forests likely to be a significant source of Fe during forest fires. To address this question, we measured the isotopic composition of Ponderosa pine growing in northern Arizona. Ponderosa pine is one the most common forest types in the western US and thus representative of an important North American fire region. Pine needles were chosen because they are susceptible to complete combustion during biomass burning events. To determine the Fe isotopic composition of pine trees, pine needles were sampled at various tree heights. We found that these samples had δ56Fe values between -1.5 and 0‰, indicating that pine needles can be isotopically light compared to local grasses and soil. These results support the hypothesis that biomass burning may contribute isotopically light Fe to marine aerosols.


    Wanajo, Shinya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Bernhard, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    We investigate the nucleosynthesis of the radionuclide {sup 60}Fe in electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe). The nucleosynthetic results are based on a self-consistent, two-dimensional simulation of an ECSN as well as models in which the densities are systematically increased by some factors (low-entropy models). {sup 60}Fe is found to be appreciably made in neutron-rich ejecta during the nuclear quasi-equilibrium phase with greater amounts being produced in the lower-entropy models. Our results, combining them with the yields of core-collapse supernovae in the literature, suggest that ECSNe account for at least 4%-30% of live {sup 60}Fe in the Milky Way. ECSNe co-produce neutron-rich isotopes, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, some light trans-iron elements, and possibly weak r-process elements including some radionuclides such as {sup 93}Zr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 107}Pd, whose association with {sup 60}Fe might have been imprinted in primitive meteorites or in the deep ocean crust on the Earth.

  5. Supersonic Fe beam source for chromatic aberration-free laser focusing of atoms

    Bosch, R C M; Van der Straten, P; Leeuwen, K A H


    A monochromatic Fe beam is generated by heated supersonic expansion of argon seeded with Fe vapor. At a nozzle temperature of 1930 K and 800 torr argon inlet pressure the Fe beam has an axial velocity spread of 8% and intensity of 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 s sup - sup 1 sr sup - sup 1 , corresponding to a deposition rate of 10 nm/h at 150 mm from the nozzle. The two-chamber alumina crucibles are chemically stable for liquid Fe. With 400 mm sup 3 Fe we have operated for more than 200 hours without reloading. The power consumption at 1930 K is 750 W. Temperature stability at constant power (without feedback) is better than 30 K. The source is intended for deposition of nano-structures by laser focusing of the Fe beam. The small axial velocity spread virtually eliminates the increase in focal spot size due to chromatic aberration. (authors)

  6. CHROMagar Candida as the sole primary medium for isolation of yeasts and as a source medium for the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose test.

    Murray, Melissa P; Zinchuk, Riva; Larone, Davise H


    The chromogenic medium BBL CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was evaluated as a sole primary medium for the isolation of yeasts from clinical specimens in which yeasts are the primary concern. Additionally, the reliability of the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose (RAT) test in yielding correct results with isolates taken from CAC was assessed. A total of 270 throat, urine, and genital (TUG) specimens were streaked onto CAC, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and Mycosel (MYC). A total of 69 blood culture broths that were smear positive for yeast were streaked onto CAC and SDA. A 1-h RAT test (NCCLS M35-A) was performed simultaneously on isolates from CAC and SDA. A total of 112 TUG specimens yielded yeast colonies (CAC, 111 colonies; IMA, 105; SDA, 103; MYC, 91). The 69 blood culture yeasts grew on both CAC and SDA. Mixed cultures of yeasts were detected on 11 CAC plates but were unrecognized on other media. Colonies suspected of being C. glabrata on 32 CAC plates were all RAT test positive and confirmed to be C. glabrata; of 59 colonies with various characteristics of color and morphology on CAC, none were RAT positive, and all were conventionally identified as yeasts other than C. glabrata (sensitivity and specificity, 100%). The same isolates from SDA tested for RAT produced six false negatives and no false positives (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 100%). The results show that CAC can be used as the sole primary medium for recovery of yeasts from clinical specimens. Additionally, isolates grown on CAC yield excellent results with the RAT test utilized in this study.

  7. Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Generally Purchased SoleSource Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices, but Improvements Could Be Made (Redacted)


    including: • FAR Subpart 2.1, “ Definitions ;” • FAR Part 10, “ Market Research;” • DFARS Subpart 215.4, “Contract Pricing ;” • DFARS PGI 212.1...Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Generally Purchased Sole‑Source Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices , but...Purchased Sole‑Source Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices , but Improvements Could Be Made Visit us at

  8. L-Arogenate is a chemoattractant which can be utilized as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Fischer, R.S.; Song, Jian; Gu, Wei; Jensen, R.A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    L-Arogenate is a commonplace amino acid in nature in consideration of its role as a ubiquitous precursor of L-phenylalanine and/or L-tyrosine. However, the questions of whether it serves as a chemoattractant molecule and whether it can serve as a substrate for catabolism have never been studied. We found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa recognizes L-arogenate as a chemoattractant molecule which can be utilized as a source of both carbon and nitrogen. Mutants lacking expression of either cyclohexadienyl dehydratase or phenylalanine hydroxylase exhibited highly reduced growth rates when utilizing L-arogenate as a nitrogen source. Utilization of L-arogenate as a source of either carbon or nitrogen was dependent upon {sub S}{sup 54}, as revealed by the use of an rpoN null mutant. The evidence suggests that catabolism of L-arogenate proceeds via alternative pathways which converge at 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. In one pathway, prephenate formed in the periplasm by deamination of L-arogenate is converted to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate by cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase. The second route depends upon the sequential action of periplasmic cyclohexadienyl dehydratase, phenylalanine hydroxylase, and aromatic aminotransferase. 32 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Coronal Sources of Impulsive Fe-Rich Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Kahler, Stephen; Cliver, Edward


    We review recent work on 111 Fe-rich impulsive solar energetic ($\\sim$ 3 MeV/nuc) particle (SEP) events observed from 1994 to 2013. Strong elemental abundance enhancements scale with A/Q, the ion mass-to-charge ratio, as (A/Q)$^{\\alpha}$, where 2 $$ 10 MK. Only a small number of SEP events slightly outside this temperature range were found in an expanded search of impulsive Fe-rich events. Event characteristics are similar for events isolated in time and those occurring in clusters. The current challenge is to determine the solar sources of the Fe-rich events. Ambient coronal regions in the 2.5--3.2 MK range are broadly distributed both in and outside active regions. We explore the possibility of acceleration from thermal plasmas at reconnecting current sheets in the context of observed standard and blowout jets. Recent current sheet reconnection modelling provides a basis for the A/Q enhancements.

  10. Resolving the stellar sources of isotopically rare presolar silicate grains through Mg and Fe isotopic analyses

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Messenger, Scott, E-mail: [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)


    We conducted multi-element isotopic analyses of 11 presolar silicate grains from the Acfer 094 meteorite having unusual O isotopic compositions. Eight grains are {sup 18}O-rich, one is {sup 16}O-rich, and two are extremely {sup 17}O-rich. We constrained the grains' stellar sources by measuring their Si and Mg isotopic ratios, and also the {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios for five grains. The Mg and Fe isotopic measurements were conducted after surrounding matrix grains were removed for more accurate ratios. Most of the {sup 18}O-rich silicates had anomalous Mg isotopic ratios, and their combined isotopic constraints are consistent with origins in low-mass Type II supernovae (SNe II) rather than high-metallicity stars. The isotopic ratios of the {sup 16}O-rich silicate are also consistent with an SN origin. Mixing small amounts of interior stellar material with the stellar envelope replicated all measured isotopic ratios except for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si and {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe in some grains. The {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si ratios of all SN-derived grains are matched by doubling the {sup 29}Si yield in the Ne- and Si-burning zones. The {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios of the grains imply elemental fractionation in the Si/S zone, or introduction of isotopically solar Fe by secondary processing. The two highly {sup 17}O-rich silicates exhibited significant {sup 25}Mg and/or {sup 26}Mg enrichments and their isotopic ratios are best explained by strong dilution of 1.15 M {sub ☉} CO nova matter. We estimate that ∼12% and 1% of presolar silicates have SN and nova origins, respectively, similar to presolar SiC and oxides. This implies that asymptotic giant branch stars are the dominant dust producers in the galaxy.

  11. Fe-doped semi-insulating GaN with solid Fe source grown on (110) Si substrates by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy

    Noh, Young Kyun; Lee, Sang Tae; Kim, Moon Deock; Oh, Jae Eung


    Iron doped GaN layers were grown on (110) Si substrates by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using solid elemental iron as a source. Specular films with concentrations up to 1×1020 cm-3, as determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, were grown, unlike a limited incorporation of Fe into GaN by metal-rich rf plasma MBE. The Fe concentration in the film showed an exponential dependence on the inverse of source temperature with an activation energy of 3.4 eV, which agrees well to the reported value for the sublimation of Fe. A 1.5 μm thick GaN film with a sheet resistance of 1 GΩ/sq. was obtained by compensating unintentional residual donors with a small Fe concentration of 1×1017 cm-3. X-ray diffraction rocking curves indicated high crystalline quality, very similar to an undoped film, showing that the Fe incorporation required to obtain the semi-insulating film properties did not affect the structural properties of the film. The low-temperature PL spectra of highly resistive and semi-insulating Fe:GaN in the range of 1017 1018 cm-3 show dominant exciton emissions and enhanced donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) emissions, implying that Fe ions contribute to the DAP transition between donor levels and Fe-related acceptor levels, possibly compensating the residual donors to achieve the semi-insulating electrical properties.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of SmFeAs(O,F) films with Tc = 55 K using the new fluorine source FeF3

    Sakoda, Masahito; Ishii, Akihiro; Takinaka, Kenji; Naito, Michio


    REFeAs(O,F) (RE: rare-earth element) has the highest-Tc (˜58 K) among the iron-based superconductors, but a thin-film growth of REFeAs(O,F) is difficult. This is because it is not only a complex compound consisting of five elements but also requires doping of highly reactive fluorine to achieve superconductivity. We have reported in our previous article that fluorine can be supplied to a film by subliming solid-state fluorides such as FeF2 or SmF3. In this article, we report on the growth of SmFeAs(O,F) using FeF3 as an alternative fluorine source. FeF3 is solid at ambient temperatures and decomposes at temperatures as low as 100-200 °C, and releases fluorine-containing gas during the thermal decomposition. With this alternative fluorine source, we have grown SmFeAs(O,F) films with Tc as high as 55 K. This achievement demonstrates that FeF3 has potential as a fluorine source that can be employed ubiquitously for a thin-film growth of any fluorine containing compounds. One problem specific to FeF3 is that the compound is highly hydroscopic and contains a substantial amount of water even in its anhydrous form. In this article, we describe how to overcome this specific problem.

  13. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source.

    Li, Xin; Yu, Honghao; He, Yan; Xue, Xiangxin


    Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs) as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, (29)Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials.

  14. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source

    Xin Li


    Full Text Available Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials.

  15. Synthesis of the LiFePO4/C core-shell nanocomposite using a nano-FePO4/polythiophene as an iron source

    Liu, Jing; Yang, Guiling; Zhang, Xianfa; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Rongshun


    For the first time, a LiFePO4/C core-shell nanocomposite has been synthesized using a nano-FePO4/polythiophene (PTh) as an iron source. With this method, the PTh is in situ polymerized to restrain the growth of FePO4 particles, and the typical size of FePO4/PTh particles is in the range of 20-50 nm. The optimized LiFePO4/C nanocomposite is synthesized at 750 °C using 40% citric acid. The prepared LiFePO4 particles show a typical size of 50-100 nm and they are fully coated by carbon of 2-4 nm thickness. The LiFePO4/C core-shell nanocomposite gives an improved high electronic conductivity and a good electrochemical behavior at high rates. Thus, this novel method is an effective and facile strategy to improve the rate performance of the LiFePO4 cathode.

  16. Effects of different iron sources on the performance of LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials


    Olivine LiFePO4/C composite cathode materials were synthesized by a solid state method in N2 + 5vo1% H2 atmosphere.The effects of different iron sources,including Fe(OH)3 and FeC2O4·2H2O,on the performance of as-synthesized cathode materials were investigated and the causes were also analyzed.The crystal structure,the morphology,and the electrochemical performance of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),laser particle-size distribution measurement,and other electrochemical techniques.The results demonstrate that the LiFePO4/C materials obtained from Fe(OH)3 at 800℃ and FeCeO4·2H2O at 700℃ have the similar electrochemical performances.The initial discharge capacities of LiFePO4/C synthesized from Fe(OH)3 and FeC2O4·2H2O are 134.5 mAh·g-1 and 137.4 mAh.g-1 at the C/5 rate,respectively.However,the tap density of the LiFePO4/C materials obtained from Fe(OH)3 are higher,which is significant for the improvement of the capacity of the battery.

  17. The Oxidation State of Fe in Glasses from the Galapagos Archipelago: Variable Oxygen Fugacity as a Function of Mantle Source

    Peterson, M. E.; Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Saal, A. E.; Kurz, M. D.


    The oxidation state of the mantle plays an intrinsic role in the magmatic evolution of the Earth. Here we present new μ-XANES measurements of Fe3+/ΣFe ratios (a proxy for ƒO2) in a suite of submarine glasses from the Galapagos Archipelago. Using previously presented major, trace, and volatile elements and isotopic data for 4 groups of glass that come from distinct mantle sources (depleted upper mantle, 2 recycled, and a primitive mantle source) we show that Fe3+/ΣFe ratios vary both with the influence of shallow level processes and with variations in mantle source. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios increase with differentiation (i.e. decreasing MgO), but show a large variation at a given MgO. Progressive degassing of sulfur accompanies decreasing Fe3+/ΣFe ratios, while assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust (as indicated by increasing Sr/Sr*) is shown to increase Fe3+/ΣFe ratios. After taking these processes into account, there is still variability in the Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of the isotopically distinct sample suites studied, yielding a magmatic ƒO2 that ranges from ΔQFM = +0.16 to +0.74 (error < 0.5 log units) and showing that oxidation state varies as a function of mantle source composition in the Galapagos hotspot system. After correcting back to a common MgO content = 8.0 wt%, the trace element depleted group similar to MORB (ITD), and the group similar to Pinta (WD = high Th/La, Δ7/4, Δ8/4 ratios) show Fe3+/ΣFe ratios within the range of MORB (average ITD = 0.162 ± 0.003 and WD = 0.164 ± 0.006). Another trace element enriched group similar to Sierra Negra and Cerro Azul (ITE = enriched Sr and Pb isotopes) shows evidence of mixing between oxidized and reduced sources (ITE oxidized end-member = 0.177). This suggests that mantle sources in the Galapagos that are thought to contain recycled components (i.e., WD and ITE groups) have distinct oxidation states. The high 3He/4He Fernandina samples (HHe group) are shown to be the most oxidized (ave. 0.175 ± 0

  18. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    Bassez, Marie-Paule


    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  19. A new approach to the modification of cell membrane glycosphingolipids: Ganglioside composition of JTC-12 P3 cells altered by feeding with galactose as a sole carbohydrate source in protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan) Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Takaoka, Toshiko; Yoshida, Eiko (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Iwamori, Masao; Nagai, Yoshitaka (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan) Niigata Univ. (Japan)); Takatsuki, Kiyoshi (Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan))


    A significant difference in the glycosphingolipid composition of JTC-12 P3 cells established from monkey kidney tissue was observed when cells cultured in a protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium containing glucose (DM-160) as a sole carbohydrate source were transferred and cultured in the same medium containing galactose and pyruvic acid (DM-170) in place of glucose. In particular, the amounts of gangliosides GM3, GM2, and GD3 in the cells cultured in DM-170 were 5.3-, 17.8-, and more than 8-fold those in the cells cultured in DM-160, respectively, indicating that anabolism of gangliosides is greatly enhanced in cells cultured in the presence of galactose and pyruvic acid, as compared with cells cultured in the presence of glucose. In fact, after cultivation of cells in the medium with N-acetyl-D-({sup 14}C)mannosamine for 96 h, the radioactivity incorporated into the gangliosides of the cells in DM-170 was 10-fold that of the cells in DM-160. Among the gangliosides of the cells in DM-170, highly sialylated molecules such as GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b were preferentially labeled, indicating that the sialytransferases responsible for the synthesis of gangliosides are significantly more activated in cells cultured in DM-170 than in DM-160. These observations reveal that the glycosphingolipid composition of the plasma membrane can be modified epigenetically under well-defined conditions and provide important clues for clarifying the roles of glycosphingolipids associated with particular cell functions.

  20. The 57Fe Synchrotron Mössbauer Source at the ESRF.

    Potapkin, Vasily; Chumakov, Aleksandr I; Smirnov, Gennadii V; Celse, Jean Philippe; Rüffer, Rudolf; McCammon, Catherine; Dubrovinsky, Leonid


    The design of a (57)Fe Synchrotron Mössbauer Source (SMS) for energy-domain Mössbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation at the Nuclear Resonance beamline (ID18) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is described. The SMS is based on a nuclear resonant monochromator employing pure nuclear reflections of an iron borate ((57)FeBO(3)) crystal. The source provides (57)Fe resonant radiation at 14.4 keV within a bandwidth of 15 neV which is tunable in energy over a range of about ±0.6 µeV. In contrast to radioactive sources, the beam of γ-radiation emitted by the SMS is almost fully resonant and fully polarized, has high brilliance and can be focused to a 10 µm × 5 µm spot size. Applications include, among others, the study of very small samples under extreme conditions, for example at ultrahigh pressure or combined high pressure and high temperature, and thin films under ultrahigh vacuum. The small cross section of the beam and its high intensity allow for rapid collection of Mössbauer data. For example, the measuring time of a spectrum for a sample in a diamond anvil cell at ∼100 GPa is around 10 min, whereas such an experiment with a radioactive point source would take more than one week and the data quality would be considerably less. The SMS is optimized for highest intensity and best energy resolution, which is achieved by collimation of the incident synchrotron radiation beam and thus illumination of the high-quality iron borate crystal within a narrow angular range around an optimal position of the rocking curve. The SMS is permanently located in an optics hutch and is operational immediately after moving it into the incident beam. The SMS is an in-line monochromator, i.e. the beam emitted by the SMS is directed almost exactly along the incident synchrotron radiation beam. Thus, the SMS can be easily utilized with all existing sample environments in the experimental hutches of the beamline. Owing to a very strong

  1. Synthesis of LiFePO_4/C Composite Cathode Materials Using High Surface Area Carbon as Carbon Sources

    George; Ting-kuo; Fey; Kai-Lun; Chiang


    1 Results The pyrolyzed product of peanut shells was utilized as a carbon source to synthesize a LiFePO4/C composite.The advantages of using agricultural wastes such as peanut shells are low costs,easy processing,and environmentally benigness.Peanut shell was first treated with a porogenic agent to produce a precursor with high porosity and surface area (>2 000 m2·g-1).A small amount of precursor was mixed with LiFePO4 fine powders and heated.The optimum calcination process for synthesizing LiFePO4/C co...

  2. Wuxia's Children Shoes sole: Touching Children's Heart


    @@ Wuxia Children shoes sole company, founded in 1998, is the first professional children shoes sole business in Wenzhou city. It is located in Huanglong Commercial Center,Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province.

  3. Effect of carbon source on the morphology and electrochemical performances of LiFePO4/C nanocomposites.

    Liu, Shuxin; Wang, Haibin; Yin, Hengbo; Wang, Hong; He, Jichuan


    The carbon coated LiFePO4 (LiFePO4/C) nanocomposites materials were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The microstructure and morphology of LiFePO4/C nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the carbon layers decomposed by different dispersant and carbon source had different graphitization degree, and the sugar could decompose to form more graphite-like structure carbon. The carbon source and heat-treatment temperature had some effect on the particle size and morphology, the sample LFP-S700 synthesized by adding sugar as carbon source at 700 degrees C had smaller particle size, uniform size distribution and spherical shape. The electrochemical behavior of LiFePO4/C nanocomposites was analyzed using galvanostatic measurements and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results showed that the sample LFP-S700 had higher discharge specific capacities, higher apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance. The excellent electrochemical performance of sample LFP-S700 could be attributed to its high graphitization degree of carbon, smaller particle size and uniform size distribution.

  4. Engineering E. coli for the biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) as value-added chemicals from glucose as a sole carbon source.

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Martin, Collin H; Prather, Kristala L J


    3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) is a versatile chiral synthon, deemed a top value-added chemical from biomass by the DOE. We recently reported the first biosynthetic pathway towards 3HBL and its hydrolyzed form, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) in recombinant Escherichia coli using glucose and glycolic acid as feedstocks and briefly described their synthesis solely from glucose. Synthesis from glucose requires integration of the endogenous glyoxylate shunt with the 3,4-DHBA/3HBL pathway and co-overexpression of seven genes, posing challenges with respect to expression, repression of the glyoxylate shunt and optimal carbon distribution between the two pathways. Here we discuss engineering this integration. While appropriate media and over-expression of glyoxylate shunt enzymes helped overcome repression, two orthogonal expression systems were employed to address the expression and carbon distribution challenge. Synthesis of up to 0.3g/L of 3HBL and 0.7g/L of 3,4-DHBA solely from glucose was demonstrated, amounting to 24% of the theoretical maximum.


    Suyanta Suyanta


    Full Text Available This research aims are to separate of Ca and Fe metal ion in source water, with local zeolite and active carbon by adsorption column technic. Efficiency of separation are control by adsorption time and size of zeolite. Method that used was column adsorption with a flow system in which sample is applied to the filtration tube containing zeolite and active carbon. Initial and final concentrations of the samples were analyzed using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer instrument. The results obtained shows that ability adsorption of zeolite to Ca and Fe metal ion are a good. Zeolite 1 (10 mesh can reduce iron concentration until 93.98 % and zeolite 2 (5mesh until 98.88% for 1 – 4 week range time. Whereas reducing of calcium concentration is not good, until 2 week period time adsorption of calcium ion is about 50%.   Keywords: adsorption, zeolite, source water

  6. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu


    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment.

  7. Improved Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4@N-Doped Carbon Nanocomposites Using Polybenzoxazine as Nitrogen and Carbon Sources.

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Geng; Li, Zhichen; Sheng, Wangjian; Zhang, Yichi; Gu, Jiangjiang; Zheng, Xinsheng; Cao, Feifei


    Polybenzoxazine is used as a novel carbon and nitrogen source for coating LiFePO4 to obtain LiFePO4@nitrogen-doped carbon (LFP@NC) nanocomposites. The nitrogen-doped graphene-like carbon that is in situ coated on nanometer-sized LiFePO4 particles can effectively enhance the electrical conductivity and provide fast Li(+) transport paths. When used as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the LFP@NC nanocomposite (88.4 wt % of LiFePO4) exhibits a favorable rate performance and stable cycling performance.

  8. Determining the Locations of Dust Sources in FeLoBAL Quasars

    Dunn, Jay P; Holtzclaw, Christin L; Yenerall, David; Bautista, Manuel; Arav, Nahum; Hayes, Daniel; Moe, Max; Ho, Luis C; Dutton, S Harper


    We conduct a spectroscopic search of quasars observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with broad absorption line (BAL) troughs due to Mg II and troughs due to Fe II that simultaneously exhibit strong Balmer narrow emission lines (NELs). We find that in a redshift range of 0.4 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 0.9 approximately 23 of the 70 Mg II BALs and 4 of a subset of 15 Fe II BALs exhibit strong Balmer emission. We also find significant fractions of Mg II BALs (approximately 23%) and those Mg II BALs with Fe II troughs (approximately 27%) have strong continuum reddening, E(B - V) greater than or equal to 0.1. From measurements of the Balmer decrement in three objects, we find similarly significant reddening of the NEL region in three of the four objects; the NELs in the fourth object are not measurable. We also include one object in this study not taken from the SDSS sample that shows Fe II absorption and strong narrow emission, but due to measurement uncertainty and low continuum redde...

  9. Correlation between K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in natural honeys from Eucalyptus sources

    Silvânia V. M. Mattos


    Full Text Available Thirty-five natural honey samples from three apicultural regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were collected from honeybee hives under various climatic conditions over a two-year period. The beehives were located in the districts of Bom Jesus do Amparo, Barão de Cocais and São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, all within a 100 km radius of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollinic spectrum, color and ash, moisture, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn contents were determined. Elemental analysis were done by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were verified by recovery tests and relative standard deviation, respectively. The mean mineral contents encountered were K = 1130; Mn = 3.88; Fe = 2.79; Zn = 2.34 and Cu = 0.54 µ g/g. During the dry season, several species of Eucalyptus pollen grains predominated, with Vernonia pollen grains present in lower abundance. In the rainy season, there was an inversion of dominance. Statistical treatment of results, separated according to comb and season, showed statistically equivalent means, although some good correlation indices (p = 0.05 were obtained, e.g. between percent Eucalyptus pollen grains and Mn content (0.450, between Fe and Zn (0.698 and between K and Mn (0.738.Foram coletadas 35 amostras de mel natural em diferentes condições climáticas, por um período de dois anos. Os apiários se localizavam nos distritos de Bom Jesus do Amparo, Barão de Cocais e São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, a cerca de 100 km de Belo Horizonte, a capital do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos teores de K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, espectro polínico, cor, cinzas e umidade. As médias encontradas foram: K = 1130; Mn = 3,88; Fe = 2,79; Zn = 2,34 e Cu = 0,54 µ g/g. No período de seca houve predomínio de grãos de pólen de origem de espécies de Eucalyptus e, em menor extensão de Vernonia. No período chuvoso, houve uma inversão dessa proporção. O tratamento estat

  10. Metallurgical Source of Cryogenic Intergranular Fracture of Fe-38Mn Austenitic Alloy


    SEM and Field emitting TEM-EDAX were used to investigate the fracture surface of series impact specimens and the grain boundary chemistries of VIM (vacuum-induction-melted) Fe-38Mn austenitic alloy before and after ESR (electroslag remelting,). The quantity and the size of inclusions were also examined. The results show that the VIM Fe-38Mn aust enitinic alloy water-quenched from 1 100 ℃ undergoes an obvious ductile-to-brittle transition, and the impact work at ambient temperature is 242 J, the corresponding fracture surface exhibits adimple character. However, the impact work at 77 K of VIM alloy is only 25 J and the fracture mode is IGF (intergranular f racture). After ESR, the impact work at ambient temperature is 320 J and the fra cture surface exhibits a character of "volcano lava" (meaning excellent toughn ess); The impact work at 77 K is up to 300 J and the fracture mode is microvoid coalescence mixed with quasi-cleavage. The segregation of Mn is not found in all specimens, but the segregation of S is observed, and the S segregation is decreased after ESR. The examined results of inclusions show that ESR reduces the quantity and improves the morphology of inclusions. From the above results it can be seen that the cryogenic IGF of VIM Fe-38Mn austenitic alloy is related to the S segregation at grain boundary. After ESR the decrease in the quantity and size of inclusion results in the increase of the impact work at ambient temperature, while the restriction of IGF is related to the decrease in the total level, and hence in the grain boundary segregation of S.

  11. Lichen nitidus of palms and soles

    Gandhi Vijay


    Full Text Available Lichen nitidus occurs uncommonly on the palms and soles and has an unusual morphology at these sites. Two patients who presented with lesions on the palms and soles are reported. The first patient had rough papules with prominent keratotic plugs. In the second patient, the lesion was an irregular plaque with peripheral papules showing keratotic plugs. Both patients had typical lesions elsewhere on the body. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Awareness of this variant will help in prompt recognition of the condition.


    IONESCU Cozmin


    Full Text Available One solution for attaching soles on footwear is to inject them directly into the upper part using moulds with unique cavities. Injection moulds are manufactured for each sole design, for each foot, right and left, and for each size number. As a result of the market demand for a large number of soles designs, the execution costs of moulds for each of them are substantial. In the case of small manufacturers, injection moulds wear out morally long before they wear out physically. This paper will present some design solutions for moulds that have reusable parts that can be used from one sole design to another, without changing the entire mould. Using these moulds, soles design can be modified by interchanging some modules which are fitted into the main mould cavities. These solutions represent a cheaper and faster alternative for classic moulds, with unique single cavities.

  13. A Compact Circumstellar Shell as the Source of High--velocity Features in SN 2011fe

    Mulligan, Brian W


    High--velocity features (HVF), especially of Ca II, are frequently seen in Type Ia supernovae observed prior to B-band maximum (Bmax). These HVF start at more than 25,000 km/s in the days after first light, and slow to about 18,000 km/s near Bmax. To recreate the Ca II near-infrared triplet (CaNIR) HVF in SN 2011fe, we consider the interaction between a Type Ia supernova and a compact circumstellar shell, employing a hydrodynamic 1-D simulation using FLASH. We generate synthetic spectra from the hydrodynamic results using syn++. We show that the CaNIR HVF and its velocity evolution is better explained by a supernova model interacting with a shell than a model without a shell, and briefly discuss the implications for progenitor models.

  14. Present and Past Impact of Glacially Sourced Dust on Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean

    Shoenfelt, E. M.; Winckler, G.; Kaplan, M. R.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.


    An increase in iron-containing dust flux and a more efficient biological pump in the Southern Ocean have been associated with the CO2 drawdown and global cooling of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). While iron (Fe) mineralogy is known to affect Fe bioavailability through its impact on Fe solubility, there are limited studies investigating the importance of Fe mineralogy in dust fluxes to the Southern Ocean, and no previous studies investigating interactions between eukaryotic phytoplankton and particulate-phase Fe in natural dusts applicable to Southern Ocean environments. Since physically weathered bedrock becomes less soluble as it becomes weathered and oxidized, we hypothesized that glacially sourced dusts would contain more Fe(II)-rich primary minerals and would be more bioavailable than dusts from areas not impacted by glaciers. We used a series of natural dusts from Patagonia as the sole Fe source in incubation experiments with the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and evaluated Fe bioavailability using culture growth rates, cell density, and variable fluorescence. Monod curves were also used to evaluate the efficiency of the different particulates as sources of nutrient Fe. Using these Monod curves fit to growth rates plotted against particulate Fe concentrations, we observed that 1) Fe(II)-rich primary silicates were significantly more effective as an Fe source to diatoms than Fe(III)-rich oxides, that 2) Fe(II) content itself was responsible for the difference in Fe bioavailability/efficiency of the Fe nutrient source, and that 3) surface interactions with the particulates were important. In an effort to explore the possibility that Fe mineralogy impacted Fe bioavailability in past oceans, we will present our hypotheses regarding productivity and Fe mineralogy/bioavailability through the last glacial cycle.

  15. Debunking Technical Competency as the Sole Source of Innovation


    electric light permitted work past sunset and hence increased productivity and output. The automobile and aircraft opened opportunities for Americans...opened their own bicycle business, but Wilbur’s interest in aeronautics started after reading about a famous German glider pilot. Wilbur’s Thomas...inventors attempted to develop such a machine; however, on December 17, 1903, an unlikely high school dropout with a printing press and bicycle repair

  16. N2O production in the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reduction process: the effects of carbon source and pH.

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Jianmeng


    Chemical absorption-biological reduction (BioDeNOx), which uses Fe(II)(EDTA) as a complexing agent for promoting the mass transfer efficiency of NO from gas to water, is a promising technology for removing nitric oxide (NO) from flue gases. The carbon source and pH are important parameters for Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO (the production of absorption) reduction and N2O emissions from BioDeNOx systems. Batch tests were performed to evaluate the effects of four different carbon sources (i.e., methanol, ethanol, sodium acetate, and glucose) on Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reduction and N2O emissions at an initial pH of 7.2 ± 0.2. The removal efficiency of Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO was 93.9%, with a theoretical rate of 0.77 mmol L(-1) h(-1) after 24 h of operation. The highest N2O production was 0.025 mmol L(-1) after 3 h when glucose was used as the carbon source. The capacities of the carbon sources to enhance the activity of the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO reductase enzyme decreased in the following order based on the C/N ratio: glucose > ethanol > sodium acetate > methanol. Over the investigated pH range of 5.5-8.5, the Fe(II)(EDTA)-NO removal efficiency was highest at a pH of 7.5, with a theoretical rate of 0.88 mmol L(-1) h(-1). However, the N2O production was lowest at a pH of 8.5. The primary effect of pH on denitrification resulted from the inhibition of nosZ in acidic conditions.

  17. The effect of high energy concentration source irradiation on structure and properties of Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    Pilarczyk, Wirginia


    Metallic glasses exhibit metastable structure and maintain this relatively stable amorphous state within certain temperature range. High intensity laser beam was used for the surface irradiation of Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb bulk metallic glasses. The variable parameter was laser beam pulse energy. For the analysis of structure and properties of bulk metallic glasses and their surface after laser remelting the X-ray analysis, microscopic observation and test of mechanical properties were carried out. Examination of the nanostructure of amorphous materials obtained by high pressure copper mold casting method and the irradiated with the use of TITAN 80-300 HRTEM was carried out. Nanohardness and reduced Young's modulus of particular amorphous and amorphous-crystalline material zone of the laser beam were examined with the use of Hysitron TI950 Triboindenter nanoindenter and with the use of Berkovich's indenter. The XRD and microscopic analysis showed that the test material is amorphous in its structure before irradiation. Microstructure observation with electron transmission microscopy gave information about alloy crystallization in the irradiated process. Identification of given crystal phases allows to determine the kind of crystal phases created in the first place and also further changes of phase composition of alloy. The main value of the nanohardness of the surface prepared by laser beam has the order of magnitude similar to bulk metallic glasses formed by casting process irrespective of the laser beam energy used. Research results analysis showed that the area between parent material and fusion zone is characterized by extraordinarily interesting structure which is and will be the subject of further analysis in the scope of bulk metallic glasses amorphous structure and high energy concentration source. The main goal of this work is the results' presentation of structure and chosen properties of the selected bulk metallic glasses after casting process and after irradiation

  18. Synthesis of high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powder by spray-freezing/freeze-drying a solution with two carbon sources

    Fujita, Yukiko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Shida, Kenji; Liao, Jinsun; Fukui, Takehisa; Matsuda, Motohide


    Li2FeSiO4 is a promising cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. Spray-freezing/freeze-drying, a practical process reported for the synthesis of various ceramic powders, is applied to the synthesis of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders and high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders are successfully synthesized by using starting solutions containing both Indian ink and glucose as carbon sources followed by heating. The synthesized composite powders have a unique structure, composed of Li2FeSiO4 nanoparticles coated with a thin carbon layer formed by the carbonization of glucose and carbon nanoparticles from Indian ink. The carbon layer enhances the electrochemical reactivity of the Li2FeSiO4, and the carbon nanoparticles play a role in the formation of electron-conducting paths in the cathode. The composite powders deliver an initial discharge capacity of 195 and 137 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1 C, respectively, without further addition of conductive additive. The discharge capacity at 1 C is 72 mAh g-1 after the 100th cycle, corresponding to approximately 75% of the capacity at the 2nd cycle.

  19. Element Selective Probe of the Ultra-Fast Magnetic Response to an Element Selective Excitation in Fe-Ni Compounds Using a Two-Color FEL Source

    Eugenio Ferrari


    Full Text Available The potential of the two-color mode implemented at the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL source for pumping and probing selectively different atomic species has been demonstrated by time-resolved scattering experiments with permalloy (FeNi alloy and NiFe2O4 samples. We monitored the ultra-fast demagnetization of Ni induced by the pump FEL pulse, by tuning the linearly-polarized FEL probe pulse to the Ni-3p resonance and measuring the scattered intensity in the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect geometry. The measurements were performed by varying the intensity of the FEL pump pulse, tuning its wavelength to and off of the Fe-3p resonance, and by spanning the FEL probe pulse delays across the 300–900 fs range. The obtained results have evidenced that for the case of NiFe2O4, there is a sensible difference in the magnetic response at the Ni site when the pump pulse causes electronic excitations at the Fe site.

  20. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi


    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion.

  1. Why Observable Space Is Solely Three Dimensional

    Rabinowitz, Mario


    Quantum (and classical) binding energy considerations in n-dimensional space indicate that atoms (and planets) can only exist in three-dimensional space. This is why observable space is solely 3-dimensional. Both a novel Virial theorem analysis, and detailed classical and quantum energy calculations for 3-space circular and elliptical orbits indicate that they have no orbital binding energy in greater than 3-space. The same energy equation also excludes the possibility of atom-like bodies in strictly 1 and 2-dimensions. A prediction is made that in the search for deviations from r^-2 of the gravitational force at sub-millimeter distances such a deviation must occur at < ~ 10^-10 m (or < ~10^-12 m considering muoniom), since atoms would disintegrate if the curled up dimensions of string theory were larger than this. Callender asserts that the often-repeated claim in previous work that stable orbits are possible in only three dimensions is not even remotely established. The binding energy analysis herein ...

  2. From Chemolithoautotrophs to Electrolithoautotrophs: CO2 Fixation by Fe(II-Oxidizing Bacteria Coupled with Direct Uptake of Electrons from Solid Electron Sources

    Takumi eIshii


    Full Text Available At deep-sea vent systems, hydrothermal emissions rich in reductive chemicals replace solar energy as fuels to support microbial carbon assimilation. Until recently, all the microbial components at vent systems have been assumed to be fostered by the primary production of chemolithoautotrophs; however, both the laboratory and on-site studies demonstrated electrical current generation at vent systems and have suggested that a portion of microbial carbon assimilation is stimulated by the direct uptake of electrons from electrically conductive minerals. Here we show that chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacterium, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, switches the electron source for carbon assimilation from diffusible Fe2+ ions to an electrode under the condition that electrical current is the only source of energy and electrons. Site-specific marking of a cytochrome aa3 complex (aa3 complex and a cytochrome bc1 complex (bc1 complex in viable cells demonstrated that the electrons taken directly from an electrode are used for O2 reduction via a down-hill pathway, which generates proton motive force that is used for pushing the electrons to NAD+ through a bc1 complex. Activation of carbon dioxide fixation by a direct electron uptake was also confirmed by the clear potential dependency of cell growth. These results reveal a previously unknown bioenergetic versatility of Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria to use solid electron sources and will help with understanding carbon assimilation of microbial components living in electronically conductive chimney habitats.

  3. 饲料中添加不同脂肪源对半滑舌鳎亲鱼繁殖性能和仔鱼质量的影响%Effect of different lipid source in diet on the reproductive performance and larval quality of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    吕庆凯; 梁萌青; 郑珂珂; 王新星


    Three experimental diets with fish oil, soybean oil and olive oil as different lipid source and a commercial diet as control were used to feed broodstock of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis for 8 weeks to investigate the effects of different fat source on spawning performance, fatty acids composition in eggs and quality of larvae. Results showed that in terms of the relative fecundity, the control was the highest, followed by olive oil treatment, fish oil treatment, and soybean oil treatment as the lowest. The abnormal egg ratio of control was the lowest follwed by, fish oil treatment, olive oil treatment, and soybean oil treatment as the highest (9. 77%, 14. 53%, 19. 4% and 17. 35% respectively)(P<0. 05). Abnormal larva ratio among treatments was significantly different (P<0. 05) (3. 34% , 3. 12% , 8. 85% and 17. 35% respectively). Hatching rate of control was the highest, followed by fish oil treatment, olive oil treatment, and soybean oil treatment as the lowest (P<0. 05) (95.49%, 84.88%, 79.57% and 74. 27% respectively). It indicated that during spawning period, a certain amount of n-3 HUFA in diet, especially docosahexenoic acid (DHA) needs to maintain egg development and larval growth. Oleic acid and linoleic acid (LA) were selectively retained and played an important roles in tongue sole egg development process. We conclude that soybean oil or olive oil or fish oil as a single lipid source of diets can not provide sufficient fatty acids for tongue sole C. sem-ilaevis.%以精制鱼油、大豆油、橄榄油为脂肪源配制3组实验饲料,以一种商业饲料为对照组,进行连续56 d饲喂半滑舌鳎亲鱼试验,研究不同脂肪源对半滑舌鳎亲鱼繁殖性能、卵子脂肪酸组成和仔鱼质量的影响.结果显示,对照组亲鱼的相对产卵量最高,橄榄油组次之,鱼油组比橄榄油组低,豆油组最低.对照组的卵子畸形率最低为9.77%,鱼油组为14.53%,橄榄油组为19.4%,豆油组最高为35.17%(P<0

  4. Modified solid-state reaction synthesized cathode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) from different phosphate sources.

    Ding, Keqiang; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Qingfei; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu


    A modified solid-state method was used to prepare LiFePO4. With the aid of deionized water, a mixture containing Fe2O3, NH4H2PO4 (or (NH4)2HPO4), LiOH, glucose and oxalic acid was prepared into fluffy powders, which were heated in a carbon-coated crucible at 700 degrees C for 3 hours to synthesize LiFePO4 without any inert gas flow. For the first time, the roles of NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2HPO4 on the preparation of LiFePO4 were systematically investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), revealing that the crystallinity of the LiFePO4 sample prepared from NH4H2PO4 is superior to that prepared from (NH4)2HPO4 and the particle size of the sample prepared from NH4H2PO4 is smaller than that prepared from (NH4)2HPO4. The specific capacity, cycle property and rate capabilities were also compared between the as-prepared LiFePO4 samples. A better electrochemical performance was observed in the sample prepared from NH4H2PO4.

  5. Preparation and characterization of core-shell structured LiFePO4/C composite using a novel carbon source for lithium-ion battery cathode

    Huang, Zan; Luo, Peifang; Wang, Daxiang


    Core-shell structured LiFePO4/C1 cathode material is synthesized via a rapid microwave irradiation route using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the novel carbon source. XRD results reveal that all the patterns can be indexed as the olivine-type structured LiFePO4 with the space group of Pnma. TEM images show that the obtained carbon is an amorphous layer with a thickness of about 3-4 nm. When the LiFePO4/C1 used as cathode material for lithium-ion battery, it delivers an initial discharge capacity of 163.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C which is about 96% of the theoretical capacity. Moreover, it also shows excellent rate performance and good cycle stability due to the enhanced electronic conductivity as proved by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thus, this carbon decorated LiFePO4 composite synthesized via the rapid microwave irradiation method is a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian inference for the EEG inverse problem using realistic FE head models: depth localization and source separation for focal primary currents.

    Lucka, Felix; Pursiainen, Sampsa; Burger, Martin; Wolters, Carsten H


    The estimation of the activity-related ion currents by measuring the induced electromagnetic fields at the head surface is a challenging and severely ill-posed inverse problem. This is especially true in the recovery of brain networks involving deep-lying sources by means of EEG/MEG recordings which is still a challenging task for any inverse method. Recently, hierarchical Bayesian modeling (HBM) emerged as a unifying framework for current density reconstruction (CDR) approaches comprising most established methods as well as offering promising new methods. Our work examines the performance of fully-Bayesian inference methods for HBM for source configurations consisting of few, focal sources when used with realistic, high-resolution finite element (FE) head models. The main foci of interest are the correct depth localization, a well-known source of systematic error of many CDR methods, and the separation of single sources in multiple-source scenarios. Both aspects are very important in the analysis of neurophysiological data and in clinical applications. For these tasks, HBM provides a promising framework and is able to improve upon established CDR methods such as minimum norm estimation (MNE) or sLORETA in many aspects. For challenging multiple-source scenarios where the established methods show crucial errors, promising results are attained. Additionally, we introduce Wasserstein distances as performance measures for the validation of inverse methods in complex source scenarios.

  7. Tracing sources of crustal contamination using multiple S and Fe isotopes in the Hart komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Houlé, M. G.; Wing, B. A.; Rouxel, O. J.


    Assimilation by mafic to ultramafic magmas of sulfur-bearing country rocks is considered an important contributing factor to reach sulfide saturation and form magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element (PGE) sulfide deposits. Sulfur-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Archean are generally characterized by mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that is a result of atmospheric photochemical reactions, which produces isotopically distinct pools of sulfur. Likewise, low-temperature processing of iron, through biological and abiotic redox cycling, produces a range of Fe isotope values in Archean sedimentary rocks that is distinct from the range of the mantle and magmatic Fe isotope values. Both of these signals can be used to identify potential country rock assimilants and their contribution to magmatic sulfide deposits. We use multiple S and Fe isotopes to characterize the composition of the potential iron and sulfur sources for the sulfide liquids that formed the Hart deposit in the Shaw Dome area within the Abitibi greenstone belt in Ontario (Canada). The Hart deposit is composed of two zones with komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization; the main zone consists of a massive sulfide deposit at the base of the basal flow in the komatiite sequence, whereas the eastern extension consists of a semi-massive sulfide zone located 12 to 25 m above the base of the second flow in the komatiite sequence. Low δ56Fe values and non-zero δ34S and Δ33S values of the komatiitic rocks and associated mineralization at the Hart deposit is best explained by mixing and isotope exchange with crustal materials, such as exhalite and graphitic argillite, rather than intrinsic fractionation within the komatiite. This approach allows tracing the extent of crustal contamination away from the deposit and the degree of mixing between the sulfide and komatiite melts. The exhalite and graphitic argillite were the dominant contaminants for the main zone of mineralization and the eastern

  8. 40 CFR 1042.620 - Engines used solely for competition.


    ... CFR 1068.101(b)(4). (f) You must permanently label engines exempted under this section to clearly... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engines used solely for competition... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.620 Engines used solely for competition. The provisions of...

  9. Nine decades of North Sea sole and plaice distribution

    Engelhard, G.H.; Pinnegar, J.K.; Kell, L.T.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.


    Recent studies based mainly on research survey data suggest that within the North Sea, sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa have exhibited distribution shifts in recent decades—on average southward for sole and northward to deeper waters for plaice. Various hypotheses may account for su

  10. Effect of surfactants on the morphology of FeSe films fabricated from a single source precursor by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Raja Azadar Hussain; Amin Badshah; Naghma Haider; Malik Dilshad Khan; Bhajan Lal


    This article presents the fabrication of FeSe thin films from a single source precursor namely (1-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenyl-3-methylphenyl)selenourea (MeP2F)) by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). All the films were prepared via similar experimental conditions (temperature, flow rate, concentration, solvent system and reactor type) except the use of three different concentrations of two different surfactants i.e., triton and span. Seven thin films were characterized with PXRD, SEM, AFM, EDS and EDS mapping. The mechanism of the interaction of surfactant with MeP2F was determined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  11. Direct and simultaneous determination of Cr and Fe in crude oil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Dittert, Ingrid M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Jessee S.A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Araujo, Rennan G.O. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail:; Curtius, Adilson J.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [ISAS, Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department of Interface Spectroscopy, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    A simple, fast and sensitive direct method for the simultaneous determination of Cr and Fe in crude oil samples is proposed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. No sample preparation is used except for a 10-minute homogenization in an ultrasonic bath. Aliquots of 0.1-4 mg of the samples are weighed onto solid sampling platforms and analyzed directly using aqueous standards for calibration. The simultaneous determination was possible because there is a secondary Fe line at 358.120 nm in the vicinity of the most sensitive Cr line at 357.868 nm, and both absorption lines were within the wavelength interval covered by the linear charge-coupled device array detector. It has also been of advantage that the sensitivity ratio between the two analytical lines corresponded roughly to the concentration ratio of the two elements found in crude oil, and that both analytes have very similar volatility, so that no compromises had to be made regarding pyrolysis and atomization temperatures. Two oil reference materials have been analyzed and the results were in agreement with the certified or reported values. Characteristic masses of 3.6 pg and 0.5 ng were obtained for Cr and Fe, respectively. The limits of detection (3{sigma}, n = 10) were 1 {mu}g kg{sup - 1} for Cr and 0.6 mg kg{sup - 1} for Fe, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 4 to 20%, which is often acceptable for a rapid direct analytical procedure. Five crude oils samples were analyzed.

  12. Direct and simultaneous determination of Cr and Fe in crude oil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Dittert, Ingrid M.; Silva, Jessee S. A.; Araujo, Rennan G. O.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Welz, Bernhard; Becker-Ross, Helmut


    A simple, fast and sensitive direct method for the simultaneous determination of Cr and Fe in crude oil samples is proposed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. No sample preparation is used except for a 10-minute homogenization in an ultrasonic bath. Aliquots of 0.1-4 mg of the samples are weighed onto solid sampling platforms and analyzed directly using aqueous standards for calibration. The simultaneous determination was possible because there is a secondary Fe line at 358.120 nm in the vicinity of the most sensitive Cr line at 357.868 nm, and both absorption lines were within the wavelength interval covered by the linear charge-coupled device array detector. It has also been of advantage that the sensitivity ratio between the two analytical lines corresponded roughly to the concentration ratio of the two elements found in crude oil, and that both analytes have very similar volatility, so that no compromises had to be made regarding pyrolysis and atomization temperatures. Two oil reference materials have been analyzed and the results were in agreement with the certified or reported values. Characteristic masses of 3.6 pg and 0.5 ng were obtained for Cr and Fe, respectively. The limits of detection (3 σ, n = 10) were 1 µg kg - 1 for Cr and 0.6 mg kg - 1 for Fe, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation, ranged from 4 to 20%, which is often acceptable for a rapid direct analytical procedure. Five crude oils samples were analyzed.

  13. Dssimilatory Fe(Ⅲ) reduction characteristics of paddy soil extract cultures treated with glucose or fatty acids

    HE Jiangzhou; QU Dong


    Dissimilatory Fe(Ⅲ) reduction is a universal process with irreplaceable biological and environmental importance in anoxic environments. Our knowledge about Fe(Ⅲ) reduction predominantly comes from pure cultures of dissimilatory Fe(Ⅲ) reducing bacteria (DFRB). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of glucose and a selection of short organic acids (citrate, succinate, pyruvate, propionate, acetate, and formate) on Fe(Ⅲ) reduction via the anaerobic culture of three paddy soil solutions with Fe(OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. The results showed significant differences in Fe(Ⅲ) reduction among the three paddy soil solutions and suhstrate types. Bacteria from the Sichuan paddy soil responded quickly to substrate supply and showed higher Fe(Ⅲ) reducing activity than the other two soil types. Bacteria in the Jiangxi paddy soil culture solution could not use propionate as a source of electrons for Fe(Ⅲ) reduction. Similarly, bacteria in the Jilin paddy soil culture could not use succinate effectively. Pyruvate was readily used by cultures from all three paddy soil solutions, thus indicating that there were some similarities in substrate utilization by bacteria for Fe(Ⅲ) reduction. The use of glucose and citrate as substrate for dissimilatory Fe(Ⅲ) reduction indicates important ecological implications for this type of anoxic respiration.

  14. Source of ore-forming substances and theoretical problems of metallogeny relevant to the Bayan Obo Fe-REE ore deposits in Inner Mongolia,China

    曹荣龙; 朱寿华; 王俊文


    The source of rare earth elements (REE) ore-forming substances is identified to be extremelydistinct from that of iron ores.The Bayan Obo Fe-REE ore deposits were generated by a composite processof both crustal and mantle source mineralization.The original iron bodies are of a sedimentary deposit fromsupergenesis,while the REE ores have been formed by mantle fluid metasomatism superimposed upon thepre-existing iron bodies.It is believed that the REE ore deposit would be controlled by intracontinental hotspot.The H8 dolomite in mine regions belongs to normal sedimentary carbonate rock,its C and O isotopiccomposition rules out the possibility comparable with magrnatic carbonatite.The Sm-Nd isochrons of separatedREE minerals have shown two REE peak mineralization periods:early-middle Proterozoic (1 700 Ma±480 Ma) andCaledonia (424-402 Ma).


    Rosemary J. Dyson


    Full Text Available This study assessed human kinetics in relation to golf shoe outer sole design features during the golf swing using a driver club by measuring both within the shoe, and beneath the shoe at the natural grass interface. Three different shoes were assessed: metal 7- spike shoe, alternative 7-spike shoe, and a flat soled shoe. In-shoe plantar pressure data were recorded using Footscan RS International pressure insoles and sampling at 500 Hz. Simultaneously ground reaction force at the shoe outer sole was measured using 2 natural grass covered Kistler force platforms and 1000 Hz data acquisition. Video recording of the 18 right-handed golfers at 200 Hz was undertaken while the golfer performed 5 golf shots with his own driver in each type of shoe. Front foot (nearest to shot direction maximum vertical force and torque were greater than at the back foot, and there was no significant difference related to the shoe type. Wearing the metal spike shoe when using a driver was associated with more torque generation at the back foot (p < 0. 05 than when the flat soled shoe was worn. Within shoe regional pressures differed significantly with golf shoe outer sole design features (p < 0.05. Comparison of the metal spike and alternative spike shoe results provided indications of the quality of regional traction on the outer sole. Potential golf shoe outer sole design features and traction were presented in relation to phases of the golf swing movement. Application of two kinetic measurement methods identified that moderated (adapted muscular control of foot and body movement may be induced by golf shoe outer sole design features. Ground reaction force measures inform comparisons of overall shoe functional performance, and insole pressure measurements inform comparisons of the underfoot conditions induced by specific regions of the golf shoe outer sole


    IONESCU Cozmin


    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  17. Intermediate-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars and Sources of 26Al, 60Fe, 107Pd, and 182Hf in the Solar System

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Lugaro, Maria


    We explore the possibility that the short-lived radionuclides {}26{{A}}l, {}60{{F}}e, {}107{{P}}d, and {}182{{H}}f inferred to be present in the proto-solar cloud originated from 3–8 {M}ȯ asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Models of AGB stars with initial mass above 5 {M}ȯ are prolific producers of {}26{{A}}l owing to hot bottom burning (HBB). In contrast, {}60{{F}}e, {}107{{P}}d, and {}182{{H}}f are produced by neutron captures: {}107{{P}}d and {}182{{H}}f in models ≲ 5 {M}ȯ , and {}60{{F}}e in models with higher mass. We mix stellar yields from solar-metallicity AGB models into a cloud of solar mass and composition to investigate whether it is possible to explain the abundances of the four radioactive nuclides at the Sun’s birth using one single value of the mixing ratio between the AGB yields and the initial cloud material. We find that AGB stars that experience efficient HBB (≥slant 6 {M}ȯ ) cannot provide a solution because they produce too little {}182{{H}}f and {}107{{P}}d relative to {}26{{A}}l and {}60{{F}}e. Lower-mass AGB stars cannot provide a solution because they produce too little {}26{{A}}l relative to {}107{{P}}d and {}182{{H}}f. A self-consistent solution may be found for AGB stars with masses in between (4–5.5 {M}ȯ ), provided that HBB is stronger than in our models and the {}13{{C}}(α, n){}16{{O}} neutron source is mildly activated. If stars of {{M}}< 5.5 {M}ȯ are the source of the radioactive nuclides, then some basis for their existence in proto-solar clouds needs to be explored, given that the stellar lifetimes are longer than the molecular cloud lifetimes.


    Ramesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumors that can occur at any age and frequently on the upper back, neck, shoulder and abdomen. We present a case of lipoma over sole of foot which is an uncommon location.

  19. Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III-citrate fermentation

    Gallo Giuseppe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III reduction to Fe(II and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source; ii under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I-citrate or Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains.

  20. Oman metamorphic sole formation reveals early subduction dynamics

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Plunder, Alexis; Ildefonse, Benoît; Yamato, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile


    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500m thick tectonic slices welded beneath most of the large-scale ophiolites. They typically show a steep inverted metamorphic structure where the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization increase upward (from 500±100°C at 0.5±0.2 GPa to 800±100°C at 1.0±0.2 GPa), with isograds subparallel to the contact with the overlying ophiolitic peridotite. The proportion of mafic rocks in metamorphic soles also increases from the bottom (meta-sediments rich) to the top (approaching the ophiolite peridotites). These soles are interpreted as the result of heat transfer from the incipient mantle wedge toward the nascent slab (associated with large-scale fluid transfer and possible shear heating) during the first My of intra-oceanic subduction (as indicated by radiometric ages). Metamorphic soles provide therefore major constraints on early subduction dynamics (i.e., thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology along the nascent slab interface). We present a detailed structural and petrological study of the metamorphic sole from 4 major cross-sections along the Oman ophiolite. We show precise pressure-temperature estimates obtained by pseudosection modelling and EBSD measurements performed on both the garnet-bearing and garnet-free high-grade sole. Results allow quantification of the micro-scale deformation and highlight differences in pressure-temperature-deformation conditions between the 4 different locations, showing that the inverted metamorphic gradient through the sole is not continuous in all locations. Based on these new constraints, we suggest a new tectonic-petrological model for the formation of metamorphic soles below ophiolites. This model involves the stacking of several homogeneous slivers of oceanic crust leading to the present-day structure of the sole. In this view, these thrusts are the result of rheological contrasts between the sole and the peridotite as the plate interface progressively cools down

  1. sources

    Shu-Yin Chiang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  2. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han


    Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009

  3. A redshifted Fe K$\\alpha$ line from the unusual gamma-ray source PMN J1603-4904

    Müller, C; Dauser, T; Kreikenbohm, A; Beuchert, T; Kadler, M; Ojha, R; Wilms, J; Böck, M; Carpenter, B; Markowitz, A; McConville, W; Pottschmidt, K; Stawarz, L; Taylor, G B


    Multiwavelength observations have revealed the highly unusual properties of the gamma-ray source PMN J1603-4904, which are difficult to reconcile with any other well established gamma-ray source class. The object is either a very atypical blazar or compact jet source seen at a larger angle to the line of sight. In order to determine the physical origin of the high-energy emission processes in PMN J1603-4904, we study the X-ray spectrum in detail. We performed quasi-simultaneous X-ray observations with XMM-Newton and Suzaku in 2013 September, resulting in the first high signal-to-noise X-ray spectrum of this source. The 2-10 keV X-ray spectrum can be well described by an absorbed power law with an emission line at 5.44$\\pm$0.05 keV (observed frame). Interpreting this feature as a K{\\alpha} line from neutral iron, we determine the redshift of PMN J1603-4904 to be z=0.18$\\pm$0.01, corresponding to a luminosity distance of 872$\\pm$54 Mpc. The detection of a redshifted X-ray emission line further challenges the or...

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C cathode material with different coated carbon sources%不同碳源包覆LiFePO4/C正极材料的制备及电化学性能

    李小玉; 赵鹏


    Carbon-coated LiFePO4/C cathode material was synthesized by the solid state reaction method.Different carbon source were employed for the preparation of the LiFePO4/C material.XRD,SEM and CV tester were used for the characterizations of the LiFePO4/C material,and the effects of carbon source on the electrochemical properties of the LiFePO4/C material were studied.The results show that,compared with the LiFePO4/C material made from other carbon sources,the electrochemical performance of the LiFePO4/C material prepared from the PVC carbon source is the best,while the initial discharge specific capacity is 121.3 mAt/g; the retention rote after 5 and 100 cycles are increased to about 98.4% and 75.2%,respectively.And,the lithium-ion battery fabricated from this LiFePO4/C cathode material exhibits good reversibility and better charging adaptive capability.%采用不同碳源,以固相反应法合成了碳包覆型LiFePO4/C正极材料.借助XRD、SEM和循环伏安仪对LiFePO4/C正极材料进行了表征,研究了不同包覆碳源对所制LiFePO4/C正极材料电化学性能的影响.结果表明:使用PVC作碳源时,LiFePO4/C正极材料的性能达到最佳.首次可逆放电比容量达到121.3 mAh/g;循环5次和100次后的容量保持率分别为98.4%和75.2%左右;材料可逆性能较好,具有较好充电自适应能力.

  5. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H


    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  6. Children's Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    Kline, Marsha; And Others


    Examined patterns of custody and their relationship to the behavioral-emotional and social adjustment of 93 children of 3-14 years of age. Found no evidence that joint physical custody arrangements differ from sole physical custody arrangements with regard to postdivorce child adjustment. (RH)

  7. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    Hook, Genine A.


    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  8. Acute meningoencephalitis as the sole manifestation of Q fever.

    Guerrero, M; Gutierrez, J; Carnero, C; Gonzalez-Maldonado, R; Maroto, C


    The case of a 25-year old man who presented with meningoencephalitis as the sole clinical manifestation of Q fever is described. Serological studies revealed the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. The patient responded favourably to a ten-day course of i.v. ceftriaxone and was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  9. Stocking density-dependent growth of Dover sole (Solea solea)

    Schram, E.; Heul, van der J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.


    Dover sole were reared at 6 different stocking densities between 0.56 and 12.6 kg/m2 with duplicate tanks for each treatment. The experiment lasted for 55 days. Water quality effects on growth were minimised by making the flow rate per tank proportional to the feeding load. Individual initial and


    Cornelia LUCA


    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  11. Selecting Sole: breeding programs for natural - mating populations

    Blonk, R.J.W.


    The aim of this thesis was to design a breeding program for increased productivity of farmed common sole, Solea solea, 1) using natural mating in groups to obtain offspring and 2) using present farm infrastructures as much as possible. Parental allocation with DNA marker data on offspring from

  12. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J


    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  13. Sources


    SOURCES MANUSCRITES Archives nationales Rôles de taille 1768/71 Z1G-344/18 Aulnay Z1G-343a/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-340/01 Ivry Z1G-340/05 Orly Z1G-334c/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-344/18 Sevran Z1G-340/05 Thiais 1779/80 Z1G-391a/18 Aulnay Z1G-380/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-385/01 Ivry Z1G-387b/05 Orly Z1G-388a/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-391a/18 Sevran Z1G-387b/05 Thiais 1788/89 Z1G-451/18 Aulnay Z1G-452/21 Chennevières Z1G-443b/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-440a/01 Ivry Z1G-452/17 Noiseau Z1G-445b/05 ...

  14. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study of organic rich sediments (source rocks) from test well CT-1, Chinnewala structure of Jaisalmer basin, India

    R.P. Tripathi; Beena Bhatia; R. Sharma; K.R. Patel; S.S. Meena; Girish Ganwani; S.C. Mathur


    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study was carried out on the organic rich sedimentary samples collected at different depth intervals from newly drilled test well Chinnewala Tibba-1 (CT-1) located in Jaisalmer Petroliferous basin India. It is found that iron is mainly distributed in high spin Fe3þ and Fe2þ state in clay minerals. The plot of Fe2þ/(Fe2þ þ Fe3þ) indicates the presence of poor redox conditions in the samples. Results obtained are also compared with those already reported in the literature. This comparison shows that there may exist a correlation between prospecting of the basin, the redox environment in sediments and the nature of iron bearing minerals distributed in the sedimentary sequence.

  15. Study of the structural phase transformation of iron oxide nanoparticles from an Fe{sup 2+} ion source by precipitation under various synthesis parameters and temperatures

    Šutka, A., E-mail: [Institute of Silicate Materials, Riga Technical University, Paula Valdena 3, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Lagzdina, S. [Institute of Silicate Materials, Riga Technical University, Paula Valdena 3, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Käämbre, T.; Pärna, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kisand, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Center, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kleperis, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Maiorov, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Latvia, Miera 32, Salaspils LV-2169 (Latvia); Kikas, A.; Kuusik, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Jakovlevs, D. [Riga Biomaterials Innovation and Development Centre, Riga Technical University, Riga (Latvia)


    Magnetite nanoparticles were precipitated from a pure aqueous ferrous salt solution in an air atmosphere. The influence of the solution molarity, the rate of precipitator agent addition, stirring time and annealing temperature was studied. The morphology, crystalline phase purity and magnetic properties of the obtained powders were studied by X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The synthesis conditions were seen to have an effect on phase composition. It was possible to obtain near stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles showed high saturation magnetization ∼86 emu/g. - Highlights: • We synthesized near stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at room temp. in the air. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} co-precipitation was done from aqueous ferrous Fe{sup 2+} salt solution only. • The influence of synthesis conditions was investigated. • Detailed structural studies were done by XRD, XPS and XAS.

  16. Why sole-supplier vaccine markets may be here to stay.

    Danzon, Patricia; Pereira, Nuno Sousa


    Given the structure of costs, demand, and competition, vaccine markets reach long-run equilibrium with one or very few suppliers at any point in time. Sole suppliers are less likely to exit and may have lower total social costs. Vaccine markets are dynamically competitive, with new, superior products displacing older, inferior products. Measures to address short-run supply disruptions include inventories, foreign sourcing, and improved technologies. Increasing the relative prices paid for new vaccines to levels that more closely reflect their social value compared to other new drugs and biologics is essential to achieving appropriate incentives for allocation of pharmaceutical R and D.

  17. Fine Structural and Carbon Source Analysis for Diamond Crystal Growth using an Fe-Ni-C System at High Pressure and High Temperature

    FAN Xiao-Hong; XU Bin; NIU Zhen; ZHAI Tong-Guang; TIAN Bin


    Diamond is synthesized in an Fe-Ni-C system at high pressure and high temperature,the C sp3 content profile through different thicknesses of interface between diamond and the catalyst film is measured by using electron energy loss spectroscopy.It is found that the Csp3 content varies from 87.33% to 78.15% when the measured position is located at the inner face near the diamond and then changes to 6 μm further away.Transmission electron microscope examinations show that there are different phases in the interface,such as Fe3C,γ-(Fe,Ni),and graphite,but the graphite phase diminishes gradually towards the inner face of the interface.These results profoundly indicate that the carbon atoms,required for diamond growth,could only come from the carbon-rich phase,Fe3C,but not directly from the graphite.It is possible that carbon atoms from the graphite in the interface first react with Fe atoms to produce carbide Fe3 C during diamond synthesis at high pressure and high temperature.The Fe3 C finally decomposes into carbon atoms with the sp3 electron state at the interface to form the diamond.%Diamond is synthesized in an Fe-Ni-C system at high pressure and high temperature, the Csp3 content profile through different thicknesses of interface between diamond and the catalyst film is measured by using electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is found that the Csp3 content varies from 87.33% to 78.15% when the measured position is located at the inner face near the diamond and then changes to 6μm further away. Transmission electron microscope examinations show that there are different phases in the interface, such as Fe3 C1 γ-(Fe,Ni), and graphite, but the graphite phase diminishes gradually towards the inner face of the interface. These results profoundly indicate that the carbon atoms, required for diamond growth, could only come from the carbon-rich phase, Fe3C, but not directly from the graphite. It is possible that carbon atoms from the graphite in the interface first

  18. Manifestation of pernicious anaemia as hyperpigmentation of palms and soles

    Srinivas Vaddadi


    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency produces various manifestations involving CNS, heart, skin, blood and female reproductive systems. It is seen most commonly in the older individuals, malabsorptive states and #8201;(>60% of all cases and vegetarians. Pernicious anaemia may be confused to Addison's disease as both may present with similar clinical features. Hereby we report a case of pernicious anaemia presenting with dermatological manifestation in the form of deep pigmentation of both palms of and both soles respectively, cortisol levels normal so Addition's disease ruled out. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1746-1748

  19. Eclissi! Quando Sole e Luna danno spettacolo in cielo

    Bastoni, Marco


    Le eclissi di Sole e di Luna sono fra gli spettacoli più avvincenti della Natura; questo libro è una guida completa alla loro osservazione e spiega come cercare, vivere e fotografare questi eventi senza necessariamente essere astrofili esperti. Cosa posso osservare durante un’eclisse? Da dove? E quando? Un’accurata selezione delle 10 eclissi imperdibili da qui al 2050 chiude l’opera, aiutando il lettore nella pianificazione delle osservazioni. Preparate i bagagli, guardate l’eclisse e lasciatevi emozionare!

  20. [Fibromatosis plantaris Ledderhose (Dupuytren's contracture of the foot sole].

    Villiger, K J


    Fibromatosis plantaris, also called Ledderhose disease, is presented on the basis of the limited literature available. The possible causes are mentioned. Two cases are reported of patients suffering from fibromatosis palmaris (Dupuytren) on both hands and fibromatosis plantaris (Ledderhose) on both feet simultaneously. It is suggested that more attention be paid to examination of the soles of the feet, especially after a period of immobilization and plaster fixation of the shank. On diagnosis of Ledderhose disease, surgery should be performed before the often irreversible deformation of the toes develops.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoates of Different Structure Synthesized by Activated Sludge with Acetate and Propionate as Sole Carbon Source%以乙酸钠、丙酸钠为碳源的活性污泥合成聚羟基脂肪酸酯的结构分析

    林东恩; 张逸伟; 孙东成; 沈家瑞


    聚羟基脂肪酸酯(Polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs)是临时储藏于活性污泥的微生物体内的能量和碳源聚合物,是完全可生物降解的热塑性塑料.为了研究碳源对PHAs结构的影响,本文采用乙酸钠、丙酸钠为碳源在厌氧条件下培养活性污泥得到2种不同的PHAs样品,通过1H NMR、13C NMR和GC-MS谱图确定其组成和比例:以乙酸钠培养活性污泥得到PHAs样品的单体组成以3-羟基丁酸酯(3-hydroxybutyrate,3HB)为主,x(3HB)/x(3HV)(3-hydroxyvalerate,3-羟基戊酸酯)为93.91∶6.09;以丙酸钠培养活性污泥得到PHAs样品的单体组成主要以3HV为主,除3HB、3HV外,另外还有2-甲基-3-羟基丁酸酯(2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate,2M3HB)和2-甲基-3-羟基戊酸酯(2-methyl-3-hydroxyvalerate,2M3HV), 3HB/3HV/2M3HB/2M3HV的摩尔比为28.66∶63.13∶2.55∶5.66.由此可见采用不同碳源培养活性污泥所得到的PHAs的单体组成是不同的.%Polyhydroxyalkanoates(PHAs) are Polyesters synthesized by numerous bacteria in sludge as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds under the condition of unbalance growth. Another important aspect of PHAs is thermoplastic polyester with the remarkable characteristics of biodegradability. In this paper, in order to research the relations of carbon sources to structure of PHAs, using acetate(Ⅰ) and propionate(Ⅱ) as the unique carbon source, two kinds of PHAs samples were obtained by assimilated sludge as PHAs synthesis strains in the anaerobic process. Their structures were determined by 1H NMR 13C NMR and GC-MS. When the carbon source was acetate, the unit composition of PHAs was 93.91%(mole fraction,x) 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and x=6.09% 3-hydroxyvalerate(3HV); When the carbon source was propionate, the unit composition of PHAs was x=28.66% 3HB, x=63.13% 3HV, x=2.55% 2-methy-3-hydroxybutyrate(2M3HB) and x=5.66% 2-methyl-3-hydroxyvalerate(2M3HV). It showed that PHAs obtained by activated sludge with different carbon sources

  2. The Properties of Humic Acids Extracted from Four Sources of Organic Matters and Their Ability to Bind Fe2+ at New Established Rice Field



    Full Text Available In order to identify the properties of humic acid extracted from four kinds of organic matters (a peat soil, a stable manure, a compost of rice straw and a municipal waste and their potentiality to bind Fe2+ at new established rice field, a series of experiment was done in Soil Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University Padang. First step was characterization of functional groups and other chemical properties of humic acids, and their reaction with Fe2+. The second step was to examine the ability of humic acids to bind Fe2+ solution at new established rice field by conducting incubation experiments. The experiment used a completely randomized design with three replications. The 450 ppm Fe solution was treated with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 ppm humic acids and incubated for 24 hours. While top soil samples taken from Sitiung, West Sumatera were treated with 0,100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm humic acids, flooded with deionized water, and incubated for 6 weeks. The result showed that the functional group and other chemical characteristic of humic acid from rice straw compost and peat soil were better than those of manure and municipal waste compost. Functional group of both humic acids was dominated by COO-. High reactivity of the humic acid had been found when humic acids were added to Fe solution with ratio 1 : 1. Use of humic acid extracted from peat soil with the levels from 0 to 100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm decreased the Fe2+ concentration from 1.361 ppm to 910, 860, 831, and 776 ppm, respectively at new established rice field. While the use of humic acid extracted from rice straw compost with the same levels as above decreased the Fe2+ concentration from 1361 to 770, 701, 612, and 600 ppm, respectively, after four weeks of flooding.

  3. Lyme disease: sudden hearing loss as the sole presentation.

    Espiney Amaro, C; Montalvão, P; Huins, C; Saraiva, J


    Lyme disease is an uncommon tick-borne multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The most common clinical manifestation is erythema migrans. In this report, a very unusual presentation of this condition is described, in which sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss was the sole presenting symptom. Case report and review of English-language literature. A patient presented with sensorineural hearing loss, with no other symptoms or signs. Acute Lyme infection was detected by laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of labyrinthitis of the same inner ear. After hyperbaric oxygen and systemic antibiotic treatment, the patient showed total hearing recovery, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete resolution of the labyrinthitis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lyme disease presenting only with sensorineural hearing loss. Borreliosis should be considered as an aetiological factor in sensorineural hearing loss. Adequate treatment may provide total recovery and prevent more severe forms of Lyme disease.

  4. Effects of glucide as carbon source on the performance of LiFePO4/C cathode material%糖类作为碳源对LiFePO4/C正极材料性能的影响

    唐致远; 焦延峰; 陈玉红; 刘元刚; 李昌盛; 阳晓霞


    采用固相反应法在惰性气氛下合成了橄榄石型LiFePO4/C正极材料,采用X射线衍射光谱法(XRD),扫描电子显微镜法(SEM)和电化学手段对目标材料进行了结构表征和性能测试.考察了葡萄糖和蔗糖作为碳源对LiFePO4/C正极材料性能的影响.结果表明,以葡萄糖作为碳源的正极材料具有优良的电化学性能,首次放电比容量达136.3 mAh/g,远远高于纯的LiFePO4正极材料,随着循环次数的增加,材料的放电比容量逐渐增加,然后趋于稳定.循环30次后,比容量为139.6 mAh/g.

  5. Iron-[S,S']-EDDS (FeEDDS) Chelate as an Iron Source for Horticultural Crop Production: Marigold Growth and Nutrition, Spectral Properties, and Photodegradation

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones, commonly referred to as ligands or chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to p...

  6. Electrohydrodynamic flow caused by field-enhanced dissociation solely

    Vasilkov, S. A.; Chirkov, V. A.; Stishkov, Yu. K.


    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows emerge in dielectric liquids under the action of the Coulomb force and underlie energy-efficient techniques for heat and mass transfer. The key issue in the phenomena is the way how the net charge is created. One of the most promising, yet poorly studied charge formation mechanisms is the field-enhanced dissociation (or the Wien effect). So the paper studies an EHD flow caused solely by the effect by virtue of both experiment and computer simulation. To preclude the competing mechanism of charge formation—the injection—a new EHD system of a special design was examined. Its main feature is the use of solid insulation to create the region of the strong electric field far from the electrode metal surfaces. The experimental study used the particle image velocimetry technique to observe velocity distributions, whereas the computations were based on the complete set of electrohydrodynamic equations employing the commercial software package COMSOL Multiphysics. Spatial distributions of key quantities (including the ion concentrations, the total space charge density, and the velocity) and the acting forces were obtained in the computer simulation and were analyzed. The experimental flow structure was observed for a number of voltages up to 30 kV. The comparison of the numerical and experimental results yielded a good quantitative agreement for strong electric fields though some overshoot was observed for weak ones. The results allow concluding on the applicability of the Onsager theory of the field-enhanced dissociation in the context of EHD flows.

  7. 78 FR 60875 - Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; Notification of a Sole Source Cooperative...


    .... Measuring Individual Disaster Recovery: A Socioecological Framework. Disaster Medicine and Public Health..., Community Engagement, and Recovery in 21st Century Crises. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness... Serious Emotional Disturbance in Children After Hurricane Katrina. Disaster Medicine and Public...

  8. Study of a plugging microbial consortium using crude oil as sole carbon source

    Wang Jing; Yan Guiwen; An Mingquan; Liu Jieli; Zhang Houming; Chen Yun


    A microbial consortium named Y4 capable of producing biopolymers was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in the Dagang Oilfield, China. It includes four bacterial strains: Y4-1 (Paenibacillus sp.), Y4-2 (Actinomadura sp.), Y4-3 (Uncultured bacterium clone) and Y4-4 (Brevibacillus sp.). The optimal conditions for the growth of the consortium Y4 were as follows: temperature about 46 ℃,pH about 7.0 and salinity about 20.0 g/L. The major metabolites were analyzed with gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). A comparison was made between individual strains and the microbial consortium for biopolymer production in different treatment processes. The experimental results showed that the microbial consortium Y4 could produce more biopolymers than individual strains, and the reason might be attributed to the synergetic action of strains. The biopolymers were observed with optical and electron microscopes and analyzed by paper chromatography. It was found that the biopolymers produced by the microbial consortium Y4 were insoluble in water and were of reticular structure, and it was concluded that the biopolymers were cellulose. Through a series of simulation experiments with sand cores, it was found that the microbial consortium Y4 could reduce the permeability of reservoir beds, and improve the efficiency of water flooding by growing biomass and producing biopolymers.The oil recovery was enhanced by 3.5% on average. The results indicated that the consortium Y4 could be used in microbial enhanced oil recovery and play an important role in bioremediation of oil polluted environments.

  9. Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans grown diazotrophically on kerosene as sole carbon source.

    García-Esquivel, Gabriela; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Fernández-Linares, Luis Carlos; Vázquez, Refugio Rodríguez; Esparza-García, Fernando José


    Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans was induced by its diazotrophic cultivation on kerosene. Its growth and nitrogenase activity were affected by kerosene in comparison to cultures grown on sucrose. Electron microscopy of vegetative cells showed that when nitrogenase activity was higher and the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules were not present to a significant extent, peripheral bodies were abundant. After 8 days of culture on kerosene, the presence of cysts with intracellular bunches of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was observed. Germination of cysts bears germinating multicelled yet unbroken capsule cysts with up to three cells inside. This is the first report of encystment induction of Azotobacter species grown on kerosene.

  10. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts


    ... contract action valuation practice is outlined in FAR 1.108(c), which provides that the final anticipated... (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts,...

  11. Soluble microbial products in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters with acetate as sole carbon source.

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Chengsong; Gong, Song; Wei, Gu; Yu, Xin; Feng, Lin


    A comprehensive study on formation and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) during drinking water biofiltration was made in four parallel pilot-scale ceramic biofilters with acetate as the substrate. Excellent treatment performance was achieved while microbial biomass and acetate carbon both declined with the depth of filter. The SMP concentration was determined by calculating the difference between the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and acetate carbon. The results revealed that SMP showed an obvious increase from 0 to 100 cm depth of the filter. A rising specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) was also found, indicating that benzene or carbonyl might exist in these compounds. SMP produced during this drinking water biological process were proved to have weak mutagenicity and were not precursors of by-products of chlorination disinfection. The volatile parts of SMP were half-quantity analyzed and most of them were dicarboxyl acids, others were hydrocarbons or benzene with 16-17 carbon atoms.

  12. 78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...


    ... health care, public health, and emergency management systems. This project aims to improve collaboration... health resilience, and strengthen health care, public health, and emergency management systems. One of the overarching goals of both the National Health Security Strategy (2009) and the ASPR Strategic...


    IONESCU Cozmin


    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  14. Continuous biogas production from fodder beet silage as sole substrate

    Scherer, P.A.; Dobler, S.; Rohardt, S. [University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg (Germany). Research Centre of Environmental Bioengineering and Applied Biotechnology; Loock, R.; Buettner, B.; Noeldeke, P.; Brettschuh, A. [Loock Environmental Technologies, Hamburg (Germany)


    Since April 2000 a two-step anaerobic plant with two subsequent 500 m{sup 3} reactors has been producing biogas from fodder beet silage (pH 4.1) as the sole substrate. The plant is located at Kirchlengern near Bielefeld, Germany. Initially the reactors were inoculated with swine manure at 37{sup o}C. After a start-up phase the process was sustained at pH 7.5-8.0 by feeding with the silage as sole substrate twice a day. Parallel to the biogas plant at Kirchlengern four one-step laboratory reactors were continuously driven at temperatures of 37{sup o}C, 45{sup o}C, 60{sup o}C and 65{sup o}C. They were fed with the same silage, but only once per day (one impulse). The organic loading rate (OLR) was adjusted to 3.9 g volatile solids (VS)/(l*d) with a concomitant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 27 d. There was no problem with starting the reactors, but after 86 days the volumetric gas production of the 65{sup o}C reactor ceased and a high amount of approximately 130 mM propionate could be determined. By decreasing the temperature down to 60{sup o}C a stable reactor performance was recovered for a period of at least 250 further days. During impulse feeding it was observed that the quickest recovery of gas production could be observed at 37{sup o}C or at 45{sup o}C. Recovery of 75% gas volume (related to the value before or after impulse feeding) was obtained after 5.5 and 7.5 h of feeding time point whereas the 60{sup o}C reactor needed 16 h. Slight significant differences were seen in the spectrum of volatile fatty acids (VFA) reaching at 37{sup o} or 45{sup o}C its maximum with 10-30 mM total VFA at 2-3 h after feeding. After this the VFA level declined to nearly zero (except for the 60{sup o}C reactor). Therefore the 37{sup o}C reactor was favoured. A double experiment with a second 37{sup o}C reactor was started by a somewhat different inoculation procedure from the remaining 3 reactors, but revealed similar results. By increasing the temperature no significantly

  15. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T


    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  16. Mössbauer spectroscopic study of 57Fe metabolic transformations in the rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Kovács, Krisztina; Biró, Borbála; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő


    Preliminary 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopic data were obtained for the first time for live cells of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense (wild-type strain Sp245) grown aerobically with 57FeIII-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) complex as a sole source of iron. The results obtained have shown that live cells actively reduce part of the assimilated iron(III) to iron(II), the latter amounting up to 33 % of total cellular iron after 18 h of growth, and 48 % after additional 3 days of storage of the dense wet cell suspension in nutrient-free saline solution in air at room temperature (measured at 80 K). The cellular iron(II) was found to be represented by two quadrupole doublets of different high-spin forms, while the parameters of the cellular iron(III) were close to those typical for bacterioferritins.

  17. The Shangzhuang Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered mafic intrusion, northeast of Beijing (North China): Implications for the mantle source of the giant Late Mesozoic magmatic event in the North China Craton

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Yan, Dan-Ping; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Su, Shang-Guo; Wang, Xiao-Lin


    The Early Cretaceous Shangzhuang Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered mafic intrusion in the Yanshan Belt northeast of Beijing is coeval with the giant Late Mesozoic igneous province in the eastern part of the North China Craton (NCC). This magmatic event was associated with lithospheric thinning and thus the igneous rocks have been used to characterize the nature of the Mesozoic mantle beneath the NCC. The Shangzhuang mafic pluton intruded a large granodioritic complex and crystallized at ~ 850-872°C at a depth of 13-14 km. It is composed, from the base upward, of troctolite, Fe-Ti oxide-bearing gabbronorite and gabbro. Rocks from this intrusion have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7053-0.7058), negative initial εNd values (- 9.4 to - 10.7), highly differentiated LREE and nearly flat HREE patterns indicative of an EMI-like mantle source unaffected by upper crustal contamination. The occurrence of Fe-Ti oxide ore layers, magnetite-ilmenite exsolution lamellae in hornblende and high TiO2 contents of the silicate rocks indicate that they formed from Fe- and Ti-rich ferrobasaltic magmas, which may have been generated by addition of magmas from a deeper mantle source. The presence of orthopyroxene, high-Mg ilmenite (up to 8.5 wt %), hornblende, biotite and high oxygen fugacities calculated from coexisting titanomagnetite-ilmenite pairs can be explained by derivation from an enriched EMI-type mantle modified by fluids from a subducted slab and mixed with asthenospheric or deeper-mantle materials in an extensional setting. Exposure of the complex occurred during large-scale uplift (at least 13 km) and exhumation of the Yanshan orogenic belt in the Early Cretaceous. Chemical metasomatism triggered by water and enhanced by heat from a deep magma source may have played an important role in removing the ancient cratonic root, generating partial melting of the lithospheric mantle and producing coeval magmatic activity in the Mesozoic eastern NCC.

  18. Water dispersible oleic acid-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Shete, P.B.; Patil, R.M.; Tiwale, B.M.; Pawar, S.H., E-mail:


    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proved their tremendous potential to be used for various biomedical applications. Oleic acid (OA) is widely used in ferrite nanoparticle synthesis because it can form a dense protective monolayer, thereby producing highly uniform and monodispersed particles. Capping agents such as oleic acid are often used because they form a protective monolayer, which is strongly bonded to the surface of nanoparticles. This is necessary for making monodisperse and highly uniform MNPs. Coating of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs with OA makes the particles dispersible only in organic solvents and consequently limits their use for biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, the OA coated MNPs were again functionalized with chitosan (CS), in order to impart hydrophilicity on their surface. All the morphological, magnetic, colloidal and cytotoxic characteristics of the resulting core–shells were studied thoroughly. Their heating induction ability was studied to predict their possible use in hyperthermia therapy of cancer. Specific absorption rate was found to be increased than that of bare MNPs. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized FeCl{sub 2} as the sole source by alkaline precipitation. • Hydrophilicity imparted to OA-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs. • Improved heating induction ability. • Highly stabilized colloidal suspension. • Improved biocompatiblity.

  19. Fe(CO)5-catalyzed coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue using syngas-water as a hydrogen source; Fe(CO)5 shokubai ni yoru gosei gas-mizu wo suisogen to suru sekitan-jushitsuyu no coprocessing

    Hata, K.; Wada, K.; Mitsudo, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Improvement in efficiency and profitability of hydrogenation reaction of heavy hydrocarbon resources is the most important matter to be done. In this study, coprocessing of coal and heavy oil vacuum residue was conducted using syngas-water as a hydrogen source. For the investigation of effect of the reaction temperature during the coprocessing of Wandoan coal and Arabian heavy vacuum residue using Fe(CO)5 as a catalyst, the conversion, 66.0% was obtained at 425{degree}C. For the investigation of effect of reaction time, the yield of light fractions further increased during the two stage reaction at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes and at 425{degree}C for 60 minutes. Finally, almost 100% of THF-soluble matter was obtained through the reaction using 2 mmol of Fe(CO)5 catalyst at 400{degree}C for 60 minutes, and hydrogenation of heavy oil was proceeded simultaneously. When comparing coprocessing reactions using three kinds of hydrogen sources, i.e., hydrogen, CO-water, and syngas-water, the conversion yield and oil yield obtained by using syngas-water were similar to those obtained by using hydrogen, which demonstrated the effectiveness of syngas-water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe in clay minerals.

    Neumann, Anke; Wu, Lingling; Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M; Rosso, Kevin M; Frierdich, Andrew J; Scherer, Michelle M


    Due to their stability toward reductive dissolution, Fe-bearing clay minerals are viewed as a renewable source of Fe redox activity in diverse environments. Recent findings of interfacial electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe in clay minerals and electron conduction in octahedral sheets of nontronite, however, raise the question whether Fe interaction with clay minerals is more dynamic than previously thought. Here, we use an enriched isotope tracer approach to simultaneously trace Fe atom movement from the aqueous phase to the solid ((57)Fe) and from the solid into the aqueous phase ((56)Fe). Over 6 months, we observed a significant decrease in aqueous (57)Fe isotope fraction, with a fast initial decrease which slowed after 3 days and stabilized after about 50 days. For the aqueous (56)Fe isotope fraction, we observed a similar but opposite trend, indicating that Fe atom movement had occurred in both directions: from the aqueous phase into the solid and from the solid into aqueous phase. We calculated that 5-20% of structural Fe in clay minerals NAu-1, NAu-2, and SWa-1 exchanged with aqueous Fe(II), which significantly exceeds the Fe atom layer exposed directly to solution. Calculations based on electron-hopping rates in nontronite suggest that the bulk conduction mechanism previously demonstrated for hematite1 and suggested as an explanation for the significant Fe atom exchange observed in goethite2 may be a plausible mechanism for Fe atom exchange in Fe-bearing clay minerals. Our finding of 5-20% Fe atom exchange in clay minerals indicates that we need to rethink how Fe mobility affects the macroscopic properties of Fe-bearing phyllosilicates and its role in Fe biogeochemical cycling, as well as its use in a variety of engineered applications, such as landfill liners and nuclear repositories.

  1. Competition between superconductivity and magnetic/nematic order as a source of anisotropic superconducting gap in underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    Kim, H [Ames Laboratory; Tanatar, M A [Ames Laboratory; Straszheim, W E [Ames Laboratory; Cho, K [Ames Laboratory; Murphy, J [Iowa State University; Spyrison, N [Iowa State University; Reid, J -Ph [Universite de Sherbrooke; Shen, Bing [Nanjing University; Wen, Hai-Hu [Nanjing University; Fernandes, R M [University of Minnesota; Prozorov, R [Ames Laboratory


    The in-plane London penetration depth Δλ(T) was measured using a tunnel diode resonator technique in single crystals of Ba1-xKxFe2As2 with doping levels x ranging from heavily underdoped, x=0.16 (Tc=7K), to nearly optimally doped, x=0.34 (Tc=39K). Exponential saturation of Δλ(T) in the T→0 limit is found in optimally doped samples, with the superfluid density ρs(T)≡[λ(0)/λ(T)]2 quantitatively described by a self-consistent γ model with two nodeless isotropic superconducting gaps. As the doping level is decreased towards the extreme end of the superconducting dome at x=0.16, the low-temperature behavior of Δλ(T) becomes nonexponential and is best described by the power law Δλ(T)∝T2, characteristic of strongly anisotropic gaps. The change between the two regimes happens within the range of coexisting magnetic/nematic order and superconductivity, x<0.25, and is accompanied by a rapid rise in the absolute value of Δλ(T) with underdoping. This effect, characteristic of the competition between superconductivity and other ordered states, is very similar to but of significantly smaller magnitude than what is observed in the electron-doped Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 compounds. Our study suggests that the competition between superconductivity and magnetic/nematic order in hole-doped compounds is weaker than in electron-doped compounds, and that the anisotropy of the superconducting state in the underdoped iron pnictides is a consequence of the anisotropic changes in the pairing interaction and in the gap function promoted by both magnetic and nematic long-range orders.

  2. Experimental constraints on Fe isotope fractionation during magnetite and Fe carbonate formation coupled to dissimilatory hydrous ferric oxide reduction

    Johnson, Clark M.; Roden, Eric E.; Welch, Susan A.; Beard, Brian L.


    Iron isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and biogenic magnetite and Fe carbonates produced during reduction of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) by Shewanella putrefaciens, Shewanella algae, and Geobacter sulfurreducens in laboratory experiments is a function of Fe(III) reduction rates and pathways by which biogenic minerals are formed. High Fe(III) reduction rates produced 56Fe/ 54Fe ratios for Fe(II) aq that are 2-3‰ lower than the HFO substrate, reflecting a kinetic isotope fractionation that was associated with rapid sorption of Fe(II) to HFO. In long-term experiments at low Fe(III) reduction rates, the Fe(II) aq-magnetite fractionation is -1.3‰, and this is interpreted to be the equilibrium fractionation factor at 22°C in the biologic reduction systems studied here. In experiments where Fe carbonate was the major ferrous product of HFO reduction, the estimated equilibrium Fe(II) aq-Fe carbonate fractionations were ca. 0.0‰ for siderite (FeCO 3) and ca. +0.9‰ for Ca-substituted siderite (Ca 0.15Fe 0.85CO 3) at 22°C. Formation of precursor phases such as amorphous nonmagnetic, noncarbonate Fe(II) solids are important in the pathways to formation of biogenic magnetite or siderite, particularly at high Fe(III) reduction rates, and these solids may have 56Fe/ 54Fe ratios that are up to 1‰ lower than Fe(II) aq. Under low Fe(III) reduction rates, where equilibrium is likely to be attained, it appears that both sorbed Fe(II) and amorphous Fe(II)(s) components have isotopic compositions that are similar to those of Fe(II) aq. The relative order of δ 56Fe values for these biogenic minerals and aqueous Fe(II) is: magnetite > siderite ≈ Fe(II) aq > Ca-bearing Fe carbonate, and this is similar to that observed for minerals from natural samples such as Banded Iron Formations (BIFs). Where magnetite from BIFs has δ 56Fe >0‰, the calculated δ 56Fe value for aqueous Fe(II) suggests a source from midocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal fluids. In contrast

  3. 75 FR 4909 - Charter Bank: Santa Fe, New Mexico; Notice of Appointment of Receiver


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Charter Bank: Santa Fe, New Mexico; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Charter Bank, Santa Fe, New Mexico, (OTS No. 08337) on January 22, 2010....

  4. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The exchange, without...

  5. Number Density Distribution of Near-Infrared Sources on a Sub-Degree Scale in the Galactic Center: Comparison with the Fe XXV Ka Line at 6.7 keV

    Yasui, Kazuki; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagatomo, Schun; Uchiyama, Hideki; Tsuru, Takeshi G; Koyama, Katsuji; Tamura, Motohide; Kwon, Jungmi; Sugitani, Koji; Schödel, Rainer; Nagata, Tetsuya


    The stellar distribution derived from an $H$ and $K_{\\mathrm S}$-band survey of the central region of our Galaxy is compared with the Fe XXV K$\\alpha$ (6.7 keV) line intensity observed with the Suzaku satellite. The survey is for the Galactic coordinates $|l| \\lesssim 3^{\\circ}.0$ and $|b| \\lesssim 1^{\\circ}.0$ (equivalent to 0.8 kpc $\\times$ 0.3 kpc for $R_0 = 8$ kpc), and the number-density distribution $N(K_{\\mathrm S,0}; l, b)$ of stars is derived using the extinction-corrected magnitude $K_{\\mathrm S,0}=10.5$. This is deep enough to probe the old red giant population and in turn to estimate the ($l$, $b$) distribution of faint X-ray point sources such as coronally active binaries and cataclysmic variables. In the Galactic plane ($b=0^{\\circ}$), $N(10.5; l, b)$ increases to the Galactic center as $|l|^{-0.30 \\pm 0.03}$ in the range of $-0^{\\circ}.1 \\geq l \\geq -0^{\\circ}.7$, but this increase is significantly slower than the increase ($|l|^{-0.44 \\pm 0.02}$ ) of the Fe XXV K$\\alpha$ line intensity. If nor...

  6. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.


    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...... from the sole cropped pea and barley lysimeters. Soil N balances indicated depletion of N in the soil-plant system during the experimental period, independent of cropping system and residue management. N complementarity in the cropping system and the synchrony between residual N availability and crop N...

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup. Comparative analysis of tandem repeats in the control region among soles.

    Manchado, Manuel; Catanese, Gaetano; Ponce, Marian; Funes, Victoria; Infante, Carlos


    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome for the Senegal sole Solea senegalensis Kaup was determined. The mitochondrial DNA was 16,659 base pairs (bp) in length. Sequence features of the 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs are described. The non-coding control region (1017 bp) was compared with those of the closely related soles Solea solea and Solea lascaris. The typical conservative blocks were identified. A cluster of 42 and 22 tandemly arrayed repeats was detected near the 3' end of control region in S. solea and S. lascaris, respectively. On the contrary, only two (93.8% of haplotypes) or three copies (6.2%) of an 8-bp repeated sequence motif was found in S. senegalensis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 7 out of 9 of haplotypes bearing three copies grouped in a separate cluster. Possible mechanisms influencing the evolution of control region among soles are discussed.

  8. Improved Automotive NO (x) Aftertreatment System: Metal Ammine Complexes as NH3 Source for SCR Using Fe-Containing Zeolite Catalysts

    Johannessen, Tue; Schmidt, Henning; Frey, Anne Mette


    Ammonia storage is a challenge in the selective catalytic reduction of NO (x) in vehicles. We propose a new system, based on metal ammines as the ammonia source. In combination with iron containing zeolites as the SCR catalyst it should be possible to obtain a low temperature system for NO (x...

  9. Sole means navigation and integrity through hybrid Loran-C and NAVSTAR GPS

    Vangraas, Frank


    A sole means navigation system does not only call for integrity, but also for coverage, reliability, availability and accuracy. Even though ground monitored GPS will provide integrity, availability is still not sufficient. One satellite outage can affect a large service area for several hours per day. The same holds for differential GPS; a total satellite outage cannot be corrected for. To obtain sufficient coverage, extra measurements are needed, either in the form of extra GPS satellites (expensive) or through redundant measurements from other systems. LORAN-C is available and will, hybridized with GPS, result in a system that has the potential to satisfy the requirements for a sole means navigation system for use in the continental United States. Assumptions are made about the qualification sole means, mainly based on current sole means systems such as VOR/DME. In order to allow for system design that will satisfy sole means requirements, it is recommended that a definition of a sole means navigation system be established. This definition must include requirements for availability, reliability, and integrity currently not specified. In addition to the definition of a sole means navigation system, certification requirements must be established for hybrid navigation systems. This will allow for design and production of a new generation of airborne navigation systems that will reduce overall system costs and simplify training procedures.

  10. 29 CFR 500.73 - Required purchase of goods or services solely from any person prohibited.


    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker... migrant or seasonal agricultural worker to purchase goods or services solely from such farm labor... any person subject to this prohibition. Recruiting, Hiring and Providing Information to...

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from northern rock sole

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth data from archival tags on northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were examined to assess whether fish used tidal currents to aid horizontal migration....

  12. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...



    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ... cake, urea, muriate of potash and single super phosphate. Two separate ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb.

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation

    Fuyuki Tateno


    Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.

  14. Activation of peripheral nerve fibers by electrical stimulation in the sole of the foot

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Grill, Warren M; Lubock, Nathan B; Hennings, Kristian; Andersen, Ole Kæseler


    Background Human nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) can be evoked by electrical stimulation applied to the sole of the foot. However, elicitation of NWRs is highly site dependent, and NWRs are especially difficult to elicit at the heel. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential peripheral mechanisms for any site dependent differences in reflex thresholds. Results The first part of the study investigated the neural innervation in different sites of the sole of the foot using...


    IONESCU Cozmin


    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  16. Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)

    Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.


    Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.

  17. Effects of shoe sole hardness on plantar pressure and comfort in older people with forefoot pain.

    Lane, Tamara J; Landorf, Karl B; Bonanno, Daniel R; Raspovic, Anita; Menz, Hylton B


    Plantar forefoot pain is common in older people and is related to increased peak pressures under the foot during gait. Variations in the hardness of the shoe sole may therefore influence both the magnitude of loading under the foot and the perceived comfort of the shoe in this population. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of varying shoe sole hardness on plantar pressures and comfort in older people with forefoot pain. In-shoe plantar pressures under the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were recorded from 35 older people (mean age 73.2, SD 4.5 years) with current or previous forefoot pain using the pedar-X(®) system. Participants walked at their normal comfortable speed along an 8m walkway in shoes with three different levels of sole hardness: soft (Shore A25), medium (Shore A40) and hard (Shore A58). Shoe comfort was measured on a 100mm visual analogue scale. There were statistically significant differences in peak pressure of between 5% and 23% across the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot (phard-soled shoe registered the highest peak pressures and the soft-soled shoe the lowest peak pressures. However, no differences in comfort scores across the three shoe conditions were observed. These findings demonstrate that as shoe sole hardness increases, plantar pressure increases, however this does not appear to have a significant effect on shoe comfort.


    LUCA Cornelia


    Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain

  19. Fe vs. TiO2 Photo-assisted Processes for Enhancing the Solar Inactivation of Bacteria in Water.

    Pulgarin, César


    Batch solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a known, simple and low-cost water treatment technology. SODIS is based on the synergistic action of temperature increase and light-assisted generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on bacteria. ROS are generated via the action of solar photons on i) Natural Organic Matter (NOM), ii) some mineral components of water (Fe oxides or Fe-organic complexes, nitrogen compounds) and iii) endogenous bacteria photosensitizers (e.g. cytochrome). SODIS has proven its effectiveness for remote settlements or urban slums in regions with high incident solar radiation. All of the internal and external simultaneous processes are often driven by photoactive Fe-species present in the cell, as well as in the natural water sources. In SODIS, a temperature of 50 °C is required and due to this temperature dependence, only 1-2 L can be treated at a time. As required exposure time strongly depends on irradiation intensity and temperature, some SODIS households could be overburdened, leading to inadequate treatment and probable bacterial re-growth. This is why TiO(2) photocatalysis and Fe photo-assisted systems (i.e. photo-Fenton reactants) have been considered to enhance the photo-catalytic processes already present in natural water sources when exposed to solar light. Both TiO(2) and Fe-photoassisted processes, when applied to water disinfection aim to improve the performance of solar bacteria inactivation systems by i) enhancing ROS production, ii) making the process independent from the rise in temperature and as a consequence iii) allowing the treatment of larger volumes than 1-2 L of water and iv) prevent bacterial (re)growth, sometimes observed after sole solar treatment.

  20. Craniofacial Pain as the Sole Sign of Prodromal Angina and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review and Report of a Rare Case

    Fazlyab, Mahta; Esnaashari, Ehsan; Saleh, Mojgan; Shakerian, Farshad; Akhlagh Moayed, Davood; Asgary, Saeed


    Orofacial pain can arise from different regions and etiologies. Some of the most debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). The problem with referred pain is the misdiagnosis and unnecessary therapy directed to the pain location instead of its origin. When craniofacial pain is the sole sign of myocardial ischemia, failure to recognize its cardiac source can...

  1. Tyrosine, cysteine, and S-adenosyl methionine stimulate in vitro [FeFe] hydrogenase activation.

    Jon M Kuchenreuther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: [FeFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of H(2. These proteins are distinguished by an active site cofactor known as the H-cluster. This unique [6Fe-6S] complex contains multiple non-protein moieties and requires several maturation enzymes for its assembly. The pathways and biochemical precursors for H-cluster biosynthesis have yet to be elucidated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report an in vitro maturation system in which, for the first time, chemical additives enhance [FeFe] hydrogenase activation, thus signifying in situ H-cluster biosynthesis. The maturation system is comprised of purified hydrogenase apoprotein; a dialyzed Escherichia coli cell lysate containing heterologous HydE, HydF, and HydG maturases; and exogenous small molecules. Following anaerobic incubation of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii HydA1 apohydrogenase with S-adenosyl methionine (SAM, cysteine, tyrosine, iron, sulfide, and the non-purified maturases, hydrogenase activity increased 5-fold relative to incubations without the exogenous substrates. No conditions were identified in which addition of guanosine triphosphate (GTP improved hydrogenase maturation. SIGNIFICANCE: The in vitro system allows for direct investigation of [FeFe] hydrogenase activation. This work also provides a foundation for studying the biosynthetic mechanisms of H-cluster biosynthesis using solely purified enzymes and chemical additives.

  2. Sole Searching


    China wants the European Union to kick its anti-dumping measures on footwear to the curb Among all the advanced countries and regions, the European Union (EU) is China's most stable and mature trading partner. Since China established diplomatic ties with the European Economic Community in 1975, especially after the EU published its first policy paper on China in 1995, Sino-EU relations have developed rapidly, from an all-round partnership to an all-round strategic one. In addition to working together on ...

  3. Feed deprivation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles: effects on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels.

    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Arjona, Francisco Jesús; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Conceição, Luís E C


    The effects of prolonged feed deprivation were assessed on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels in Solea senegalensis. Juvenile specimens were maintained at two experimental conditions (24 h fasted and 21 days feed-deprived). In feed-deprived fish, relative growth rate and hepatosomatic index as well as plasma triglycerides and proteins levels were significantly lower. However, plasma cortisol levels were higher in feed-deprived fish, while plasma glucose and lactate values were not significantly different between treatments. Furthermore, feed-deprived fish showed higher levels of total plasma free amino acids than 24 h fasted fish. In 21 days feed-deprived sole, an increase in plasma cortisol levels may suggest a functional role in mobilizing energy due to the catabolic action of this hormone in teleosts. Higher levels of glutamine, arginine and ornithine in 21 days feed-deprived fish may be indicative of a dual role for these amino acids: ammonia detoxification and carbon source for gluconeogenesis. The increased plasma glucogenic and branched-chain amino acid levels, together with the maintenance of plasma glucose in 21 days feed-deprived sole, suggest active liver gluconeogenic processes supported by tissue proteolysis.

  4. Magnetic Properties and Microstructure of FeOx/Fe/FePt and FeOx/FePt Films

    Jai-Lin Tsai


    Full Text Available The Fe(6 nm/FePt film with perpendicular magnetization was deposited on the glass substrate. To study the oxygen diffusion effect on the coupling of Fe/FePt bilayer, the plasma oxidation with 0.5~7% oxygen flow ratio was performed during sputtered part of Fe layer and formed the FeOx(3 nm/Fe(3 nm/FePt trilayer. Two-step magnetic hysteresis loops were found in trilayer with oxygen flow ratio above 1%. The magnetization in FeOx and Fe/FePt layers was decoupled. The moments in FeOx layer were first reversed and followed by coupled Fe/FePt bilayer. The trilayer was annealed again at 500°C and 800°C for 3 minutes. When the FeOx(3 nm/Fe(3 nm/FePt trilayer was annealed at 500°C, the layers structure was changed to FeOx(6 nm/FePt bilayer due to oxygen diffusion. The hard-magnetic FeOx(6 nm/FePt film was coupled with single switching field. The FeOx/(disordered FePt layer structure was observed with further annealing at 800°C and presented soft-magnetic loop. In summary, the coupling between soft-magnetic Fe, FeOx layer, and hard-magnetic L10 FePt layer can be controlled by the oxygen diffusion behavior, and the oxidation of Fe layer was tuned by the annealing temperature. The ordered L10 FePt layer was deteriorated by oxygen and became disordered FePt when the annealed temperature was up to 800°C.

  5. Redox cycling of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in magnetite by Fe-metabolizing bacteria

    Byrne, James M.; Klueglein, Nicole; Pearce, Carolyn; Rosso, Kevin M.; Appel, Erwin; Kappler, Andreas


    Microorganisms are a primary control on the redox-induced cycling of iron in the environment. Despite the ability of bacteria to grow using both Fe(II) and Fe(III) bound in solid-phase iron minerals, it is currently unknown whether changing environmental conditions enable the sharing of electrons in mixed-valent iron oxides between bacteria with different metabolisms. We show through magnetic and spectroscopic measurements that the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 oxidizes magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles using light energy. This process is reversible in co-cultures by the anaerobic Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. These results demonstrate that Fe ions bound in the highly crystalline mineral magnetite are bioavailable as electron sinks and electron sources under varying environmental conditions, effectively rendering magnetite a naturally occurring battery.

  6. Flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in Geobactermetallireducens during reduction of solubleFe(III)-NTA

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Chakraborty, Romy; Garcia-Martin, Hector; Chu,Jeannie; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.


    We analyzed the carbon fluxes in the central metabolism ofGeobacter metallireducens strain GS-15 using 13C isotopomer modeling.Acetate labeled in the 1st or 2nd position was the sole carbon source,and Fe-NTA was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The measured labeledacetate uptake rate was 21 mmol/gdw/h in the exponential growth phase.The resulting isotope labeling pattern of amino acids allowed an accuratedetermination of the in vivo global metabolic reaction rates (fluxes)through the central metabolic pathways using a computational isotopomermodel. The tracer experiments showed that G. metallireducens containedcomplete biosynthesis pathways for essential metabolism, and this strainmight also have an unusual isoleucine biosynthesis route (usingacetyl-CoA and pyruvate as the precursors). The model indicated that over90 percent of the acetate was completely oxidized to CO2 via a completetricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle while reducing iron. Pyruvate carboxylaseand phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present under theseconditions, but enzymes in the glyoxylate shunt and malic enzyme wereabsent. Gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway were mainlyemployed for biosynthesis and accounted for less than 3 percent of totalcarbon consumption. The model also indicated surprisingly highreversibility in the reaction between oxoglutarate and succinate. Thisstep operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium possibly becausesuccinate is synthesized via a transferase reaction, and the conversionof oxoglutarate to succinate is a rate limiting step for carbonmetabolism. These findings enable a better understanding of therelationship between genome annotation and extant metabolic pathways inG. metallireducens.

  7. Habitat selection of juvenile sole (Solea solea L.): Consequences for shoreface nourishment

    Post, Marjolein H. M.; Blom, Ewout; Chen, Chun; Bolle, Loes J.; Baptist, Martin J.


    The shallow coastal zone is an essential nursery habitat for juvenile flatfish species such as sole (Solea solea L.). The increased frequency of shoreface nourishments along the coast is likely to affect this nursery function by altering important habitat conditions, including sediment grain size. Sediment preference of juvenile sole (41-91 mm) was studied in a circular preference chamber in order to understand the relationship between grain size and sole distribution. The preference tests were carried out at 11 °C and 20 °C to reflect seasonal influences. The juveniles showed a significant preference for finer sediments. This preference was not length dependent (within the length range tested) nor affected by either temperatures. Juvenile sole have a small home range and are not expected to move in response to unfavourable conditions. As a result, habitat alterations may have consequences for juvenile survival and subsequently for recruitment to adult populations. It is therefore important to carefully consider nourishment grain size characteristics to safeguard suitable nursery habitats for juvenile sole.

  8. The rhizosphere pH change of Pinus koraiensis seedlings as affected by N sources of different levels and its effect on the availability and uptake of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn


    Dark brown forest soil was collected from the upper 20 cm soil layer in Changbai Mountain Research Station of Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The soil was amended with two different forms of nitrogen fertilizers: NO3- as Ca(NO3)2, NH4+ as NH4Cl at the concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg?kg-1 respectively. The experiment was carried out with 2-yr-old Pinus koraiensis seedlings in pot. The pH change of rhizosphere soil and the contents of available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in soil and leaves were analyzed. The result indicated that the addition of NH4--N decreased the rhizosphere pH value, while the addition of NO3--N increased the rhizosphere pH value in contrast with the control treatment. The direction and extent of the pH change mainly depended on N source and its concentrations applied. The rhizosphere pH change had a remarkable influence on the availability of the micronutrients in the rhizosphere, and thereafter affected the nutrient uptake by the seedlings. The contents of available mineral nutrients had a negative correlation with the pH value in the rhizosphere soil. The contents of available mineral nutrients in leaves were positively correlated to the levels of the available nutrients in the rhizosphere soils.

  9. Sensory bases and the mode of feeding behavior of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    WANG Xinan; MA Aijun


    We conducted behavior experiments on the roles of vision, olfaction, and the lateral line in feeding in tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günter. Chemical cues from the prey alone could not elicit any searching or attacking behavior by the fish; only when moving foods were presented, the chemical nature of the foods affected feeding. In addition, we found that normal tongue sole did not accurately recognize moving artificial prey of different shapes. Neither chemosense nor vision plays an important role in prey detection. Reactions to moving objects and the response of the oropharyngeal cavity to different foods showed that the (eyeless) tongue sole use mainly the lateral line for prey detection and capture. Gustation in the oropharyngeal cavity is essential for the fish to swallow its prey.

  10. A marked bounding box method for image data reduction and reconstruction of sole patterns

    Wang, Xingyue; Wu, Jianhua; Zhao, Qingmin; Cheng, Jian; Zhu, Yican


    A novel and efficient method called marked bounding box method based on marching cubes is presented for the point cloud data reduction of sole patterns. This method is characterized in that each bounding box is marked with an index during the process of data reduction and later for use of data reconstruction. The data reconstruction is implemented from the simplified data set by using triangular meshes, the indices being used to search the nearest points from adjacent bounding boxes. Afterwards, the normal vectors are estimated to determine the strength and direction of the surface reflected light. The proposed method is used in a sole pattern classification and query system which uses OpenGL under Visual C++ to render the image of sole patterns. Digital results are given to demonstrate the efficiency and novelty of our method. Finally, conclusion and discussions are made.

  11. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    Bauserman, Robert


    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents.

  12. Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist overprint: early obduction dynamics witnessed by W. Turkey ophiolites

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert


    Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating

  13. Fe-catalyzed thermal conversion of sodium lignosulfonate to graphene

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang


    Sodium lignosulfonate (LS) from sulfite pulping processing was used as a carbon source to synthesize graphene. LS was mixed with Fe nanoparticles (FeNPs) as a catalyst and thermally treated at 1000 °C for 1 h. The Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that graphene sheets were formed in LS thermally treated with FeNPs (Fe-HTLS). Scanning...

  14. Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles

    Castro, Armando Mares


    Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.

  15. SOLE: Applying Semantics and Social Web to Support Technology Enhanced Learning in Software Engineering

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Jiménez-López, Diego; García-Crespo, Ángel; Blanco-Iglesias, Borja

    eLearning educative processes are a challenge for educative institutions and education professionals. In an environment in which learning resources are being produced, catalogued and stored using innovative ways, SOLE provides a platform in which exam questions can be produced supported by Web 2.0 tools, catalogued and labeled via semantic web and stored and distributed using eLearning standards. This paper presents, SOLE, a social network of exam questions sharing particularized for Software Engineering domain, based on semantics and built using semantic web and eLearning standards, such as IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification 2.1.

  16. Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogenogenic, Fe(III)-reducing, sulfur-reducing carboxydotrophic bacterium from an acidic hot spring

    Yoneda, Yasuko; Yoshida, Takashi; Kawaichi, Satoshi;


    growth on CO, H(2) and CO(2) were produced. Growth occurred on molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source. Growth was observed on various organic compounds under an N(2) atmosphere with the reduction of ferric iron. The temperature range for carboxydotrophic growth......A novel anaerobic, Fe(III)-reducing, hydrogenogenic, carboxydotrophic bacterium, designated strain Ug1(T), was isolated from a volcanic acidic hot spring in southern Kyushu Island, Japan. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped (1.0-3.0 µm long) and motile due to peritrichous flagella. Strain Ug1(T...... oxidation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and unique physiological features, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Carboxydothermus for which the name Carboxydothermus pertinax sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain of the novel species is Ug1(T) (=DSM 23698(T)=NBRC 107576(T))....

  17. Accumulation of Fe oxyhydroxides in the Peruvian oxygen deficient zone implies non-oxygen dependent Fe oxidation

    Heller, Maija I.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Moffett, James W.; Till, Claire P.; Lee, Jong-Mi; Toner, Brandy M.; Marcus, Matthew A.


    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) have been proposed to be an important source of dissolved iron (Fe) into the interior ocean. However, previous studies in OMZs have shown a sharp decrease in total dissolved Fe (dFe) and/or dissolved Fe(II) (dFe(II)) concentrations at the shelf-break, despite constant temperature, salinity and continued lack of oxygen across the shelf-break. The loss of both total dFe and dFe(II) suggests a conversion of the dFe to particulate form, but studies that have coupled the reduction-oxidation (redox) speciation of both dissolved and particulate phases have not previously been done. Here we have measured the redox speciation and concentrations of both dissolved and particulate forms of Fe in samples collected during the U.S. GEOTRACES Eastern tropical Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) cruise in 2013 (GP16). This complete data set allows us to assess possible mechanisms for loss of dFe. We observed an offshore loss of dFe(II) within the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ), where dissolved oxygen is undetectable, accompanied by an increase in total particulate Fe (pFe). Total pFe concentrations were highest in the upper ODZ. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the pFe maximum was primarily in the Fe(III) form as Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. The remarkable similarity in the distributions of total particulate iron and nitrite suggests a role for nitrite in the oxidation of dFe(II) to pFe(III). We present a conceptual model for the rapid redox cycling of Fe that occurs in ODZs, despite the absence of oxygen.

  18. Shifts in the timing of spawning in sole linked to warming sea temperatures

    Fincham, J.I.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Engelhard, G.H.


    Phenotypic traits such as peak spawning time may vary within and differ between populations in relation to environmental factors, such as temperature. Sole (Solea solea) is a valuable, commercially exploited species that spawns in late winter or spring. The date of peak spawning was estimated for ea

  19. 40 CFR 1054.620 - What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition?


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the provisions for exempting engines used solely for competition? 1054.620 Section 1054.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... competition teams, professional competitors, or other qualified competitors. For replacement engines, the...

  20. [Forces acting on foot soles during stair climbing in healthy probands and in patients with coxarthrosis].

    Savvidis, E; von der Decken, C B


    We investigated the contact forces acting on the sole of the foot of healthy persons and coxarthrosis patients climbing and descending stairs. The sole contact forces were determined using an experimental set-up comprising a stair construction provided with an integrated measuring step. In healthy subjects, the forces acting on the soles of the feet while climbing stairs were found to be 1.2 times their body weight. With regard to descending stairs, a distinction must be made between "hard" and "soft" walkers. In the case of "hard" walkers, the forces acting on the soles may be as much as 2.6 times body weight. These forces can be reduced by the wearing of shock-absorbing shoes. In coxarthrosis and prostheses-bearing patients, all movements are executed more slowly when climbing or descending stairs, so that only small dynamic forces arise. The greatest loads are about 1.2 times the patient's own weight. In these patients, an effective reduction by shockabsorbing footwear is not possible.

  1. Comparative Economic Study of Mixed and Sole Cassava Cropping Systems in Nigeria

    J. O. Ajayi


    Full Text Available Agricultural economists continue to argue if mixed or sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable and in terms of yield and returns to farmers particularly for Nigeria which is the world’s largest producer of the crop. The study was carried out to analyse the economics comparatively of mixed and sole cassava cropping systems in Nigeria. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between March and April, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select four hundred and eighty (480 respondents across the six major cassava-producing states in Nigeria (Benue, Cross Rivers, Enugu, Kogi, Ondo, and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and comparative budgetary analysis. The study showed that mixed cropping system is more male-dominated than sole cropping system. The study also revealed that sole cassava cropping system is more economically profitable than mixed cassava cropping system while the later provides opportunities of all-year-round farm incomes to serve as a better poverty- alleviating mechanism.

  2. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.


    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  3. Studies on the valence electronic structure of Fe and Ni in FeNi1- alloys

    D K Basa; S Raj; H C Padhi; M Polasik; F Pawlowski


    -to- X-ray intensity ratios of Fe and Ni in pure metals and in FeNi1- alloys ( = 0.20, 0.50, 0.58) exhibiting similar crystalline structure have been measured following excitation by 59.54 keV -rays from a 241Am point source, to understand as to why the properties of permalloy Fe0.2Ni0.8 is distinct from other alloy compositions. It is observed that the valence electronic structure of Fe0.2Ni0.8 alloy is totally different from other alloys which may be attributed to its special magnetic properties.

  4. Seasonal changes in Fe species and soluble Fe concentration in the atmosphere in the Northwest Pacific region based on the analysis of aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan

    Y. Takahashi


    Full Text Available Atmospheric iron (Fe can be a significant source of nutrition for phytoplankton inhabiting remote oceans, which in turn has a large influence on the Earth's climate. The bioavailability of Fe in aerosols depends mainly on the fraction of soluble Fe (= [FeSol]/[FeTotal], where [FeSol] and [FeTotal] are the atmospheric concentrations of soluble and total Fe, respectively. However, the numerous factors affecting the soluble Fe fraction have not been fully understood. In this study, the Fe species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentrations in aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan were investigated over a year (nine samples from December 2002 to October 2003 to identify the factors affecting the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean. The soluble Fe concentration in aerosols is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate originated from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. Moreover, the soluble Fe concentration is also correlated with the enrichment factors of vanadium and nickel emitted by fossil fuel combustion. These results suggest that the degree of Fe dissolution is influenced by the magnitude of anthropogenic activity, such as fossil fuel combustion. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy was performed in order to identify the Fe species in aerosols. Fitting of XAFS spectra coupled with micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF showed the main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba to be illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III sulfate. Moreover, the soluble Fe fraction in each sample measured by leaching experiments is closely correlated with the Fe(III sulfate fraction determined by the XAFS spectrum fitting, suggesting that Fe(III sulfate is the main soluble Fe in the ocean. Another possible factor that can control the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean is the total Fe(III concentration in the atmosphere, which was high in spring due to the high

  5. Seasonal changes in Fe species and soluble Fe concentration in the atmosphere in the Northwest Pacific region based on the analysis of aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan

    Y. Takahashi


    Full Text Available Atmospheric iron (Fe can be a significant source of nutrition for phytoplankton inhabiting remote oceans, which in turn has a large influence on the Earth's climate. The bioavailability of Fe in aerosols depends mainly on the fraction of soluble Fe (= [FeSol]/[FeTotal], where [FeSol] and [FeTotal] are the atmospheric concentrations of soluble and total Fe, respectively. However, the numerous factors affecting the soluble Fe fraction have not been fully understood. In this study, the Fe species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentrations in aerosols collected in Tsukuba, Japan were investigated over a year (nine samples from December 2002 to October 2003 to identify the factors affecting the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean. The soluble Fe concentration in aerosols is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate originated from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. Moreover, the soluble Fe concentration is also correlated with the enrichment factors of vanadium and nickel emitted by fossil fuel combustion. These results suggest that the degree of Fe dissolution is influenced by the magnitude of anthropogenic activity, such as fossil fuel combustion. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS spectroscopy was performed in this study to identify the Fe species in aerosols. The fitting of XAFS spectra coupled with micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF determined the main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba to be illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III sulfate. Moreover, the soluble Fe fraction in each sample measured by leaching experiments is closely correlated with the Fe(III sulfate fraction determined by the XAFS spectrum fitting, suggesting that Fe(III sulfate is the main soluble Fe in the ocean. Another possible factor that can control the amount of soluble Fe supplied into the ocean is the total Fe(III concentration in the atmosphere, which was high in spring due to

  6. Studies on different iron source absorption by in situ ligated intestinal loops of broilers.

    Jia, Y F; Jiang, M M; Sun, J; Shi, R B; Liu, D S


    The objective of this study was to investigate the iron source absorption in the small intestine of broiler. In situ ligated intestinal loops of 70 birds were poured into one of seven solutions, including inorganic iron (FeSO4, Fe2(SO4)3), organic Fe glycine chelate (Fe-Gly(II), Fe-Gly(III)), the mixtures (FeSO4 with glycine (Fe+Gly(II)), Fe2(SO4)3 with glycine (Fe+Gly(III)), and no Fe source (control). The total volume of 3-mL solution (containing 1 mg of elemental Fe) was injected into intestinal loops, and then 120-min incubation was performed. Compared with inorganic iron groups, in which higher FeSO4 absorption than Fe2(SO4)3 was observed, supplementation with organic Fe glycine chelate significantly increased the Fe concentration in the duodenum and jejunum (P small intestine. Those results indicated that the absorption of organic Fe glycine chelate was more effective than that of inorganic Fe, and the orders of iron absorption in the small intestine were: Fe-Gly(II), Fe-Gly(III) > FeSO4, Fe+Gly(II) > Fe2(SO4)3, Fe+Gly(III). Additionally, the simple mixture of inorganic iron and glycine could not increase Fe absorption, and the duodenum was the main site of Fe absorption in the intestines of broilers and the ileum absorbed iron rarely.

  7. Metamorphic sole formation and early plate interface rheology: Insights from Griggs apparatus experiments

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Hirth, Greg; Yamato, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile


    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500 m thick highly strained metamorphic rock units found beneath mylonitic banded peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites, as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are mainly composed of metabasalts deriving from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and metamorphosed up to granulite-facies conditions by heat transfer from the mantle wedge. Pressure-temperature peak conditions are usually estimated at 1.0±0.2 GPa and 800±100°C. The absence of HP-LT metamorphism overprint implies that metamorphic soles have been formed and exhumed during subduction infancy. In this view, metamorphic soles were strongly deformed during their accretion to the mantle wedge (corresponding, now, to the base of the ophiolite). Therefore, metamorphic soles and banded peridotites are direct witnesses of the dynamics of early subduction zones, in terms of thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology evolution across the nascent slab interface. Based on fieldwork and EBSD analyses, we present a detailed (micro-) structural study performed on samples coming from the Sumeini window, the better-preserved cross-section of the metamorphic sole of Oman. Large differences are found in the deformation (CPO, grain size, aspect ratio) of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase, related to mineralogical changes linked with the distance to the peridotite contact (e.g., hardening due to the appearance of garnet and clinopyroxene). To model the incipient slab interface in laboratory, we carried out 5 hydrostatic annealing and simple-shear experiments on Griggs solid-medium apparatus. Deformation experiments were conducted at axial strain rates of 10-6 s-1. Fine-grained amphibolite was synthetized by adding 1 wt.% water to a (Mid-Ocean Ridge) basalt powder as a proxy for the metamorphic sole (amphibole + plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± garnet assemblage). To synthetize garnet, 2 experiments were carried out in hydrostatic conditions and with deformation at

  8. A core–shell LiFePO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite prepared via a sol–gel method assisted by citric acid

    Xie, Gang; Zhu, Hua-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Min, E-mail:; Yang, Hui, E-mail:


    Highlights: •Nanosized LiFePO{sub 4} particles, each covered with a complete but thin carbon shell, are synthesized via a sol–gel process. •Citric acid as the sole chelating agent and organic carbon source. •The Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cell experienced an initial discharge capacity 166 and 153 mA h g{sup −1}at 0.1 and 1C. -- Abstract: Nanosized LiFePO{sub 4} particles, each covered with a complete but thin carbon shell, are synthesized via a sol–gel process using citric acid (CA) as both chelating agent and organic carbon source in this study. Several precursors are prepared with various mole ratio of CA to total metal ions (n{sub CA}/n{sub m}) first. Then the prepared precursors are investigated by thermogravimetry and derivate thermal analysis. The LiFePO{sub 4}/C samples obtained via calcining the precursors at different temperatures are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. The systematic study shows that the LiFePO{sub 4}/C nanocomposite, calcined from the precursor with a composition of n{sub CA}/n{sub m} equal to 1:3 at 650 °C, delivers discharge capacities of 166 and 153 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 and 1C, respectively, and exhibits almost no capacity fade up to 50 cycles.

  9. An analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of sole registered births and infant deaths.

    Messer, Julie


    Differences in birth characteristics and infant mortality rates by marital status and birth registration type reflect complex underlying factors. In particular, births registered solely by the mother are seen as a disadvantaged group. This article analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of births by registration type and parents' marital status and explores these differences for health outcomes. Birth notifications data from the NHS Numbers for Babies system was linked to birth registration data held by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for births occurring in 2007 and 2008 in England and Wales. This dataset was further linked to death registration data to identify infants who died before their first birthday.Regression analysis was used to compare factors and health outcomes across marital and registration status groups. Regression models were calculated to determine the main risk factors for poor outcomes. The registration groups differed in the age of the mother at birth, the proportion of young mothers, ethnic group distribution and measures of deprived circumstances. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups were similar in the proportion of young mothers and the deprivation indices. The groups also differed in the proportion of low birthweight and premature babies. The joint registered-different address and sole registered groups both had higher percentages of 'small for gestational age' babies compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. The stillbirth rate was highest in the sole registered group. Both the joint registered-different address and sole registered groups had higher infant mortality rates compared with the within-marriage and joint registered-same address groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that low birthweight was a key factor in infant mortality. Births registered solely by the mother were found to be a disadvantaged group but were also similar to the joint

  10. Fe-aminoclay-entrapping electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (FeAC-PAN NFs) for environmental engineering applications

    Lee, Jae Young [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Saehae [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mooon Il; Lee, Young Chul [Gachon Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Go Woon [KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Uk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers (PAN NFs) with entrapped water-soluble Fe-aminoclay (FeAC) [FeAC-PAN NFs] were prepared. Slow dropwise addition of water-soluble FeAC into a PAN solution, less aggregated of FeAC into electrospun PAN NFs was one-pot evolved without FeAC post-decoration onto as-prepared PAN NFs. Taking into consideration both the Fe{sup 3+} source in FeAC and the improved surface hydrophilicity, the feasibility of Fentonlike reaction for decolorization of cationic model dye methylene blue (MB) under 6 hrs UV-light irradiation was established. In the case where FeAC-PAN NFs were enhanced by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) injection, the apparent kinetic reaction rates were increased relative to those for the PAN NFs. Thus, our flexible FeAC-PAN NF mats can be effectively utilized in water/waste treatment and other environmental engineering applications.

  11. Multi-element otolith chemistry of juvenile sole ( Solea solea), whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) in the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Fitzsimons, Mark F.


    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. To assess the extent of estuarine use by juvenile (0+) common sole ( Solea solea), whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) we: (1) developed techniques to distinguish between estuarine and coastally-caught juveniles using otolith chemistry; and (2) examined the accuracy with which multi-elemental signatures could re-classify juveniles to their region of collection. High-resolution solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HB-SB-ICPMS) was used to quantify 32 elements within the juvenile otoliths; 14 elements occurred above detection limits for all samples. Some elemental distributions demonstrated clear differences between estuarine and coastally-caught fish. Multivariate analysis of the otolith chemistry data resulted in 95-100% re-classification accuracy to the region of collection. Estuarine and coastal signatures were most clearly defined for sole which, compared to bass and whiting, have low mobility and are less likely to move from estuarine to coastal habitats between larval settlement and later migration to adult stocks. Sole were the only species to reveal an energetic benefit associated with an estuarine juvenile phase. The physiological ability of bass to access upper estuarine regions was consistent with some elemental data, while the high mobility and restricted range of whiting resulted in less distinct otolith chemistries.

  12. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 2. Formation, bioaccumulation and elimination of hydroxylated metabolites

    Munschy, C., E-mail: cmunschy@ifremer.f [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C. [Institut Francais de Recherche pour l' Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratory of Biogeochemistry of Organic Contaminants, Rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 3 (France); Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)


    The uptake, elimination and transformation of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, and then depurated over a five-month period. Methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) PBDEs were determined in fish plasma exposed to PBDEs and compared to those obtained in control fish. While all MeO- and some OH- congeners identified in fish plasma were found to originate from non-metabolic sources, several OH- congeners, i.e., OH-tetraBDEs and OH-pentaBDEs, were found to originate from fish metabolism. Among these, 4'-OH-BDE-49 was identified as a BDE-47 metabolite. Congener 4'-OH-BDE-101, identified here for the first time, may be the result of BDE-99 metabolic transformation. Our results unequivocally showed that PBDEs are metabolised in juvenile sole via the formation of OH- metabolites. However, this was not a major biotransformation route compared to biotransformation through debromination. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food showed the ability to biotransform PBDEs into hydroxylated metabolites; these meta-bolites accumulated in fish.

  13. Influência de citocininas na micropropagação de Mentha x gracilis Sole Cytokinin influence on Mentha x gracilis Sole micropropagation

    T.M.B Garlet


    Full Text Available Mentha x gracilis Sole é um híbrido que produz óleos essenciais ricos em monoterpenos. Tendo em vista a propagação clonal desta planta, segmentos nodais provenientes de plantas assépticas, foram cultivados em meio de Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 µM de cinetina, benzilaminopurina (BAP ou thidiazuron (TDZ. Após 30 dias, as plantas foram transferidas para meio MS não suplementado com citocinina. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos em meio suplementado com 2 µM de TDZ, mostrando ser método viável para a produção rápida de grande número de mudas. Após a transferência das plantas para a casa de vegetação, as plantas propagadas com TDZ apresentam maior número de tricomas glandulares.Mentha x gracilis Sole is a hybrid that produces essential oils rich in monoterpenes. Aimed at the clonal propagation of this plant, nodal segments from aseptic plants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MSO medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 µM kinetin, benzyl adenine (BAP or thidiazuron (TDZ. After 30 days, plants were transferred to MOS medium without cytokinin supplementation. The best results were obtained in medium supplemented with 2 µM TDZ, which proved to be a viable method for the rapid production of a large number of seedlings. After transference to the greenhouse, plants propagated with TDZ had a larger number of glandular trichomes.

  14. Alternative sources of natural rubber

    Mooibroek, H.; Cornish, K.


    Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian r

  15. Development of 57 Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    MIAO Guidong; XU Ying; WANG Di; CHEN Songlin; FAN Tingjun; TIAN Yongsheng


    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a promising species for aquaculture in China.The wild population of C.semilaevis is under threat from environmental factors.Microsatellite markers are very suitable for assessing genetic diversity.Four microsatellite-enriched libraries of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were constructed,from which 57 polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and characterized.The polymorphism of these microsatellites was assessed by genotyping in 30 individual fish.The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 11,with an average of 4.614 alleles per locus.The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 1.0000 and from 0.0966 to 0.8847 respectively.Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.0905 to 0.862.These markers would be useful for population structure assessment,genetic linkage map construction and parentage analysis for this species.

  16. A rare case of dumb-bell lipoma of the sole.

    Satish, Chetan


    A rare case of dumb-bell shaped lipoma of sole of foot in a middle aged lady which had crippled her life for almost a decade in-spite of multiple surgeries. She was initially misdiagnosed to have a corn on her sole and had undergone 3 surgeries spanning about 5 years. Due to the big size of the soft tissue swelling an MRI was done which showed a dumb-bell shaped swelling of foot. A major portion of swelling was lying deep to the plantar fascia after breaching the fascia. She underwent an excision of the swelling and is free of any recurrence after 2 years. She is now able to walk with a normal gait.

  17. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent


    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  18. Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Facco, E; Pasquali, S; Zanette, G; Casiglia, E


    A female patient with multiple chemical sensitivity and previous anaphylactoid reactions to local anaesthetics was admitted for removal of a thigh skin tumour under hypnosis as sole anaesthesia. The hypnotic protocol included hypnotic focused analgesia and a pre-operative pain threshold test. After inducing hypnosis, a wide excision was performed, preserving the deep fascia, and the tumour was removed; the patient's heart rate and blood pressure did not increase during the procedure. When the patient was de-hypnotised, she reported no pain and was discharged immediately. Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

  19. Size selectivity of sole gill nets fished in the North Sea

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Wileman, D.


    , plaice and cod for each setting of the gear. It was found that a hi-normal form for the selection curve gave the best fits. Mean selection curves were then estimated by combining sets using a model of between-set variation. The ratio between length of maximum retention and mesh size was estimated to be 3.......28 for sole, 2.60 for plaice and 4.56 for cod. Selection curves were also fitted to the catch data pooled over all sets. The model deviance for the sole and plaice data indicated lack of lit when pooling the catch data. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in the Fe(III)-reducing organism Geobacter metallireducens via 13C isotopiclabeling

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Chakraborty, Romy; Martin, Hector Garcia; Chu,Jeannie; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.


    We analyzed the carbon fluxes in the central metabolism ofGeobacter metallireducens strain GS-15 using 13C isotopomer modeling.Acetate labeled in the 1st or 2nd position was the sole carbon source,and Fe-NTA was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The measured labeledacetate uptake rate was 21 mmol/gdw/h in the exponential growth phase.The resulting isotope labeling pattern of amino acids allowed an accuratedetermination of the in vivo global metabolic reaction rates (fluxes)through the central metabolic pathways using a computational isotopomermodel. The model indicated that over 90 percent of the acetate wascompletely oxidized to CO2 via a complete tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cyclewhile reducing iron. Pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase were present under these conditions, but enzymes in theglyoxylate shunt and malic enzyme were absent. Gluconeogenesis and thepentose phosphate pathway were mainly employed for biosynthesis andaccounted for less than 3 percent of total carbon consumption. The modelalso indicated surprisingly high reversibility in the reaction betweenoxoglutarate and succinate. This step operates close to the thermodynamicequilibrium possibly because succinate is synthesized via a transferasereaction, and its product, acetyl-CoA, inhibits the conversion ofoxoglutarate to succinate. These findings enable a better understandingof the relationship between genome annotation and extant metabolicpathways in G. metallireducens.

  1. Partial duplication 2p as the sole abnormality in two cases with anencephaly.

    Thangavelu, Maya; Frolich, Gary; Rogers, David


    Anencephaly/NTD has been observed in aneuploid and non-aneuploid individuals. We present two cases of anencephaly diagnosed prenatally with partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 2 as the sole abnormality. The absence of aneuploidy involving other regions of the genome in these cases, further substantiates suggestions of the existence of a gene or genes on the short arm of chromosome 2 critical in the development of the central nervous system.

  2. Single Locus Maintains Large Variation of Sex Reversal in Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    Li Jiang; Hengde Li


    Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happen in insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudomales, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth ...

  3. Sustainable Production of Ammonia solely using Solar Power, Water, and Air

    Call, Friedemann; Felinks, Jan; Lange, Matthias; Sattler, Christian


    A process is proposed capable to produce ammonia solely from sun, water and air and therewith promising to replace the million-ton consumption of natural gas with solar production of hydrogen and nitrogen. While several routes for solar hydrogen production were important research subjects for decades, an innovative and sustainable nitrogen generation is still missing. Our approach to produce nitrogen is based on a novel air separation: a thermochemical cycle based on ...

  4. Chemokines Responses to Ascaris Lumbricoides Sole Infection and Co-infection with Hookworm among Nigerians

    Omorodion Oriri Asemota; O.P.G. Nmorsi; Isaac, C.; E M Odoya; Akinseye, J; Isaac, O


    Background: Geohelminth infections are predominant in Nigeria and communities at greatest risks are those with poor environmental/sanitary conditions and unhygienic habits. Chemokine ligands (CXCL) a class under chemokine group play important roles in the immune system by either mediating susceptible or protective immune responses to parasitic infections. Aim: This study was to assess the impact of Ascaris lumbricoides sole infection and co-infection on some serum chemokines (CXCL5, CXCL9, an...

  5. Mechanical stimulation of the foot sole in a supine position for ground reaction force simulation


    Background:\\ud To promote early rehabilitation of walking, gait training can start even when patients are on bed rest. Supine stepping in the early phase after injury is proposed to maximise the beneficial effects of gait restoration. In this training paradigm, mechanical loading on the sole of the foot is required to mimic the ground reaction forces that occur during overground walking. A pneumatic shoe platform was developed to produce adjustable forces on the heel and the forefoot with an ...

  6. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole

    Chauvigné, François; Ollé, Judith; González, Wendy; Duncan, Neil; Giménez, Ignacio


    Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole’s natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species. PMID:28329024

  7. Impact of climate and hydrodynamics on sole larval immigration towards the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    Vinagre, C.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.


    Spawning grounds of the soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, are distant from the estuarine nurseries where juveniles concentrate. Recruitment of these species is highly dependent on the success of the larval migration towards the inshore nursery grounds. Unfavourable climate and hydrodynamic circulation may lead to high mortality rates at this stage. The relation between river drainage, NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity over the three months prior to the end of the estuarine colonization and the densities of S. solea and S. senegalensis in the nursery grounds were investigated for both species based on a discontinuous historical dataset (from 1988 to 2006) for the Tagus estuary. Multiple linear regression models were developed for sole density and environmental data (separately for each species). Results showed that river drainage is positively correlated with juveniles' densities of both species, possibly due to the existence of chemical cues used by larvae for movement orientation. NAO index and the North-South wind component intensity relations with soles densities were non-significant. It was concluded that the high complexity of the Portuguese upwelling system makes it hard to detect causal relations of the environmental variables tested. The importance of river flow for coastal ecosystems was stressed. Since climate change scenarios predict a strong decrease in rain fall over the Portuguese river basins, as well as a concentrated period of heavy rain in winter, it was hypothesised that future river drainage decrease over much of the year may lead to lower recruitment success for soles, especially for S. senegalensis.

  8. An overview of the understanding of ions containing solely fluorine atoms.

    Ponikvar-Svet, Maja; Edwards, Kathleen F; Liebman, Joel F


    We discuss in the current paper ions containing solely fluorine atoms, F-, F2- and F3-, their corresponding cationic and/or multiply charged counterparts. While the emphasis of the paper is on gas phase species, their energetics and reactions, aqueous solutions are also discussed. In particular, biomedical and analytical aspects of F- are also considered. The new trichotomy of convenience, anthropocentrism and folksonomy is also applied to the understanding of our fluorine-containing ions.

  9. Self-Oscillating Resonant Gate Drive for Resonant Inverters and Rectifiers Composed Solely of Passive Components

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Knott, Arnold;


    This paper presents a new self-oscillating resonant gate drive composed solely of passive components. The gate drive can be used in various resonant converters and inverters and can be used for both low and high side gate drive. The paper presents examples of how higher order harmonics can be use...... Frequency (VHF) range, all showing good results with peak efficiency up to 82% and output regulation from 70% to full load without bursting....

  10. Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis

    Wanis H. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis.

  11. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.


    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  12. Craniofacial pain can be the sole prodromal symptom of an acute myocardial infarction: an interdisciplinary study.

    Kreiner, Marcelo; Álvarez, Ramón; Michelis, Virginia; Waldenström, Anders; Isberg, Annika


    We recently found craniofacial pain to be the sole symptom of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 4% of patients. We hypothesized that this scenario is also true for symptoms of prodromal (pre-infarction) angina. We studied 326 consecutive patients who experienced myocardial ischemia. Intra-individual variability analyses with respect to ECG findings and pain characteristics were performed for those 150 patients who experienced at least one recurrent ischemic episode. AMI patients (n=113) were categorized into two subgroups: "abrupt onset" (n=81) and "prodromal angina" (n=32). Age, gender and risk factor comparisons were performed between groups. Craniofacial pain constituted the sole prodromal symptom of an AMI in 5% of patients. In those who experienced two ischemic episodes, women were more likely than men to experience craniofacial pain in both episodes (ppain quality descriptors "pressure" and "burning". This study is to our knowledge the first to report that craniofacial pain can be the only symptom of a pre-infarction angina. Craniofacial pain constitutes the sole prodromal AMI symptom in one out of 20 AMI patients. Recognition of this atypical symptom presentation is low because research on prodromal AMI symptoms has to date studied only patients with chest pain. To avoid a potentially fatal misdiagnosis, awareness of this clinical presentation needs to be brought to the attention of clinicians, researchers and the general public.

  13. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  14. Single Locus Maintains Large Variation of Sex Reversal in Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Jiang, Li; Li, Hengde


    Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happen in insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudomales, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth rate of male fish during a 2-yr growth period. Here, we identified a locus with large controlling effect on sex reversal in the half-smooth tongue sole through genome-wide association study with high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This SNP is located at the third intron of the F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 17 (FBXL17) gene on the Z chromosome, and it has two alleles, A and T. Genetic females with Z(A)W genotypes will never reverse into phenotypic males, but those with Z(T)W genotypes can sometimes undergo sex reversal. This SNP explains 82.7% of the genetic variation, or 58.4% of the phenotypic variation. Based on our results, a reproductive management program could be developed to improve the phenotypic female ratio in aquaculture, and elucidate the mechanism of sex reversal in half-smooth tongue sole. We expect that these findings will have a substantial impact on the population management in many harvested species where sex reversal occurs. Copyright © 2017 Jiang and Li.

  15. Daily feeding and protein metabolism rhythms in Senegalese sole post-larvae

    Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia


    ABSTRACT Fish hatcheries must adapt larval feeding protocols to feeding behavior and metabolism patterns to obtain more efficient feed utilization. Fish larvae exhibit daily ingesting rhythms rather than ingesting food continuously throughout the day. The aim of this study was to determine the daily patterns of feed intake, protein digestibility, protein retention and catabolism in Senegalese sole post-larvae (Solea senegalensis; 33 days post-hatching) using 14C-labeled Artemia protein and incubation in metabolic chambers. Sole post-larvae were fed at 09:00, 15:00, 21:00, 03:00 and 09:00+1 day; and those fed at 09:00, 21:00, 03:00 and 09:00+1 day showed significantly higher feed intake than post-larvae fed at 15:00 h (P=0.000). Digestibility and evacuation rate of ingested protein did not change during the whole cycle (P=0.114); however, post-larvae fed at 21:00 and 03:00 h showed the significantly highest protein retention efficiency and lowest catabolism (P=0.002). Therefore, results confirm the existence of daily rhythmicity in feeding activity and in the utilization of the ingested nutrients in Senegalese sole post-larvae. PMID:27895049

  16. Simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material.

    Jeong, Seung-Mi; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Oh, Ji-Hyeon; Fang, Yiqin; Choi, Byung-Ho


    Recently, several authors have shown that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using autologous platelet-rich fibrin as the sole filling material is a reliable procedure promoting bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material on bone formation in a canine sinus model. An implant was placed after sinus membrane elevation in the maxillary sinus of six adult female mongrel dogs. The resulting space between the membrane and sinus floor was filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin retrieved from each dog. The implants were left in place for six months. Bone tissue was seen at the lower part of the implants introduced into the sinus cavity. The height of the newly formed bone around the implants ranged from 0 mm to 4.9 mm (mean; 2.6 ± 2.0 mm) on the buccal side and from 0 mm to 4.2 mm (mean; 1.3 ± 1.8 mm) on the palatal side. The findings from this study suggest that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material is not a predictable and reproducible procedure, especially with respect to the bone formation around the implants in the sinus cavity.

  17. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N


    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  18. Single Locus Maintains Large Variation of Sex Reversal in Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Li Jiang


    Full Text Available Sex determination is a fundamental biological process for individual sex development and population sex ratios. However, for some species, the primary sex might be altered during development, and individuals can develop into the opposite sex. Sex reversal may happen in insects, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis, some genetically female fish irreversibly reverse to pseudomales, resulting in higher costs in aquaculture owing to a lower growth rate of male fish during a 2-yr growth period. Here, we identified a locus with large controlling effect on sex reversal in the half-smooth tongue sole through genome-wide association study with high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. This SNP is located at the third intron of the F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 17 (FBXL17 gene on the Z chromosome, and it has two alleles, A and T. Genetic females with ZAW genotypes will never reverse into phenotypic males, but those with ZTW genotypes can sometimes undergo sex reversal. This SNP explains 82.7% of the genetic variation, or 58.4% of the phenotypic variation. Based on our results, a reproductive management program could be developed to improve the phenotypic female ratio in aquaculture, and elucidate the mechanism of sex reversal in half-smooth tongue sole. We expect that these findings will have a substantial impact on the population management in many harvested species where sex reversal occurs.

  19. Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.


    Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Sole Source versus Competitive Prices in the Acquisition of Weapon System Replenishment Spare Parts.


    research study 5 . . . . . 34 Summary7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 35 3. RESEARCH METHOLOGY ............ 37 Introduction .................... . 37 Data...role of competition after initial introduction ............. . 98 Concluding Observations ... .......... ... 99 APPENDIXES A. LIST OF SAMPLE DATA...units produced doubles, production costs per unit decrease by some constant percentage E20:64]." Learning curve theory is based on the observation that

  1. Oxidation of amines by yeasts grown on 1-aminoalkanes or putrescine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy.

    Middlehoven, W J; Hoogkamer-Te Niet, M C; De Laat, W T; Weijers, C; Bulder, C J


    The maximum growth rate of Trichosporon cutaneum CBS 8111 in chemostat cultures was 0.185 h-1 on ethylamine and 0.21 h-1 on butylamine, that of Candida famata CBS 8109 was 0.32 h-1 on putrescine. The amine oxidation pattern of the ascomycetous strains studied, viz. Candida famata CBS 8109, Stephanoascus ciferrii CBS 4856 and Trichosporon adeninovorans CBS 8244 was independent of the amine that had been used as the growth substrate. It resembled that of benzylamine/putrescine oxidase found in other ascomycetous yeasts. However, differences in pH optimum and substrate specificity were observed between the amine-oxidizing systems of these three species. The amine oxidation pattern of cell-free extracts of Trichosporon cutaneum CBS 8111 varied with the amine that was used as growth substrate. The enzyme system produced by Cryptococcus laurentii CBS 7140 failed to oxidize isobutylamine and benzylamine, and showed a high pH optimum. The synthesis of amine oxidase in the four yeast strains studied was not repressed by ammonium chloride and was weakly repressed by glucose but was strongly repressed if both compounds were present in the growth medium.

  2. Characterization of Microbes Capable of Using Vinyl Chloride and Ethene as Sole Carbon and Energy Sources by Anaerobic Oxidation


    Microbiol. 50, 639-644. Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., Stensel, H.D., Metcalf and Eddy, I., 2003. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse , fourth...which then underwent partial oxidation. This pathway was subsequently published in a widely cited review article (Vogel et al., 1987). Two years later...LIST OF SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL PRESENTATIONS Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals Fullerton, H., Crawford, M., Bakenne, A., Freedman, D. L. and Zinder

  3. Isolation and characterisation of fungi growing on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy source

    Prenafeta-Boldu, F.X.; Kuhn, A.; Luykx, D.; Anke, H.; Groenestijn, van J.W.; Bont, de J.A.M.


    Five fungal strains that are able to grow on toluene were isolated from enrichment cultures. Three different techniques were used: solid state-like batches, air biofilters and liquid cultures. Fungal growth in the latter systems was favoured by combining low pH and low water activity. Soil and groun

  4. Batch growth kinetics of an indigenous mixed microbial culture utilizing m-cresol as the sole carbon source.

    Saravanan, Pichiah; Pakshirajan, K; Saha, Prabirkumar


    An indigenous mixed microbial culture, isolated from a sewage treatment plant located in Guwahati was used to study biodegradation of m-cresol in batch shake flasks. m-Cresol concentration in the growth media was varied from 100mg/L to 900mg/L. The degradation kinetics was found to follow a three-half-order model at all initial m-cresol concentrations with regression values greater than 0.97. A maximum observed specific degradation rate of 0.585h(-1) was observed at 200mg/L m-cresol concentration in the medium. In the range of m-cresol concentrations used in the study, specific growth rate of the culture and specific degradation rates were observed to follow substrate inhibition kinetics. These two rates were fitted to kinetic models of Edward, Haldane, Luong, Han-Levenspiel, and Yano-Koga that are used to explain substrate inhibition on growth of microbial culture. Out of these models Luong and Han-Levenspiel models fitted the experimental data best with lowest root mean square error values. Biokinetic constants estimated from these two models showed good potential of the indigenous mixed culture in degrading m-cresol in wastewaters.

  5. 78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...


    ... management systems. This project aims to improve collaboration between ASPR and the local health departments... care, public health, and emergency management systems. One of the overarching goals of both the National Health Security Strategy (2009) and the ASPR Strategic Plan 2011-2015 is to build community...

  6. [CrIII(NCMe)6]3+--a labile CrIII source enabling formation of Cr[M(CN)6] (M=V, Cr, Mn, Fe) Prussian blue-type magnetic materials.

    Nelson, Kendric J; Daniels, Matthew C; Reiff, William M; Troff, Shayla A; Miller, Joel S


    The kinetic inertness of the hexaaquachromium(III) (kH2O=2.4x10(-6) s(-1)) has led to challenges with respect to incorporating CrIII ions into Prussian blue-type materials; however, hexakis(acetonitrile)chromium(III) was shown to be substantially more labile (approximately 10(4) times) and enables a new synthetic route for the synthesis of these materials via nonaqueous solvents. The synthesis, spectroscopic, and physical properties of Cr[M(CN)6] (M=V, Cr, Mn, Fe) Prussian blue analogues synthesized from [CrIII(NCMe)6]3+ and the corresponding [MIII(CN)6]3- are described. All these compounds {(NEt4)0.02CrIII[VIII(CN)6]0.98(BF4)(0.08).0.10MeCN (1), CrIII[CrIII(CN)6].0.16MeCN (2), CrIII[MnIII(CN)6].0.10MeCN (3), and (NEt4)0.04CrIII0.64CrIV0.40[FeII(CN)6]0.40[FeIII(CN)6]0.60(BF4)(0.16).1.02MeCN (4)} are ferrimagnets exhibiting cluster-glass behavior. Strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for M=V, Cr, and Mn with Weiss constants (theta) ranging from -132 to -524 K; and in 2, where the strongest coupling is observed (theta=-524 K), the highest Tc (110 K) value was observed. Weak antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for M=Fe (theta=-12 K) leading to the lowest Tc (3 K) value in this series. Weak coupling and the low Tc value observed in 4 were additionally contributed by the presence of both [FeII(CN)6]4- and [FeIII(CN)6]3- as confirmed by 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  7. A Simple Model for Estimating Evapotranspiration Based Solely on Remote Sensing: Algorithm and Application

    Sun, Z.; Wang, Q.; Matsushita, B.; Fukushima, T.; Ouyang, Z.; Gebremichael, M.


    Remote sensing (RS) has been considered as the most promising tool for evapotranspiration (ET) estimations from local, regional to global scales. Many studies have been conducted to estimated ET using RS data, however, most of them are based partially on ground observations. This limits the applications of these algorithms when the necessary data are unavailable. Some other algorithms can generate real-time ET solely using remote sensing data, but lack mechanistic realism. In our study, we developed a new dual-source Simple Remote Sensing EvapoTranspiration model (Sim-ReSET) based only on RS data. One merit of this model is that the calculation of aerodynamic resistance can be avoided by means of a reference dry bare soil and an assumption that wind speed at the upper boundary of atmospheric surface layer is homogenous, but the aerodynamic characters are still considered by means of canopy height. The other merit is that all inputs (net radiation, soil heat flux, canopy height, variables related to land surface temperature) can be potentially obtained from remote sensing data, which allows obtaining regular RS-driven ET product. For the purposes of sensitivity analysis and performance evaluation of the Sim-ReSET model without the effect of potential uncertainties and errors from remote sensing data, the Sim-ReSET model was tested only using intensive ground observations at the Yucheng ecological station in the North China Plain from 2006 to 2008. Results show that the model has a good performance for instantaneous ET estimations with a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 34.27 W/m2 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 41.84 W/m2 under neutral or near-neutral atmospheric conditions. On 12 cloudless days, the MAD of daily ET accumulated from instantaneous estimations is 0.26 mm/day, and the RMSE is 0.30 mm/day. In our study, we mapped Asian 16-day ET from 2000 to 2009 only using MODIS land data products based on the Sim-ReSET model. Then, the obtained ET product was

  8. Genotoxic and enzymatic effects of fluoranthene in microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes from sole (Solea solea).

    Wessel, N; Ménard, D; Pichavant-Rafini, K; Ollivier, H; Le Goff, J; Burgeot, T; Akcha, F


    The fluoranthene (Fluo) is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human food and in marine compartments. However, the existing data on its genotoxicity is poor and controversial. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the potential genotoxicity of Fluo in sole and its possible effect on CYP450 modulation. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were exposed for 24 h to a range of Fluo concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μM in both culture flasks and microplate wells. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as an indicator of the activity of the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring both DNA strand breaks and DNA adducts by the alkaline comet assay and the postlabeling technique respectively. Calf thymus DNA was also exposed to Fluo in the presence of sole liver microsomes in order to check for Fluo DNA adduct formation. In sole hepatocytes, Fluo was shown to induce a decrease in the EROD activity in a concentration-dependent manner. A significant genotoxic effect was observed in terms of DNA strand breakage from an exposure concentration of 5 μM: despite a concentration-dependent effect was observed, it did not follow a linear dose-response. The response was similar whatever the way of exposure in flasks or in wells. One reproducible adduct was detected in the hepatocytes exposed to the highest concentrations of Fluo. The formation of Fluo adducts was confirmed by the detection of one reproducible adduct following in vitro exposure of calf thymus DNA to 100 and 200 μM of Fluo in the presence of sole microsomes. These results demonstrate the potential of sole hepatocytes to metabolize Fluo in 24 h into reactive species, able to induce genotoxicity by DNA strand breakage and DNA adduct formation. Moreover, a miniaturized cell exposure system was validated for further experiments using fewer amounts of hepatocytes and contaminants, and allowing exposure to PAH metabolites. Copyright

  9. Prey consumption by the juvenile soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, in the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.


    The soles Solea solea and Solea senegalensis are marine flatfish that use coastal and estuarine nursery grounds, which generally present high food availability, refuge from predators and favourable conditions for rapid growth. Two important nursery grounds for these species juveniles have been identified in the Tagus estuary, one in the upper part of the estuary (nursery A) and another in the south bank (nursery B). While S. solea is only present at the uppermost nursery area, S. senegalensis is present at both nurseries. Although they are among the most important predators in these nursery grounds, there are no estimates on their food consumption or on the carrying capacity of the system for soles. The Elliott and Persson [1978. The estimation of daily rates of food consumption for fish. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 977-993] model was used to estimate food consumption of both species juveniles in both nursery areas, taking into account gastric evacuation rates (previously determined) and 24 h sampling surveys, based on beam-trawl catches carried out every 3 h, in the summer of 1995. Monthly beam trawls were performed to determine sole densities over the summer. Density estimates and daily food consumption values were used to calculate total consumption over the summer period. Sediment samples were taken for the estimation of prey densities and total biomass in the nursery areas. Daily food consumption was lower for S. solea (0.030 g wet weight d -1) than for S. senegalensis (0.075 g wet weight d -1). It was concluded that thermal stress may be an important factor hindering S. solea's food consumption in the warmer months. Total consumption of S. solea over the summer (90 days) was estimated to be 97 kg (wet weight). Solea senegalensis total consumption in nursery A was estimated to be 103 kg, while in nursery B it was 528 kg. Total prey biomass estimated for nursery A was 300 tonnes, while for nursery B it was 58 tonnes. This suggests that food is not a limiting

  10. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  11. Thermal Preference of Juvenile Dover Sole (Solea solea) in Relation to Thermal Acclimation and Optimal Growth Temperature

    Schram, E.; Bierman, S.M.; Teal, L.R.; Vis, van de H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.


    Dover sole (Solea solea) is an obligate ectotherm with a natural thermal habitat ranging from approximately 5 to 27°C. Thermal optima for growth lie in the range of 20 to 25°C. More precise information on thermal optima for growth is needed for cost-effective Dover sole aquaculture. The main objecti

  12. 26 CFR 1.1033(e)-1 - Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought.


    ... of drought. 1.1033(e)-1 Section 1.1033(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Sale or exchange of livestock solely on account of drought. (a) The sale or exchange of livestock... if the sale or exchange of such livestock by the taxpayer is solely on account of drought....

  13. Non-thermal recombination - a neglected source of flare hard X-rays and fast electron diagnostic

    Brown, John C


    Context. Flare Hard X-Rays (HXRs) from non-thermal electrons are commonly treated as solely bremsstrahlung (f-f), recombination (f-b) being neglected. This assumption is shown to be substantially in error, especially in hot sources, mainly due to recombination onto Fe ions. Aims. We analyse the effects of including non-thermal recombination onto heavy elements on HXR spectra and electron diagnostics. Methods. Using Kramers hydrogenic cross sections with effective Z, we calculate f-f and f-b spectra for power-law electron spectra, in both thin and thick target limits, and for Maxwellians, with summation over all important ions. Results. We find that non-thermal electron recombination, especially onto Fe, must, in general, be included together with f-f, for reliable spectral interpretation, when the HXR source is hot. f-b contribution is largest when the electron spectral index is large, and any low energy cut-off small. f-b spectra recombination edges mean a cut-off in F(E) appears as a HXR feature at Photon e...

  14. Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction by the marine microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans

    Roden, E.E.; Lovley, D.R.


    The ability of the marine microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans to reduce Fe(III) was investigated because of its close phylogenetic relationship with the freshwater dissimilatory Fe(III) reducer Geobacter metallireducens. Washed cell suspensions of the type strain of D. acetoxidans reduced soluble Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III) complexed with nitriloacetic acid. The c-type cytochrome(s) of D. acetoxidans was oxidized by Fe(III)- citrate and Mn(IV)-oxalate, as well as by two electron acceptors known to support growth, colloidal sulfur and malate. D. acetoxidans grew in defined anoxic, bicarbonate-buffered medium with acetate as the sole electron donor and poorly crystalline Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and siderite (FeCO3) were the major end products of Fe(III) reduction, whereas rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was the end product of Mn(IV) reduction. Ethanol, propanol, pyruvate, and butanol also served as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. In contrast to D. acetoxidans, G. metallireducens could only grow in freshwater medium and it did not conserve energy to support growth from colloidal S0 reduction. D. acetoxidans is the first marine microorganism shown to conserve energy to support growth by coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV). Thus, D. acetoxidans provides a model enzymatic mechanism for Fe(III) or Mn(IV) oxidation of organic compounds in marine and estuarine sediments. These findings demonstrate that 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyses can suggest previously unrecognized metabolic capabilities of microorganisms.

  15. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico


    recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first...

  16. High Pressure Behavior of FeOOH

    Reagan, M. M.; Gleason, A. E.; Mao, W. L.


    Understanding the stability and properties of simple hydroxides at high pressures and temperatures offers an important first step toward quantifying more complex hydrogen-bearing compounds relevant to the Earth's interior. We focus on iron-oxy-hydroxides because they may be an important Fe and water bearing component in the deep Earth. Goethite (α-FeOOH) transforms to a high-pressure phase, ɛ-FeOOH, which is isostructural with δ-AlOOH, a material which may transport hydrogen to the core-mantle boundary. Here we present XES spectroscopy data of powder samples of synthesized alpha-FeOOH, beta-FeOOH and gamma-FeOOH monitoring their electronic spin transition. The samples was loaded into a Beryllium gasket, where a 50 micron hole served as the sample chamber with 300 micron culet diamond paired with a beveled 150 micron diamond in a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) without a pressure transmitting medium. Pressure was determined using ruby fluorescence (Mao et al. 1978). Using the incident X-ray energy centered at 11.3 KeV from the Advanced Photon Source, beam line HPCAT 16-ID-D, we measured Fe K-β 13 emission to pressures greater than 73 GPa. For alpha-FeOOH, we saw a clear shift in the main peak to lower energy, and an increasingly diminishing K beta prime peak intensity, indicating the sample was undergoing an electronic spin transition. The K beta prime peak completely disappeared at a pressure greater than 73 GPa. Beta-FeOOH showed no evidence of the beginnings of a spin transition, while gamma- FeOOH underwent an incomplete transition.

  17. Sourcing Strategies, Supplier-Buyer Relationships, and Performance Outcomes: A Transaction Cost Economics and Social Network Theory Approach-Edición Única

    Sergio Gómez Corripio; Gómez Corripio, Sergio


    This research investigates the impact of sourcing strategies on sourcing performance based on transaction cost economics and social network theory. The analysis considers the sourcing strategies use to buy the three inputs that represent the highest percentage of total purchasing expenses of the firm. The strategies studied were: sole sourcing, multiple sourcing with a preferred supplier, mix sourcing (sole source for some inputs and multiple source with a preferred supplier for others), and ...

  18. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis

    Ignacio Carazo


    Full Text Available Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg. The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12 began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  19. Latitudinal comparison of spawning season and growth of 0-group sole, Solea solea (L.)

    Vinagre, C.; Amara, R.; Maia, A.; Cabral, H. N.


    0-Group sole, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in four nursery grounds: two on the Northern French coast and two on the Portuguese coast. Juvenile sole were collected at the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1992, in the Authie estuary (Eastern English Channel) in 1997, and in the Douro and Tagus estuary (Northern and central Portugal, respectively) in 2005. Left lapilli otoliths were used to estimate age and investigate variability in growth rates and hatch dates. In the French study areas nursery colonisation ended in early June in the Vilaine estuary and in late June in the Authie estuary. In the Portuguese estuaries nursery colonisation ended in May in the Douro estuary and in late June in the Tagus estuary. Growth rates were higher in the Portuguese estuaries, 0.767 mm d -1 in the Tagus estuary and 0.903 mm d -1 in the Douro estuary. In the French nurseries, growth rates were estimated to be 0.473 mm d -1 in the Villaine estuary and 0.460 mm d -1 in the Authie estuary. Data on growth rates from other studies shows that growth rates are higher at lower latitudes, probably due to higher water temperature. Spawning took place between early January and early April in the Villaine estuary's coastal area in 1992. In 1997, in the Authie estuary spawning started in late January and ended in early April. On the Douro estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-January and ended in late March, in 2005, while on the Tagus estuary's adjacent coast spawning started in mid-February and ended in mid-April, in the same year. Literature analysis of the spawning period of sole along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 38°N to 55°N in the Northeast Atlantic indicated that there is a latitudinal trend, in that spawning starts sooner at lower latitudes. Results support that local conditions, particularly hydrodynamics, may overrule general latitudinal trends.

  20. Busulfan administration produces sublethal effects on somatic tissues and inhibits gametogenesis in Senegalese sole juveniles.

    Pacchiarini, T; Olague, E; Sarasquete, C; Cabrita, E


    Busulfan, a cytotoxic alkylating agent used for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia has effects in mammalian germ cells. In fish species, the use of this compound is of special interest in intra and interspecies germ cell transplants. To determine the effects of busulfan in fish a previous range finding experiment was designed. Survival and growth rate of 150-days after hatching (150DAH) Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was determined. In a second experiment, the effects of a sublethal busulfan dose in fish germ cell depletion and in somatic tissues were analysed. Sublethal effects of several busulfan treatments (B10-10 days after injection, B20-20 days after injection, B20÷-20 days after injection with double injection) were determined in somatic and gonadal tissues. Alterations were registered through histopathological techniques, TUNEL (cell apoptosis) and quantified at molecular level (Q-PCR analyses) using the vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 mRNAs) as molecular markers for germinal cells in Senegalese sole juveniles. Several sublethal effects were observed with 40 mg kg⁻¹ busulfan, a non-lethal dose, such as: pyknosis in liver, increase of melanomacrophage centres and blood stagnation in spleen and interruption of gonadal development. Females were more affected by busulfan treatments than males in terms of germ cell disruption, since a significant decrease in the expression of both Ssvasa1-2 and Ssvasa3-4 markers was found in the gonad of treated females rather than males. At 10 days post-treatment (B10), females already presented a decrease in germ cell proliferation, as confirmed by Q-PCR. Ssvasa expression proved to be a reliable tool for the direct evaluation of the effects of busulfan on Senegalese sole gonadal development, proving that busulfan can be a suitable treatment for causing transient sterility in recipient gonads for germ cell transplantation.

  1. Dietary deficiency of cobalamin presented solely as schizoaffective disorder in a lacto-vegetarian adolescent

    Somashekarappa Dhananjaya


    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations.

  2. Softer, higher-friction flooring improves gait of cows with and without sole ulcers.

    Flower, F C; de Passillé, A M; Weary, D M; Sanderson, D J; Rushen, J


    We studied dairy cows (n = 30) walking on concrete and on a soft, high-friction composite rubber surface to examine how flooring influenced gait and how this differed for cows with hoof lesions. Cows had hooves trimmed 9 wk after the trial and were classified as either with or without sole ulcers. Video recordings of the cows while walking were digitized using motion analysis software to calculate stride variables (length, height, overlap, duration, proportion of triple support, and speed). Gait was scored by a subjective scoring system (1 = sound to 5 = severely lame) and by a continuous visual analog scale for each of 7 gait attributes. Cows with sole ulcers walking on a composite rubber surface had longer strides (156.9 +/- 2.6 vs. 149.6 +/- 2.6 cm), higher stride heights (9.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 8.8 +/- 0.3 cm), more stride overlap (0.4 +/- 2.0 vs. -4.3 +/- 2.0 cm), shorter periods of triple support (3 legs in ground contact; 68.6 +/- 2.0 vs. 73.8 +/- 2.0%), walked faster (1.22 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.04 m/s) and had lower overall gait scores (2.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.1), better tracking-up (19 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 2), better joint flexion (29 +/- 2 vs. 33 +/- 2), more symmetric steps (31 +/- 3 vs. 36 +/- 3), and less reluctance to bear weight on their legs (12 +/- 2 vs. 16 +/- 2) compared with walking on concrete. Similar results were found for cows without sole ulcers. Most of the subjective gait measures could distinguish between cows with and without sole ulcers, but this was not the case for kinematic measures other than stride height. Cows with higher gait scores (more severe lameness) showed the greatest improvement in stride length (r = -0.51), triple support (r = 0.59), swing duration (r = -0.44), overall gait score (r = 0.46), and reluctance to bear weight (r = 0.66) when walking on the rubber surface compared with cows with lower gait scores. These results indicate that rubber flooring provides a more secure footing and is more comfortable to walk on

  3. Dietary Deficiency of Cobalamin Presented Solely as Schizoaffective Disorder in a Lacto-Vegetarian Adolescent.

    Dhananjaya, Somashekarappa; Manjunatha, Narayana; Manjunatha, Rajashekaaiah; Kumar, Seetharamarao Udaya


    Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations.

  4. Competition for and utilisation of sulfur in sole and intercrops of pea and barley

    Andersen, Mette Klindt; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;


    .) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown in a pot experiment as sole crops and intercrops with or without the addition of S in the form of gypsum. At three consecutive harvests total aboveground biomass and corresponding soil samples were taken for analysis. Harvested biomass was analysed for total S and N...... the pea component came to dominate the intercrop both with respect to yield and nutrient accumulation, accounting for 77% of total dry matter production, 90% of N uptake and 85% of S uptake, averaged across S treatments. LER values calculated on the basis of total aboveground dry matter, and N and S...

  5. Severe depression as the sole symptom of affective focal status epilepticus.

    Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Noachtar, Soheyl


    Depression as well as fear, joy and anger have been described as the semiological features of focal epileptic seizures. When emotions present as the sole symptoms of epileptic seizures, they may easily be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder. We describe a patient with affective focal status epilepticus, secondary to limbic encephalitis, in which depression was the only clinical manifestation. Through EEG correlates the epileptic nature of depression could be proven. Furthermore, we discuss the association between epilepsy and depression, as well as the link between ictal depression and suicidal rates.

  6. Discriminating bot accounts based solely on temporal features of microblog behavior

    Pan, Junshan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hanping


    As the largest microblog service in China, Sina Weibo has attracted numerous automated applications (known as bots) due to its popularity and open architecture. We classify the active users from Sina Weibo into human, bot-based and hybrid groups based solely on the study of temporal features of their posting behavior. The anomalous burstiness parameter and time-interval entropy value are exploited to characterize automation. We also reveal different behavior patterns among the three types of users regarding their reposting ratio, daily rhythm and active days. Our findings may help Sina Weibo manage a better community and should be considered for dynamic models of microblog behaviors.

  7. Speciation of Fe in ambient aerosol and cloudwater

    Siefert, Ronald Lyn [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Atmospheric iron (Fe) is thought to play an important role in cloudwater chemistry (e.g., S(IV) oxidation, oxidant production, etc.), and is also an important source of Fe to certain regions of the worlds oceans where Fe is believed to be a rate-limiting nutrient for primary productivity. This thesis focuses on understanding the chemistry, speciation and abundance of Fe in cloudwater and aerosol in the troposphere, through observations of Fe speciation in the cloudwater and aerosol samples collected over the continental United States and the Arabian Sea. Different chemical species of atmospheric Fe were measured in aerosol and cloudwater samples to help assess the role of Fe in cloudwater chemistry.

  8. Spectroscopic evidence for Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at clay mineral edge and basal sites.

    Neumann, Anke; Olson, Tyler L; Scherer, Michelle M


    Despite the importance of Fe redox cycling in clay minerals, the mechanism and location of electron transfer remain unclear. More specifically, there is some controversy whether electron transfer can occur through both basal and edge surfaces. Here we used Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with selective chemical extractions to study electron transfer from Fe(II) sorbed to basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral NAu-1. Fe(II) sorbed predominantly to basal planes at pH values below 6.0 and to edge OH-groups at pH value 7.5. Significant electron transfer occurred from edge OH-group bound Fe(II) at pH 7.5, whereas electron transfer from basal plane-sorbed Fe(II) to structural Fe(III) in clay mineral NAu-1 at pH 4.0 and 6.0 occurred but to a much lower extent than from edge-bound Fe(II). Mössbauer hyperfine parameters for Fe(II)-reacted NAu-1 at pH 7.5 were consistent with structural Fe(II), whereas values found at pH 4.0 and 6.0 were indicative of binding environments similar to basal plane-sorbed Fe(II). Reference experiments with Fe-free synthetic montmorillonite SYn-1 provided supporting evidence for the assignment of the hyperfine parameters to Fe(II) bound to basal planes and edge OH-groups. Our findings demonstrate that electron transfer to structural Fe in clay minerals can occur from Fe(II) sorbed to both basal planes and edge OH-groups. These findings require us to reassess the mechanisms of abiotic and microbial Fe reduction in clay minerals as well as the importance of Fe-bearing clay minerals as a renewable source of redox equivalents in subsurface environments.

  9. Changes in Biochemical, Sensory and Microbiological Quality Indices of Common Sole (Solea solea) from the Mediterranean Sea, During Ice Storage

    ÖZOĞUL, Yeşim; BOĞA, Esmeray KULEY; Tokur, Bahar; Özoğul, Fatih


    The quality of wild common sole (Solea solea) stored in ice was investigated by chemical (K value, biogenic amines, protein degradation (SDS and SDS-PAGE), pH, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), tiobarbituric acid (TBA) analyses), sensory (raw and cooked fish) and microbiological methods. The quality of common sole decreased on day 16 (fair quality- B) and they were no longer acceptable on day 20 (unacceptable quality-C). When common sole were ...

  10. In defence of Kant's moral prohibition on suicide solely to avoid suffering.

    Vong, G


    In Ian Brassington's article in a previous issue of this journal, he argues that suicide for the purpose of avoiding suffering is not, as Kant has contended, contrary to the moral law. Brassington's objections are not cogent because they rely upon the exegetically incorrect premise that according to Kant the priceless value of personhood is in the noumenal world that we have no perception of. On the basis of Kant's normative, metaphysical and epistemological theory, I argue, contrary to Brassington, that according to Kant personhood's moral value is explicitly in the sensible, phenomenal realm. While I argue that suicide solely to avoid suffering is immoral, I show that Kant's normative system allows some acts of suicide to be morally permissible. In the course of the discussion of the value of humanity's rationality and the immorality of suicide, I will discuss the broader modern medical ethical implications of Kant's arguments, such as the moral impermissibility of using rationality depriving drugs, such as ketamine, solely to avoid pain.

  11. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858.

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Losada, A P; Riaza, A; Santos, Y; Quiroga, M I


    A sensitive and specific immunohistochemical technique was developed to improve the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis and to better understand its pathogenesis. Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 were inoculated subcutaneously with a bacterial suspension of Tenacibaculum maritimum, and samples were taken at different hours post-inoculation. Sections from different organs were used as positive controls. In addition, a total of 128 field samples from different organs collected from tenacibaculosis outbreaks were used. Tenacibaculum maritimum antigens were detected in several organs of experimentally infected Senegalese sole and in at least one of the tissues from fish suffering from natural tenacibaculosis previously confirmed by culture and PCR-based methods. In fish collected during outbreaks, a strong positive reaction was detected in ulcerative skin areas. Moreover, bacterial antigen was identified inside scale pockets and in sites of the skin with mild lesion. In kidney and spleen, evident immunostaining of bacterial antigen was detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. Besides, the presence of T. maritimum in the intestinal tract without associated histological changes suggests that this organ may act as a reservoir for T. maritimum. The results of this study confirm the usefulness of IHC for the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sole larval supply to coastal nurseries: Interannual variability and connectivity at interregional and interpopulation scales

    Savina, M.; Lunghi, M.; Archambault, B.; Baulier, L.; Huret, M.; Le Pape, O.


    Simulating fish larval drift helps assess the sensitivity of recruitment variability to early life history. An individual-based model (IBM) coupled to a hydrodynamic model was used to simulate common sole larval supply from spawning areas to coastal and estuarine nursery grounds at the meta-population scale (4 assessed stocks), from the southern North Sea to the Bay of Biscay (Western Europe) on a 26-yr time series, from 1982 to 2007. The IBM allowed each particle released to be transported by currents, to grow depending on temperature, to migrate vertically depending on development stage, to die along pelagic stages or to settle on a nursery, representing the life history from spawning to metamorphosis. The model outputs were analysed to explore interannual patterns in the amounts of settled sole larvae at the population scale; they suggested: (i) a low connectivity between populations at the larval stage, (ii) a moderate influence of interannual variation in the spawning biomass, (iii) dramatic consequences of life history on the abundance of settling larvae and (iv) the effects of climate variability on the interannual variability of the larvae settlement success.

  13. Recurrent prolonged fugue states as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures

    Geeta A Khwaja


    Full Text Available A fugue state is defined as an altered state of consciousness with varying degrees of motor activity and amnesia for the event. It may last for hours to days and may be psychogenic or organic in nature. Epileptic fugue states can be encountered in patients with absence or complex partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus or may occur as a postictal phenomenon in patients with generalized seizures. ′′absence status epilepticus′′ (AS is rare and seen in only 2.6% of the cases with ′′childhood absence epilepsy′′ (CAE. The diagnosis of AS can be elusive, but sudden onset and termination of the fugue state, classical electroencephalogram (EEG features, and response to a therapeutic trial of benzodiazepines helps in confirming the diagnosis and differentiating it from nonepileptic fugue states. We report a childhood onset case, with a 10 years history of recurrent episodes of prolonged fugue state lasting for up to 24 h, as the sole manifestation of epileptic seizures. The EEG features were suggestive of an AS, but there was no history of typical absences, myoclonus, or generalized tonic clonic seizures. This unusual and rare case cannot be categorized into one of the defined epilepsy syndromes like CAE but belongs to a recently identified syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy known as ′′Absence status epilepsy′′ in which AS is the sole or the predominant seizure type.

  14. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    Deli, Martin, E-mail: [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Fritz, Jan, E-mail: [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Mateiescu, Serban, E-mail:; Busch, Martin, E-mail: [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Carrino, John A., E-mail: [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Becker, Jan, E-mail:; Garmer, Marietta, E-mail:; Groenemeyer, Dietrich, E-mail: [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany)


    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  15. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Pseudomonas alcaliphila with an electrode as the sole electron donor.

    Su, Wentao; Zhang, Lixia; Li, Daping; Zhan, Guoqiang; Qian, Junwei; Tao, Yong


    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were considered two alternative pathways of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. In this study, we firstly reported that both denitrification and DNRA occurred in Pseudomonas alcaliphila strain MBR with an electrode as the sole electron donor in a double chamber bio-electrochemical system (BES). The initial concentration of nitrate appeared as a factor determining the type of nitrate reduction with electrode as the sole electron donor at the same potential (-500 mV). As the initial concentration of nitrate increased, the fraction of nitrate reduced through denitrification also increased. While nitrite (1.38 ± 0.04 mM) was used as electron acceptor instead of nitrate, the electrons recovery via DNRA and denitrification were 43.06 ± 1.02% and 50.51 ± 1.37%, respectively. The electrochemical activities and surface topography of the working electrode catalyzed by strain MBR were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. The results suggested that cells of strain MBR were adhered to the electrode, playing the role of electron transfer media for nitrate and nitrite reduction. Thus, for the first time, the results that DNRA and denitrification occurred simultaneously were confirmed by powering the strain with electricity. The study further expanded the range of metabolic reactions and had potential value for the recognization of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in various ecosystems.

  16. The effects of grading on the growth and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg


    A 3-month study was carried out to investigate the effects of grading on the overall production, growth performance and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.). Juvenile fish (4.0–40.4 g) were sorted into three size groups: small (4.0–15.5 g), medium (16.0–21.5 g) and large (22.0–40.5 g...... in each tank (=90 from each group) were individually tagged. The survival, size distribution, growth and productivity were calculated for small, medium, large and unsorted groups. In addition, comparisons were made between combined sorted and unsorted fish. There was no significant difference between...... the mean weight and distribution of sorted and unsorted fish by the end of the trial. An increased overall productivity in combined sorted fish was observed. Regular grading could therefore still be beneficial for sole farming as long as the grading interval supports maximum growth (in this case over 90...

  17. Extracapsular dissection as sole therapy for small low-grade malignant tumors of the parotid gland.

    Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Koch, Michael; Iro, Heinrich


    The aim of the study was to investigate whether extracapsular dissection of a primarily unsuspected lesion in the parotid gland could be oncologically sufficient for carefully selected cases of parotid gland malignomas. Retrospective clinical study. The records of all patients treated for primary malignant tumors of the parotid gland solely by means of extracapsular dissection between 2006 and 2013 were studied retrospectively. Patients with manifestation of malignant tumors in the parotid gland that were not of primary salivary gland origin (squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas, melanomas) or who had had revision surgery or other malignant tumors in their history, as well as patients with insufficient data, were excluded from our study sample. Nine patients, all with low-grade parotid malignancies, were detected. Our study showed acceptable oncologic and functional outcomes throughout. Our study was able to show very encouraging preliminary results following primary extracapsular dissection as sole surgical therapy for carefully selected low-stage, low-grade, inferiorly located lesions in patients with high compliance. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1804-1807, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Position of the source of particles in solar electron events

    Wang, Xue-yi; Huang, Yong-nian

    The ISEE-3 data for 51 solar electron events are analyzed and classified into Fe-rich and Fe-poor events. For Fe-rich events, the source is found to be in the high chromosphere; for the Fe-poor events, in the region between the chromosphere and corona. In both cases the source position differs from the position of the corresponding flare. A process of formation of these two types of events is proposed.

  19. Arc/Forearc Lengthening at Plate Triple Junctions and the Formation of Ophiolitic Soles

    Casey, John; Dewey, John


    The principal enigma of large obducted ophiolite slabs is that they clearly must have been generated by some form of organized sea-floor spreading/plate-accretion, such as may be envisioned for the oceanic ridges, yet the volcanics commonly have arc affinity (Miyashiro) with boninites (high-temperature/low-pressure, high Mg and Si andesites), which are suggestive of a forearc origin. PT conditions under which boninites and metamorphic soles form and observations of modern forearc systems lead us to the conclusion that ophiolite formation is associated with overidding plate spreading centers that intersect the trench to form ridge-trench-trench of ridge-trench-tranform triple junctions. The spreading centers extend and lengthen the forearc parallel to the trench and by definition are in supra-subduction zone (SSZ) settings. Many ophiolites likewise have complexly-deformed associated mafic-ultramafic assemblages that suggest fracture zone/transform t along their frontal edges, which in turn has led to models involving the nucleation of subduction zones on fracture zones or transpressional transforms. Hitherto, arc-related sea-floor-spreading has been considered to be either pre-arc (fore-arc boninites) or post-arc (classic Karig-style back arc basins that trench-parallell split arcs). Syn-arc boninites and forearc oceanic spreading centers that involve a stable ridge/trench/trench triple or a ridge-trench-transform triple junction, the ridge being between the two upper plates, are consistent with large slab ophiolite formation in a readied obduction settting. The direction of subduction must be oblique with a different sense in the two subduction zones and the oblique subduction cannot be partitioned into trench orthogonal and parallel strike-slip components. As the ridge spreads, new oceanic lithosphere is created within the forearc, the arc and fore-arc lengthen significantly, and a syn-arc ophiolite forearc complex is generated by this mechanism. The ophiolite

  20. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Polychaete worm tubes modify juvenile northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra depth distribution in Kodiak nurseries

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that evaluates whether inter-annual variability in the depth distribution of juvenile northern rock sole on their nursery grounds around...

  1. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Substrate preference and delayed settlement in northern rock sole larvae Lepidopsetta polyxystra

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from laboratory experiments testing the onset and ontogenetic changes in habitat selection of pre- and post-settling northern rock sole (NRS) larvae,...

  2. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrocarbons over Fe/ZSM5 prepared by sublimation of FeCl3

    Battiston, A.A.


    Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by Hydrocarbons over Fe/ZSM5 Prepared by Sublimation of FeCl3. Characterization and Catalysis Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are unwanted by-products of combustion. They are generated primarily from motor vehicles and stationary sources, like power stations and indust

  3. Direct Iron Coating onto Nd-Fe-B Powder by Thermal Decomposition of Iron Pentacarbonyl

    Yamamuro, S; Okano, M; Tanaka, T [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sumiyama, K [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nozawa, N; Nishiuchi, T; Hirosawa, S [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals, Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Ohkubo, T, E-mail: [Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)


    Iron-coated Nd-Fe-B composite powder was prepared by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in an inert organic solvent in the presence of alkylamine. Though this method is based on a modified solution-phase process to synthesize highly size-controlled iron nanoparticles, it is in turn featured by a suppressed formation of iron nanoparticles to achieve an efficient iron coating solely onto the surfaces of rare-earth magnet powder. The Nd-Fe-B magnetic powder was successfully coated by iron shells whose thicknesses were of the order of submicrometer to micrometer, being tuneable by the amount of initially loaded iron pentacarbonyl in a reaction flask. The amount of the coated iron reached to more than 10 wt.% of the initial Nd-Fe-B magnetic powder, which is practically sufficient to fabricate Nd-Fe-B/{alpha}-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets.

  4. Molar Absorptivity and Concentration-Dependent Quantum Yield of Fe(II) Photo-Formation for the Aqueous Solutions of Fe(III)-Dicarboxylate Complexes

    Hitomi, Y.; Arakaki, T.


    Redox cycles of iron in the aquatic environment affect formation of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which in turn determines lifetimes of many organic compounds. Although aqueous Fe(III)-dicarboxylate complexes are considered to be important sources of photo-formed Fe(II), molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) formation for individual species are not well understood. We initiated a study to characterize Fe(II) photo-formation from Fe(III)-dicarboxylates with the concentration ranges that are relevant to the natural aquatic environment. The Visual MINTEQ computer program was used to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of individual Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species. The molar absorptivity of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species was obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, and the product of the quantum yield and the molar absorptivity of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species were obtained from photochemical experiments. These experimental data were combined with the calculated equilibrium Fe(III)-dicarboxylate concentrations to determine individual molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) photo-formation for a specific Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species. We used initial concentrations of less than 10 micromolar Fe(III) to study the photochemical formation of Fe(II). Dicarboxylate compounds studied include oxalate, malonate, succinate, malate, and phthalate. We report molar absorptivity and concentration-dependent quantum yields of Fe(II) photo-formation of individual Fe(III)-dicarboxylates.

  5. Competitive branding policies for medium mountain tourism destinations: a case study from the Val di Sole (Trento)

    Elisa Tizzoni


    The aim of this essay is to address the issue of medium mountain destination branding from a multidisciplinary perspective, focusing on the Italian tourism area of the Val di Sole as a case study.After having summarized the main potentialities and constraints in medium mountain tourism management, the research applies the many-sided concept of in-between place to the destination branding aspects. Finally, the analysis of destination branding policies carried out in the Val di Sole, a medium m...

  6. Regulation biologique du meiobenthos d'un ecosysteme lagunaire par un alevinage experimental en soles (Solea vualgaris )

    Castel, J.; Lasserre, P.


    The "fish reservoirs" of the Arcachon Basin (France) are artificial ponds created in lagoonal marshes. Opportunistic populations of microorganisms and of meiofauna increase the tendency to create dystrophic crisis. Fry stocking of soles (Solea vulgaris ) into the fish ponds have been made to estimate the influence of the predatory activity and bioturbation on the food web. For 10 soles/m super(2), the abundance of opportunistic populations of meiofauna decreases and this result indicates a mo...

  7. Ecophys.Fish perspectives on growth of juvenile soles, Solea solea and Solea senegalensis, in the Tagus estuary, Portugal

    Fonseca, Vanessa F.; Neill, William H.; Miller, John M.; Cabral, Henrique N.


    Ecophys.Fish, an ecophysiological framework to simulate fish growth in time-varying environments, was parameterized for two sole species, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858. The model gave reliable predictions of soles' growth and metabolic rates from published data under controlled environments. Differences in model parameters reflected specie's different environmental optima and were in accordance with their distributional range — northern range of S. solea and a southern range of S. senegalensis. Field application of this model to resolve the effects of varying habitat conditions on juvenile soles' growth in the Tagus estuary (Portugal), during the spring-summer period from 2003 to 2006, highlighted spatial and temporal differences in soles' metabolic scope for growth and estimated growth rates. Higher growth estimates were obtained for S. solea and S. senegalensis in Vila Franca de Xira during 2006, and for S. senegalensis in Alcochete during 2003, 2004 and 2006, and were fairly well explained by natural variation in abiotic conditions. Overall, the Ecophys.Fish model gave accurate field predictions of each sole species' growth rate and proved to be a useful tool for monitoring and assessment of habitat quality for juvenile sole.

  8. Isolated Tenosynovitis as a Sole Manifestation: The Great Mimicker Still Continues to Surprise Us

    De, Abhishek; Surana, Trupti V; Biswas, Saugato; Reja, Abu Hena Hasanoor; Chatterjee, Gobinda


    A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M. leprae. We, thus, report a unique case of isolated tenosynovitis as a sole manifestation of pure neural leprosy which is extremely rare in world literature. PMID:25814736

  9. Reconstruction of Optical Schr\\"odinger Kitten States Solely with Continuous Variable Field Measurements

    Chrzanowski, H M; Sparkes, B M; Hage, B; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C; Lam, P K; Symul, T


    The Schr\\"odinger Cat gedankenexperiment, which considers the quantum superposition of the dead and alive states of a household pet, is a quintessential example of the enigmatic nature of quantum physics. Optical Schr\\"odinger cats, commonly defined as the quantum super- position of two classically distinguishable coherent states, have applications in quantum communications, metrology and quantum computing. To deterministically generate such states requires extreme nonlinearity with negligible losses. An alternative to this experimental difficulty is to introduce non- Gaussian post-selective measurements. For example, photon-counting can be exploited to conditionally herald non-Gaussian states, while field measurements are subsequently used to characterise them. These `hybrid' experiments face the challenges arising from simultaneously measuring both the wave and particle proper- ties of light. In this letter, we demonstrate a method to reconstruct non-Gaussian states solely with continuous variable field mea...


    Stephanie O. Crofton


    Full Text Available Founded in 1974, American Share Insurance (ASI is an insurer for deposits in credit unions and it is the sole surviving private primary deposit insurer in the US. We assess reasons why ASI survived when numerous other deposit insurance systems did not. These reasons include ASI’s policy of insuring only credit unions, its geographic diversification, its efforts to shed the quasi-governmental nature of other nonfederal deposit insurers, its covering only stronger depositories, its ability to draw funding from stronger insured institutions as needed, and its use of incentives for improved performance among its insured institutions. While the severity of the effects of the housing, financial, and economic crises on depositories and their insurers is yet to become fully clear, ASI’s performance up to the Summer of 2009 points to a set of practices that could help buttress other government and private deposit insurers in the US and abroad.

  11. Unilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment as the Sole Presentation of Relapsing Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Fatih Mehmet Azık


    Full Text Available Ocular findings are rarely the initial symptom of leukemia, although up to 90% of all leukemia patients have fundus changes during the course of the disease. Herein we report a relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient with the sole presentation of sudden visual loss and exudative retinal detachment. An 8-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed sudden visual loss during his first remission period. Bullous retinal detachment with total afferent pupillary defect was observed. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraocular mass lesion; simultaneously obtained bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed no evidence of leukemic cells. Following local irradiation, and systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy the mass disappeared. Local irradiation, and systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy effectively controlled the isolated ocular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and eliminated the need for enucleation.

  12. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah


    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  13. Ultrasound-guided greater auricular nerve block as sole anesthetic for ear surgery

    Michael K. Ritchie


    Full Text Available A greater auricular nerve (GAN block was used as the sole anesthetic for facial surgery in an 80-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities which would have made general anesthesia challenging. The GAN provides sensation to the ear, mastoid process, parotid gland, and angle of the mandible. In addition to anesthesia for operating room surgery, the GAN block can be used for outpatient or emergency department procedures without the need for a separate anesthesia team. Although this nerve block has been performed using landmark-based techniques, the ultrasoundguided version offers several potential advantages. These advantages include increased reliability of the nerve block, as well as prevention of inadvertent vascular puncture or blockade of the phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, or deep cervical plexus. The increasing access to ultrasound technology for medical care providers outside the operating room makes this ultrasound guided block an increasingly viable alternative.

  14. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura as sole manifestation in a case of acute hepatitis A.

    Tanir, Gönül; Aydemir, Cumhur; Tuygun, Nilden; Kaya, Ozge; Yarali, Neşe


    Acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus is usually a benign selflimiting disease during childhood. Although many viral infections such as hepatitis B virus, Parvovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with extrahepatic autoimmune phenomena, such manifestations are rare in patients with acute hepatitis A infection. Immune thrombocytopenia is a benign, self-limiting disease in children, responding well to treatment and generally associated with viral infections. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is rarely reported as a manifestation of acute hepatitis A. We report a five-year-old boy with immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the sole manifestation of anicteric acute hepatitis A infection. Acute hepatitis A should be included in the differential diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  15. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.


    the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test, p stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12...... hormone metabolism (3-oxo-5-β-steroid 4-dehydrogenase), and purine salvage (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase). Further characterization is required to fully assess the potential of these markers for the monitoring of fish stress response to chronic stressors of aquaculture environment.......The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species’ sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling...

  16. Onset of obsessive compulsive disorder in pregnancy with pica as the sole manifestation

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya


    Full Text Available Pica refers to eating of non-nutritious substances, which is usually seen in childhood or pregnancy. Here we report a case of an illiterate tribal woman who developed pica as the sole manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder, with onset during pregnancy. The patient had compulsions of eating uncooked rice or wheat, which resulted in toothache and abdominal discomfort. She had this habit in three pregnancies, consecutively. In the first two pregnancies it resolved spontaneously after puerperium, but persisted in the last one. Probably physical stress of limb edema during the third pregnancy was reason for the persistence. She responded to fluoxetine 40 mg / day after three months of treatment, without behavioral therapy. We conclude that pica may either be only a manifestation of obsessive compulsive disorder during pregnancy or it is an obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder.

  17. Gastric pouches and the mucociliary sole: setting the stage for nervous system evolution.

    Arendt, Detlev; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Brunet, Thibaut; Marlow, Heather


    Prerequisite for tracing nervous system evolution is understanding of the body plan, feeding behaviour and locomotion of the first animals in which neurons evolved. Here, a comprehensive scenario is presented for the diversification of cell types in early metazoans, which enhanced feeding efficiency and led to the emergence of larger animals that were able to move. Starting from cup-shaped, gastraea-like animals with outer and inner choanoflagellate-like cells, two major innovations are discussed that set the stage for nervous system evolution. First, the invention of a mucociliary sole entailed a switch from intra- to extracellular digestion and increased the concentration of nutrients flowing into the gastric cavity. In these animals, an initial nerve net may have evolved via division of labour from mechanosensory-contractile cells in the lateral body wall, enabling coordinated movement of the growing body that involved both mucociliary creeping and changes of body shape. Second, the inner surface of the animals folded into metameric series of gastric pouches, which optimized nutrient resorption and allowed larger body sizes. The concomitant acquisition of bilateral symmetry may have allowed more directed locomotion and, with more demanding coordinative tasks, triggered the evolution of specialized nervous subsystems. Animals of this organizational state would have resembled Ediacarian fossils such as Dickinsonia and may have been close to the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. In the bilaterian lineage, the mucociliary sole was used mostly for creeping, or frequently lost. One possible remnant is the enigmatic Reissner's fibre in the ventral neural tube of cephalochordates and vertebrates.

  18. Benefit-induced female sole parenthood in Australia, 1973-85.

    Mcdonald, J; Spindler, Z A


    The supporting mothers' benefit, introduced into Australia's Social Security Act in 1973, made nonwidowed single mothers eligible for direct Commonwealth transfer payments after a 6 month waiting period from date of separation or birth. The number of sole parent beneficiaries reached 176,730 by 1986, with an annual outlay of over US$1.3 billion. In essence, the supporting parents' benefits program legitimizes and facilitates pursuing a career as a single parent. Econometric estimates of the effects of economic and program-related variables on the benefits participation rates of Australian women during the 1973-86 period suggest that the program has had a substantial effect on several margins of individual choice. The outcome for the individual depends on economic, preference, and demographic variables for individuals, their potential or actual spouses, grandparents, and the benefits and eligibility characteristics of the government's parenting support system. In specifying a female sole parent supply function, the appropriate dependent variable is the female beneficiary participation rate--the number of supporting mother beneficiaries as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over. Time series analysis suggests that, while the eligible population of lone females heading income units was growing before the 1973 introduction of the benefit scheme, there was also a substantial rise in this eligible population after 1973. However, this rise was less than the rise in female supporting parent beneficiaries between 1974-84. It appears that the female beneficiary rate has increased both because the eligible population of lone females heading income units increased in total and as a proportion of the female population and because of an increase in the benefit participation of those eligible. The data further provide evidence of relative wage and discouraged worker effects; coefficients of the weekly real value of benefits and supplementary assistance relative to

  19. Role of the IFN I system against the VHSV infection in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    Alvarez-Torres, Daniel; Podadera, Ana M; Bejar, Julia; Bandin, Isabel; Alonso, M Carmen; Garcia-Rosado, Esther


    Senegalese sole is susceptible to marine VHSV isolates but is not affected by freshwater isolates, which may indicate differences regarding virus-host immune system interaction. IFN I induces an antiviral state in fish, stimulating the expression of genes encoding antiviral proteins (ISG). In this study, the stimulation of the Senegalese sole IFN I by VHSV infections has been evaluated by the relative quantification of the transcription of several ISG (Mx, Isg15 and Pkr) after inoculation with marine (pathogenic) and freshwater (non-pathogenic) VHSV isolates. Compared to marine VHSV, lower levels of RNA of the freshwater VHSV induced transcription of ISG to similar levels, with the Isg15 showing the highest fold induction. The protective role of the IFN I system was evaluated in poly I:C-inoculated animals subsequently challenged with VHSV isolates. The cumulative mortality caused by the marine isolate in the control group was 68%, whereas in the poly I:C-stimulated group was 5%. The freshwater VHSV isolate did not cause any mortality. Furthermore, viral RNA fold change and viral titers were lower in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups than in the controls. The implication of the IFN I system in the protection observed was confirmed by the transcription of the ISG in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups. However, the marine VHSV isolate exerts a negative effect on the ISG transcription at 3 and 6 h post-inoculation (hpi), which is not observed for the freshwater isolate. This difference might be partly responsible for the virulence shown by the marine isolate.

  20. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille


    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  1. Spatial and ontogenetic variability in the chemical composition of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea) otoliths

    Tanner, S. E.; Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Cabral, H. N.; Thorrold, S. R.


    A description of variations in the chemical composition of fish otoliths at different spatial scales and life history stages is a prerequisite for their use as natural tags in fish population connectivity and migration studies. Otolith geochemistry of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea), a marine migrant species collected in six Portuguese estuaries was examined. Elemental ratios (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, Pb:Ca) were analysed in two zones of the right otolith (corresponding to late larval and juvenile stages) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ 13C and δ 18O) were determined in left otoliths using isotopic ratio monitoring mass spectrometry (irm-MS). Significant differences in otolith geochemical signatures were found among estuaries, among sites within estuaries and between otolith zones. Several elemental ratios (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca and Sr:Ca) showed consistent patterns between otolith zones and were likely influenced by environmental factors and ontogenetic effects associated with physiological changes during metamorphosis. Assignment of individuals to their collection estuary based on the otolith geochemical signatures was more accurate at the site level (81%) than among estuaries (69%). Site temperature was not correlated with any of the elemental or isotope ratios, but salinity was significantly correlated with Ba:Ca, δ 13C and δ 18O. Observed spatial variations among estuaries and sites within estuaries indicate that geochemical signatures in otoliths are accurate natural tags of estuarine habitat in common sole. Nevertheless, the significant variations observed between otolith zones should be taken into account in the design of population connectivity studies.

  2. Modes of planetary-scale Fe isotope fractionation

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von


    Fe isotope composition of lithospheric mantle xenoliths are representative for an undisturbed melt source, and second, HED and SNC meteorites, representing melting products of 4Vesta and Mars silicate mantles would be expected to show a similar fractionation towards heavy isotope compositions. This is not observed. Four international granitoid standards with SiO 2 contents between 60 and 70 wt.% yield δ56Fe/ 54Fe values between 0.118‰ and 0.132‰. An investigation of the alpine Bergell igneous rock suite revealed a positive correlation between Fe isotope compositions and SiO 2 contents — from gabbros and tonalites ( δ56Fe/ 54Fe ≈ 0.03 to 0.09‰) to granodiorites and silicic dykes ( δ56Fe/ 54Fe ≈ 0.14 to 0.23‰). Although in this suite δ56Fe/ 54Fe correlates with δ18O values and radiogenic isotopes, open-system behavior to explain the heavy iron is not undisputed. This is because an obvious assimilant with the required heavy Fe isotope composition has so far not been identified. Alternatively, the relatively heavy granite compositions might be obtained by fractional crystallisation of the melt. Ultimately, further detailed studies on natural rocks and the experimental determination of mineral/melt fractionation factors at magmatic conditions are required to unravel whether or not iron isotope fractionation takes place during partial mantle melting and crystal fractionation.

  3. Removal of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions from aqueous solution by using Fe-Fe3O4/graphene oxide as a novel and efficient adsorbent

    Le, Giang H.; Ha, Anh Q.; Nguyen, Quang K.; Nguyen, Kien T.; Dang, Phuong T.; Tran, Hoa T. K.; Vu, Loi D.; Nguyen, Tuyen V.; Lee, Gun D.; Vu, Tuan A.


    The nano Fe-Fe3O4/graphene oxide (GO) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation method and followed by chemical reduction using FeCl3 as iron sources and NaBH4 as reducing agent. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BET, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and VMS. From the obtained XRD and XPS results, it revealed the formation of both Fe and Fe3O4 nano particles on GO surface. TEM images showed that both Fe3O4/GO and Fe-Fe3O4/GO had small particle size of 10-20 nm and uniform size distribution. Fe3O4/GO and Fe-Fe3O4/GO were used as adsorbents for removal of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions from aqueous solution. Maximum adsorption capacity (Q max) of Fe-Fe3O4/GO for Cu2+ and Cd2+ are 90.0 mg g-1 and 108.6 mg g-1, respectively. These values are much higher as compared to those of Fe3O4/GO as well as those reported in the literature. Additionally, this novel adsorbent can be reused by washing with diluted Hcl solution and easily recovered by applying the magnetic field. The Cd2+ adsorption isotherm fits better for the Langmuir model that of the Freundlich model and it obeys the pseudo-second order kinetic equation.

  4. Operation of ECR Ion Source


    In 2001, ECR ion source was operated for HIRFL about 5138 hours and 8 species of ion beams, such as ~(12)C~(4+), ~(12)C~(5+), ~(36)Ar~(11+),~(13)C~(4+),~(40)Ca~(11+),~(40)Ar~(11+),~(56)Fe~(10+) and ~(18)O~(6+) were provided. Among these ions,~(56)Fe~(10+)is a new ion beam. In this period, 14 experiments of heavy ion physics application and nuclear research were finished.

  5. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1271.10 Are my HCT/P's regulated solely.../P is regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part if it...

  6. Measured level lifetimes for the coronal transitions of Fe X and Fe XIV.

    Moehs, D. P.; Church, D. A.; Physics; Texas A& M Univ.


    In a laboratory study, the lifetimes of the {sup 2}P levels producting the coronal transitions of Fe X and Fe XIV have been measured. The fluorescence from the metastable levels, which were populated when the ions wre produced in a source of multiply charged ions, was studied from the selected ions were injected into an electrostatic ion trap. The results are {tau}(FeX, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2})=13.64{+-}0.25 ms and {tau}(Fe XIV, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2})=17.52{+-}0.29 ms. The data significantly reduce the uncertainty of the lifetimes when compared with existing theory.

  7. Dietary probiotic supplementation (Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11) modulates gut microbiota and promotes growth and condition in Senegalese sole larviculture.

    Lobo, Carmen; Moreno-Ventas, Xabier; Tapia-Paniagua, Silvana; Rodríguez, Covadonga; Moriñigo, Miguel A; de La Banda, Inés García


    Probiotic supplementation in fish aquaculture has significantly increased in the last decade due to its beneficial effect on fish performance. Probiotic use at early stages of fish development may contribute to better face metamorphosis and weaning stress. In the present work, we studied the influence of Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 supplementation on growth, body composition and gut microbiota in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) during larval and weaning development. S. putrefaciens Pdp11 was incorporated using Artemia as live vector (2.5 × 10⁷ cfu mL⁻¹) and supplied to sole specimens in a co-feeding regime (10-86 DAH) by triplicate. Probiotic addition promoted early metamorphosis and a significantly higher growth in length at 24 DAH larvae. S. putrefaciens Pdp11 also modulated gut microbiota and significantly increased protein content and DHA/EPA ratios in sole fry (90 DAH). This nutritional enhancement is considered especially important after weaning, where significantly higher growth in length and weight was observed in probiotic fish. Moreover, a less heterogeneous fish size in length was detected since metamorphosis till the end of weaning, being of interest for sole aquaculture production. After weaning, fish showed significantly higher growth (length and weight) and less variable lengths in fish when supplemented with probiotics. Both the enhancement of nutritional condition and the decrease in size variability associated with probiotic addition are highly interesting for sole aquaculture production.

  8. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny


    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Comparison of semi-insulating InAlAs and InP:Fe for InP-based buried-heterostructure QCLs

    Flores, Y. V.; Aleksandrova, A.; Elagin, M.; Kischkat, J.; Kurlov, S. S.; Monastyrskyi, G.; Hellemann, J.; Golovynskyi, S. L.; Dacenko, O. I.; Kondratenko, S. V.; Tarasov, G. G.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T.


    In a previous work [Flores et al., J. Cryst. Growth 398 (2014) 40] [3] we demonstrated the advantages of using a thin InAlAs spacer layer in the fabrication of buried-heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), as it improves the morphology of the interface between the laser core and the InP:Fe lateral cladding. In this paper we investigate aspects of InAlAs, which are relevant for its role as insulating lateral cladding of the laser sidewalls: carrier traps, electrical resistivity, and functionality as a sole lateral cladding. We find that a thin InAlAs spacer layer not only improves the regrowth interface morphology, but also eliminates interface-related shallow electronic states, thus improving the electrical resistivity of the interface. We further find that bulk InAlAs grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy as well as InP:Fe are semi-insulating at room temperature, with specific resistivities of 3 ×107 Ω cm and 2 ×108 Ω cm, respectively. Both materials have also a high thermal activation energy for electrical conductivity (0.79 eV and 0.68 eV, respectively). In order to compare the performance of InP:Fe and InAlAs as a lateral cladding, lasers were fabricated from the same QCL wafer with differing stripe insulation materials. The resulting lasers differ mainly by the lateral insulation material: SiO2, InP:Fe (with InAlAs spacer), and pure InAlAs. All devices show a similar performance and similar temperature dependence, indicating insulating properties of InAlAs adequate for application in lateral regrowth of buried-heterostructure QCLs.

  10. Mechanisms for chelator stimulation of microbial Fe(III) -oxide reduction

    Lovley, D.R.; Woodward, J.C.


    The mechanisms by which nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) stimulated Fe(III) reduction in sediments from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer were investigated in order to gain insight into how added Fe(III) chelators stimulate the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading, Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in these sediments, and how naturally occurring Fe(III) chelators might promote Fe(III) reduction in aquatic sediments. NTA solubilized Fe(III) from the aquifer sediments. NTA stimulation of microbial Fe(III) reduction did not appear to be the result of making calcium, magnesium, potassium, or trace metals more available to the microorganisms. Stimulation of Fe(III) reduction could not be attributed to NTA serving as a source of carbon or fixed nitrogen for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria as NTA was not degraded in the sediments. Studies with the Fe(III)-reducing microorganism, Geobacter metallireducens, and pure Fe(III)-oxide forms, demonstrated that NTA stimulated the reduction of a variety of Fe(III) forms, including highly crystalline Fe(III)-oxides such as goethite and hematite. The results suggest that NTA solubilization of insoluble Fe(III)-oxide is an important mechanism for the stimulation of Fe(III) reduction by NTA in aquifer sediments.

  11. The individual tolerance concept is not the sole explanation for the probit dose-effect model

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.


    Predominant methods for analyzing dose- or concentration-effect data (i.e., probit analysis) are based on the concept of individual tolerance or individual effective dose (IED, the smallest characteristic dose needed to kill an individual). An alternative explanation (stochasticity hypothesis) is that individuals do not have unique tolerances: death results from stochastic processes occurring similarly in all individuals. These opposing hypotheses were tested with two types of experiments. First, time to stupefaction (TTS) was measured for zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) exposed to benzocaine. The same 40 fish were exposed during five trials to test if the same order for TTS was maintained among trials. The IED hypothesis was supported with a minor stochastic component being present. Second, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to sublethal or lethal NaCl concentrations until a large portion of the lethally exposed fish died. After sufficient time for recovery, fish sublethally exposed and fish surviving lethal exposure were exposed simultaneously to lethal NaCl concentrations. No statistically significant effect was found of previous exposure on survival time but a large stochastic component to the survival dynamics was obvious. Repetition of this second type of test with pentachlorophenol also provided no support for the IED hypothesis. The authors conclude that neither hypothesis alone was the sole or dominant explanation for the lognormal (probit) model. Determination of the correct explanation (IED or stochastic) or the relative contributions of each is crucial to predicting consequences to populations after repeated or chronic exposures to any particular toxicant.

  12. Application of AFLP markers for population genetic study on half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    LIU Yunguo; LI Junfeng; YE Naihao


    The genetic diversity of wild and hatchery populations of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis, based on observation of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was described. Two hundred individuals from four wild populations, Laizhou (LZ), Weihai (WH), Qingdao (QD), Rizhao (RZ), and one hatchery population, Mingbo (MB), were screened using eight different AFLP primer combinations. A total of 384 loci were screened in the five studied populations. 48.4%, 51.3%,50.7%, 49.3% and 45.8% of these loci were polymorphic among the individuals tested in the LZ, WH,QD, RZ and MB populations, respectively. The number of polymorphic loci detected by single primer combinations ranged from 17 to 35. The average heterozygosity of the LZ, WH, QD, RZ and MB populations was 0.072, 0.093, 0.092, 0.090 and 0.063, respectively. The WH population showed the highest genetic diversity in terms of total number of AFLP bands, total number of polymorphic bands,average heterozygosity and percentage of low frequency (0-0.2) polymorphic loci among all the populations,while the LZ population was the lowest among the wild populations. Compared with the wild populations,the hatchery population showed a low genetic viability.

  13. Reliability of Dental Attrition as a Sole Parameter for Age Estimation among North Western Adult Indians

    J. Arora


    Full Text Available Dental ageing is important in medico legal cases when teeth are the only material available to the investigating agencies for identification of the deceased. Attrition, which is the wear of occlusal surface of tooth (a physiological change; can be used as a determinant parameter for this purpose. The present study has been undertaken to examine the reliability of attrition as a sole parameter for age estimation among North Western adult Indians. 109 (43males, 66 females single rooted freshly extracted teeth ranging in age from 18-75years were studied. Teeth were fixed, cleaned and sectioned labiolingually upto thickness of 1mm. Sections were then mounted and attrition was graded from 0-3 according to Gustafson’s method. Scores were subjected to regression equation to estimate age of an individual. Results of the present study revealed that this parameter is reliable in individuals of ≤ 60 years with an error of ±10years. However, periodontal disease severely affected the accuracy of age estimation from this parameter as is evident from the results. Statistically no significant difference was noted in absolute mean error of age in different age groups. No significant difference was observed in absolute mean error of age in both the sexes.

  14. Can ultrasound-guided subcostal transverse abdominis plane block be used as sole anesthetic technique?

    Pooja Bihani


    Full Text Available Subcostal transverse abdominis plane (TAP block anesthetizes area of the abdomen with cutaneous innervation of T6–T10 dermatomes. These abdominal field blocks become very advantageous when cardiac patient presents for noncardiac surgeries as sole anesthetic or as a part of multimodal anesthesia. A 58-year-male came for open surgical repair of subxiphoid incisional hernia developed post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Echocardiography showed hypokinesia of left ventricle (LV in the left anterior descending (LAD artery territory, dilated LV, and ejection fraction of 30%, and coronary angiography after 6 months of CABG showed 70% stenosis of LAD. Surgery was successfully accomplished under ultrasound-guided bilateral subcostal TAP block except for a brief period of pain and discomfort when hernia was being reduced which required narcotic supplementation. The patient remained comfortable throughout the procedure as well as 24 h postoperatively without any analgesic supplementation. Thus, subcostal TAP block can be a safe alternative to neuraxial or general anesthesia for epigastric hernia repair in selected patients.


    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, J. P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bolt, L. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Folatelli, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Freedman, W. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krisciunas, K. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, W., E-mail: [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others


    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data.

  16. Transversus abdominal plane block as a sole anesthetic technique for abdominal wall hematoma drainage.

    Varela, N; Golvano, M; Monedero, P


    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block is a known and useful technique, widely used for postoperative pain management of abdominal wall incisions. During the past years, and following the expansion of ultrasound guided techniques, its use has even gained more adepts. It is usually used as an adjuvant technique, primarily in order to control postoperative pain and reduce opioids consumption. We report the case of an 82 years old patient admitted for drainage of a postoperative abdominal wall hematoma after correction of a McBurney incisional hernia. The corrective surgery had gone on without incident, under general anesthesia with laryngeal mask. Two weeks later, the patient came back to our emergency department with a clear hematoma of the abdominal wall. Surgery was decided. A sole local anesthetic technique was achieved, using a TAP block. The block was performed under ultrasound guidance, using a subcostal approach. The surgery went on without complications. Therefore, TAP block offers a hemodynamic stability, appropriate intra-operative anesthesia and post-surgical analgesia of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphological variation and distribution of free neuromasts during half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis ontogeny

    Ma, Aijun; Shang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Xin'an; Sun, Zhibin; Cui, Wenxiao; Xia, Dandan; Ma, Benhe


    This study was conducted to clarify the distribution and morphology of free neuromasts during the development of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) using scanning electron microscopy. During development, (1) the apical surface of free neuromasts changed in shape from a circle to a four-point star; (2) the external structure changed from being level with the epidermis to papilla-like above the level of the epidermis; (3) the neuromast cupula changed from cylindrical to blade-shaped; (4) the free neuromasts went from occurring singly to being in clusters of a few single organs; (5) the arrangement changed from a linear array to no discernable pattern; (6) there was a significant increase in the number of free neuromasts after metamorphosis. In adult C. semilaevis, free neuromasts were only observed on the abocular side of the head. Thus, there were more free neuromasts located on the abocular side of the head with a higher concentration around the anterior nostril and mouth, which may have a mechanical sensory function to help locate food as an adaptation to a benthic mode of life.

  18. Palpebral involvement as a presenting and sole manifestation of discoid lupus erythematosus.

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Feily, Amir; Behrooz, Bahar; Yaghoobi, Elena; Mokhtarzadeh, Shabnam


    A 28-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of idiopathic, chronic blepharitis unresponsive to several courses treatment of corticosteroid eye drops. Physical examination was notable for edematous, erythematous plaques of the lower eyelids with madarosis in the absence of preceding skin scarring. Biopsy specimen was obtained and diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) was made. DLE is a chronic, cutaneous disease that is clinically characterized by a malar rash, acute erythema, and discoid lesions. Localized DLE occurs when the head and neck only are affected, while widespread DLE occurs when other areas are affected, regardless of whether disease of the head and neck is seen. Patients with widespread involvement often have hematologic and serologic abnormalities, are more likely to develop systemic lupus erythematosus, and are more difficult to treat. A number of skin diseases may be confused with DLE, such as psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, rosacea, lupus vulgaris, sarcoidosis, Bowen's disease, polymorphous light eruption, lichen planopilaris, dermatomyositis, granuloma annulare, and granuloma faciale. Palpebral lesions may rarely be the presenting or sole manifestation of the disease and lower eyelid involvement is seen in 6% of patients with chronic, cutaneous lupus erythematosus. DLE should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic blepharitis or madarosis that persists despite usual medical management and eyelid hygiene. The patient was treated successfully with hydroxychloroquine. The skin lesions resolved with minimal scarring.

  19. Reduced plantar sole sensitivity facilitates early adaptation to a visual rotation pointing task when standing upright

    Maxime Billot


    Full Text Available Humans are capable of pointing to a target with accuracy. However, when vision is distorted through a visual rotation or mirror-reversed vision, the performance is initially degraded and thereafter improves with practice. There are suggestions this gradual improvement results from a sensorimotor recalibration involving initial gating of the somatosensory information from the pointing hand. In the present experiment, we examined if this process interfered with balance control by asking participants to point to targets with a visual rotation from a standing posture. This duality in processing sensory information (i.e., gating sensory signals from the hand while processing those arising from the control of balance could generate initial interference leading to a degraded pointing performance. We hypothesized that if this is the case, the attenuation of plantar sole somatosensory information through cooling could reduce the sensorimotor interference, and facilitate the early adaptation (i.e. improvement in the pointing task. Results supported this hypothesis. These observations suggest that processing sensory information for balance control interferes with the sensorimotor recalibration process imposed by a pointing task when vision is rotated.

  20. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    Massol, Olivier [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, F-92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Tchung-Ming, Stephane [Economic Studies Division, IFP, 1-4 av. de Bois-Preau, F-92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); CREDEN, Universite Montpellier I, Av. de la mer, BP 9606, F-34054, Montpellier (France)


    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  1. Selection of nonapoptotic sperm by magnetic-activated cell sorting in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    Valcarce, D G; Herráez, M P; Chereguini, O; Rodríguez, C; Robles, V


    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a promising species in aquaculture. However, owing to decreased sperm quality in F1 generations and the absence of courtship in those individuals born in captivity, artificial fertilization is being used to generate new progenies. The objective of this study was to implement a sperm selection method for nonapoptotic sperm subpopulation recovery before sperm cryopreservation. In particular, magnetic-activated cell sorting is used to eliminate apoptotic spermatozoa. This study represents the proof-of-concept for magnetic-activated cell sorting applicability in teleost species relevant in aquaculture. Apoptotic cell population was studied by flow cytometry using YO-PRO-1 and a caspase detection kit. Also, reactive oxygen species were measured in sperm samples. Our data demonstrated that caspase detection is more specific than YO-PRO-1 in the identification of apoptotic cells in S senegalensis seminal samples. The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic cells (caspase positive) was significantly higher (P = 0.04) in seminal samples from F1 than that from wild individuals. Magnetic-activated cell sorting removed a significant number of apoptotic cells from the samples (54% and 75% in wild and F1 individuals, respectively), decreasing the level of cells positive for reactive oxygen species (P = 0.17). In conclusion, this technique reduces the percentage of nonfunctional spermatozoa in a seminal sample before cryopreservation. This novel technique can be applied directly in the aquaculture industry.

  2. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R


    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  3. Claw disorders in dairy cattle - an unexpected association between energy metabolism and sole haemorrhages.

    Wilhelm, Katrin; Wilhelm, Jürgen; Fürll, Manfred


    The present study investigated whether changes of energy metabolism post-partum (pp) are associated with claw health. For this purpose, back-fat-thickness (BFT) was measured and blood samples were taken from 146 cows at four examination times. The serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose were measured. Furthermore, in the first week postpartum (pp) and at 8 weeks pp, a claw trimming was done and the presence and extent of sole haemorrhages (SH) was recorded. Animals with high BFT at calving and therefore high fat mobilisation and whose FFA and BHB levels in the first week pp exceeded the reference values had fewer pathological changes of the claws than thinner animals whose FFA and BHB levels stayed within reference ranges. The body condition before calving, represented in this study by BFT, plays an important role in non-infectious claw disorders. Poorer body condition was found to be associated with the SH that develop in the first 2 months of lactation.

  4. The thyroid gland and thyroid hormones in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) during early development and metamorphosis.

    Klaren, Peter H M; Wunderink, Yvette S; Yúfera, Manuel; Mancera, Juan M; Flik, Gert


    We here describe the ontogeny and morphology of the thyroid gland in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), and correlate these with whole body concentrations of thyroid hormones during early development and metamorphosis. Under our rearing conditions at 19.5 degrees C, most larvae entered metamorphosis in stage 1 at 15 days post-hatching (dph), and completed metamorphosis in stage 4 at 25dph. The onset of metamorphosis coincided with surges in whole body T4 and T3 concentrations. Crossmon's trichrome stain colored the lumen of follicular structures brightly red, and this co-localized with a T4-immunoreactivity. Thyroid follicles were first observed in stage 0 pre-metamorphic larvae at 5dph of age, and were detected exclusively in the subpharyngeal region, surrounding the ventral aorta. Increases in whole body thyroid hormone levels coincided with a 2(1/2)-fold increase in the total thyroidal colloid area in stage 1 larvae (aged 15dph) compared to stage 0 larvae (12dph). This was preceded by an approximately 40%-increase in the follicles' epithelial cell height in stage 0 larvae at 12dph compared to larvae at 5dph, and by an increase in the whole body T3/T4 ratio, indicative of an increase in outer ring deiodination. We conclude that in S. senegalensis there is a clear chronology in the activation of the thyroid gland that starts in early pre-metamorphic larvae.

  5. Geochronological constraints on the metamorphic sole of the Semail ophiolite in the United Arab Emirates

    Nick M.W. Roberts


    Full Text Available The Semail ophiolite of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE provides the best preserved large slice of oceanic lithosphere exposed on the continental crust, and offers unique opportunities to study processes of ocean crust formation, subduction initiation and obduction. Metamorphic rocks exposed in the eastern UAE have traditionally been interpreted as a metamorphic sole to the Semail ophiolite. However, there has been some debate over the possibility that the exposures contain components of older Arabian continental crust. To help answer this question, presented here are new zircon and rutile U-Pb geochronological data from various units of the metamorphic rocks. Zircon was absent in most samples. Those that yielded zircon and rutile provide dominant single age populations that are 95–93 Ma, partially overlapping with the known age of oceanic crust formation (96.5–94.5 Ma, and partially overlapping with cooling ages of the metamorphic rocks (95–90 Ma. The data are interpreted as dating high-grade metamorphism during subduction burial of the sediments into hot mantle lithosphere, and rapid cooling during their subsequent exhumation. A few discordant zircon ages, interpreted as late Neoproterozoic and younger, represent minor detrital input from the continent. No evidence is found in favour of the existence of older Arabian continental crust within the metamorphic rocks of the UAE.

  6. Spawning period of Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, based on juvenile otolith microstructure

    Vinagre, Catarina; Maia, Anabela; Amara, Rachid; Cabral, Henrique N.


    The Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, is a flatfish species distributed from the Bay of Biscay to the coast of South Africa. Although it is a species of high commercial value its spawning period remains poorly known. In the Tagus estuary, Portugal, two juvenile cohorts of this species colonize two independent nursery areas within the estuarine system. Left lapilli otoliths of these 0-group juveniles were used to estimate age and back-calculate hatch dates, thus allowing the estimation of S. senegalensis spawning period in the Portuguese coast. The two cohorts of S. senegalensis completed the colonization of the two nurseries in July. The ages of juveniles were estimated to range between 46 and 111 days in nursery A, and between 33 and 61 days in nursery B. Hatch dates ranged from April to early June for juveniles colonizing nursery A, and from May to early June for juveniles colonizing nursery B. The mean hatch date in nursery A was the 7th of May, while in nursery B it was the 25th of May. It was concluded that the spawning period for this species off the Portuguese coast was from April to June.

  7. Biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris LRELP-1 using kitchen waste as the sole substrate.

    Li, Panyu; Li, Ting; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Yabo; Xie, Tonghui; Zhang, Yongkui


    Herein, we report the production of xanthan gum by fermentation using kitchen waste as the sole substrate. The kitchen waste was firstly pretreated by a simple hydrolysis method, after which the obtained kitchen waste hydrolysate was diluted with an optimal ratio 1:2. In a 5-L fermentor, the maximum xanthan production, reducing sugar conversion and utilization rates reached 11.73g/L, 67.07% and 94.82%, respectively. The kinetics of batch fermentation was also investigated. FT-IR and XRD characterizations confirmed the fermentation product as xanthan gum. TGA analyses showed that the thermal stability of the xanthan gum obtained in this study was similar to commercial sample. The molecular weights of xanthan gum were measured to be 0.69-1.37×10(6)g/mol. The maximum pyruvate and acetyl contents in xanthan gum were 6.11% and 2.49%, respectively. This study provides a cost-effective solution for the reusing of kitchen waste and a possible low-cost approach for xanthan production.

  8. Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe2+ and magnetite.

    Gorski, Christopher A; Handler, Robert M; Beard, Brian L; Pasakarnis, Timothy; Johnson, Clark M; Scherer, Michelle M


    The reaction between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) has been extensively studied due to its role in contaminant reduction, trace-metal sequestration, and microbial respiration. Previous work has demonstrated that the reaction of Fe(2+) with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) results in the structural incorporation of Fe(2+) and an increase in the bulk Fe(2+) content of magnetite. It is unclear, however, whether significant Fe atom exchange occurs between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+), as has been observed for other Fe oxides. Here, we measured the extent of Fe atom exchange between aqueous Fe(2+) and magnetite by reacting isotopically "normal" magnetite with (57)Fe-enriched aqueous Fe(2+). The extent of Fe atom exchange between magnetite and aqueous Fe(2+) was significant (54-71%), and went well beyond the amount of Fe atoms found at the near surface. Mössbauer spectroscopy of magnetite reacted with (56)Fe(2+) indicate that no preferential exchange of octahedral or tetrahedral sites occurred. Exchange experiments conducted with Co-ferrite (Co(2+)Fe(2)(3+)O(4)) showed little impact of Co substitution on the rate or extent of atom exchange. Bulk electron conduction, as previously invoked to explain Fe atom exchange in goethite, is a possible mechanism, but if it is occurring, conduction does not appear to be the rate-limiting step. The lack of significant impact of Co substitution on the kinetics of Fe atom exchange, and the relatively high diffusion coefficients reported for magnetite suggest that for magnetite, unlike goethite, Fe atom diffusion is a plausible mechanism to explain the rapid rates of Fe atom exchange in magnetite.

  9. High-Quality Fe-doped TiO2 films with Superior Visible-Light Performance

    Su, Ren; Bechstein, Ralf; Kibsgaard, Jakob


    We report on high-quality polycrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe–TiO2) porous films synthesized via one-step electrochemical oxidation. We demonstrate that delicate properties such as the impurity concentration and the microstructure that strongly influence the performance of the material...... for photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications can be controlled by adjusting the electrolyte composition. Compared to Fe-doped TiO2 films prepared with traditional phosphate- or silicate-based electrolytes, our newly synthesised Fe–TiO2 films contain solely Fe dopants, which results in excellent photocatalytic...

  10. Postural responses to various frequencies of vibration of the triceps surae and forefoot sole during quiet standing.

    Naka, Masami; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Naoe


    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of somatosensory input to the sensory reference system in quiet standing. We applied vibration (0.5 mm amplitude, 1-60 Hz) to the triceps surae and the forefoot sole to stimulate the muscle spindles and the mechanoreceptors, respectively, and evaluated postural responses. Thirteen young healthy adults who showed backward-lean and forward-lean responses to vibration at high and low frequencies, respectively, participated in the full experiment. The lowest vibration frequencies inducing backward-lean responses (B-LF) were 15-55 Hz for the triceps surae and 16-60 Hz for the forefoot sole. The highest frequencies inducing forward-lean responses (F-HF) were 3-18 Hz for the triceps surae and 1-20 Hz for the forefoot sole. When vibration was simultaneously applied to the triceps surae and forefoot sole at F-HF, no response was induced in 70% of trials. A forward-lean response was induced in the remaining 30% of trials. Simultaneous vibration of the triceps surae and forefoot sole at B-LF induced backward-lean responses in all trials. All postural responses occurred 0.5-4.3 s after vibration onset. Postural responses to high-frequency vibration conceivably occur as a compensatory movement to the illusionary perception that standing position is deviating forward from quiet standing, which must be a reference position. Postural responses to low-frequency vibration possibly occur to equalize the positional information that is received from the triceps surae and the forefoot sole. Both postural responses are likely to involve the sensory reference system, which is located in the supraspinal nervous system.

  11. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.


    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be

  12. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.


    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life stages of sole were exposed to a concentration series of PCB 126 in seawater until 4, 8, 10 and 15 days post fertilisation (dpf). Subsequently the development of the larvae was registered under furthe...

  13. Selectivity of commercial and alternative codends for Bogue (Boops boops and Common sole (Solea solea in Northeastern Mediterranean

    Ahmet Raif Eryaşar


    Full Text Available The present study compares size selectivity of commercially used hand-woven slack knotted codend and three different alternative (40 mm square mesh, 44 mm and 50 mm diamond mesh machine woven codends for bogue (Boops boops and common sole (Solea solea. Hauls were conducted using covered codend method between 10 October and 16 December 2011 in Mersin Bay. Results show that alternative machine woven codends are selective enough for bogue however, tested four codends are not sufficient in releasing individuals under legal size for common sole.

  14. Competitive branding policies for medium mountain tourism destinations: a case study from the Val di Sole (Trento

    Elisa Tizzoni


    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to address the issue of medium mountain destination branding from a multidisciplinary perspective, focusing on the Italian tourism area of the Val di Sole as a case study.After having summarized the main potentialities and constraints in medium mountain tourism management, the research applies the many-sided concept of in-between place to the destination branding aspects. Finally, the analysis of destination branding policies carried out in the Val di Sole, a medium mountain Alpine area in the Italian Provincia Autonoma of Trento, offers an overview of the basic success factors in medium mountain destinations enhancement.

  15. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    Julia Mas-Muñoz; Hans Komen; Oliver Schneider; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.


    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg(0.8)/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed in...

  16. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  17. CSR1, the sole target of imidazolinone herbicide in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Manabe, Yuzuki; Tinker, Nicholas; Colville, Adam; Miki, Brian


    The imidazolinone-tolerant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, csr1-2(D), carries a mutation equivalent to that found in commercially available Clearfield crops. Despite their widespread usage, the mechanism by which Clearfield crops gain imidazolinone herbicide tolerance has not yet been fully characterized. Transcription profiling of imazapyr (an imidazolinone herbicide)-treated wild-type and csr1-2(D) mutant plants using Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip microarrays was performed to elucidate further the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of imidazolinone resistance. In wild-type shoots, the genes which responded earliest to imazapyr treatment were detoxification-related genes which have also been shown to be induced by other abiotic stresses. Early-response genes included steroid sulfotransferase (ST) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), as well as members of the glycosyltransferase, glutathione transferase (GST), cytochrome P450, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein families. Later stages of the imazapyr response involved regulation of genes participating in biosynthesis of amino acids, secondary metabolites and tRNA. In contrast to the dynamic changes in the transcriptome profile observed in imazapyr-treated wild-type plants, the transcriptome of csr1-2(D) did not exhibit significant changes following imazapyr treatment, compared with mock-treated csr1-2(D). Further, no substantial difference was observed between wild-type and csr1-2(D) transcriptomes in the absence of imazapyr treatment. These results indicate that CSR1 is the sole target of imidazolinone and that the csr1-2(D) mutation has little or no detrimental effect on whole-plant fitness.

  18. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A


    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain. PMID:26224442

  19. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Xin; Bao, Xing-Guo; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Sun, Jian-Hao; Christie, Peter; Li, Long


    Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year) and 2012 (the 4th year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed


    Pandu Naik


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The discovery of opioid receptors and ligand in the brain and spinal cord lead to the feasibility of their intrathecal use. Pethidine is the only narcotic that has been shown to be effective intrathecally for surgery. This is because it as a phenyl - piperidine derivative and has a structure and action similar to that of local anesthetic. METHODS : It is a prospective study of 50 patients belonging to ASA grade I and II physical status were administered intra thecal Pethidine (preservative free 1mg/kg body weight for lower limb surgeries. The time of onset and level of sensory blockade, onset and degree of motor blockade, hemodynamic parameters, time for regression of sensory and motor blockade, duration of po stoperative analgesia and side effects were assessed in the patients. RESULTS : Majority of the procedures performed were below knee amputation or external fixation. The mean duration of onset of sensory block was 6.55 mins (SD: ± 0.79 and onset of motor blo ck was 8.39mins (SD: ± 0.83. Peak level of sensory block was attained at L1 level in majority of patients (82%. Degree of motor block was II degree in 66% of patients. Mean time required for motor recovery was 62.2 mins (SD: ±5.0. This was followed by sen sory regression at 94.6mins (SD:±7.3. Mean duration of postoperative analgesia was 333 minutes (SD: ±29.9. Side effects observed were hypotension, nausea, vomiting, sedation, and pruritus. CONCLUSION : Pethidine (preservative free 1mg/kg body weight can b e used intrathecally as a sole anesthetic agent to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia associated with hemodynamic stability and early ambulation in patients undergoing lower limb surgeries.

  1. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A


    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  2. Depth filters containing diatomite achieve more efficient particle retention than filters solely containing cellulose fibers

    Johannes Felix Buyel


    Full Text Available The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g. when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m-2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m-2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  3. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers.

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer


    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  4. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Zhi-Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year and 2012 (the 4th year the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully

  5. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in retinoic acid metabolism in Senegalese sole larvae.

    Boglino, Anaïs; Ponce, Marian; Cousin, Xavier; Gisbert, Enric; Manchado, Manuel


    The aim of this study was the characterization of transcriptional regulatory pathways mediated by retinoic acid (RA) in Senegalese sole larvae. For this purpose, pre-metamorphic larvae were treated with a low concentration of DEAB, an inhibitor of RALDH enzyme, until the end of metamorphosis. No differences in growth, eye migration or survival were observed. Nevertheless, gene expression analysis revealed a total of 20 transcripts differentially expressed during larval development and only six related with DEAB treatments directly involved in RA metabolism and actions (rdh10a, aldh1a2, crbp1, igf2r, rarg and cyp26a1) to adapt to a low-RA environment. In a second experiment, post-metamorphic larvae were exposed to the all-trans RA (atRA) observing an opposite regulation for those genes involved in RA synthesis and degradation (rdh10a, aldh1a2, crbp1 and cyp26a1) as well as other related with thyroid- (dio2) and IGF-axes (igfbp1, igf2r and igfbp5) to balance RA levels. In a third experiment, DEAB-pretreated post-metamorphic larvae were exposed to atRA and TTNPB (a specific RAR agonist). Both drugs down-regulated rdh10a and aldh1a2 and up-regulated cyp26a1 expression demonstrating their important role in RA homeostasis. Moreover, five retinoic receptors that mediate RA actions, the thyroid receptor thrb, and five IGF binding proteins changed differentially their expression. Overall, this study demonstrates that exogenous RA modulates the expression of some genes involved in the RA synthesis, degradation and cellular transport through RAR-mediated regulatory pathways establishing a negative feedback regulatory mechanism necessary to balance endogenous RA levels and gradients.

  6. 鞋底回弹性测试%The Test of Rebound Resilience for Sole



    For nearly all types of footwear a good bottom design is essential to provide the wearer with high levels of comfort and minishing the risk of foot fatigue. Rebound resilience is one of the necessary conditions for underfoot comfort. It is also an important factor especially on shock absorption of athletic shoes. Test specimen is supported on a rigid foundation and rapidly loaded in compression by a falling mass. Force and displacement transducers are employed for o continuous measurement of the complete loading and unloading compression cycling. The rebound resilience of sole can be obtained by collected data.%针对所有鞋子,一个好的鞋底设计十分重要,它可以提供穿用者高品质的舒适度,且使足部疲劳最小化,鞋底回弹性是构成成鞋舒适度的一个必要条件之一,特别在运动鞋的减震性能上该项目也是其重要的一个技术参数.本测试是将试样固定在一个坚硬的平台上,通过下落的物块迅速连续冲击,采用力和位移传感器测量冲击循环中的力和位移,并记录成相关曲线.通过收集的数据,得出冲击过程中鞋底的回弹性.

  7. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.


    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  8. The Relationship between the Financial Status of Sole Community Independent Pharmacies and Their Broader Involvement with Other Rural Providers

    Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; King, Jennifer; Lampman, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Steve


    Purpose: To document sole community pharmacists' involvement with other local health care organizations, these pharmacies' current financial status, and to determine whether financial position was associated with the provision of pharmacy services to other local health care providers. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with…

  9. Low condylectomy as the sole treatment for active condylar hyperplasia: facial, occlusal and skeletal changes. An observational study.

    Fariña, R; Pintor, F; Pérez, J; Pantoja, R; Berner, D


    The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in facial, occlusal, and skeletal relationships in patients with active unilateral condylar hyperplasia whose sole treatment was a low condylectomy. A retrospective observational descriptive study was conducted. All patients had undergone a low condylectomy as the sole or initial surgical treatment. The size of the condylar segment removed was decided by matching the affected side with the healthy side, leaving them both like the healthy one. The length of the ramus was measured using panoramic X-ray (distance from the highest part of the condyle to the mandibular angle). Facial, occlusal, and skeletal changes were evaluated using clinical, photographic, and radiological records before and after surgery. Condylectomy as the sole treatment for patients with active condylar hyperplasia allowed improvements to the alterations produced by this pathology, such as chin deviation, tilted lip commissure plane, tilted occlusal plane, angle of facial convexity, unevenness of the mandibular angles, and length of the mandibular ramus. The occlusal relationship also improved with orthodontic and elastic therapy. To conclude, low condylectomy as a sole and aetiological treatment for patients with active condylar hyperplasia allowed improvements to alterations produced by this pathology.

  10. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.


    ... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North...: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  11. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.


    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  12. Risk factors for 1-year mortality in patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma treated solely with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Chih-Lin Lin


    Conclusion: One-year mortality in patients with intermediate-stage HCC treated solely with TACE is not uncommon. High serum AFP level (> 400 ng/mL, CTP class B cirrhosis, and tumor size are independent risk factors for 1-year mortality in those patients.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Pathogenic Listonella anguillarum of Diseased Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther)

    TANG Xiaoqian; ZHOU Li; ZHAN Wenbin


    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther juveniles in a fish farm in Jimo, Shandong Province, China, in June 2006. Gross signs of the diseased tongue sole included several petechiae and ecchymoses on the body and fin necrosis and hemorrhagic lesion at the base of the fin. Bacteria were isolated from kidney, liver and hemorrhagic lesions of the diseased tongue sole. Among14 strains, SJ060621 was proved to be highly virulent to juvenile tongue sole with LD50 value of 1.0×105 colony forming units (CFU)mL-1, while the remaining 13 were avirulent. Among the 16 antibiotics tested, SJ060621 was sensitive to gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. It was identified as Listonella anguillarum with conventional plate and tube tests in combination with API 20E analysis. 16S rRNA gene and partial HSP60 gene sequenceing analysis revealed that the strain was highly homologous with L. anguillarum. Examination of the infected musculature by electron microscopy indicated numerous bacteria and lots of macrophages containing phagocytosed bacteria. Histopathological investigations revealed severe necrotic degenerative changes in the infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was employed to detect the location of occurrence of bacteria, and bacteria were found in aggregations in the inflammatory areas in musculature.

  14. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.


    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from... motor vehicles being used at the time of operation in the transportation of schoolchildren and...

  15. Case Report: CD19-positive acute myeloblastic leukemia with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality

    Hua-feng WANG; Yi-zhi CHENG; Huan-ping WANG; Zhi-mei CHEN; Ji-yu LOU; Jie JIN


    We report that a 63-year-old Chinese female had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in which trisomy 21 (+21) was found as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The blasts were positive for myeloperoxidase, and the immunophenotype was positive for cluster of differentiation 19 (CDI9), CD33, CD34, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DR. The chromosomal analysis of bone marrow showed 47,XX,+21 [2]/46,XX[18]. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that three copies of AML1 were situated in separate chromosomes, and that t(8;21) was negative. The patient did not have any features of Down syndrome. A diagnosis of CD19-positive AML-M5 was established with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The patient did not respond well to chemotherapy and died three months after the diagnosis. This is the first reported case of CD19-positive AM L with trisomy 21 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. The possible prognostic significance of the finding in AML with +21 as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality was discussed.

  16. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Deaville, Rob; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, Jooske; Jepson, Paul D; Gröne, Andrea


    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a ra

  17. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Wahles (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    IJsseldijk, L.; Leopold, M.F.; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Deaville, R.; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, J.; Jepson, P.D.; Gröne, A.


    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a ra

  18. Feeding ragworm (Nereis virens Sars) to common sole (Solea solea L.) alleviates nutritional anaemia and stimulates growth

    Kals, J.; Blonk, R.J.W.; Palstra, A.P.; Sobotta, Tim; Mongile, Fulvio; Schneider, O.; Planas, J.V.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    Common sole fed with commercial pellets develop anaemia and are restricted in their growth performance. The anaemia can be the result of a difference in feed intake, a nutritional deficiency, an inflammatory response to infection or combinations of these aspects. In this study, it was investigated

  19. Feeding ragworm (Nereis virens Sars) to common sole (Solea solea L.) alleviates nutritional anaemia and stimulates growth

    Kals, J.; Blonk, R.J.W.; Palstra, A.P.; Sobotta, Tim; Mongile, Fulvio; Schneider, O.; Planas, J.V.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    Common sole fed with commercial pellets develop anaemia and are restricted in their growth performance. The anaemia can be the result of a difference in feed intake, a nutritional deficiency, an inflammatory response to infection or combinations of these aspects. In this study, it was investigated w


    Enton Spaho


    Full Text Available Common sole (Solea solea Linnaeus, 1758 is still not a specific target of fishery in Albania, but it represents an important target of the mixed-species catches of bottom trawlers and set netters operating in the coastal areas in the upper part of Albanian Adriatic Sea. Sole landings are low, amounting very few tonnes, but the demand will likely increase in the next future, because of the high quality of the fish fillet and the increase of consumers demand for wild sea fish. In order to identify the spawning areas and assess the spatial distribution and biomass of this species a rapido trawl survey was performed in year 2007. The smallest specimens were mostly concentrated in the shallowest stratum and the largest ones between 30 and 100 m depth. Solea Stock Biomass (SSB was 354 t, corresponding to 64% of the overall population recorded at sea at that time. In the context of fisheries, the Albanian fishing fleet involve a number of different fishing gears, while rapido trawl is introduced recently. The special technical and operating characteristics of rapido trawl makes it very effective in sole fishery and less harmful for the sea benthos and the species inhabiting it. This study aimed the estimation of spatial distribution of common sole and its biomass in the Albanian coast using rapido trawl gear.

  1. The Spitzer discovery of a galaxy with infrared emission solely due to AGN activity

    Hony, S; Woods, Paul M; van Loon, J Th; Gorjian, V; Madden, S C; Zijlstra, A A; Gordon, K D; Indebetouw, R; Marengo, M; Meixner, M; Panuzzo, P; Shiao, B; Sloan, G C; Roman-Duval, J; Mullaney, J; Tielens, A G G M


    We present a galaxy (SAGE1CJ053634.78-722658.5) at a redshift of 0.14 of which the IR is entirely dominated by emission associated with the AGN. We present the 5-37 um Spitzer/IRS spectrum and broad wavelength SED of SAGE1CJ053634, an IR point-source detected by Spitzer/SAGE (Meixner et al 2006). The source was observed in the SAGE-Spec program (Kemper et al., 2010) and was included to determine the nature of sources with deviant IR colours. The spectrum shows a redshifted (z=0.14+-0.005) silicate emission feature with an exceptionally high feature-to-continuum ratio and weak polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands. We compare the source with models of emission from dusty tori around AGNs from Nenkova et al. (2008). We present a diagnostic diagram that will help to identify similar sources based on Spitzer/MIPS and Herschel/PACS photometry. The SED of SAGE1CJ053634 is peculiar because it lacks far-IR emission and a clear stellar counterpart. We find that the SED and the IR spectrum can be understood as em...

  2. Construction of a microsatellite-based genetic linkage map for half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Wentao SONG; Guidong MIAO; Yongwei ZHAO; Yuze NIU; Renyi PANG; Xiaolin LIAO; Changwei SHAO


    The half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis is an important cultured marine fish and a promising model fish for the study of sex determination.Sex-specific genetic linkage maps of half-smooth tongue sole were developed with 567 markers (565 microsatellite markers and two SCAR markers).The parents and F1 progeny (92 individuals) were used as segregating populations.The female map was composed of 480 markers in 21 linkage groups,covering a total of 1388.1 cM,with an average interval 3.06 cM between markers.The male map consisted of 417 markers in 21 linkage groups,spanning 1480.9 cM,with an average interval of 3.75 cM.The female and male maps had 474 and 416 unique positions,respectively.The genome length of half-smooth tongue sole was estimated to be 1522.9 cM for females and 1649.1cM for males.Based on estimations of map length,the female and male maps covered 91.1% and 89.8% of the genome,respectively.Furthermore,two female-specific SCAR markers,f-382 and f-783,were mapped on LG15f (linkage group 15 in female maps).The present study presents a mid-density genetic linkage map for half-smooth tongue sole.These improved genetic linkage maps may facilitate systematic genome searches to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL),such as disease resistance,growth and sex-related traits,and are very useful for marker-assisted selection breeding programs for economically important traits in half-smooth tongue sole [Current Zoology 59 (1):31-52,2013].

  3. Vibrotactile perception in finger pulps and in the sole of the foot in healthy subjects among children or adolescents.

    Lars B Dahlin

    Full Text Available To evaluate vibrotactile perception at different frequencies in fingers and in foot in healthy girls and boys.Vibration perception thresholds (VPTs were measured in 283 healthy (8-20 years, consecutively included, girls (n=146 and boys (n=137; i.e., 269 children after excluding those with diseases or disorders possibly affecting the nervous system. Thresholds were measured in finger pulps of index and little fingers (seven frequencies; 8-500 Hz and at first and fifth metatarsal head and at heel in the sole of the foot (six frequencies; 8-250 Hz; using Multi Frequency Tactilometry.VPTs, divided in six groups by age and gender (i.e., 8-10 years, 11-15 years and 16-20 years, at all three sites in the sole increased with higher frequencies, but without gender differences. Thresholds at 64 and 125 Hz were generally higher at heel compared to metatarsal heads. VPTs in finger pulps of index and little fingers, with no finger differences, had a different pattern with increasing thresholds with frequency, but with lower thresholds at 64 and 125 Hz. Thresholds at lower frequencies were higher in finger pulps, while at higher frequencies VPTs were lower in finger pulps than in the sole of the foot; thus, vibration perception in the sole was better than perception in finger pulps at lower frequencies and opposite at higher frequencies. VPTs were higher among adolescents than in younger children in the foot, while thresholds were lower in the finger pulps among adolescents, particularly in index finger. Thresholds in finger pulps of index and little fingers, particularly at higher frequencies, correlated with each other, which the three sites in the sole also did.VPTs in fingers and in feet are different as related to frequency in healthy girls and boys. Multi Frequency Tactilometry is a future valuable method to detect neuropathy in children and adolescents.

  4. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.


    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  5. Effect of Small Addition of Cobalt on Magnetic Properties and Internal Stresses Sources in the Form of Free Volumes and Pseudo-Dislocation Dipoles in Fe78CoXSi11-XB11 (x = 0 Or 2 Alloys / Wpływ Nieznacznego Dodatku Kobaltu Na Właściwości Magnetyczne Oraz Źródła Naprężeń Wewnętrznych W Postaci Wolnych Objętości Oraz Pseudodyslokacyjnych Dipoli W Stopach Fe78CoXSi11-XB11 (x = 0 Or 2

    Szota M.


    Full Text Available Amorphous materials in the form of tapes, despite being discovered more than half a century ago, are still the object of interest for materials engineers and electro-technical industry. They possess a great application potential, and are constantly studied for new variations. Due to the different structure from the commonly manufactured textured FeSi sheets, FeCoB based amorphous alloys demonstrate very good, so called soft magnetic properties. This paper presents the results of studying the structure and magnetic properties of tapes of Fe78CoxSi11-xB11 (X = 0 or 2 alloys of amorphous structure. In addition, the effect of Co alloy addition on the type of structural defects in the area of ferromagnetic saturation approach was examined. It was found that a small addition of Co affects the increase of saturation magnetization value, as well as the distribution of magnetization vectors within the stresses sources in form of structure defects.

  6. H-index is important for postural control for people with impaired foot sole sensation.

    Shuqi Zhang

    Full Text Available People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN, especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers reflex loop (SAF, might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers reflex loop (LAF for postural control.To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation.Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP and passive (PAP ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS, average sway velocity (VAVG and area (A95 during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and timed up-and-go duration (TUG.Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05 and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05, greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .05 and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5 cm2, P < .05, shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2 m, P < .05, and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3 s, P < .05. Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05. Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05 and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05 performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed.VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering

  7. Does lighting manipulation during incubation affect hatching rhythms and early development of sole?

    Blanco-Vives, B; Aliaga-Guerrero, M; Cañavate, J P; Muñoz-Cueto, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J


    Light plays a key role in the development of biological rhythms in fish. Previous research on Senegal sole has revealed that both spawning rhythms and larval development are strongly influenced by lighting conditions. However, hatching rhythms and the effect of light during incubation are as yet unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the light spectrum and photoperiod on Solea senegalensis eggs and larvae until day 7 post hatching (dph). To this end, eggs were collected immediately after spawning during the night and exposed to continuous light (LL), continuous darkness (DD), or light-dark (LD) 12L:12D cycles of white light (LD(W)), blue light (LD(B); λ(peak) = 463 nm), or red light (LD(R); λ(peak) = 685 nm). Eggs exposed to LD(B) had the highest hatching rate (94.5% ± 1.9%), whereas LD(R) and DD showed the lowest hatching rate (54.4% ± 3.9% and 48.4% ± 4.2%, respectively). Under LD conditions, the hatching rhythm peaked by the end of the dark phase, but was advanced in LD(B) (zeitgeber time 8 [ZT8]; ZT0 representing the onset of darkness) in relation to LD(W) and LD(R) (ZT11). Under DD conditions, the same rhythm persisted, although with lower amplitude, whereas under LL the hatching rhythm split into two peaks (ZT8 and ZT13). From dph 4 onwards, larvae under LD(B) showed the best growth and quickest development (advanced eye pigmentation, mouth opening, and pectoral fins), whereas larvae under LD(R) and DD had the poorest performance. These results reveal that developmental rhythms at the egg stage are tightly controlled by light characteristics, underlining the importance of reproducing their natural underwater photoenvironment (LD cycles of blue wavelengths) during incubation and early larvae development of fish.

  8. Evaluating nitrogen utilization efficiency of nonpregnant dry cows offered solely fresh cut grass at maintenance levels.

    Stergiadis, S; Chen, X J; Allen, M; Wills, D; Yan, T


    The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization and develop prediction equations for manure N output (MN), feces N output (FN), and urine N output (UN). Data were obtained under a series of digestibility trials with nonpregnant dry cows fed fresh grass at maintenance level. Grass was cut from 8 different ryegrass swards measured from early to late maturity in 2007 and 2008 (2 primary growth, 3 first regrowth, and 3 second regrowth) and from 2 primary growth early maturity swards in 2009. Each grass was offered to a group of 4 cows and 2 groups were used in each of the 8 swards in 2007 and 2008 for daily measurements over 6 wk; the first group (first 3 wk) and the second group (last 3 wk) assessed early and late maturity grass, respectively. Average values of continuous 3-d data of N intake (NI) and output for individual cows ( = 464) and grass nutrient contents ( = 116) were used in the statistical analysis. Grass N content was positively related to GE and ME contents but negatively related to grass water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), NDF, and ADF contents ( grass WSC contents and ratios of N:WSC, N:digestible OM in total DM (DOMD), and N:ME ( grass N contents and lower grass WSC, NDF, ADF, DOMD, and ME concentrations were significantly associated with greater MN, FN, and UN ( grass lower in N and greater in fermentable energy in animals fed solely fresh grass at maintenance level can improve N utilization, reduce N outputs, and shift part of N excretion toward feces rather than urine. These outcomes are highly desirable in mitigation strategies to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from livestock. Equations predicting N output from BW and grass N content explained a similar amount of variability as using NI and grass chemical composition (excluding DOMD and ME), implying that parameters easily measurable in practice could be used for estimating N outputs. In a research environment, where grass DOMD and ME are likely to be available, their

  9. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Moro Serrano Manuel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  10. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    López Sastre, José B; Pérez Solís, David; Roqués Serradilla, Vicente; Fernández Colomer, Belén; Coto Cotallo, Gil D; Krauel Vidal, Xavier; Narbona López, Eduardo; García del Río, Manuel; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Belaustegui Cueto, Antonio; Moro Serrano, Manuel; Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Álvaro Iglesias, Emilio; Cotero Lavín, Ángel; Martínez Vilalta, Eduardo; Jiménez Cobos, Bartolomé


    Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%); 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%), and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%). Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of sepsis, but would be

  11. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W


    In studies reporting stimulus-reinforcer interactions in traditional conditioning paradigms, when a tone-light compound was associated with food the light gained stimulus control, but when the compound was paired with shock avoidance the tone gained control. However, the physical nature of the reinforcer-related events (food vs. shock) presented in the presence of the tone-light compound was always confounded with the conditioned hedonic value of the compound's presence relative to its absence. When the compound was paired with shock, its presence was negative relative to its absence (which was shock-free). In contrast, when the compound was paired with food, its presence was positive relative to its absence (which was food-free). The present experiment dealt with this confounding effect by conditioning a tone-light compound to be positive or negative, relative to its absence, solely with food reinforcement. One group of rats received food for responding in the presence of the tone-light compound and no food in its absence. The other group also responded in the presence of the compound, but received food only in its absence. These rats were trained on a chained schedule in which responding in the presence of the tone-light compound produced a terminal link signaled by the absence of the compound; responding ceased in the terminal link because it delayed food delivery. In a test session to assess stimulus control by the elements of the compound, tone and light were presented separately under extinction conditions. Rats that had been exposed to a positive correlation between food and the compound emitted almost double the responses in the presence of the light as in the presence of the tone. In comparison, rats that had been exposed to a negative correlation emitted only two thirds as many responses in the presence of the light as in the presence of the tone. Because this selective association was produced using only food, it appears that the contingencies under

  12. A Case of Myasthenia Gravis Presenting Solely With Bulbar Palsy Not Associated With Easy Fatigability.

    Pinank R. Mer


    present case shows that it is important to consider MG even in cases presenting solely with progressive bulbar palsy without easy fatigability.

  13. High-temperature fractionation of stable iron isotopes in terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples determined by ultra-precise measurements with a 57Fe-58Fe double spike and MC-ICPMS

    Millet, M.; Baker, J.


    , plagioclase feldspar, which predominantly incorporates Fe3+ shows significantly heavy stable Fe isotope ratios (δ56Fe = 0.25 to 0.42‰), particularly in rhyolitic and pegmatitic samples. Basaltic meteorites from planetesimals that differentiated in the early Solar System under reducing magmatic conditions, show muted stable Fe isotope fractionations between olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase, and a very limited range in stable Fe isotopes (δ56Fe = 0.03 to 0.15‰). These results indicate that a significant stable Fe isotope fractionation between Fe2+ and Fe3+ exists at high temperatures in magmas, which is captured by minerals that crystallize with variable Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios. However, analyses of multiple individual olivine phenocrysts from a high-Mg basaltic andesite from a subduction setting on Earth show a wide range of δ56Fe (δ56Fe = -1.0 to +0.19‰; n=9) implying that redox effects are not the sole influence on stable Fe isotope variations in magmas and their phenocryst assemblages at high temperatures.

  14. 46 CFR 112.25-5 - Failure of power from the normal source.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure of power from the normal source. 112.25-5... Turbine Driven Emergency Power Source as the Sole Emergency Power Source § 112.25-5 Failure of power from... diesel engine or gas turbine driving the final emergency power source must start automatically with no...

  15. Electron transfer and hydrogen generation from a molecular dyad: platinum(II) alkynyl complex anchored to [FeFe] hydrogenase subsite mimic.

    Wang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu


    A PS-Fe(2)S(2) molecular dyad 1a directly anchoring a platinum(II) alkynyl complex to a Fe(2)S(2) active site of a [FeFe] H(2)ase mimic, and an intermolecular system of its reference complexes 1b and 2, have been successfully constructed. Time-dependence of H(2) evolution shows that PS-Fe(2)S(2)1a as well as complex 2 with 1b can produce H(2) in the presence of a proton source and sacrificial donor under visible light irradiation. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies on the electron transfer event reveal that the reduced Fe(I)Fe(0) species generated by the first electron transfer from the excited platinum(II) complex to the Fe(2)S(2) active site in PS-Fe(2)S(2)1a and complex 2 with 1b is essential for photochemical H(2) evolution, while the second electron transfer from the excited platinum(II) complex to the protonated Fe(I)Fe(0) species is thermodynamically unfeasible, which might be an obstacle for the relatively small amount of H(2) obtained by PS-Fe(2)S(2) molecular dyads reported so far.

  16. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S.


    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth's most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002-0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM bioavailability to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Advanced experimental analysis of controls on microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction. First year progress report

    Roden, E.E.; Urrutia, M.M.


    'The authors have made considerable progress toward a number of project objectives during the first several months of activity on the project. An exhaustive analysis was made of the growth rate and biomass yield (both derived from measurements of cell protein production) of two representative strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaalga strain BrY and Geobactermetallireducens) growing with different forms of Fe(III) as an electron acceptor. These two fundamentally different types of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) showed comparable rates of Fe(III) reduction, cell growth, and biomass yield during reduction of soluble Fe(III)-citrate and solid-phase amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Intrinsic growth rates of the two FeRB were strongly influenced by whether a soluble or a solid-phase source of Fe(III) was provided: growth rates on soluble Fe(III) were 10--20 times higher than those on solid-phase Fe(III) oxide. Intrinsic FeRB growth rates were comparable during reduction of HF0 and a synthetic crystalline Fe(III) oxide (goethite). A distinct lag phase for protein production was observed during the first several days of incubation in solid-phase Fe(III) oxide medium, even though Fe(III) reduction proceeded without any lag. No such lag between protein production and Fe(III) reduction was observed during growth with soluble Fe(III). This result suggested that protein synthesis coupled to solid-phase Fe(III) oxide reduction in batch culture requires an initial investment of energy (generated by Fe(III) reduction), which is probably needed for synthesis of materials (e.g. extracellular polysaccharides) required for attachment of the cells to oxide surfaces. This phenomenon may have important implications for modeling the growth of FeRB in subsurface sedimentary environments, where attachment and continued adhesion to solid-phase materials will be required for maintenance of Fe(III) reduction activity. Despite considerable differences in the rate and

  18. P-T evolution of slivers of garnet-bearing micaschist in the sole of the Western Vardar Ophiolite Unit at Brezovica, Kosovo

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim


    Rocks of the metamorphic sole of ophiolite complexes are regarded as an important factor to understand the process of obduction of former oceanic lithosphere on top of continental crust. The metamorphic evolution of these rocks can give, for instance, hints at the thickness of the obducted oceanic lithosphere. We have started to study the sole of the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit at the municipality of Bresovica, Kosovo. This unit is regarded as part of the former Vardar Ocean, a branch of the Neotethys, which was obducted onto the margin of the Adriatic microplate in Jurassic times. The sole in our study area, below strongly serpentinized ultramafic rocks, is characterized by a melange of various rock types, which are of medium metamorphic grade only in the vicinity of the ultramafic rocks. Our field work resulted in the recognition of several slivers of garnet-bearing micaschist among these medium-grade rocks which are dominated by amphibolite. In such a medium-grade rock from Bresovica the mineral assemblage talc + phengite was reported (Abraham and Schreyer, 1976, J. Petrol. 17, 421-439), which turned out by experiments in a piston-cylinder apparatus to be a high-pressure (HP: > 10 kbar) assemblage (Massonne and Schreyer, 1989, Eur. J. Mineral. 1, 391-410). We studied a garnet-bearing micaschist in detail. Elemental mapping and spot analyses of garnet obtained with an electron microprobe yielded core compositions of Alm0.695Gross(+Andr)0.11Pyr0.185Spes0.01. The composition of the garnet rim is Alm0.71Gross(+Andr)0.065Pyr0.21Spes0.015. On the basis of the bulk-rock composition of the micaschist, a P-T pseudosection was constructed with PERPLEX in the system K-Na-Ca-Mg-Mn-Fe-Al-Si-Ti-O-H. This pseudosection was contoured by isopleths for various parameters among them were the molar fractions of garnet components. According to such isopleths and the compositional variation of garnet, a more or less isobaric heating is likely. This heating to 650 °C has occurred

  19. Spin transition in [Fe

    Garcia, Y.; Ksenofontov, V.; Campbell, S. J.; Lord, J. S.; Boland, Y.; Gütlich, P.


    The reversible thermal spin transition which occurs in [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] around T1/2 177 K has been investigated by muon spin relaxation (μSR) (10-280 K). The depolarisation curves are well described by two Lorentzian lines represent fast and slow components in the decay curves, with the initial asymmetry parameter of the fast component found to track the spin transition in [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2]. Comparison of zero-field and transverse field (20 Oe) μSR measurements shows that diamagnetic muonic species occur over the entire temperature range.

  20. Magnetic structure of Fe-Fe oxide nanoparticles made by ...


    cobalt oxide at the surface results in a magnetic system with unidirectional ... Fe / FeO particles were synthesized using laser pyrolysis by Dumitrache et al. ..... nanoparticles for magnetic targeted drug delivery and hyperthermia treatment.

  1. Craniofacial Pain as the Sole Sign of Prodromal Angina and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review and Report of a Rare Case.

    Fazlyab, Mahta; Esnaashari, Ehsan; Saleh, Mojgan; Shakerian, Farshad; Akhlagh Moayed, Davood; Asgary, Saeed


    Orofacial pain can arise from different regions and etiologies. Some of the most debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). The problem with referred pain is the misdiagnosis and unnecessary therapy directed to the pain location instead of its origin. When craniofacial pain is the sole sign of myocardial ischemia, failure to recognize its cardiac source can endanger the patient. In particular, apart from unnecessary dental treatments, patients with acute myocardial infarction who do not experience chest pain run a very high risk of misdiagnosis and death. As endodontists, each of us may face many patients complaining of pain sensation in the teeth with the main source being other craniofacial/visceral organs. This review plots a diagnostically challenging case paving the way for further literature presentation in this regard. The aim of this compendious review was to gain knowledge about the prevalence, clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of craniofacial pain of cardiac origin, in order to improve the clinician's ability to make a correct diagnosis.

  2. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Moskowitz, Bruce M; Reynolds, Richard; Goldstein, Harland; Beroquo, Thelma; Kokaly, Raymond; Bristow, Charlie S


    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth’s most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002–0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM < 0.1 μm. For all examined samples, the average iron apportionment is estimated at about 33% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4% in magnetite, and 65

  3. Interparticle interactions in composites of nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic (gamma-Fe2O3) and antiferromagnetic (CoO,NiO) materials

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Xu, M.;


    The magnetic properties of mixtures of ferrimagnetic gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite) and antiferromagnetic NiO or CoO nanoparticles have been studied by use of Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. The studies showed that the interaction with antiferroma......The magnetic properties of mixtures of ferrimagnetic gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite) and antiferromagnetic NiO or CoO nanoparticles have been studied by use of Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. The studies showed that the interaction...... with antiferromagnetic particles has a significant influence on the magnetic properties of the gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. It was found that mixing the gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with NiO nanoparticles resulted in a faster superparamagnetic relaxation and a reduced coercivity compared to a sample consisting solely...

  4. Essential fatty acids influence metabolic rate and tolerance of hypoxia in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae and juveniles

    McKenzie, David; Lund, Ivar; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg


    Dover sole (Solea solea, Linneaus 1758) were raised from first feeding on brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with different contents and compositions of the essential fatty acids (EFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n - 6); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3......), and their metabolic rate and tolerance to hypoxia measured prior to and following metamorphosis and settlement. Four dietary Artemia preparations were compared: (1) un-enriched; (2) enriched with a commercial EFA mixture (Easy DHA SELCO Emulsion); (3) enriched with a marine fish oil combination (VEVODAR and Incromega......-crit, but juveniles fed on un-enriched Artemia still exhibited higher P-crit and agitation thresholds than the other groups. Sole fed un-enriched Artemia had significantly lower contents of EFA in their tissues, both before and after settlement. Thus, enriching live feeds with EFA has significant effects...

  5. Volcanic ash as an oceanic iron source and sink

    Rogan, Nicholas; Achterberg, Eric P.; Le Moigne, Frédéric A. C.; Marsay, Chris M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Williams, Richard G.


    Volcanic ash deposition to the ocean forms a natural source of iron (Fe) to surface water microbial communities. Inputs of lithogenic material may also facilitate Fe removal through scavenging. Combining dissolved Fe (dFe) and thorium-234 observations alongside modeling, we investigate scavenging of Fe in the North Atlantic following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. Under typical conditions biogenic particles dominate scavenging, whereas ash particles dominate during the eruption. The size of particles is important as smaller scavenging particles can become saturated with surface-associated ions. Model simulations indicate that ash deposition associated with Eyjafjallajökull likely led to net Fe removal. Our model suggests a threefold greater stimulation of biological activity if ash deposition had occurred later in the growing season when the region was Fe limited. The implications of ash particle scavenging, eruption timing, and particle saturation need to be considered when assessing the impact of ash deposition on the ocean Fe cycle and productivity.

  6. Anisotropy effects in magnetic hyperthermia: A comparison between spherical and cubic exchange-coupled FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Khurshid, H., E-mail:, E-mail:; Nemati, Z.; Phan, M. H.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Alonso, J. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); BCMaterials Edificio No. 500, Parque Tecnológico de Vizcaya, Derio 48160 (Spain); Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.; Barandiarán, J. M. [BCMaterials Edificio No. 500, Parque Tecnológico de Vizcaya, Derio 48160 (Spain); Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco, Leioa 48940 (Spain)


    Spherical and cubic exchange-coupled FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, with different FeO:Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ratios, have been prepared by a thermal decomposition method to probe anisotropy effects on their heating efficiency. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanoparticles are composed of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases, with an average size of ∼20 nm. Magnetometry and transverse susceptibility measurements show that the effective anisotropy field is 1.5 times larger for the cubes than for the spheres, while the saturation magnetization is 1.5 times larger for the spheres than for the cubes. Hyperthermia experiments evidence higher values of the specific absorption rate (SAR) for the cubes as compared to the spheres (200 vs. 135 W/g at 600 Oe and 310 kHz). These observations point to an important fact that the saturation magnetization is not a sole factor in determining the SAR and the heating efficiency of the magnetic nanoparticles can be improved by tuning their effective anisotropy.

  7. Diagnosis and Intralesional Corticotherapy in Oral Ulcers Occurring as the Sole Manifestation of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. A Case Report

    Gambirazi, Liane; Libório, Tatiana; Nunes, Fábio; Sugaya, Norberto; Migliari, Dante


    This article reports a case of oral mucosa lesions as the sole manifestation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). This is a very uncommon manifestation of LCH since this disease preferably affects the bones with frequent involvement of the jaws. LCH may also involve other organs, particularly the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. The highlights of this report are the differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical analysis and, mostly, the therapeutic approach. PMID:27398106

  8. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Gessí Ceccon


    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  9. the Fe-N System

    S. Matar


    of Fe2N for the two nitrides. The magnetization is low (0.95 μB/at. for Fe2N and vanishes for FeN. The decrease of the magnetization with increasing amount of N is assessed within the Fe-N system in a model derived from a Slater-Pauling type behavior. Accordingly, a trend from weak to strong ferromagnetism is suggested.

  10. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea.

    Lonneke L IJsseldijk

    Full Text Available Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a rare cause of death in cetaceans. Whilst asphyxiation has been reported in smaller odontocetes, there are no recent records of this occurring in Globicephala species. Here we report the stranding, necropsy and diet study results as well as discuss the unusual nature of this phenomenon. Flatfish are not a primary prey species for pilot whales and are rarely eaten by other cetaceans, such as harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena, in which there are several reports of asphyxiation due to airway obstruction by soles. This risk may be due to the fish's flexible bodies which can enter small cavities either actively in an attempt to escape or passively due to the whale 'coughing' or 'sneezing' to rid itself of the blockage of the trachea. It is also possible that the fish enter the airways whilst the whale is re-articulating the larynx after trying to ingest large, oddly shaped prey. It is unlikely that the soles entered the airways after the death of the whales and we believe therefore that they are responsible for the death of these animals.




    Full Text Available Hoofs are an important part of horse body and significantly influence its usability.According to irregular weight of horse limbs, fore-hoofs and hind-hoofs differ withthe shape, the angle of fore-wall inclination and size but they should be proportionalto horse body size. The objective of this study was the trial of founding the dependencebetween the size sole surface of fore- and hind-hoofs and biometric measurementsof Hucul horses. Contours of left fore- and hind-hoof were collected from 50Hucul horses from Gładyszów Stud (7 stallions and 43 mares. The contours werescanned in 1:1 scale and using the AutoCad computer program the surface and circumferenceof hoof sole were evaluated. At the same time the biometrical measurementswere taken from mentioned horses – height at withers, girth and cannon circumferences.In studied population the surface and circumference of fore-hoofs weresignificantly higher than of hind-hoofs. Biometrical measurements and indexescounted highly significantly and significantly affected the surface and circumferenceof Hucul horse hoofs. Horses with higher height at withers and higher girth capacitywere characterized by significantly higher surface and circumference of hind-hoofsthan in horses with lower height. Highly significantly higher sole surface and circumferenceof fore-hoofs was shown in horses with higher cannon circumference.

  12. Coupled perpendicular magnetization in Fe/Cu/Fe trilayers

    Repetto, D. [Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail:; Enders, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max Planck Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    Ultrathin epitaxial Fe films on Cu(1 0 0) with perpendicular magnetization have been used as templates for the preparation of FCC Fe/Cu/Fe trilayers. The magnetic anisotropy and the coupling of these films have been studied by in-situ magneto optical Kerr effect measurements and Kerr microscopy. The magnetic coupling of both Fe layers is found to be dominated by magnetostatic interaction. Adsorbate-induced spin reorientation in the top layer also causes spin reorientation in the bottom layer. The governing role of the Fe-vacuum interface for the magnetism of the whole trilayer is demonstrated.

  13. The [FeFe] hydrogenase of Nyctotherus ovalis has a chimeric origin

    Jouany Jean-Pierre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis show how mitochondria can evolve into hydrogenosomes because they possess a mitochondrial genome and parts of an electron-transport chain on the one hand, and a hydrogenase on the other hand. The hydrogenase permits direct reoxidation of NADH because it consists of a [FeFe] hydrogenase module that is fused to two modules, which are homologous to the 24 kDa and the 51 kDa subunits of a mitochondrial complex I. Results The [FeFe] hydrogenase belongs to a clade of hydrogenases that are different from well-known eukaryotic hydrogenases. The 24 kDa and the 51 kDa modules are most closely related to homologous modules that function in bacterial [NiFe] hydrogenases. Paralogous, mitochondrial 24 kDa and 51 kDa modules function in the mitochondrial complex I in N. ovalis. The different hydrogenase modules have been fused to form a polyprotein that is targeted into the hydrogenosome. Conclusion The hydrogenase and their associated modules have most likely been acquired by independent lateral gene transfer from different sources. This scenario for a concerted lateral gene transfer is in agreement with the evolution of the hydrogenosome from a genuine ciliate mitochondrion by evolutionary tinkering.

  14. Enhanced reduction of Fe(III) oxides and methyl orange by Klebsiella oxytoca in presence of anthraquinone-2-disulfonate.

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Shi; Tang, Qing-Wen; Cao, Ming-Yue; Li, Jia; Yuan, Kun; Wang, Ping; Li, Wen-Wei


    Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 is capable of azo dye reduction, but its quinone respiration and Fe(III) reduction abilities have not been reported so far. In this study, the abilities of this strain were reported in detail for the first time. As the biotic reduction of Fe(III) plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles, two amorphous Fe(III) oxides were tested as the sole electron acceptor during the anaerobic respiration of strain GS-4-08. For the reduction of goethite and hematite, the biogenic Fe(II) concentrations reached 0.06 and 0.15 mM, respectively. Humic acid analog anthraquinone-2-disulfonate (AQS) was found to serve as an electron shuttle to increase the reduction of both methyl orange (MO) and amorphous Fe(III) oxides, and improve the dye tolerance of the strain. However, the formation of Fe(II) was not accelerated by biologically reduced AQS (B-AH2QS) because of the high bioavailability of soluble Fe(III). For the K. oxytoca strain, high soluble Fe(III) concentrations (above 1 mM) limit its growth and decolorization ability, while lower soluble Fe(III) concentrations produce an electron competition with MO initially, and then stimulate the decolorization after the electron couples of Fe(III)/Fe(II) are formed. With the ability to respire both soluble Fe(III) and insoluble Fe(III) oxides, this formerly known azo-reducer may be used as a promising model organism for the study of the interaction of these potentially competing processes in contaminated environments.

  15. Molar Absorptivity and Quantum Yield of Fe(II) Photo-formation for the Aqueous Solutions of Fe(III)-Dicarboxylate Comlexes

    Hitomi, Y.; Arakaki, T.


    Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycle in the environment affects formation of active oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which in turn determines lifetimes of many organic compounds. Although aqueous Fe(III)-dicarboxylate complexes are considered to be an important source of photo-chemically formed Fe(II), molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) formation for individual species are not well understood. The Visual MINTEQ computer program was used to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of individual Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species in the aqueous solutions of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate complexes. The molar absorptivity and the product of the quantum yield and the molar absorptivity of Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species were obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and photochemical experiments, and these experimental data were combined with the calculated equilibrium Fe(III)-dicarboxylate concentrations to determine individual molar absorptivity and quantum yield of Fe(II) photo-formation for a specific Fe(III)-dicarboxylate species. Dicarboxylate compounds studied were oxalate, malonate, succinate, malate, and phthalate.

  16. Modeling a Common-Source Amplifier Using a Ferroelectric Transistor

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.


    This paper presents a mathematical model characterizing the behavior of a common-source amplifier using a FeFET. The model is based on empirical data and incorporates several variables that affect the output, including frequency, load resistance, and gate-to-source voltage. Since the common-source amplifier is the most widely used amplifier in MOS technology, understanding and modeling the behavior of the FeFET-based common-source amplifier will help in the integration of FeFETs into many circuits.

  17. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral


    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  18. MHC polymorphism and disease resistance to vibrio anguillarum in 8 families of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Liu Yan-hong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC have a critical role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses because of their involvement in presenting foreign peptides to T cells. However, the nature has remained largely unknown. Results We examined the genetic variation in MHC class IIB in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis after challenge with vibrio anguillarum. Two thousand and four hundred fry from 12 half-smooth tongue sole families were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. To determine any association between alleles and resistance or susceptibility to V. anguillarum, 160 individuals from four high-resistance (HR, 73.27% mortality families were selected for MHC IIB exon2 gene sequence analysis. The MHC IIB exon2 genes of tongue sole displayed a high level of polymorphism and were discovered at least four loci. Meanwhile, the dN/dS [the ratio of non-synonymous (dN substitutions to synonymous (dS substitutions] in the peptide-binding region (PBR was higher than that in the non-peptide-binding region (non-PBR. Eighty-eight alleles were discovered among 160 individuals, and 13 out of 88 alleles were used to analyze the distribution pattern between the resistant and susceptible families. Certain alleles presented in HR and LR with a different frequency, while other alleles were discovered in only the HR or LR families, not both. Five alleles, Cyse-DBB*6501, Cyse-DBB*4002, Cyse-DBB*6102, Cyse-DBB*5601 and Cyse-DBB*2801, were found to be associated with susceptibility to V. anguillarum with a frequency of 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 2.5% in the HR families, and 35%, 33.75%, 27.5%, 16.25%, 15% in the LR families (p Cyse-DBB*3301, Cyse-DBB*4701, Cyse-DBB*6801 and Cyse-DBB*5901, were found to be associated with resistance to V. anguillarum, with a frequency of 13.75%, 11.25%, 11.25%, 8.75% in the HR families and 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 1.25% in the LR families (p Conclusions Elucidation of the

  19. Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis in Isolated Mammalian Mitochondria

    Pandey, Alok; Pain, Jayashree; Ghosh, Arnab K.; Dancis, Andrew; Pain, Debkumar


    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors, and mitochondria contain several Fe-S proteins, including the [4Fe-4S] protein aconitase and the [2Fe-2S] protein ferredoxin. Fe-S cluster assembly of these proteins occurs within mitochondria. Although considerable data exist for yeast mitochondria, this biosynthetic process has never been directly demonstrated in mammalian mitochondria. Using [35S]cysteine as the source of sulfur, here we show that mitochondria isolated from Cath.A-derived cells, a murine neuronal cell line, can synthesize and insert new Fe-35S clusters into aconitase and ferredoxins. The process requires GTP, NADH, ATP, and iron, and hydrolysis of both GTP and ATP is necessary. Importantly, we have identified the 35S-labeled persulfide on the NFS1 cysteine desulfurase as a genuine intermediate en route to Fe-S cluster synthesis. In physiological settings, the persulfide sulfur is released from NFS1 and transferred to a scaffold protein, where it combines with iron to form an Fe-S cluster intermediate. We found that the release of persulfide sulfur from NFS1 requires iron, showing that the use of iron and sulfur for the synthesis of Fe-S cluster intermediates is a highly coordinated process. The release of persulfide sulfur also requires GTP and NADH, probably mediated by a GTPase and a reductase, respectively. ATP, a cofactor for a multifunctional Hsp70 chaperone, is not required at this step. The experimental system described here may help to define the biochemical basis of diseases that are associated with impaired Fe-S cluster biogenesis in mitochondria, such as Friedreich ataxia. PMID:25398879

  20. A comparison of fatty acid composition and quality aspects of eggs and larvae from cultured and wild broodstock of common sole ( Solea solea L . )

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Suhr, Karin


    Eggs from a F-1 cultured broodstock of sole were compared with eggs from wild-caught breeders throughout one spawning season, to evaluate if egg quality may be affected by culture-related conditions. Fourteen batches of eggs from cultured broodstock and 17 batches from wild-caught sole were compa...

  1. Different environmental temperatures affect amino acid metabolism in the eurytherm teleost Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) as indicated by changes in plasma metabolites.

    Costas, B.; Aragao, C.; Ruiz-Jarabo, I.; Vargas-Chacoff, L.; Arjona, F.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Dinis, M.T.; Conceicao, L.E.


    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a eurytherm teleost that under natural conditions can be exposed to annual water temperature fluctuations between 12 and 26 degrees C. This study assessed the effects of temperature on sole metabolic status, in particular in what concerns plasma free amino aci


    Rudenko E. Y.


    Full Text Available In this article the author analyzes the changes in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation concerning the legal status of the sole executive body of the legal entity and the ability of several sole executive bodies to operate in the legal entity, which allows noting its value for law enforcement practices and the improvement of civil legislation

  3. Cobalt source calibration

    Rizvi, H.M.


    The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

  4. Blind separation of more sources than sensors in convolutive mixtures

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai


    We demonstrate that blind separation of more sources than sensors can be performed based solely on the second order statistics of the observed mixtures. This a generalization of well-known robust algorithms that are suited for equal number of sources and sensors. It is assumed that the sources ar......, it is demonstrated that real room recordings of 3 speakers by 2 microphones can be separated using the method.......We demonstrate that blind separation of more sources than sensors can be performed based solely on the second order statistics of the observed mixtures. This a generalization of well-known robust algorithms that are suited for equal number of sources and sensors. It is assumed that the sources...

  5. Fe embedded in ice: The impacts of sublimation and energetic particle bombardment

    Frankland, Victoria L.; Plane, John M. C.


    Icy particles containing a variety of Fe compounds are present in the upper atmospheres of planets such as the Earth and Saturn. In order to explore the role of ice sublimation and energetic ion bombardment in releasing Fe species into the gas phase, Fe-dosed ice films were prepared under UHV conditions in the laboratory. Temperature-programmed desorption studies of Fe/H2O films revealed that no Fe atoms or Fe-containing species co-desorbed along with the H2O molecules. This implies that when noctilucent ice cloud particles sublimate in the terrestrial mesosphere, the metallic species embedded in them will coalesce to form residual particles. Sputtering of the Fe-ice films by energetic Ar+ ions was shown to be an efficient mechanism for releasing Fe into the gas phase, with a yield of 0.08 (Ar+ energy=600 eV). Extrapolating with a semi-empirical sputtering model to the conditions of a proton aurora indicates that sputtering by energetic protons (>100 keV) should also be efficient. However, the proton flux in even an intense aurora will be too low for the resulting injection of Fe species into the gas phase to compete with that from meteoric ablation. In contrast, sputtering of the icy particles in the main rings of Saturn by energetic O+ ions may be the source of recently observed Fe+ in the Saturnian magnetosphere. Electron sputtering (9.5 keV) produced no detectable Fe atoms or Fe-containing species. Finally, it was observed that Fe(OH)2 was produced when Fe was dosed onto an ice film at 140 K (but not at 95 K). Electronic structure theory shows that the reaction which forms this hydroxide from adsorbed Fe has a large barrier of about 0.7 eV, from which we conclude that the reaction requires both translationally hot Fe atoms and mobile H2O molecules on the ice surface.

  6. Biodisponibilidad de fósforo en un suelo del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina: Efectos de dos fuentes fosfatadas y sus mezclas con urea Phosphorus bioavailability in a soil of the south of Santa Fe (Argentina: Effects of two phosphate sources and their mixtures with urea

    M. M. Silva Rossi


    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: i determinar en qué medida las fuentes fosfatadas y sus mezclas con urea afectan la biodisponibilidad de P, ii analizar los efectos de interacción urea/fuente fosfatada, y iii analizar el efecto de la urea sobre el P nativo del suelo. El experimento se condujo en un Hapludol típico Serie Santa Isabel (pH 6,1; 29 g kg-1 de materia orgánica; 12,4 mg kg-1 de P extractable; P total, 446 mg kg-1; MBC 35,8 L kg-1. Se hicieron ensayos de fertilización de trigo con dos fuentes fosfatadas: fosfato monoamónico y fosfato diamónico en dosis de 0, 9 y 17 kg P/ha, en mezclas físicas con urea en dosis de 0, 19 y 37 kg N/ha. Se concluyó que la aplicación de urea no causa efectos sobre los tenores de fósforo nativo en la zona de aplicación. Además, la disponibilidad del fósforo aplicado varía con la dosis y fuente fosfatada utilizada: la aplicación de fosfato monoamónico aumenta significativamente la biodisponibilidad del nutriente en este suelo, con respecto al fosfato diamónico. La utilización de mezclas de fertilizantes fosfatados, con bajas dosis de urea, aumenta la biodisponibilidad del nutriente para el trigo, con relación a las aplicaciones fosfatadas puras.The aims of this work were: i to determine to what extent the phosphorus sources and the mixtures with urea affect P bioavailability, ii to test interaction of urea/phosphate- source effects, and iii to test the effect of urea on the native P of the soil . The experiment was performed in a Santa Isabel Typic Hapludoll (soil organic matter: 29 g kg-1; pH: 6.1; extractable P: 12.4 mg kg-1; and total P: 446 mg kg-1; CBM 35.8 L kg-1. Fertilization assays of wheat with two phosphate sources were carried out: monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate in rates of 0. 9 and 17 kg P/ha, in physical mixtures with urea in rates of 0. 19 and 37 kg N/ha. It was concluded that in the soil tested, the use of urea causes no effects on the native phosphorus


    Zhi-ming Zhang; Yue Wang; Qiong Li; Liang-min Yu; Jadranka Travas-Sejdic; Li-juan Zhang


    In this paper,electromagnetic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/γ-Fe2O3 (PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3) micro-bowls,1-2 μm in diameter,were prepared by a simple environment-friendly process.In this method,the aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) instead of any organic solvent was used.FeCI3 acted as a source of FeIII for the formation of γ-Fe2O3 and as an oxidant for the polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT).The bowl-shaped morphology of PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 composites was strongly influenced by the concentration of CTAB,FeC12,ammonia solution and the reaction temperature.The saturation magnetization of PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 micro-bowls increased with the increase of FeC12 concentration and reached 6.20 Am2/kg at the FeC12 concentration of 0.30 mol/L.The conductivity of the PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 composites was in the range of 101 S/cm.The electrical and magnetic sources of PEDOT/γ-Fe2O3 micro-bowls were confirmed by SEM-EDX,TEM,XRD and XPS spectra.And the possible formation mechanism of PEDOT//γ-Fe2O3 was proposed.

  8. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsumoto, N. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Graduate School


    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  9. Formation of FePt Nanoparticles Having High Coercivity

    Rutledge, R.D. [Vanderbilt University; MorrisIII, William H [Vanderbilt University; Wellons, M.S. [Vanderbilt University; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Bentley, James [ORNL; Wittig, J. E. [Vanderbilt University; Lukehart, C.M. [Vanderbilt University


    Ultrasonication of toluene solutions of the heteropolynuclear cluster complex, Pt{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 15}, in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine affords surface-capped fcc FePt nanoparticles having an average diameter of ca. 2 nm. Self-assembled arrays of these nanoparticles on oxidized Si wafers undergo a fcc-to-fct phase transition at 775 C to form ferromagnetic FePt nanocrystals ca. 5.8 nm in diameter well dispersed on the Si wafer surface. Room-temperature coercivity measurements of these annealed FePt nanoparticles confirm a high coercivity of ca. 22.3 kOe. Such high coercivity for fct FePt nanoparticles might result from use of a heterpolynuclear complex as a single-source precursor of Fe and Pt neutral atoms or from use of ultrasonication to form fcc FePt nanoparticles under conditions of exceptionally rapid heating. Experiments to determine the critical experimental conditions required to achieve such high room-temperature coercivities in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are underway.

  10. Cometary Refractory Grains: Interstellar and Nebular Sources

    Wooden, D. H.


    Comets are heterogeneous mixtures of interstellar and nebular materials. The degree of mixing of interstellar sources and nebular sources at different nuclear size scales holds the promise of revealing how cometary particles, cometesimals, and cometary nuclei accreted. We can ascribe cometary materials to interstellar and nebular sources and see how comets probe planet-forming process in our protoplanetary disk. Comets and cometary IDPs contain carbonaceous matter that appears to be either similar to poorly-graphitized (amorphous) carbon, a likely ISM source, or highly labile complex organics, with possible ISM or outer disk heritage. The oxygen fugacity of the solar nebula depends on the dynamical interplay between the inward migration of carbon-rich grains and of icy (water-rich) grains. Inside the water dissociation line, OH- reacts with carbon to form CO or CO2, consuming available oxygen and contributing to the canonical low oxygen fugacity. Alternatively, the influx of water vapor and/or oxygen rich dust grains from outer (cooler) disk regions can raise the oxygen fugacity. Low oxygen fugacity of the canonical solar nebula favors the condensation of Mg-rich crystalline silicates and Fe-metal, or the annealing of Fe-Mg amorphous silicates into Mg-rich crystals and Fe-metal via Fe-reduction. High oxygen fugacity nebular conditions favors the condensation of Fe-bearing to Fe-rich crystalline silicates. In the ISM, Fe-Mg amorphous silicates are prevalent, in stark contrast to Mg-rich crystalline silicates that are rare. Hence, cometary Mg-rich crystalline silicates formed in the hot, inner regions of the canonical solar nebula and they are the touchstone for models of the outward radial transport of nebular grains to the comet-forming zone. Stardust samples are dominated by Mg-rich crystalline silicates but also contain abundant Fe-bearing and Fe-rich crystalline silicates that are too large (≫0.1 μm) to be annealed Fe-Mg amorphous silicates. By comparison

  11. Electronically-driven orthorhombic distortion in FeSe

    Watson, Matthew; Davies, Nathaniel; Haghighirad, Amir; Narayanan, Arjun; Kim, Timur; Hoersch, Moritz; Blake, Samuel; Coldea, Amalia


    FeSe is structurally the simplest of Fe-based superconductors, and exhibits a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition at ~ 90 K, but no long-range magnetism at any temperature. We report measurements of the resistivity anisotropy in FeSe above Ts finding a large and divergent response to an applied strain, with a comparable magnitude and temperature-dependence to measurements in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2, but opposite sign. We compare this data with literature reports on NMR and our own ARPES data, which taken together indicate that the structural transition is electronically-driven with orbital degrees of freedom playing a central role. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK (EP/I004475/1) and Diamond Light Source.

  12. Biodecolorization of recalcitrant dye as the sole sourceof nutrition using Curvularia clavata NZ2 and decolorization ability of its crude enzymes.

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Lam, Chi Yong; Lim, Chi Kim; Yahya, Adibah; Bay, Hui Han; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Noor, Zainura Zainon


    Extensive use of recalcitrant azo dyes in textile and paper industries poses a direct threat to the environment due to the carcinogenicity of their degradation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Curvularia clavata NZ2 in decolorization of azo dyes. The ability of the fungus to decolorize azo dyes can be evaluated as an important outcome as existing effluent treatment is unable to remove the dyes effectively. C. clavata has the ability to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Acid Orange 7 (AO7), and Congo Red azo dyes, utilizing these as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the extracted RB5's metabolites along with desorption tests confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation and not merely by adsorption. Enzyme activities of extracellular enzymes such as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were also detected during the decolorization process. Toxicity expressed as inhibition of germination was reduced significantly in fungal-treated azo dye solution when compared with the control. The cultivation of C. clavata under sequential batch system also recorded a decolorization efficiency of above 90%. The crude enzyme secreted by C. clavata also showed excellent ability to decolorize RB5 solutions with concentrations of 100 ppm (88-92%) and 1000 ppm (70-77%) without redox mediator. This proved that extracellular enzymes produced by C. clavata played a major role in decolorization of RB5.

  13. Bottom and top AF/FM interfaces of NiFe/FeMn/NiFe trilayers

    Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Biondo, A.; Pelegrini, F.; Saitovitch, E. Baggio


    X-ray reflectivity analyses were performed in the Si/WTi (7 nm)/NiFe (30 nm)/FeMn (13 nm)/NiFe (10 nm)/WTi (7 nm) exchange-biased system prepared by magnetron sputtering under three different argon working pressures. Layer-by-layer analyses were realized in order to obtain the interfacial roughness parameters quantitatively. For a fixed argon pressure, the root-mean-square roughness (including the atomic grading) of the upper (FeMn/NiFe) interface are greater than that for the lower one in all studied samples. Argon working pressure also has severe influence over the NiFe/FeMn interfaces, being more pronounced at the upper interfaces.

  14. Effect of stocking density and protein/fat ratio of the diet on growth of Dover sole (Solea solea

    A. Nizza


    Full Text Available 250 soles (30g initial weight were randomly placed in 12 experimental tanks at the Discizia’s aquaculture marine station. They were reared at 2 different stocking densities (2.3 and 1.3kg/m2 corresponding to 40% and 25% of the bottom surface area covered by fish and fed on 2 diets with different protein/fat ratio (50% and 54% crude protein and 21% and 18% total lipid, respectively for diets A and B with triplicate tanks per treatment. The trial lasted 120 days. Fish stocked at the lower density resulted in significantly higher weight gain than fish reared at 2.3 kg/m2 (29.0±7.3 g vs 20.3±8.0g; P<0.01 with a specific growth rate (SGR of 0.54±0.09 and 0.42±0.13, respectively. Feed conversion rate (FCR was improved at the lower density (1.8 vs 2.4, P<0.01. The chemical composition of the test diets significantly affected the growth performance of sole. Diet B led to a higher final weight (59.7 vs 50.8g; P<0.01 and better feed utilisation (FCR: 1.8 vs 2.4, P<0.01. These results confirm the necessity to ensure an adequate space for the growing sole and suggest the need for high protein diets to meet sole’s requirements.

  15. Innate immune response, intestinal morphology and microbiota changes in Senegalese sole fed plant protein diets with probiotics or autolysed yeast.

    Batista, S; Medina, A; Pires, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Sansuwan, K; Fernandes, J M O; Valente, L M P; Ozório, R O A


    The effects of using plant ingredients in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diet on immune competence and intestine morphology and microbial ecology are still controversial. Probiotics or immunostimulants can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota in a way that protects fish against pathogens. The current study aimed to examine the intestine histology and microbiota and humoral innate immune response in juvenile sole fed diets with low (35 %) or high (72 %) content of plant protein (PP) ingredients supplemented with a multispecies probiotic bacteria or autolysed yeast. Fish fed the probiotic diet had lower growth performance. Lysozyme and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed PP72 diets than in their counterparts fed PP35 diets after 17 and 38 days of feeding. At 2 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed larger intestine section area and longer villus than fish fed unsupplemented PP35. At 17 days of feeding, fish fed unsupplemented PP72 showed more goblet cells than the other dietary groups, except the group fed yeast supplemented PP35 diet. High dietary PP level, acutely stimulate fish innate immune defence of the fish after 2 and 17 days of feeding. However, this effect does not occur after 73 days of feeding, suggesting a habituation to dietary treatments and/or immunosuppression, with a reduction in the number of the goblet cells. Fish fed for 38 days with diets supplemented with autolysed yeast showed longer intestinal villus. The predominant bacteria found in sole intestine were Vibrio sp. and dietary probiotic supplementation caused a reduction in Vibrio content, regardless of the PP level.

  16. [Mechanical stimulation of soles' support zones: non-invasive method of activation of generators of stepping movements in man].

    Tomilovskaia, E S; Moshonkina, T R; Gorodnichev, R M; Shigueva, T A; Zakirova, A Z; Pivovarova, E A; Savokhin, A A; Selionov, V A; Semenov, Iu S; Brevnov, V V; Kitov, V V; Gerasimenko, Iu P; Kozlovskaia, I B


    The effects of mechanical stimulation of the soles' support zones in regimens of slow and fastwalking (75 and 120 steps per minute) were studied using the model of supportlessness (legs suspension). 20 healthy subjects participated in the study. EMG activity of hip and shin muscles was recorded. Kinematic of leg movements was assessed with the use of videoanalysis system. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% it was a locomotion-like movement. EMG bursts accompanied the movements. Involvement order and alteration of bursts in muscles were similar to voluntary walking. EMG activity occurred with a delay of 5.17 ± 1.08 seconds for hip muscles and 14.01 ± 2.82 seconds for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed from stimulation frequency. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% of which they had characteristics of locomotions being accompanied by the burst-like electromyographic activities. Involvement order of the leg muscles and organization of antagonistic muscles activities were analogous to that of voluntary walking. The latencies of electromyographic activity in hip muscles composed 5.17 ± 1.083 s and 14.01 ± 2.82 s - for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed significantly from stimulation frequency. In 31% of cases the electromyographical activity following the stimulation of the soles' support zones was not burst-like. Its amplitude rose smoothly reaching a certain level that was subsequently maintained. Results of the study showed that soles' support zones stimulation in regimen of locomotion can activate a locomotor generator and that effect evoked by this stimulation includes not only rhythmical but also non-rhythmical (probably postural) components of walking.

  17. American Indian grand families: a qualitative study conducted with grandmothers and grandfathers who provide sole care for their grandchildren.

    Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique G; Byers, Lisa G


    A qualitative study was conducted to determine the rationale for 31 American Indian grandparents' who provide sole care of their grandchildren, the impact of historical trauma on their decision making process in accessing services, the value of American Indian Child Welfare policies in addressing care issues, and custody status of the grand families. Indian Outreach Workers, Community Health Representatives, Elder Program Directors, and tribal community leaders were key in the recruitment of participants. The grandparents were informed of the purpose of the study and participated in face-to-face, paper and pencil, individual interviews. The subjects included 29 grandmothers and two grandfathers; age 43-86 years, with 20 who lived off reservation land and 11 who lived on reservation land in Michigan. A phenomenological approach of the "world of the lived experience" informed the design of the study. The researchers recorded the subjects' responses via field notes, conducted a comparison of responses to assess internal reliability, and entered the responses into the qualitative data analysis Nvivo program. Findings included; (1) reasons for providing sole care of grandchildren (2) stressors and rewards of providing sole care (3) grandparents decisions affected by historical traumas which focused on the boarding school issues and the removal of children from their homes due to cultural differences causing a reluctance to seek and access national and state programs (4) grandparents preference was to seek and access services provided by their Tribal Nations, and/or American Indian urban agencies (5) most lacked legal custodial status which is an indicator the grandparents' may have benefited from knowledge of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA).

  18. Eye development and retinal differentiation in an altricial fish species, the senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858).

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; DeGrip, Willem J; Oyola-Velasco, José Antonio; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier


    We describe the major events in the retinogenesis in an altricial fish species, the Senegalese sole. The major developmental events in the sole retina occurred early after hatching (posthatching day 0, P0). Thus, (1) plexiform layers became recognizable at P1. (2) Proliferative activity disappeared from the central retina at P1, and, as development progressed, became restricted to cells located in the circumferential germinal zone, and to sparse cells dispersed throughout the inner nuclear layer and the outer nuclear layer. (3) Apoptotic cells were sparsely observed, randomly localized in all three nuclear layers of the early posthatching retina from P0 to P4. (4) The first synaptic vesicles were detected at P0 in early postmitotic ganglion cells. However, their appearance in the plexiform layers was delayed until P2. (5) The neurochemical development of most major retinal cell classes occurred between P0 and P5. Thus, although Isl1 immunoreactive ganglion cells were the first to become postmitotic in the vitreal surface of the central retina at P0, the first glutamine synthetase-expressing Müller cells appeared in the central retina by P5. The onset of expression for other retinal markers, such as rod opsin, calretinin, parvalbumin, a-tyrosine hydroxylase, and a-protein kinase C, occurred between P2 and P4. Our results suggest that the most relevant processes involved in Senegalese sole retinogenesis occur during the prolarval and early larval stages (P0–P5). Furthermore, we conclude that altricial fish species may constitute a convenient model organism to address the relationship between the structural and functional development of sensory organs with the acquisition of behavioral repertoires.

  19. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Zhenping Yang

    Full Text Available As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping

  20. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai


    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  1. [Fe II] jets from intermediate-mass protostars in Carina

    Reiter, Megan; Bally, John


    We present new HST/WFC3-IR narrowband [Fe II] images of protostellar jets in the Carina Nebula. Combined with 5 previously published sources, we have a sample of 18 jets and 2 HH objects. All of the jets we targeted with WFC3 show bright infrared [Fe II] emission, and a few H$\\alpha$ candidate jets are confirmed as collimated outflows based on the morphology of their [Fe II] emission. Continuum-subtracted images clearly separate jet emission from the adjacent ionization front, providing a better tracer of the collimated jet than H$\\alpha$ and allowing us to connect these jets with their embedded driving sources. The [Fe II] 1.64 $\\mu$m/H$\\alpha$ flux ratio measured in the jets is $\\gtrsim 5$ times larger than in the adjacent ionization fronts. The low-ionization jet core requires high densities to shield Fe$^+$ against further ionization by the FUV radiation from O-type stars in the H II region. High jet densities imply high mass-loss rates, consistent with the intermediate-mass driving sources we identify fo...

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of magnetic Fe3O4 microparticles via self-assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Wei Zhang; Fenglei Shen; Ruoyu Hong


    Ferromagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized and then self-assembled into microparticles via a solvothermal method, using FeCI3.6H2O as the iron source, sodium oleate as the surfactant, and ethylene glycol as the reducing agent and solvent. The obtained Fe3O4 microparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The size and morphology of the particles were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Fe3O4 microparticles of nearly monodisperse diameters, controllable in the range of 120-400 nm, consist of assemblies of Fe3O4nanoparticles with a diameter of 22 nm. The effects of reaction time, amount of surfactant and NaAc on the products were discussed. Interestingly, by using the pre-synthesized Fe3O4 microparticles as the growth substrates, spherical and smooth-looking Fe3O4 microparticles with average diameter of lμmwere obtained. A plausible formation process was discussed.

  3. Krukenberg tumor presenting with amenorrhea as the sole initial symptom: Case report and review of the literature.

    Sahin, Suleyman; Karatas, Fatih; Hacioglu, B; Aytekin, A; Imamoglu, I; Koseoglu, N; Sari, E; Altinbas, M


    Krukenberg tumor (KT), mostly originates from gastric cancer, is the metastatic tumor of ovaries accounting for 1-2% of all ovarian cancer. Common presenting symptoms include abdominal pain, distension, and ascites. Rests of the patients have non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms including dyspepsia, weight loss, nausea and vomiting. Gynecologic symptoms such as virilization, menstrual bleeding or irregularity and amenorrhea are much less frequent in the literature cases. Here, we present an unusual case of KT presented with amenorrhea as the sole initial symptom.

  4. Endolimax piscium sp. nov. (Amoebozoa), causative agent of systemic granulomatous disease of cultured sole, Solea senegalensis Kaup.

    Constenla, M; Padrós, F; Palenzuela, O


    A new amoeba species pathogenic for Senegalese sole is described based on ultrastructural analysis and SSU rDNA phylogenetic inference. The parasite presents round to ovoid trophozoites (inference methods than with ML or Bayesian trees. The use of stringent alignment sampling masks also caused instability and reduced support for some branches, including the monophyly of Endolimax spp. in the most conservative data sets. The characterization of other Archamoebae parasitizing fish could help to clarify the status of E. piscium and to interpret the large genetic distance observed between Endolimax species.

  5. Mechanical behaviour of the Oman metamorphic sole: rheology of amphibolites at lower crustal conditions during subduction initiation

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Dubacq, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile; Yamato, Philippe


    Amphibolites are commonly found in the middle to lower continental crust and along oceanic transform faults and detachments. Amphibolites are also the main component of metamorphic soles beneath highly strained peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are crustal slivers stripped from the slab during early subduction and underplated below the upper plate (future ophiolite) mantle when the subduction interface is still young and warm (i.e. during the first million years -My- of intra-oceanic subduction). Understanding the rheological behaviour of amphibolitic rocks is therefore of major interest to model and quantify deformation and strain localisation in varied geodynamical environments. This contribution focuses on the deformation mechanisms of amphibole through a microstructural and petrological study of garnet-bearing and garnet-free clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolites, using EBSD analysis. The first aim is to test the influence of progres- sive changes in PT conditions during deformation and of the appearance/disappearance of anhydrous minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene and garnet) on the mechanical behaviour of mafic amphibolites. The second aim is to track deformation mechanisms during early subduction, through the study of these metamorphosed oceanic rocks, commonly 10-100 m thick, which range from high- to low-grade away from the contact with the peridotites (i.e. from 800 ± 100˚C - 0.9 ± 0.2 GPa to 500 ± 100˚C - 0.5 ± 0.1 GPa) and are essentially mafic at the top). Our study points out the existence of two major steps of deformation in the high-temperature amphibolite slices of the metamorphic soles during the early subdduction dynamics. These two steps witness important mechanical coupling and progressive strain localization at plate interface under cooling and hydrated conditions after subduction initiation. During the accretion of the first slice of metamorphic sole at 850 ± 50˚C (the garnet

  6. Leptomeningeal enhancement as a sole magnetic resonance imaging finding of secondary central nervous system vasculitis: A case report

    Arsida Bajrami


    Full Text Available The main radiological findings of central nervous system (CNS consist of multiple subcortical infarcts, parenchymal and leptomeningeal enhancement, petechial hemorrhages on MRI and multifocal caliber changes of the vessels on MRA and DSA. Solely or prominent leptomeningeal enhancement is rarely seen as an isolated manifestation of CNS. We report a case of intracerebral vasculitis secondary to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD showing leptomeningeal enhancement as a unique finding in routine contrast-enhanced cranial MRI and aimed to emphasize the importance of these finding in diagnosing CNS.

  7. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances.

    Zhang, Xueguang; Zhang, Xudong; He, Wen; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Hong; Ma, Jingyun


    We report a simple, inexpensive green biomimetic way for developing the high performance LiFePO(4) for high-power lithium-ion batteries. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO(4) nucleus nanoparticles are synthesized by using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source.

  8. Abyssal peridotites reveal the near-chondritic Fe isotopic composition of the Earth

    Craddock, Paul R.; Warren, Jessica M.; Dauphas, Nicolas


    Terrestrial oceanic and continental basalts are enriched by approximately +0.1‰ in 56Fe/54Fe ratio relative to primitive, undifferentiated meteorites (chondrites). The δ56Fe values of terrestrial basalts are also distinct from those of basalts from Mars and asteroid Vesta, which have chondritic Fe isotopic compositions. The processes responsible for the isotopic enrichment of terrestrial basalts are debated, in part because the Fe isotopic composition of the mantle source of terrestrial basalts is unknown. Here we report Fe isotopic measurements of abyssal peridotites, which are the residues of limited melting at oceanic ridges and are thus the best proxies for the composition of the convective portion of the mantle. Our data show that abyssal peridotites have a mean δ56Fe value of +0.010±0.007‰ (relative to IRMM-014), which is indistinguishable from chondrites. After correcting this data for seafloor weathering and mantle melting, we estimate the average Fe isotopic composition of the terrestrial mantle to be δ56Fe=+0.025±0.025‰, which is also indistinguishable from chondrites, within current analytical precision. We determine that the maximum shift in δ56Fe for peridotite residues during partial mantle melting is 0.01‰. Our results argue against isotopic fractionation during core-mantle differentiation or iron vaporization during the Moon-forming giant impact, because both processes would yield a bulk mantle δ56Fe value that is non-chondritic. In addition, our results suggest that disproportionation of mantle Fe2+-Fe3+ in perovskite and Fe0 metal and segregation of metal to the core could not have been a driver for Fe isotopic fractionation in the silicate mantle. Instead, the different iron isotopic compositions of abyssal peridotites and MORBs support mounting evidence for iron isotopic fractionation of melts but not residues during the formation of oceanic and continental crust.

  9. 奥奈达希瓦氏菌MR-1的Fe(Ⅲ)还原特性及其影响因素%Dissimilatory Fe(Ⅲ) reduction by Shewanclla oneidensis MR-1 and impact factors

    陈洁; 储茵; 司友斌


    Dissimilatory Fe(Ul) reduction by Shewanclla oneidensis MR-1 was studied, and impact factors such as electronic donors, Fe(III) forms, dissolved oxygen content and pH were investigated. The results showed that Fesole electronic donor of strain MR-1, respectively. The forms of Fe(III) could influence their reduction, and iron reduction rates were 44.72%, 51.54% and 10.45% using ferric trichloride, ferric hydroxide and ferric citrate as the sole electronic receptor of strain MR-1, respectively. Dissolved oxygen inhibited the dissimilatory iron reduction. Strain MR-1 could reduce Fe(III) in the range of pH 5.0 to 9.0. The effects of protein denaturants SDS and OGP suggested that Fe(Ⅲ) reduction function proteins of strain MR-1 were mainly localized to the soluble outer membrane fraction. Tannins acid and pyrogallic acid could enhance Fe(III) reduction, and iron reduction rates were 76.37% and 68.73%, respectively.%研究奥奈达希瓦氏菌MR-1的Fe(Ⅲ)还原特性,并考察不同电子供体、不同形态Fe(Ⅲ)、溶解氧、pH等对奥奈达希瓦氏菌MR-1还原Fe(Ⅲ)的影响.结果表明,奥奈达希瓦氏菌MR-1对Fe(Ⅲ)有还原能力,以乙酸盐、乳酸盐和丙酮酸盐作为Fe(Ⅲ)还原的唯一电子供体,Fe(Ⅲ)还原率分别达到39.12%,50.89%和44.98%;以FeCl3、Fe(OH)3和柠檬酸铁等不同形态Fe(Ⅲ)为菌株MR-1的唯一电子受体,Fe(Ⅲ)还原率分别达到44.72%,51.54%和10.45%;溶解氧的存在可抑制Fe(Ⅲ)异化还原;菌株MR-1可在pH 5.0-9.0范围内进行Fe(Ⅲ)还原;两种不同的蛋白质变性剂SDS和OGP作用下的Fe(Ⅲ)还原结果表明,菌株MR-1的Fe(Ⅲ)还原功能蛋白主要位于细胞外膜;同时,投加一定量的单宁酸和焦性没食子酸可提高Fe(Ⅲ)还原率,螯合铁的还原率分别达到76.37%和68.73%.

  10. Missing Fe: hydrogenated iron nanoparticles

    Bilalbegovic, G; Mohacek-Grosev, V


    Although it was found that the FeH lines exist in the spectra of some stars, none of the spectral features in the ISM have been assigned to this molecule. We suggest that iron atoms interact with hydrogen and produce Fe-H nanoparticles which sometimes contain many H atoms. We calculate infrared spectra of hydrogenated iron nanoparticles using density functional theory methods and find broad, overlapping bands. Desorption of H2 could induce spinning of these small Fe-H dust grains. Some of hydrogenated iron nanoparticles posses magnetic and electric moments and should interact with electromagnetic fields in the ISM. Fe_nH_m nanoparticles could contribute to the polarization of the ISM and the anomalous microwave emission. We discuss the conditions required to form FeH and Fe_nH_m in the ISM.

  11. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    Sirohi, Anshu; Singh, Chandan K.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Kabir, Mukul; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Sheet, Goutam


    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (˜47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  12. Large enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB/MgO system with the typical Ta buffer replaced by an Hf layer

    T. Liu


    Full Text Available By systematically comparing the magnetic properties of the Ta/CoFeB/Ta and MgO/CoFeB/MgO structures with and without a submonolayer of MgO, Ta, V, Nb, Hf and W inserted in the middle of the CoFeB layer, we have proved that the observed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA in Ta/CoFeB/MgO sandwiches is solely originated from the CoFeB/MgO interface with the Ta buffer acting to enhance the CoFeB/MgO interface anisotropy significantly. Moreover, replacing Ta with Hf causes the CoFeB/MgO interfacial PMA further enhanced by 35%, and the CoFeB layer with perpendicular magnetization has a much larger critical thickness accordingly, leaving a wider thickness margin for the CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction optimization. Also the sputter deposited thin Hf films are amorphous with low surface roughness. These results will ensure the Hf/CoFeB/MgO more promising material system for PMA device development.

  13. Effect of filtration action of the polychaete Sabellaria alveolata Linnaeus, 1767 on sole cultive environment Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858

    Ângela Sousa


    Full Text Available Farmers look for sustainable measures to control diseases in aquaculture. Vibrio harveyi has been described as a fish pathogen, affecting several species, such as Solea senegalensis (senegalensis sole. In this study, the application of a biofilter with Sabellaria alveolata, a filter feeding polychaete, aimed to test their ability to decrease bacterial load present in the production system of Solea senegalensis and also evaluate the effect on fish mortality. The system was composed by four circuits, two with S. alveolata biofilter and two without. Infection was induced through the water using a bacterial concentration >108 (LD50 Vibrio harveyi in some circuits of the sole system. Mortality rate was evaluated, so as the bacterial content in water of the different circuits over time. PCR analysis was performed to fish and polychaetes samples, before the infection, during and at the end of the experiment. Results showed the bacterial filtration efficiency of the polychaete. Mortality records obtained in circuits without bacterial infection, were statistically significant different from the infected circuits, suggest the possibility of the polychaete to be effective in a proportional relation with bacteria.

  14. Genome editing reveals dmrt1 as an essential male sex-determining gene in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    Cui, Zhongkai; Liu, Yun; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Fan; Wang, Na; Shao, Changwei; Dong, Zhongdian; Li, Yangzhen; Yang, Yingming; Hu, Mengzhu; Li, Hailong; Gao, Fengtao; Wei, Zhanfei; Meng, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wei, Min; Zhu, Ying; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Schartl, Manfred; Chen, Songlin


    Chinese tongue sole is a marine fish with ZW sex determination. Genome sequencing suggested that the Z-linked dmrt1 is a putative male determination gene, but direct genetic evidence is still lacking. Here we show that TALEN of dmrt1 efficiently induced mutations of this gene. The ZZ dmrt1 mutant fish developed ovary-like testis, and the spermatogenesis was disrupted. The female-related genes foxl2 and cyp19a1a were significantly increased in the gonad of the ZZ dmrt1 mutant. Conversely, the male-related genes Sox9a and Amh were significantly decreased. The dmrt1 deficient ZZ fish grew much faster than ZZ male control. Notably, we obtained an intersex ZW fish with a testis on one side and an ovary on the other side. This fish was chimeric for a dmrt1 mutation in the ovary, and wild-type dmrt1 in the testis. Our data provide the first functional evidence that dmrt1 is a male determining gene in tongue sole. PMID:28205594

  15. Latest findings about the interplay of auxin, ethylene and nitric oxide in the regulation of Fe deficiency responses by Strategy I plants.

    Romera, Francisco J; García, María J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael


    Under Fe deficiency, Strategy I (non-graminaceous) plants up-regulate the expression of many Fe acquisition genes and develop morphological changes in their roots. The regulation of these responses is not completely known, but since the 1980's different results suggest a role for auxin, ethylene and, more recently, nitric oxide. The up-regulation of the Fe acquisition genes does not depend solely on these hormones, that would act as activators, but also on some other signals, probably phloem Fe, that would act as an inhibitor. It is not known which of the hormones considered is the last activator of the Fe acquisition genes, but some results suggest that auxin acts upstream of ethylene and NO and that, perhaps, ethylene is the last activator.

  16. FeO2 and FeOOH under deep lower-mantle conditions and Earth's oxygen-hydrogen cycles.

    Hu, Qingyang; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Wenge; Yang, Liuxiang; Meng, Yue; Zhang, Li; Mao, Ho-Kwang


    The distribution, accumulation and circulation of oxygen and hydrogen in Earth's interior dictate the geochemical evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. The oxygen-rich atmosphere and iron-rich core represent two end-members of the oxygen-iron (O-Fe) system, overlapping with the entire pressure-temperature-composition range of the planet. The extreme pressure and temperature conditions of the deep interior alter the oxidation states, spin states and phase stabilities of iron oxides, creating new stoichiometries, such as Fe4O5 (ref. 5) and Fe5O6 (ref. 6). Such interactions between O and Fe dictate Earth's formation, the separation of the core and mantle, and the evolution of the atmosphere. Iron, in its multiple oxidation states, controls the oxygen fugacity and oxygen budget, with hydrogen having a key role in the reaction of Fe and O (causing iron to rust in humid air). Here we use first-principles calculations and experiments to identify a highly stable, pyrite-structured iron oxide (FeO2) at 76 gigapascals and 1,800 kelvin that holds an excessive amount of oxygen. We show that the mineral goethite, FeOOH, which exists ubiquitously as 'rust' and is concentrated in bog iron ore, decomposes under the deep lower-mantle conditions to form FeO2 and release H2. The reaction could cause accumulation of the heavy FeO2-bearing patches in the deep lower mantle, upward migration of hydrogen, and separation of the oxygen and hydrogen cycles. This process provides an alternative interpretation for the origin of seismic and geochemical anomalies in the deep lower mantle, as well as a sporadic O2 source for the Great Oxidation Event over two billion years ago that created the present oxygen-rich atmosphere.

  17. Effect of Cu doping on the structure and phase transition of directly synthesized FePt nanoparticles

    Wang, Hanbin; Li, Yang; Chen, Xu; Shu, Dan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Xina; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yi; Ruterana, Pierre


    In this work, ternary Cu doped FePt nanoparticles were prepared in hexadecylamine at 320 °C by choosing FeCl2 as the Fe source. The experimental results showed that without Cu doping the as-prepared FePt nanoparticles possessed fcc structure and gradually exhibited typical fct diffraction peaks after increasing the Cu doping concentration. TEM images showed that the FePt nanoparticles had larger size and wider size distribution after introducing Cu additive. Magnetic property measurement showed that a coercivity of 4800 Oe was obtained when the composition of the ternary nanoparticles reached Fe35Pt45Cu20, in which the content of Fe+Cu was higher than Pt. The research indicates that Cu doping promotes the phase transition of FePt nanoparticles at temperature as low as 320 °C.

  18. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances

    Zhang, X.G.; Zhang, X.D.; He, W.


    We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries....

  19. Biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles enhancing electrochemical performances

    Zhang, X.G.; Zhang, X.D.; He, W.


    We report a green biomimetic method to synthesize biocarbon-coated LiFePO4 nucleus nanoparticles using yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source for high-power lithium-ion batteries....

  20. Astronaut Bone Medical Standards Derived from Finite Element (FE) Models of QCT Scans from Population Studies

    Sibonga, J. D.; Feiveson, A. H.


    This work was accomplished in support of the Finite Element [FE] Strength Task Group, NASA Johnson Space Center [JSC], Houston, TX. This group was charged with the task of developing rules for using finite-element [FE] bone-strength measures to construct operating bands for bone health that are relevant to astronauts following exposure to spaceflight. FE modeling is a computational tool used by engineers to estimate the failure loads of complex structures. Recently, some engineers have used this tool to characterize the failure loads of the hip in population studies that also monitored fracture outcomes. A Directed Research Task was authorized in July, 2012 to investigate FE data from these population studies to derive these proposed standards of bone health as a function of age and gender. The proposed standards make use of an FE-based index that integrates multiple contributors to bone strength, an expanded evaluation that is critical after an astronaut is exposed to spaceflight. The current index of bone health used by NASA is the measurement of areal BMD. There was a concern voiced by a research and clinical advisory panel that the sole use of areal BMD would be insufficient to fully evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the hip. Hence, NASA may not have a full understanding of fracture risk, both during and after a mission, and may be poorly estimating in-flight countermeasure efficacy. The FE Strength Task Group - composed of principal investigators of the aforementioned population studies and of FE modelers -donated some of its population QCT data to estimate of hip bone strength by FE modeling for this specific purpose. Consequently, Human Health Countermeasures [HHC] has compiled a dataset of FE hip strengths, generated by a single FE modeling approach, from human subjects (approx.1060) with ages covering the age range of the astronauts. The dataset has been analyzed to generate a set of FE strength cutoffs for the following scenarios: a) Qualify an

  1. Tunnel Magneto Resistance of Fe/Insulator/Fe

    Aryee, Dennis; Seifu, Dereje

    Tri-layer thin films of Fe/Insulator/Fe were synthesized using magnetron DC/ RF sputtering with MgO insulator and Bi2Te3 topological insulators as middle buffer layer. The multi-layered samples thus produced were studied using in-house built magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) instrument, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), torque magnetometer (TMM), AFM, MFM, and magneto-resistance (MR). This system, that is Fe/Insulator/Fe on MgO(100) substrate, is a well-known tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) structure often used in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. TMR effect is a method by which MTJs are used in developing magneto-resistive random access memory (MRAM), magnetic sensors, and novel logic devices. The main purpose behind this research is to measure the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/Insulator /Fe structure and correlate it to magneto-resistance. In this presentation, we will present results from MOKE, VSM, TMM, AFM, MFM, and MR studies of Fe/Insulator/Fe on MgO(100). We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  2. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.


    99Technetium ( 99Tc) is a fission product of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 and poses a high environmental hazard due to its long half-life ( t1/2 = 2.13 × 10 5 y), abundance in nuclear wastes, and environmental mobility under oxidizing conditions [i.e., Tc(VII)]. Under reducing conditions, Tc(VII) can be reduced to insoluble Tc(IV). Ferrous iron, either in aqueous form (Fe 2+) or in mineral form [Fe(II)], has been used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). However, the reactivity of Fe(II) from clay minerals, other than nontronite, toward immobilization of Tc(VII) and its role in retention of reduced Tc(IV) has not been investigated. In this study the reactivity of a suite of clay minerals toward Tc(VII) reduction and immobilization was evaluated. The clay minerals chosen for this study included five members in the smectite-illite (S-I) series, (montmorillonite, nontronite, rectorite, mixed layered I-S, and illite), chlorite, and palygorskite. Surface Fe-oxides were removed from these minerals with a modified dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) procedure. The total structural Fe content of these clay minerals, after surface Fe-oxide removal, ranged from 0.7% to 30.4% by weight, and the structural Fe(III)/Fe(total) ratio ranged from 45% to 98%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed that after Fe oxide removal the clay minerals were free of Fe-oxides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that little dissolution occurred during the DCB treatment. Bioreduction experiments were performed in bicarbonate buffer (pH-7) with structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals as the sole electron acceptor, lactate as the sole electron donor, and Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 cells as a mediator. In select tubes, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) was added as electron shuttle to facilitate electron transfer. In the S-I series, smectite (montmorillonite) was the most reducible (18% and 41% without and with AQDS, respectively) and illite the least (1% for both

  3. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.


    99Technetium (99Tc) is a fission product of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 and poses a high environmental hazard due to its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 x 105 y), abundance in nuclear wastes, and environmental mobility under oxidizing conditions [i.e., Tc(VII)]. Under reducing conditions, Tc(VII) can be reduced to insoluble Tc(IV). Ferrous iron [Fe(II)], either in aqueous form or in mineral form, has been used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). However, the reactivity of Fe(II) from clay minerals, other than nontronite, toward immobilization of Tc(VII) and its role in retention of reduced Tc(IV) have not been investigated. In this study the reactivity of a suite of clay minerals toward Tc(VII) reduction and immobilization was evaluated. The clay minerals chosen for this study included five members in the smectite-illite (S-I) series, (montmorillonite, nontronite, rectorite, mixed layered I-S, and illite), chlorite, and palygorskite. Fe-oxides were removed from these minerals with a modified dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) procedure. The total Fe content of these clay minerals, after Fe-oxide removal, ranged from 0.7 to 30.4% by weight, and the Fe(III)/Fe(total) ratio ranged from 44.9 to 98.5%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed that after Fe oxide removal the clay minerals were free of Fe-oxides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that little dissolution occurred during the DCB treatment. Bioreduction experiments were performed in bicarbonate buffer (pH-7) with Fe(III) in the clay minerals as the sole electron acceptor, lactate as the sole electron donor, and Shewanella Putrifaciens CN32 cells as mediators. In select tubes, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) was added as electron shuttle to facilitate electron transfer. The extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was the highest for chlorite (~43 wt%) and the lowest for palygorskite (~4.17 wt%). In the S-I series, NAu-2 was the most reducible (~31 %) and illite the least (~0.4 %). The

  4. High dietary lipid level is associated with persistent hyperglycaemia and downregulation of muscle Akt-mTOR pathway in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    Borges, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise


    .... The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of dietary lipids on glucose metabolism in Senegalese sole with special emphasis on the regulation of proteins involved in the muscle insulin-signalling pathway...

  5. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: The effects of temperature on growth, development and settlement of northern rock sole larvae (Lepidopsetta polyxystra)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from an experiment where northern rock sole larvae were reared in the laboratory to measure growth, condition, development and settlement parameters...

  6. Enzymatic pretreatment of Chlorella vulgaris for biogas production: Influence of urban wastewater as a sole nutrient source on macromolecular profile and biocatalyst efficiency.

    Mahdy, Ahmed; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina


    Two biocatalysts, namely carbohydrases and proteases, were assessed for organic matter solubilisation and methane yield enhancement of microalgae biomass. This study evidenced Chlorella vulgaris carbohydrate accumulation (40% on VSS basis) when grown in urban wastewater. Despite of the carbohydrate prevailing fraction, protease pretreatment showed higher organic matter hydrolysis efficiency (54%). Microscopic observation revealed that carbohydrases affected slightly the cell wall while protease was not selective to wall constituents. Raw and pretreated biomass was digested at 1.5 kg tCOD m(-3) day(-1) organic loading rate (OLR1) and 20 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). The highest methane yield (137 mL CH4 g COD in(-1)) was achieved in the reactor fed with protease pretreated C. vulgaris. Additionally, anaerobic digestion was conducted at OLR2 (3 kg tCOD m(-3) day(-1)) and HRT (15 days). When compared to raw biomass, methane yield increased 5- and 6.3-fold at OLR1 and OLR2, respectively. No inhibitors were detected during the anaerobic digestion.

  7. 4-Vinylphenol biosynthesis from cellulose as the sole carbon source using phenolic acid decarboxylase- and tyrosine ammonia lyase-expressing Streptomyces lividans.

    Noda, Shuhei; Kawai, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko


    Streptomyces lividans was adopted as a host strain for 4-vinylphenol (4VPh) production directly from cellulose. In order to obtain novel phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) expressed in S. lividans, PADs distributed among Streptomyces species were screened. Three novel PADs, derived from Streptomycessviceus, Streptomyceshygroscopicus, and Streptomycescattleya, were successfully obtained and expressed in S. lividans. S. sviceus PAD (SsPAD) could convert p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA) to 4VPh more efficiently than the others both in vitro and in vivo. For 4VPh production directly from cellulose, l-tyrosine ammonia lyase derived from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and SsPAD were introduced into endoglucanase-secreting S. lividans, and the 4VPh biosynthetic pathway was constructed therein. The created transformants successfully produced 4VPh directly from cellulose.

  8. Maximum removal rate of propionic acid as a sole carbon source in UASB reactors and the importance of the macro- and micro-nutrients stimulation.

    Ma, Jingxing; Mungoni, Lucy Jubeki; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta


    The maximum propionic acid (HPr) removal rate (R(HPr)) was investigated in two lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors. Two feeding strategies were applied by modifying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the UASB(HRT) and the influent HPr concentration in the UASB(HPr), respectively. The experiment was divided into three main phases: phase 1, influent with only HPr; phase 2, HPr with macro-nutrients supplementation and phase 3, HPr with macro- and micro-nutrients supplementation. During phase 1, the maximum R(HPr) achieved was less than 3 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1) in both reactors. However, the subsequent supplementation of macro- and micro-nutrients during phases 2 and 3 allowed to increase the R(HPr) up to 18.1 and 32.8 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1), respectively, corresponding with an HRT of 0.5h in the UASB(HRT) and an influent HPr concentration of 10.5 g HPr-CODL(-1) in the UASB(HPr). Therefore, the high operational capacity of these reactor systems, specifically converting HPr with high throughput and high influent HPr level, was demonstrated. Moreover, the presence of macro- and micro-nutrients is clearly essential for stable and high HPr removal in anaerobic digestion.

  9. Evaluation of a Recombinant Escherichia coli Strain that Uses the Sarin Simulant Isopropylmethylphosphonic Acid (IMPA) as a Sole Carbon and Phosphate Source


    filtered using a 0.22 µm Costar filter ( Corning Incorporated; Corning , NY) to remove any remaining bacteria. The filtered samples were dried in a speed...Defense Threat Reduction Agency J9-CBS ATTN: Moore, E. Department of Homeland Security DHS-ORD-CSAC ATTN: Famini, G. G-3 History Office

  10. Operation performance and granule characterization of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating wastewater with starch as the sole carbon source.

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Estrada, Adriana Ledezma; Chen, Mo; Ni, Jialing; Hojo, Toshimasa; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You


    Long-term performance of a lab-scale UASB reactor treating starch wastewater was investigated under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). Successful start-up could be achieved after 15days' operation. The optimal HRT was 6h with organic loading rate (OLR) 4g COD/Ld at COD concentration 1000mg/L, attaining 81.1-98.7% total COD removal with methane production rate of 0.33L CH4/g CODremoved. Specific methane activity tests demonstrated that methane formation via H2-CO2 and acetate were the principal degradation pathways. Vertical characterizations revealed that main reactions including starch hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis occurred at the lower part of reactor ("main reaction zone"); comparatively, at the up converting acetate into methane predominated ("substrate-shortage zone"). Further reducing HRT to 3h caused volatile fatty acids accumulation, sludge floating and performance deterioration. Sludge floating was ascribed to the excess polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). More efforts are required to overcome sludge floating-related issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lean Six Sigma Project - Defense Logistics Agency/Honeywell Long-Term Contract Model Using One-Pass Pricing for Sole-Source Spare Parts


    REPORT DATE 18 FEB 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lean Six Sigma Project - Defense Logistics...SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR ACQUISITION, TECHNOLOGY, AND LOGISTICS DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SUBJECT: Lean Six Sigma Project - Defense Logistics...service report for your information and use. The report is being published in final form. The Lean Six Sigma Project was a collaborative effort with

  12. Use of styrene as sole carbon source by the fungus Exophiala oligosperma: optimization and modeling of biodegradation, pathway elucidation, and cell membrane composition.

    Rene, Eldon R; Bernat, Przemysław; Długoński, Jerzy; Veiga, Maria C; Kennes, Christian


    Biodegradation of styrene by Exophiala sp. was tested at different initial concentrations (19.3-170.6 mgl(-1)), pH (2.8-8.7), and temperatures (19.8-45.1 °C), for 120 h according to a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design. The specific growth rate (SGR, per hour) and specific styrene utilization rate (SUR, milligrams of styrene per milligram of biomass per hour) values were used as the response variables for optimization purposes. The interactions between concentration and temperature (P=0.022), and pH and temperature (P=0.010) for SGR, and interactions between concentration and temperature (P=0.012) for SUR were found to be statistically significant. The optimal values for achieving high SGR (0.15 h(-1)) and SUR (0.3622 mg styrene mg(-1) biomass h(-1)) were calculated from the regression model equation. Those values are C(o)=89.1 mgl(-1), pH=5.4, and T=31.5 °C for SGR and C(o)=69.2 mgl(-1), pH=5.5, and T=32.4 °C for SUR. It was also observed that the Exophiala strain degrades styrene via phenylacetic acid, involving initial oxidation of the vinyl side chain. Besides, in the presence of styrene, changes in the fatty acids profile were also observed. It is hypothesized that an increasing amount of linoleic acid (18:2) may be involved in the protection of the fungus against toxic substrate.

  13. Defense Logistics Agency Did Not Obtain Fair and Reasonable Prices From Meggitt Aircraft Braking Systems for Sole-Source Commercial Spare Parts (REDACTED)


    Mission Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and timely oversight of the Department of Defense that supports the warfighter; promotes ...oversight organization in the Federal Government by leading change, speaking truth, and promoting excellence—a diverse organization, working...determine the 2013 contract prices; • did not sufficiently analyze the “commercial of a type” parts1 to determine whether the sales of comparable parts

  14. Quality of coastal and estuarine essential fish habitats: estimations based on the size of juvenile common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    Le Pape, O.; Holley, J.; Guérault, D.; Désaunay, Y.


    Survival and growth of early fish stages are maximal in coastal and estuarine habitats where natural shallow areas serve as nurseries for a variety of widely distributed species on the continental shelf. Processes occurring in these nursery grounds during the juvenile stage affect growth and may be important in regulating the year-class strength of fishes and population size. The need, therefore, exists to protect these essential fish habitats hence to develop indicators to estimate their quality. The purpose of the present study was to use the growth of juvenile sole as a means of comparing the quality of coastal and estuarine nursery habitats in the Bay of Biscay (France). These sole nurseries were clearly identified from studies based on trawl surveys carried out during the last two decades. The size of 1-group juveniles at the end of their second summer, as estimated from these surveys, is an indicator of growth in these habitats during the juvenile phase and can be used to compare habitat quality. A model taking into account the role of seawater temperature in spatial and interannual variations of juvenile size was developed to compare growth performance in the different nursery sectors. This study shows that the size of juvenile sole after two summers of life is not density-dependent, probably because the size of the population adapts to habitat capacity after high mortality during early-juvenile stages. Size is on one hand positively related to temperature and on the other hand higher in estuarine than in non-estuarine habitats. This high growth potential of juvenile fish in estuarine areas confirms the very important role played by estuaries as nursery grounds and the essential ecological interest of these limited areas in spite of their low water quality. If a general conclusion on habitat quality is to be reached about studies based on the growth of juvenile fish, it is necessary to use not only an integrative indicator of growth, like size

  15. The Utilization of Indigofera sp as the sole foliage in goat diets supplemented with high carbohydrate or high protein concentrates

    Simon P Ginting


    Full Text Available Indigofera sp is a tree leguminous forage species known to be adaptable to the drought climate and saline soil and so it has potential as alternative feed resource to support the ruminant animal production. This study aimed to study the responses of goats fed Indigofera sp as the sole foliages in their diets. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred goats (6 months of age;16 ± 2,1 kg BW were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing fresh or wilted leaves of Indigifera sp. as the sole foliages and supplemented with high carbohydrate (HCC or protein (HPCconcentrates. Consumable parts i.e. leaves and twigs of about 8 to 10 months of age of Indigofera sp. were harvested by hand plucking every day in the morning. The experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design. The ruminal pH ranged from 6.14-6.85 and were not affected (P > 0.05 by wilting nor by the type of concentrates. Wilting did not affect (P > 0.05 the concentration of ruminal NH3-N, but it was significantly higher (P 0.05. Goats in the HCC group,however,numerically have higher total VFA concentration (178.5-183.75 mmol L-1 than those in the HPC group (142.21-174.64 mmol L-1. The apparent digestibility coeficients of DM, OM, CP and energy of the diet were not different (P > 0.05 when contained wilted or fresh Indigofera foliage. Significant increases (P 0.05 among dietary treatments, but the ADG of goats in the HCC group (60-63 g d-1 were significantly lower (P 0.05. BUN was not affected by wilting process, but providing high protein concentrates significantly (P < 0.05 increased the BUN concentration. It is concluded that foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as the sole forage in intensive production of goats. Wilting the foliage prior to feeding seemed to be unnecessary, since this process does not improve the animal productivity in term of daily gain and efficiency of feed utilization.

  16. The tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth: Can dental pain ever be the sole presenting symptom of a myocardial infarction? A systematic review

    Jalali, N; Vilke, GM; Korenevsky, M; Castillo, EM; Wilson, MP


    Background Pain symptoms related to cardiac ischemia can vary greatly from patient to patient. However, should emergency physicians consider the possibility of myocardial infarction in patients who present solely with dental pain? Objective This is a systematic review of the literature investigating the incidence of jaw, tooth, or facial pain as the sole symptom of cardiac ischemia. Methods Studies investigating jaw, tooth, or facial pain of cardiac origin were identified using the PubMed dat...

  17. U1 and U2 small nuclear RNA genetic linkage: a novel molecular tool for identification of six sole species (Soleidae, Pleuronectiformes).

    Manchado, Manuel; Rebordinos, Laureana; Infante, Carlos


    We evaluated the usefulness of a genetic linkage between the U1 and U2 small nuclear RNAs for species identification. Six soles belonging to the genera Solea, Dicologlossa, and Microchirus were studied. A simple methodology based on two single PCRs is described. Reproducible band profiles were generated for all samples. This rapid and discriminatory molecular method is highly promising for determining the authenticity of sole fillets in the food industry.

  18. Fe K emission from active galaxies in the COSMOS field

    Iwasawa, K; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Vignali, C; Hasinger, G; Sanders, D B; Cappelluti, N; Impey, C D; Koekemoer, A; Lanzuisi, G; Lusso, E; Merloni, A; Salvato, M; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J R


    We present a rest-frame spectral stacking analysis of ~1000 X-ray sources detected in the XMM-COSMOS field in order to investigate the iron K line properties of active galaxies beyond redshift z~1. In Type I AGN that have a typical X-ray luminosity of Lx~1.5e44 erg/s and z~1.6, the cold Fe K at 6.4 keV is weak (EW~0.05keV), in agreement with the known trend. In contrast, high-ionization lines of Fe XXV and Fe XXVI are pronounced. These high-ionization Fe K lines appear to have a connection with high accretion rates. While no broad Fe emission is detected in the total spectrum, it might be present, albeit at low significance, when the X-ray luminosity is restricted to the range below 3e44 erg/s, or when an intermediate range of Eddington ratio around 0.1 is selected. In Type II AGN, both cold and high-ionzation lines become weak with increasing X-ray luminosity. However, strong high-ionization Fe K (EW~0.3 keV) is detected in the spectrum of objects at z>2, while no 6.4 keV line is found. It is then found that...

  19. Geobacter soli sp. nov., a dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium isolated from forest soil.

    Zhou, Shungui; Yang, Guiqin; Lu, Qin; Wu, Min


    A novel Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated GSS01(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample using a liquid medium containing acetate and ferrihydrite as electron donor and electron acceptor, respectively. Cells of strain GSS01(T) were strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and slightly curved rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 16-40 °C and optimally at 30 °C. The DNA G+C content was 60.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:0) and C(16:1)ω7c/C(16:1)ω6c. Strain GSS01(T) was able to grow with ferrihydrite, Fe(III) citrate, Mn(IV), sulfur, nitrate or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, but not with fumarate, as sole electron acceptor when acetate was the sole electron donor. The isolate was able to utilize acetate, ethanol, glucose, lactate, butyrate, pyruvate, benzoate, benzaldehyde, m-cresol and phenol but not toluene, p-cresol, propionate, malate or succinate as sole electron donor when ferrihydrite was the sole electron acceptor. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain GSS01(T) was most closely related to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98.3% sequence similarity) and exhibited low similarities (94.9-91.8%) to the type strains of other species of the genus Geobacter. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GSS01(T) and G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) was 41.4 ± 1.1%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characterization and physiological tests, strain GSS01(T) is believed to represent a novel species of the genus Geobacter, and the name Geobacter soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS01(T) ( =KCTC 4545(T) =MCCC 1K00269(T)).

  20. Fractionation of Fe isotopes during Fe(II) oxidation by a marine photoferrotroph is controlled by the formation of organic Fe-complexes and colloidal Fe fractions

    Swanner, Elizabeth D.; Wu, Wenfang; Schoenberg, Ronny; Byrne, James; Michel, F. Marc; Pan, Yongxin; Kappler, Andreas


    Much interest exists in finding mineralogical, organic, morphological, or isotopic biosignatures for Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) that are retained in Fe-rich sediments, which could indicate the activity of these organisms in Fe-rich seawater, more common in the Precambrian Era. To date, the effort to establish a clear Fe isotopic signature in Fe minerals produced by Fe(II)-oxidizing metabolisms has been thwarted by the large kinetic fractionation incurred as freshly oxidized aqueous Fe(III) rapidly precipitates as Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals at near neutral pH. The Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxide minerals resulting from abiotic Fe(II) oxidation are isotopically heavy compared to the Fe(II) precursor and are not clearly distinguishable from minerals formed by FeOB isotopically. However, in marine hydrothermal systems and Fe(II)-rich springs the minerals formed are often isotopically lighter than expected considering the fraction of Fe(II) that has been oxidized and experimentally-determined fractionation factors. We measured the Fe isotopic composition of aqueous Fe (Feaq) and the final Fe mineral (Feppt) produced in batch experiment using the marine Fe(II)-oxidizing phototroph Rhodovulum iodosum. The δ56Feaq data are best described by a kinetic fractionation model, while the evolution of δ56Feppt appears to be controlled by a separate fractionation process. We propose that soluble Fe(III), and Fe(II) and Fe(III) extracted from the Feppt may act as intermediates between Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation. Based on 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray total scattering, we suggests these Fe phases, collectively Fe(II/III)interm, may consist of organic-ligand bound, sorbed, and/or colloidal Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases that are isotopically lighter than the final Fe(III) mineral product. Similar intermediate phases, formed in response to organic carbon produced by FeOB and inorganic

  1. Fe(II) Oxidation and Sources of Acidity on Mars

    Niles, P. B.; Peretyazkho, T. S.; Sutter, B.


    There is an apparent paradox be-tween the evidence that aqueous environments on Mars were predominantly acidic, and the fact that Mars is predominantly a basaltic (and olivine-rich) planet. The problem being that basalt and olivine will act to neutralize acidic solutions they come into contact with, and that there is a lot more basaltic crust on Mars than water or acid. This is especially true if there is an appreciable amount of water available to bring the acid in contact with the basaltic crust. Several hypotheses for ancient mar-tian environments call on long lived groundwater and aqueous systems.

  2. Superconductivity in Fe-chalcogenides

    Chang, C.C.; Chen, T.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.C. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University – SUNY (United States); Lin, P.H. [National Synchrotron Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.J. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wen, Y.C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, P.M. [Deparment of Applied Physics and Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wu, M.K., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Donghwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)


    FeSe, which has the simplest crystal structure among the Fe based superconductors, and related chalcogenide superconductors are ideal candidates for investigating the detailed mechanism of the iron-based superconductors. Here, we summarize recent studies on the Fe-chalcogenides, with the goal to address some unresolved questions such as what is the influence of chemical stoichiometry on the phase diagram, what is the exact parent phase of FeSe system, and why can T{sub c}s be so dramatically enhanced in FeSe based superconductors? Recent developments in novel synthesis to prepare chalcogenide crystals, nano-materials and thin films allow the community to begin to address these issues. Then we review physical properties of the Fe chalcogenides, specifically focusing on optical properties, scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. These measurements along with recent theories provide a framework for better understanding the origin of superconductivity in FeSe and Fe-chalcogenides.

  3. Roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C Species in Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Sa, Young Jin; Jeong, Hu Young; Joo, Sang Hoon


    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N/C) have emerged as promising nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). While Fe-Nx sites have been widely considered as active species for Fe-N/C catalysts, very recently, iron and/or iron carbide encased with carbon shells (Fe-Fe3C@C) has been suggested as a new active site for the ORR. However, most of synthetic routes to Fe-N/C catalysts involve high-temperature pyrolysis, which unavoidably yield both Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C species, hampering the identification of exclusive role of each species. Herein, in order to establish the respective roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C sites we rationally designed model catalysts via the phase conversion reactions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. The resulting catalysts selectively contained Fe-Nx, Fe-Fe3C@C, and N-doped carbon (C-Nx) sites. It was revealed that Fe-Nx sites dominantly catalyze ORR via 4-electron (4 e(-)) pathway, exerting a major role for high ORR activity, whereas Fe-Fe3C@C sites mainly promote 2 e(-) reduction of oxygen followed by 2 e(-) peroxide reduction, playing an auxiliary role.

  4. Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan

    Hata, Masaki; Sugimoto, Ryo; Hori, Masakazu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Shoji, Jun


    Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae were investigated around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan. Spatial distribution of radon-222 (222Rn) concentration in water showed more submarine groundwater seepage in the offshore area. The lower salinities at offshore sampling stations corresponded with the highest 222Rn concentrations. Juvenile marbled sole were collected from March through June with seasonal peak in April in 2013 and 2014. Mean abundance of juvenile marbled sole was highest at the second most offshore station where high submarine groundwater seepage was indicated. Major prey items in the stomachs of the marbled sole at the post-settlement stage (10-40 mm) were small crustaceans such as cumaceans and gammarids, which were partially replaced with polychaetes in larger juveniles (40-50 mm). Abundance of these major prey items was also higher at offshore stations. A negative correlation between gammarid abundance and salinity indicated a higher concentration of gammarids around the area of high submarine groundwater seepage, a pattern not observed for the other major prey organisms. Stable isotope analysis showed greater dependence of post-settlement stage marbled sole on the small crustaceans with low δ13C indicating that nutrients of terrestrial origin contribute to production of the juvenile marbled sole on the tidal flat.

  5. Fabrication of FeSe superconducting films with chemical transport deposition process

    Feng, J. Q.; Zhang, S. N.; Liu, J. X.; Hao, Q. B.; Li, C. S.; Zhang, P. X.


    FeSe Superconducting films were fabricated with a chemical transport deposition process. During the fabrication process, Fe foils were adopted as substrates and Se powders were put at one end of the tube furnace. During the heating process, Se powders were vaporized, and vaporized atoms were carried by Ar flow and deposited on the Fe substrates. With a heat treatment process under proper temperature, superconducting tetragonal β-FeSe phase can be obtained. The effects of key parameters, including the sintering temperatures and the distances between Fe substrates and Se source on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained films were systematically investigated. The superconducting transition temperature of 7.8 K was obtained on the optimized film. By further optimization of the heat treatment process, it is promising to fabricate FeSe films with higher superconducting phase content and better superconducting properties.

  6. Magnetic properties of carbon-encapsulated Fe-Co alloy nanoparticles.

    Wu, Aibing; Yang, Xuwei; Yang, Hua


    Carbon-encapsulated Fe-Co alloy nanoparticles (Fe-Co(C)) have been fabricated with different Co/Fe ratios by an efficient solid-state route using melamine as carbon source. The structure and morphology of Fe-Co(C) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD characterization results reveal that all products are alloys with no carbide impurity. The TEM and HRTEM observations show that the alloy nanoparticles are encapsulated in carbon shells. Additionally, the reactions involved in the syntheses are postulated. The variation of magnetic properties of Fe-Co(C) with Co/Fe has been discussed according to the room temperature VSM measurement results.

  7. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films

    Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others


    The authors have studied the magnetic structure of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films as a function of Fe concentration by measuring the linear dichroism of the 3p-core levels in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The alloy films, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(001) surfaces, were fcc and approximately four monolayers thick. The intensity of the Fe dichroism varied with Fe concentration, with larger dichroisms at lower Fe concentrations. The implication of these results to an ultrathin film analogue of the bulk Invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys will be discussed. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Light Source.

  8. Diplopia and variable ptosis as the sole initial findings in a case of orbital plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma.

    Galea, Martin; McMillan, Nigel; Weir, Clifford


    Plasmacytomas are monoclonal plasma cell tumors. They represent 3% of all orbital tumors. We present an unusual case of orbital plasmacytoma and advanced multiple myeloma where the sole presenting symptoms were those of diplopia and ptosis. Clinical examination revealed right hypertropia and variable left upper lid ptosis but no proptosis. The visual acuity and the rest of the ocular examination were normal in both eyes. An MRI scan of the brain and orbits revealed a frontal bone lesion consistent with a plasmacytoma. A bone marrow biopsy showed a light chain multiple myeloma with free lambda light chains. Although the literature reports diplopia and ptosis as being clinical features of orbital plasmacytomas, to our knowledge this is the first reported case where these symptoms were the only presenting features, despite widespread disease.

  9. Food habits and seasonal variation of stomach contents of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) in the Bohai Sea

    Dou, Shuozeng


    Examination of the food habits and seasonal variation of the stomach contents of adult tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) taken in July 1982 July 1983 from Laizhou Bay and the Huanghe River estuary of the Bohai Sea showed crustacea, bivalvia and small fishes comprised the main prey. Invertebrates such as polychaeta, cephalopoda, gastropoda, echinodermata and actiniaria were also intermittently found in them. They intensively fed all the year found (monthly feeding rate of over 80%). The main food items were Alpheus japonica, Alpheus distinguendus. Oratosquilla oratoria, Eucrate crenata and Carcinoplax vestitus, etc. In summer and autumn, the portion of bivalvia such as Cultellus attenuatus and Musculus senhousei increased steadily. From summer to winter, a stable proportion of small fishes such as Rhinogobius pflaumi and Setipinna taty was in the diet.

  10. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.


    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep...... mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims' feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture), reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data...... to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods: We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15), or had not (n=17) been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area...

  11. Solely lung-involved IgG4-related disease : a case report and review of the literature.

    Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Guo-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Chang; Yu, Sa; Wang, Hong; Chen, Xuan-Yi; Ren, Zhuo-Chao


    By analyzing the clinical data of 1 case of IgG4-related lung disease(IgG4-RLD) and the review of literature, the author investigated the clinical characteristics of IgG4-RLD. IgG4-RLD is a rare disease characterized by significant elevation of serum IgG4 and infiltration of a large number of IgG4+ plasma cells. The clinical manifestations of the disease were nonspecific, and the imaging features were mixed with several types. The disease can only be involved in the lung, but also multiple organ involvement. Solely lung-involved IgG4-RD is not only extremely rare but also easily misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, lung cancer, lymphoma and other common pulmonary diseases. Histopathological examination is the key to the diagnosis of the disease. Corticosteroids are the first choice of treatment, and the overall prognosis is good.

  12. Does Gender Moderate Factors Associated with Whether Spouses Are the Sole Providers of IADL Care to Their Partners?

    Feld, Sheila; Dunkle, Ruth E; Schroepfer, Tracy; Shen, Huei-Wern


    We explored whether gender moderated the influence of other factors on solo spousal caregiving. The subsample (N = 452) from the AHEAD study included elderly care recipients (CRs) receiving IADL assistance and their spouses. Logistic regression modeled the likelihood of solo spousal IADL care. Gender moderation was tested by product terms between CRs' gender and measures of partners' health, potential helpers, and sociodemographic characteristics. As numbers of CRs' IADLs and couples' proximate daughters increased, wives less often received care solely from their husbands, but husbands' receipt of care from their wives was unaffected. Age differences between spouses and CRs affected solo spousal caregiving to wives and husbands in opposite ways. Regardless of gender, CRs' number of ADL limitations and spouses with IADL or ADL limitations reduced the likelihood of solo spouse care. Identifying circumstances influencing solo spouse caregiving differently among couples with frail wives and husbands facilitates gender sensitive services.

  13. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki


    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Realizing high magnetic moments in fcc Fe nanoparticles through atomic structure stretch.

    Baker, S H; Roy, M; Thornton, S C; Binns, C


    We describe the realization of a high moment state in fcc Fe nanoparticles through a controlled change in their atomic structure. Embedding Fe nanoparticles in a Cu(1-x)Au(x) matrix causes their atomic structure to switch from bcc to fcc. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements show that the structure in both the matrix and the Fe nanoparticles expands as the amount of Au in the matrix is increased, with the data indicating a tetragonal stretch in the Fe nanoparticles. The samples were prepared directly from the gas phase by co-deposition, using a gas aggregation source and MBE-type sources respectively for the nanoparticle and matrix materials. The structure change in the Fe nanoparticles is accompanied by a sharp increase in atomic magnetic moment, ultimately to values of ~2.5 ± 0.3 μ(B)/atom .

  15. Dolo y mala fe

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau


    Full Text Available Se ha dicho por grandes penalistas que las tesis en nuestra disciplina son una eterna vuelta al pasado. Empero, debe constatarse, que ello se ha dicho en un sentido de lo clásico: una vuelta a lo que resulta digno de admirar en cualquier época, toda vez que las experiencias históricas negativas nos previenen de repetir el pasado, razón fundamental por la cual debemos conocerlo. En este escrito pretendemos mostrar cómo algunas tendencias actuales nos indican que épocas nefastas ya superadas pueden repetirse, lo cual particularmente sucede tanto con la noción de dolo como con la de mala fe, concepto que de imponerse destruiría, a la manera como se derrumba un castillo de naipes, el sólido edificio dogmático construido por el Derecho penal liberal.

  16. The Effect of Shoe Sole Tread Groove Depth on the Gait Parameters during Walking on Dry and Slippery Surface

    SF Tabatabai Ghomshe


    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of slipping accidents requires provision of adequate friction through the use of suitable combinations of footwear and underfoot surfaces. Shoe sole tread groove is one of the important factors on friction coefficient during walking.Objective: To measure the effect of different shoe sole tread groove depths and different surfaces on the required quotient of friction (Q, heel strike velocity and occurrence time of ground reaction forces (GRF in stance phase during walking on slippery and dry surfaces.Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 22 healthy men were studied under different conditions. The studied independent variables were shoe groove depths (included 1, 2.5 and 5 mm and type of walking surface (dry and slippery. Biomechanical gait analysis was carried out with 396 single steps. Data were collected by motion analysis system and two force platform.Results: The occurrence time of GRF was significantly faster on dry surface than slippery surface (p<0.01. Q was significantly lower on slippery surface and with groove depths of 1 and 2.5 mm. The highest value of Q was observed with the deepest groove depth of 5 mm. Heel strike velocity did not differ significantly in the 6 conditions tested.Conclusion: Tread groove depth is a significant factor affecting the Q at the shoes-surface interface on dry and slippery floors. It seems that deeper groove is more appropriate for maintaining the stability during walking. The walking surface affects the occurrence time of GRF; the force components occur sooner on the dry than slippery surface.

  17. Mutational Landscape and Gene Expression Patterns in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemias with Monosomy 7 as a Sole Abnormality.

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Kohlschmidt, Jessica; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Volinia, Stefano; Blachly, James S; Nicolet, Deedra; Oakes, Christopher; Kroll, Karl; Orwick, Shelley; Carroll, Andrew J; Stone, Richard M; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomfield, Clara D


    Monosomy of chromosome 7 is the most frequent autosomal monosomy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where it associates with poor clinical outcomes. However, molecular features associated with this sole monosomy subtype (-7 AML), which may give insights into the basis for its poor prognosis, have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed 36 cases of -7 AML for mutations in 81 leukemia/cancer-associated genes using a customized targeted next-generation sequencing panel (Miseq). Global gene and miRNA expression profiles were also determined using paired RNA and small RNA sequencing data. Notably, gene mutations were detected in all the major AML-associated functional groups, which include activated signaling, chromatin remodeling, cohesin complex, methylation, NPM1, spliceosome, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors. Gene mutations in the chromatin remodeling groups were relatively more frequent in patients <60 years of age, who also had less mutations in the methylation and spliceosome groups compared with patients ≥60 years of age. Novel recurrent mutational events in AML were identified in the SMARCA2 gene. In patients ≥60 years of age, the presence of spliceosome mutations associated with a lower complete remission rate (P = 0.03). RNA sequencing revealed distinct gene and miRNA expression patterns between the sole -7 and non -7 AML cases, with reduced expression, as expected, of many genes and miRNAs mapped to chromosome 7, and overexpression of ID1, MECOM, and PTPRM, among others. Overall, our findings illuminate a number of molecular features of the underlying aggressive pathobiology in -7 AML patients. Cancer Res; 77(1); 207-18. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Fe-rich carbonate chimney in Okinawa Trough Implication for Fe-driven Microbial Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AMO)

    Peng, X.; Guo, Z.


    Marine sediments associated with cold seeps at continental margins discharge substantial amounts of methane. Microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AMO) is a key biogeochemical process in these environments, which can trigger the formation of carbonate chimneys within sediments. The exact biogeochemical mechanism of how AMO control the formation of carbonate chimneys and influence their mineralogy and chemistry remains poorly constrained. Here, we use nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry to characterize the petrology and geochemistry of methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed between 5-7 Ma in the Northern Okinawa Trough. We find abundant framboid pyrites formed in the authigenic carbonates in the chimneys, indicating a non-Fe limitation sedimentary system. The δ13C values of carbonate (-18.9‰ to -45.9‰, PDB) show their probable origin from a mixing source of biogenic and thermogenic methane. The δ34S values range from -3.9 ± 0.5‰ to 23.2 ± 0.5‰ (VCDT), indicative of a strong exhaustion of sulfates in a local sulfate pool. We proposed that Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed at the bottom of the sulfate-methane transition zone, beneath which Fe-driven AOM may happen and provide available ferrous for the extensive precipitation of pyrite in carbonate chimneys. The accumulation of reductive Fe in sediments via this process may widely occur in other analogous settings, with important application for Fe and S biogeochemical cycling within deep sediments at continental margins.

  19. Fe3C/Fe nanoparticles with urea: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties

    Wang, Xiaobai; Zhang, Daguang; Ren, Xiaozhen; Gao, Jiajia; Han, Yu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shi, Zhan; Yang, Hua


    Fe3C/Fe nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol-gel method. Using urea as carbon source and reduce agent in the reaction process. The CTAB works as the surfactant and the bromine contained in CTAB plays a catalytic role. Appropriate choices of the amount of urea and CTAB, reaction temperature and time are very important to obtain high-quality of products. Above 650 °C, the precursor gel turned into the nanocomposites composed of iron carbide and iron. Their structures and magnetic properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The possible formation mechanism of as-prepared nanostructures is discussed.

  20. [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation: insights into the role HydE plays in dithiomethylamine biosynthesis.

    Betz, Jeremiah N; Boswell, Nicholas W; Fugate, Corey J; Holliday, Gemma L; Akiva, Eyal; Scott, Anna G; Babbitt, Patricia C; Peters, John W; Shepard, Eric M; Broderick, Joan B


    HydE and HydG are radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine enzymes required for the maturation of [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA) and produce the nonprotein organic ligands characteristic of its unique catalytic cluster. The catalytic cluster of HydA (the H-cluster) is a typical [4Fe-4S] cubane bridged to a 2Fe-subcluster that contains two carbon monoxides, three cyanides, and a bridging dithiomethylamine as ligands. While recent studies have shed light on the nature of diatomic ligand biosynthesis by HydG, little information exists on the function of HydE. Herein, we present biochemical, spectroscopic, bioinformatic, and molecular modeling data that together map the active site and provide significant insight into the role of HydE in H-cluster biosynthesis. Electron paramagnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopic studies demonstrate that reconstituted HydE binds two [4Fe-4S] clusters and copurifies with S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Incorporation of deuterium from D2O into 5'-deoxyadenosine, the cleavage product of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, coupled with molecular docking experiments suggests that the HydE substrate contains a thiol functional group. This information, along with HydE sequence similarity and genome context networks, has allowed us to redefine the presumed mechanism for HydE away from BioB-like sulfur insertion chemistry; these data collectively suggest that the source of the sulfur atoms in the dithiomethylamine bridge of the H-cluster is likely derived from HydE's thiol containing substrate.

  1. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  2. A Fe K Line in GRB 970508

    Protassov, R.; van Dyk, D.; Connors, A.; Kashyap, V.; Siemiginowska, A.


    We examine the x-ray spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 970508, analyzed for Fe line emission by Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73). This is a difficult and extremely important measurement: the detection of x-ray afterglows from γ -ray bursts is at best a tricky business, relying on near-real satellite time response to unpredictable events; and a great deal of luck in catching a burst bright enough for a useful spectral analysis. Detecting a clear atomic (or cyclotron) line in the generally smooth and featureless afterglow (or burst) emission not only gives one of the few very specific keys to the physics local to the emission region, but also provides clues or confirmation of its distance (via redshift). Unfortunately, neither the likelihood ratio test or the related F-statistic commonly used to detect spectral lines adhere to their nominal Chi square and F-distributions. Thus we begin by calibrating the F-statistic used in Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73) via a simulation study. The simulation study relies on a completely specified source model, i.e. we do Monte Carlo simulations with all model parameters fixed (so--called ``parametric bootstrapping''). Second, we employ the method of posterior predictive p-values to calibrate a LRT statistic while accounting for the uncertainty in the parameters of the source model. Our analysis reveals evidence for the Fe K line.

  3. Iron isotopes in bottom waters from the Bransfield Strait: Implications for deep water Fe supply

    Stichel, Torben; Homoky, William; Connelly, Douglas; Klar, Jessica; Mills, Rachel


    Iron (Fe) is an important micro-nutrient in the global ocean. However, its low bioavailability due to poor solubility in oxygenated waters, leads to a strongly limiting character of this trace metal as a nutrient. The major sources of Fe to seawater are largely known (i.e. aeolian dust deposition, riverine and groundwater input, seawater-sediment interaction, and hydrothermal vents) but the relative significance of these sources to the marine Fe supply are not yet well quantified. Areas with low atmospheric inputs, such as the Southern Ocean, are severely Fe limited in surface waters. Here, strong upwelling and a deeply penetrating surface mixed layer fuel one of the largest biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the global ocean. One significant pathway to bottom waters is the benthic flux of trace metals from hydrothermal systems, where Fe can be stabilised in the water column by different dissolved species. For example, benthic fauna, such as tube-worms, may enhance transportation of dissolved trace metals from pore waters through oxic surface layers of sediments into the deep ocean. Concentrations of total dissolvable Fe (DFe) in these bottom waters have been reported to be significantly higher than surrounding seawater (Aquilina et al., 2014). Here we present DFe isotope composition of bottom water from the Hook Ridge, a shallow (~1100m) sediment covered volcanic feature within a rifted margin. On the basis of Fe isotopes we will determine whether Fe is released by non-reductive dissolution from poorly oxygenated sediments via the presence of tubeworms Sclerolinum spec. This will help to evaluate whether benthic fluxes from hydrothermal fields can be a major source of bioavailable Fe to the deep Southern Ocean. References: Aquilina, A., Homoky, W.B., Hawkes, J. A., Lyons, T.W., Mills, R. a., 2014. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 64-80. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.003

  4. Chronic use of the immunomodulating tripeptide feG-COOH in experimental feline asthma.

    Eberhardt, Jason M; DeClue, Amy E; Reinero, Carol R


    We have previously documented that a single dose of feG-COOH prior to allergen challenge significantly decreased eosinophilic airway inflammation in cats with experimental asthma, but did not result in complete resolution of airway inflammation. This study was undertaken to determine if a chronic (2 weeks) course of feG-COOH in experimentally asthmatic cats would induce complete remission of airway inflammation and clinical signs of asthma. Experimental asthma was induced using Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) and cats were randomly selected to receive either feG-COOH (1mg/kg, PO) or saline for 2 weeks, followed by a 2-week washout period. Cats then received the alternate treatment. Aerosol challenge with BGA was performed weekly throughout the study and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected prior to and after each of the 2-week treatment periods. Regular use of feG-COOH had no significant effect on airway inflammation, BALF and plasma TNF bioactivity or a clinical sign compared to placebo. Regular use of feG-COOH can thus not be recommended as the sole therapy for feline allergic asthma.

  5. Fe II Diagnostic Tools for Quasars

    Verner, E; Verner, D; Johansson, S; Kallman, T; Gull, T R


    The enrichment of Fe, relative to alpha-elements such as O and Mg, represents a potential means to determine the age of quasars and probe the galaxy formation epoch. To explore how \\ion{Fe}{2} emission in quasars is linked to physical conditions and abundance, we have constructed a 830-level \\ion{Fe}{2} model atom and investigated through photoionization calculations how \\ion{Fe}{2} emission strengths depend on non-abundance factors. We have split \\ion{Fe}{2} emission into three major wavelength bands, \\ion{Fe}{2} (UV), \\ion{Fe}{2}(Opt1), and \\ion{Fe}{2}(Opt2), and explore how the \\ion{Fe}{2}(UV)/\\ion{Mg}{2}, \\ion{Fe}{2}(UV)/\\ion{Fe}{2}(Opt1) and \\ion{Fe}{2}(UV)/\\ion{Fe}{2}(Opt2) emission ratios depend upon hydrogen density and ionizing flux in broad-line regions (BLR's) of quasars. Our calculations show that: 1) similar \\ion{Fe}{2}(UV)/\\ion{Mg}{2} ratios can exist over a wide range of physical conditions; 2) the \\ion{Fe}{2}(UV)/\\ion{Fe}{2}(Opt1) and \\ion{Fe}{2}(UV)/\\ion{Fe}{2}(Opt2) ratios serve to constrain...

  6. Magnetic properties of Fe1-xMnx/Fe nanocomposites

    Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Mørup, Steen


    We have prepared nanocomposites of mixtures of ferromagnetic alpha-Fe and antiferromagnetic gamma-Fe50Mn50 nanoparticles, and studied their magnetic and structural properties by magnetization measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. A sample consisting of a 1:1 mixture...... of the two materials showed enhanced coercivity, but almost negligible exchange bias at room temperature after field cooling from 520 K. However, samples with higher content of gamma-Fe50Mn50 showed significant exchange bias. The mechanisms for exchange bias and enhanced coercivity in the system...

  7. The Sole of Anze



    Despite the continuing rush toward modernization,many rural areas in China are still managing to maintain important local customsand perpetuate age-old crafts.Recently on avisit to Anze,Shanxi Province(roughly 400km south of the provincial capital,Taiyuan),

  8. Sources, transport and deposition of iron in the global atmosphere

    Wang, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Boucher, O.; Bopp, L.; Chappell, A.; Ciais, P.; Hauglustaine, D.; Peñuelas, J.; Tao, S.


    Atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) plays an important role in controlling oceanic primary productivity. However, the sources of Fe in the atmosphere are not well understood. In particular, the combustion sources of Fe and the subsequent deposition to the oceans have been accounted for in only few ocean biogeochemical models of the carbon cycle. Here we used a mass-balance method to estimate the emissions of Fe from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass by accounting for the Fe contents in fuel and the partitioning of Fe during combustion. The emissions of Fe attached to aerosols from combustion sources were estimated by particle size, and their uncertainties were quantified by a Monte Carlo simulation. The emissions of Fe from mineral sources were estimated using the latest soil mineralogical database to date. As a result, the total Fe emissions from combustion averaged for 1960-2007 were estimated to be 5.3 Tg yr-1 (90% confidence of 2.3 to 12.1). Of these emissions, 1, 27 and 72% were emitted in particles 10 μm (PM> 10), respectively, compared to a total Fe emission from mineral dust of 41.0 Tg yr-1 in a log-normal distribution with a mass median diameter of 2.5 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 2. For combustion sources, different temporal trends were found in fine and medium-to-coarse particles, with a notable increase in Fe emissions in PM1 since 2000 due to an increase in Fe emission from motor vehicles (from 0.008 to 0.0103 Tg yr-1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively). These emissions have been introduced in a global 3-D transport model run at a spatial resolution of 0.94° latitude by 1.28° longitude to evaluate our estimation of Fe emissions. The modelled Fe concentrations as monthly means were compared with the monthly (57 sites) or daily (768 sites) measured concentrations at a total of 825 sampling stations. The deviation between modelled and observed Fe concentrations attached to aerosols at the surface was within a factor of 2 at most

  9. A low-cost cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction.

    Wu, Tianxing; Zhang, Haimin; Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong


    In this work, chitosan whiskers (CWs) were first extracted using low-cost and earth-abundant crab shells as materials by a series of chemical processes, and then assembled into chitosan whisker microspheres (CWMs) via a simple photochemical polymerization approach. Subsequently, a cementite (Fe3C) nanocrystal@N-doped graphitic carbon (Fe3C@NGC) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated by high temperature pyrolysis of CWMs adsorbed with ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) at 900 °C. It was found that a suitable growth atmosphere generated inside CWMs during high temperature pyrolysis is critically important to form Fe3C nanocrystal cores, concurrently accompanying a structural transformation from chitosan whiskers to mesoporous graphitic carbon shells with natural nitrogen (N) doping properties, resulting in the formation of a core-shell structure Fe3C@NGC nanocomposite. The resulting samples were evaluated as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In comparison with sole N-doped graphitic carbon without Fe3C nanocrystals obtained by direct pyrolysis of chitosan whisker microspheres at 900 °C (CWMs-900), Fe3C@NGC showed significantly improved ORR catalytic activity. The tolerance to fuel cell molecules (e.g., methanol) and the durability of Fe3C@NGC are obviously superior to commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline media. The high ORR performance of Fe3C@NGC could be due to its large surface area (313.7 m(2) g(-1)), a synergistic role of Fe3C nanocrystals, N doping in graphitic carbon creating more catalytic active sites, and a porous structure of the nanocomposite facilitating mass transfer to efficiently improve the utilization of these catalytic active sites.

  10. Effects of the Amplitude and Frequency of Salinity Fluctuation on the Body Composition and Energy Budget of Juvenile Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    Sachin Onkar KHAIRNAR; TIAN Xiangli; FANG Ziheng; DONG Shuanglin


    Effects of the amplitude (±2, ±4, ±6, and ±8) and frequency (2, 4, and 8d) of salinity fluctuation on the body composi-tion and energy budget of juvenile tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were investigated in a 64-d experiment. Results showed that the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuation had significant interaction and both substantially affected the final weight and specific growth rate of juvenile tongue sole. The tongue sole exhibited better growth in treatments with moderate amplitude and fre-quency of salinity fluctuation (amplitude ±4–6; frequency 4–8d) than in other treatments and the control. In terms of energy budget, salinity fluctuation strongly affected the proportions of energy components, including those deposited for growth and lost in respira-tion, feces, and excretion. Moderately amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuationg that favored the growth of tongue sole parti-tioned more energy for growth and less energy for metabolism than the constant and other amplitude and frequency of salinity fluc-tuation. Average energy budget for tongue sole at moderately fluctuating salinity was determined to be 100C(food)=30.92G(growth) +10.30F(feces)+6.77U(excretion)+52.01R(respiration). Energetic advantage at moderately fluctuating salinity, including increased energy intake, high assimilation efficiency, reduced metabolism expenditure, and more energy partitioned into growth, might account for the enhancement of tongue sole growth. Commercial farmers are recommended to rear juvenile tongue sole with moderate salin-ity fluctuations for better growth performance of this species.

  11. Maturation of [FeFe]-hydrogenases: Structures and mechanisms

    Nicolet, Yvain; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Cristallogenese des Proteines, Institut de Biologie Structurale J.P. Ebel, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, CNRS, UMR 5075, CEA, DSV/IBS, 41 rue J. Horowitz F-38027 Grenoble cedex 1 (France); Fontecave, Marc [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Metaux; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, CNRS, UMR 5249, CEA, DSV/iRTSV, 17 rue des Martyrs F-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); College de France, 11 place Marcelin-Berthelot 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)


    Maturation of [FeFe]-hydrogenases, consisting in the synthesis and assembly of a di-iron center with a dithiolate bridging ligand as well as CO and CN ligands, depends on the concerted action of three metalloproteins, HydE, HydF and HydG. HydE and HydG are ''Radical-SAM'' enzymes involved in the synthesis of the ligands. HydF is proposed to function as a scaffold protein in which the di-iron center is assembled before being transferred to the hydrogenase. Here we review the current knowledge regarding the structure of the three maturases and the mechanisms of synthesis and assembly of the di-iron center of [FeFe]-hydrogenases. (author)

  12. Phonon-drag effect in FeGa3

    Wagner-Reetz, Maik; Kasinathan, Deepa; Schnelle, Walter; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Rosner, Helge; Grin, Yuri; Gille, Peter


    The thermoelectric properties of single-crystalline and polycrystalline FeGa3 are systematically investigated over a wide temperature range. At low temperatures, below 20 K, previously not known pronounced peaks in the thermal conductivity (400 -800 WK-1 m-1) with corresponding maxima in the thermopower (in the order of -16000 μ V K-1) were found in single-crystalline samples. Measurements in single crystals along [100] and [001] directions indicate only a slight anisotropy in both the electrical and thermal transports. From susceptibility and heat-capacity measurements, a magnetic or structural phase transition was excluded. Using density functional theory based calculations, we have revisited the electronic structure of FeGa3 and compared the magnetic (including correlations) and nonmagnetic electronic densities of states. Thermopower at fixed carrier concentrations is calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, and the calculated results match fairly with our experimental data. The inclusion of strong electron correlations treated in a mean field manner (by LSDA + U ) does not improve this comparison, rendering strong correlations as the sole explanation for the low-temperature enhancement unlikely. Eventually, after a careful review, we assign the peaks in the thermopower as a manifestation of the phonon-drag effect, which is supported by thermopower measurements in a magnetic field.

  13. Effect of Fe(III) impurity on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 prepared by hydrothermal process


    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) was synthesized from LiOH, FeSO4 and H3PO4 by a hydrothermal process at 180℃. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Electrochemical performance of the samples was tested in terms of charge-discharge capacity and cycling behavior. The results indicated that Fe(III) impurity had obvi- ously effect on the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4, and the formation of Fe3+ was caused by the oxidation of Fe2+ in the dissolving and feeding processes accompanying the increase of pH value. It was found that the precipitation separation was effective in decreasing the content of Fe3+ in the solu- tion of FeSO4 and the sealed feeding was useful in preventing the conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+. When the content of Fe3+ < 0.5 wt%, the hydrothermally synthesized LiFePO4 calcined at 750℃ with sucrose as carbon source exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 154.9 mAh·g-1 at the rate of 0.1 C (1 C = 150 mA·g-1) and the cycling retention rate could reach 98% after 50 cycles at room temperature.

  14. Sole Community Hospitals: Are They Different? A Statistical Analysis of the Hospitals and Their Treatment under TEFRA and PPS. Hospital Studies Program. Hospital Cost and Utilization Project. Research Note 5.

    Farley, Dean E.

    A study examined the treatment of sole community hospitals under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA) and the Prospective Payment System (PPS) for Medicare as compared to the treatment of hospitals not designated as sole community hospitals under these same two policy guidelines. (A sole community hospital is defined as a…

  15. A Comparison between Four Analytical Methods for the Measurement of Fe(II at Nanomolar Concentrations in Coastal Seawater

    Mark J. Hopwood


    inconsistencies suggest that some inter-dataset differences in measured Fe(II oxidation rates in natural waters may be attributable to differences in the analytical methods used rather than arising solely from substantial shifts in Fe(II speciation.

  16. Efficiency of a new strategy involving a new class of natural hetero-ligand iron(III) chelates (Fe(III)-NHL) to improve fruit tree growth in alkaline/calcareous soils.

    Fuentes, Marta; Ortuño, María F; Pérez-Sarmiento, Francisco; Bacaicoa, Eva; Baigorri, Roberto; Conejero, Wenceslao; Torrecillas, Arturo; García-Mina, José M


    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is a serious problem affecting the yield and quality of numerous crops and fruit trees cultivated in alkaline/calcareous soils. This paper describes the efficiency of a new class of natural hetero-ligand Fe(III) chelates (Fe-NHL) to provide available Fe for chlorotic lemon trees grown in alkaline/calcareous soils. These chelates involve the participation in the reaction system of a partially humified lignin-based natural polymer and citric acid. First results showed that Fe-NHL was adsorbed on the soil matrix while maintaining available Fe for plants in alkaline/calcareous solution. The effects of using three different sources as Fe fertilisers were also compared: two Fe-NHL formulations (NHL1, containing 100% of Fe as Fe-NHL, and NHL2, containing 80% of Fe as Fe-NHL and 20% of Fe as Fe-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA)) and Fe-EDDHA. Both Fe-NHL formulations increased fruit yield without negative effects on fruit quality in comparison with Fe-EDDHA. In the absence of the Fe-starter fraction (NHL1), trees seemed to optimise Fe assimilation and translocation from Fe-NHL, directing it to those parts of the plant more involved in development. The field assays confirmed that Fe-NHL-based fertilisers are able to provide Fe to chlorotic trees, with results comparable to Fe-EDDHA. Besides, this would imply a more sustainable and less expensive remediation than synthetic chelates. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean

    Bin, Levi M.; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H.J.


    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD),

  18. Effectiveness of FeEDDHA, FeEDDHMA, and FeHBED in Preventing Iron-Deficiency Chlorosis in Soybean

    Bin, Levi M.; Weng, Liping; Bugter, Marcel H.J.


    The performance of FeHBED in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in comparison to FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA was studied, as well as the importance of the ortho-ortho and ortho-para/rest isomers in defining the performance. To this end, chlorophyll production (SPAD),

  19. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki


    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  20. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz


    a depth of 17 km (5 kbar). These PT conditions are in agreement with the mineralogical assemblage formed during event 2 meanwhile the intense fluids circulation and the K-rich metasomatism (up to 5% K2O for bulk rock analyse) could be explained by the destabilization of deep oceanic sediments. To initiate the subduction of a 30 Ma old oceanic lithosphere, we propose a zone of weakness alongside a transform fault that juxtaposes oceanic lithospheres of different ages and thicknesses, supported by microstructural criteria that evidence a highly oblique tectonic obduction. Our study emphasizes that ophiolitic soles could develop away from the ridge in a context of intra-oceanic subduction along a transform fault. In that case, the hanging wall will not be hot enough to produce classical high-grade metamorphic sole and the resulting rocks could be referred as "cold ophiolitic soles".