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Sample records for sole ccm gene

  1. CCM in the FUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, S. I. B.; Clayton, G. C.; Gordon, K. D.

    2005-12-01

    Over 90% of Milky Way extinction curves sampled from IR through UV wavelengths (UV coverage by IUE) conform to the CCM family of curves based on R(V), a single parameter linked to grain size. The far-ultraviolet (FUV) portion of this formulation, however, was based only on a few sight lines observed by Copernicus, and it has recently been shown that in certain cases CCM does not predict extinction in the FUV as accurately as it does at longer wavelengths. In this poster paper, we present preliminary results from our examination of the agreement between all publicly-available FUSE FUV spectra of reddened O and B stars and their corresponding extinction curves inferred from longer wavelength fluxes. The eventual goal of our project is to reformulate CCM, particularly in the FUV where we have compiled more than 90 sight lines observed by FUSE. We are also exploring correlations between bulk sight line properties and the form of the reconstituted CCM curves.

  2. iCCM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school level (with 6 days statutory iCCM training)2 to be able to manage uncomplicated ... debate that has received less attention has been a failure to demonstrate, or .... qualitative evidence from a pilot study in Tanzania. J Health Commun.

  3. Structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942: roles for CcmK2, K3-K4, CcmO, and CcmL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Rae

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial CO(2-fixation is supported by a CO(2-concentrating mechanism which improves photosynthesis by saturating the primary carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, with its preferred substrate CO(2. The site of CO(2-concentration is a protein bound micro-compartment called the carboxysome which contains most, if not all, of the cellular RuBisCO. The shell of β-type carboxysomes is thought to be composed of two functional layers, with the inner layer involved in RuBisCO scaffolding and bicarbonate dehydration, and the outer layer in selective permeability to dissolved solutes. Here, four genes (ccmK2-4, ccmO, whose products were predicted to function in the outer shell layer of β-carboxysomes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, were investigated by analysis of defined genetic mutants. Deletion of the ccmK2 and ccmO genes resulted in severe high-CO(2-requiring mutants with aberrant carboxysomes, whilst deletion of ccmK3 or ccmK4 resulted in cells with wild-type physiology and normal ultrastructure. However, a tandem deletion of ccmK3-4 resulted in cells with wild-type carboxysome structure, but physiologically deficient at low CO(2 conditions. These results revealed the minimum structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes from this strain: CcmK2, CcmO and CcmL. An accessory set of proteins was required to refine the function of the pre-existing shell: CcmK3 and CcmK4. These data suggested a model for the facet structure of β-carboxysomes with CcmL forming the vertices, CcmK2 forming the bulk facet, and CcmO, a "zipper protein," interfacing the edges of carboxysome facets.

  4. Identification of a novel gene cluster in the upstream region of the S-layer gene sbpA involved in cell wall metabolism of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 and characterization of the recombinantly produced autolysin and pyruvyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleschberger, Magdalena; Hildner, Florian; Rünzler, Dominik; Gelbmann, Nicola; Mayer, Harald F; Sleytr, Uwe B; Egelseer, Eva M

    2013-05-01

    The S-layer protein SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 assembles into a square (p4) lattice structure and recognizes a pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) as the proper anchoring structure to the rigid cell wall layer. Sequencing of 8,004 bp in the 5'-upstream region of the S-layer gene sbpA led to five ORFs-encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism. After cloning and heterologous expression of ORF1 and ORF5 in Escherichia coli, the recombinant autolysin rAbpA and the recombinant pyruvyl transferase rCsaB were isolated, purified, and correct folding was confirmed by circular dichroism. Although rAbpA encoded by ORF1 showed amidase activity, it could attack whole cells of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177 only after complete extraction of the S-layer lattice. Despite the presence of three S-layer-homology motifs on the N-terminal part, rAbpA did not show detectable affinity to peptidoglycan-containing sacculi, nor to isolated SCWP. As the molecular mass of the autolysin lies above the molecular exclusion limit of the S-layer, AbpA is obviously trapped within the rigid cell wall layer by the isoporous protein lattice. Immunogold-labeling of ultrathin-sectioned whole cells of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177 with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against rCsaB encoded by ORF5, and cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that the pyruvyl transferase was located in the cytoplasm, but not associated with cell envelope components including the plasma membrane. In enzymatic assays, rCsaB clearly showed pyruvyl transferase activity. By using RT-PCR, specific transcripts for each ORF could be detected. Cotranscription could be confirmed for ORF2 and ORF3.

  5. Coolant channel module CCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, Alois

    2007-01-01

    A complete and detailed description of the theoretical background of an '(1D) thermal-hydraulic drift-flux based mixture-fluid' coolant channel model and its resulting module CCM will be presented. The objective of this module is to simulate as universally as possible the steady state and transient behaviour of the key characteristic parameters of a single- or two-phase fluid flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channel. Due to the possibility that different flow regimes can appear along any channel, such a 'basic (BC)' 1D channel is assumed to be subdivided into a number of corresponding sub-channels (SC-s). Each SC can belong to only two types of flow regime, an SC with just a single-phase fluid, containing exclusively either sub-cooled water or superheated steam, or an SC with a two-phase mixture flow. After an appropriate nodalisation of such a BC (and therefore also its SC-s) a 'modified finite volume method' has been applied for the spatial discretisation of the partial differential equations (PDE-s) which represent the basic conservation equations of thermal-hydraulics. Special attention had to be given to the possibility of variable SC entrance or outlet positions (which describe boiling boundaries or mixture levels) and thus the fact that an SC can even disappear or be created anew. The procedure yields for each SC type (and thus the entire BC), a set of non-linear ordinary 1st order differential equations (ODE-s). To link the resulting mean nodal with the nodal boundary function values, both of which are present in the discretised differential equations, a special quadratic polygon approximation procedure (PAX) had to be constructed. Together with the very thoroughly tested packages for drift-flux, heat transfer and single- and two-phase friction factors this procedure represents the central part of the here presented 'Separate-Region' approach, a theoretical model which provides the basis to the very effective working code package CCM

  6. CCM key comparison CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, S.; Becerra, L. O.; Lenard, E.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. G.; Madec, T.; Meury, P. A.; Caceres, J.; Santos, C.; Vamossy, C.; Man, J.; Fen, K.; Toda, K.; Wright, J.; Bettin, H.; Toth, H.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the comparison philosophy, methodology, analysis and the results of the designed CCM.D-K4 key comparison that covered the calibration of high resolution hydrometers for liquid and alcoholometers in the density range 600 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3 at the temperature of 20°C. The main purpose of this comparison was not only to evaluate the degree of equivalence in the calibration of high accuracy hydrometers between NMI participants, but also to link, were it is possible, the results of previous comparisons to Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) of CCM.D-K4. Eleven NMI laboratories took part in the CCM.D-K4 divided in two groups (petals). With the CCM.D-K4 purpose, two similar sets consisting of three hydrometers for liquid density determinations and an alcoholometer were circulated to the NMI participants as a travelling standard in the time interval from January 2011 to April 2012. Twelve Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) for each petal have been obtained at the density values related to the tested density marks of the transfer standards by the results of participants. The KCRVs and corresponding uncertainties were calculated by the weighted mean in the case of consistent results, otherwise the median was used. The degree of equivalence (DoE) with respect to the corresponding KCRV was determined for each participant and, in this particular comparison, the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method was used to link the individual DoE of each participant by a continuous function. Significant drift of the transfer standards was not detected. This report also gives instructions on calculating pair-wise degrees of equivalence, with the addition of any information on correlations that may be necessary to estimate more accurately as well as the procedure for linking international comparisons to the CCM.D-K4. Finally an example of linkage to the CCM.D-K4 is given by dealing with the results of the bilateral comparison between INRiM and NMIA, which was

  7. Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingping; Zheng, Min; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Lu, Jianguo; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-08-26

    In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female's highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species.

  8. Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female’s highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species.

  9. Identification, characterization and functional analysis of regulatory region of nanos gene from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2017-06-20

    The nanos gene encodes an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, which is required in the development and maintenance of germ cells. However, there is very limited information about nanos in flatfish, which impedes its application in fish breeding. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of the nanos gene (Csnanos) from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), which is an economically important flatfish in China. The 1233-bp cDNA sequence, 1709-bp genomic sequence and flanking sequences (2.8-kb 5'- and 1.6-kb 3'-flanking regions) of Csnanos were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that CsNanos shares low homology with Nanos in other species, but the zinc finger domain of CsNanos is highly similar. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsNanos belongs to the Nanos2 subfamily. Csnanos expression was widely detected in various tissues, but the expression level was higher in testis and ovary. During early development and sex differentiation, Csnanos expression exhibited a clear sexually dimorphic pattern, suggesting its different roles in the migration and differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Higher expression levels of Csnanos mRNA in normal females and males than in neomales indicated that the nanos gene may play key roles in maintaining the differentiation of gonad. Moreover, medaka PGCs were successfully labeled by the microinjection of synthesized mRNA consisting of green fluorescence protein and the 3'-untranslated region of Csnanos. These findings provide new insights into nanos gene expression and function, and lay the foundation for further study of PGC development and applications in tongue sole breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the aqp1aa gene in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    Full Text Available Aquaporin 1 (AQP1 is a member of the transmembrane water channel family of proteins with special structural features, and two AQP1 paralogous genes (aqp1aa and aqp1ab are reported in teleosts. In the present study, the aqp1aa gene of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of aqp1aa is 1411 bp with a 786 bp open reading frame encoding a 261-amino acid putative protein with a characteristic structure consisting of 6 membrane-spanning α-helical domains and two highly conserved asparagine-proline-alanine motifs. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that aqp1aa mRNA is expressed predominantly in the testis of males and pseudo-males, while its expression is low in the ovary and lowest in doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1(DMRT1 knock out fish and triploid males. In situ hybridization indicated that aqp1aa mRNA is expressed mainly in the germ cells of males and pseudo-males, especially in spermatozoa and spermatids. These results suggest that the aqp1aa may play a role in spermatogenesis of C. semilaevis.

  11. CCM: A Text Classification Method by Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new Cluster based Classification Model (CCM) for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks, is presented. Comparative experiments of the proposed model against traditional classification models and the boosting algorithm are also discussed. Experimental results...... show that the CCM outperforms traditional classification models as well as the boosting algorithm for the task of suspicious email detection on terrorism domain email dataset and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups datasets. The overall finding is that applying a cluster based...

  12. CEAI: CCM based Email Authorship Identification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for email authorship identification (EAI) by employing a Cluster-based Classification (CCM) technique. Traditionally, stylometric features have been successfully employed in various authorship analysis tasks; we extend the traditional feature-set to include some...... more interesting and effective features for email authorship identification (e.g. the last punctuation mark used in an email, the tendency of an author to use capitalization at the start of an email, or the punctuation after a greeting or farewell). We also included Info Gain feature selection based...... reveal that the proposed CCM-based email authorship identification model, along with the proposed feature set, outperforms the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM)-based models, as well as the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1, 2]. The proposed model attains an accuracy rate of 94% for 10...

  13. STAR-CCM+ Verification and Validation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code STAR-CCM+ provides general purpose finite volume method solutions for fluid dynamics and energy transport. This document defines plans for verification and validation (V&V) of the base code and models implemented within the code by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light water reactors (CASL). The software quality assurance activities described herein are port of the overall software life cycle defined in the CASL Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Plan [Sieger, 2015]. STAR-CCM+ serves as the principal foundation for development of an advanced predictive multi-phase boiling simulation capability within CASL. The CASL Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) team develops advanced closure models required to describe the subgrid-resolution behavior of secondary fluids or fluid phases in multiphase boiling flows within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of the code. These include wall heat partitioning models that describe the formation of vapor on the surface and the forces the define bubble/droplet dynamic motion. The CASL models are implemented as user coding or field functions within the general framework of the code. This report defines procedures and requirements for V&V of the multi-phase CFD capability developed by CASL THM. Results of V&V evaluations will be documented in a separate STAR-CCM+ V&V assessment report. This report is expected to be a living document and will be updated as additional validation cases are identified and adopted as part of the CASL THM V&V suite.

  14. Molecular characterization of kiss2 and differential regulation of reproduction-related genes by sex steroids in the hypothalamus of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Quan; Liu, Xuezhou; Xu, Yongjiang; Song, Xuesong; Shi, Bao

    2017-11-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) plays a critical role in mediating gonadal steroid feedback to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. However, little information regarding the regulation of kisspeptin gene by sex steroids is available in teleosts. In this study, we examined the direct actions of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin and other key factors involved in reproductive function of half-smooth tongue sole. As a first step, a partial-length cDNA of kiss2 was identified from the brain of tongue sole and kiss2 transcript levels were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the ovary. Then, the actions of sex steroids on kiss2 and other reproduction-related genes were evaluated using a primary hypothalamus culture system. Our results showed that neither kiss2 nor its receptor kiss2r mRNA levels were significantly altered by sex steroids. Moreover, sex steroids did not modify hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih) and its receptor gnihr mRNAs, either. However, E2 markedly stimulated both gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNAs levels. Overall, this study provides insights into the role of sex steroids in the reproductive function of Pleuronectiform teleosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Imputing Variants in HLA-DR Beta Genes Reveals That HLA-DRB1 Is Solely Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available The genetic association of HLA-DRB1 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is well documented, but association with other HLA-DR beta genes (HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DRB5 has not been thoroughly studied, despite their similar functions and chromosomal positions. We examined variants in all functional HLA-DR beta genes in RA and SLE patients and controls, down to the amino-acid level, to better understand disease association with the HLA-DR locus. To this end, we improved an existing HLA reference panel to impute variants in all protein-coding HLA-DR beta genes. Using the reference panel, HLA variants were inferred from high-density SNP data of 9,271 RA-control subjects and 5,342 SLE-control subjects. Disease association tests were performed by logistic regression and log-likelihood ratio tests. After imputation using the newly constructed HLA reference panel and statistical analysis, we observed that HLA-DRB1 variants better accounted for the association between MHC and susceptibility to RA and SLE than did the other three HLA-DRB variants. Moreover, there were no secondary effects in HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, or HLA-DRB5 in RA or SLE. Of all the HLA-DR beta chain paralogs, those encoded by HLA-DRB1 solely or dominantly influence susceptibility to RA and SLE.

  16. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  17. Teelthandleiding korrelmais en Corn Cob Mix (CCM) - voedingsaspecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den L.; Groten, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Korrelmaïs wordt overwegend verwerkt in mengvoer voor pluimvee en varkens. CCM wordt hoofdzakelijk vervoederd aan varkens, maar daarnaast ook aan rundvee. MKS is voornamelijk bestemd voor rundvee en paarden

  18. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ccm 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis ccm 1815 for fermentation of cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Romanová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus is the most representative strain in a group of lactic acid bacteria, which perform an essential role in the preservation and production of wholesome foods. Lactic acid fermentation is the oldest traditional method for preparation of fermented vegetables, meat products, dairy products and cereal foods. Cereal grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre for people. The main exploitation of cereals is to prepare sourdough, which is a mixture of wheat, rye or other cereal flour with water and contains yeasts and lactobacilli. The basic biochemical changes that occur in sourdough bread fermentation are acidification of the dough with organic acids produced by the lactobacilli and leavening with carbon dioxide produced by the yeast and the lactobacilli. Acidification perhaps initiate enzymatic processes of proteins and phytates degradation. Lactobacilli produce various enzymes which make flavour precursors, improve of mineral bioavailability or degrade celiac active peptides, because some species of lactobacilli produce specific peptidases during growth, which are capable to hydrolyze hardly cleavable, celiac-active proline-rich peptides. Microbial fermentation with selected strains of lactobacilli may be new alternative approach for modification of gluten by hydrolysis. In this paper are described growth characteristics and intracellular aminopeptidases activities of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis CCM 1815. Work was focused on characterization of the lactobacilli for potential usage as a starter culture in further fermentation experiments.

  19. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS, the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery. For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  20. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  1. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  2. Validation of Slosh Modeling Approach Using STAR-CCM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David J.; Ng, Wanyi

    2018-01-01

    Without an adequate understanding of propellant slosh, the spacecraft attitude control system may be inadequate to control the spacecraft or there may be an unexpected loss of science observation time due to higher slosh settling times. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to model propellant slosh. STAR-CCM+ is a commercially available CFD code. This paper seeks to validate the CFD modeling approach via a comparison between STAR-CCM+ liquid slosh modeling results and experimental, empirically, and analytically derived results. The geometries examined are a bare right cylinder tank and a right cylinder with a single ring baffle.

  3. Teelthandleiding korrelmais en Corn Cob Mix (CCM) - bemesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den L.; Groten, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    De bemesting van korrelmaïs, CCM en MKS komt grotendeels overeen met die van snijmaïs. Voor de bemestingsadviezen wordt dan ook verwezen naar http://www.handboeksnijmais.nl/. Er zijn echter voor de situatie van twee of meer jaren achter elkaar telen van het gewas wel enkele aanpassingen nodig. Dit

  4. Can CCM law properly represent all extinction curves?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geminale, Anna; Popowski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    We present the analysis of a large sample of lines of sight with extinction curves covering wavelength range from near-infrared (NIR) to ultraviolet (UV). We derive total to selective extinction ratios based on the Cardelli, Clayton and Mathis (1989, CCM) law, which is typically used to fit the extinction data both for diffuse and dense interstellar medium. We conclude that the CCM law is able to fit most of the extinction curves in our sample. We divide the remaining lines of sight with peculiar extinction into two groups according to two main behaviors: a) the optical/IR or/and UV wavelength region cannot be reproduced by the CCM formula; b) the optical/NIR and UV extinction data are best fit by the CCM law with different values of R v . We present examples of such curves. The study of both types of peculiar cases can help us to learn about the physical processes that affect dust in the interstellar medium, e.g., formation of mantles on the surface of grains, evaporation, growing or shattering

  5. CCM-R: Secure Counter Synchronization for IoT Wireless Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Upal; Yin, Jiachen; Andersen, Birger

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose and evaluate a new version of the CCM mode of operation, CCM-R, which isan extended and alternate version of the original CBC-MAC with Counter Mode(CCM) that was created to address the problem of counter synchronization. While CCM is considered secure when used/implemente...... it suitable for low-power wireless IoT devices....

  6. Provider Experiences with Chronic Care Management (CCM) Services and Fees: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Sarwar, Rumin; Keith, Rosalind; Balke, Patrick; Ma, Sai; McCall, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    Support for ongoing care management and coordination between office visits for patients with multiple chronic conditions has been inadequate. In January 2015, Medicare introduced the Chronic Care Management (CCM) payment policy, which reimburses providers for CCM activities for Medicare beneficiaries occurring outside of office visits. To explore the experiences, facilitators, and challenges of practices providing CCM services, and their implications going forward. Semi-structured telephone interviews from January to April 2016 with 71 respondents. Sixty billing and non-billing providers and practice staff knowledgeable about their practices' CCM services, and 11 professional society representatives. Practice respondents noted that most patients expressed positive views of CCM services. Practice respondents also perceived several patient benefits, including improved adherence to treatment, access to care team members, satisfaction, care continuity, and care coordination. Facilitators of CCM provision included having an in-practice care manager, patient-centered medical home recognition, experience developing care plans, patient trust in their provider, and supplemental insurance to cover CCM copayments. Most billing practices reported few problems obtaining patients' consent for CCM, though providers felt that CMS could better facilitate consent by marketing CCM's goals to beneficiaries. Barriers reported by professional society representatives and by billing and non-billing providers included inadequacy of CCM payments to cover upfront investments for staffing, workflow modification, and time needed to manage complex patients. Other barriers included inadequate infrastructure for health information exchange with other providers and limited electronic health record capabilities for documenting and updating care plans. Practices owned by hospital systems and large medical groups faced greater bureaucracy in implementing CCM than did smaller, independent practices

  7. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  8. Contemporary commercial music (CCM) survey: who's teaching what in nonclassical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVetri, Jeannette L; Weekly, Edrie Means

    2003-06-01

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in and demand for training in a wide variety of nonclassical music--contemporary commercial music (CCM)--and most particularly for music theater. A survey of singing teachers was completed to elucidate their training, education, and experience with and methods of teaching CCM. Teachers were at colleges, universities, and conservatories as well as in private studios, both nationally and in several foreign countries. A substantial percentage of those teaching CCM had neither formal education in teaching it nor professional experience. Many of the respondents indicated conflict between classical and CCM styles. Respondents were generally familiar with voice science and voice medicine as well as certain CCM terminology. Teachers expressed an interest in obtaining more information, with an emphasis on healthy vocal production. These results are discussed, as well as implications for the singing teacher who desires specific training to teach CCM.

  9. Calcium absorption from apple and orange juice fortified with calcium citrate malate (CCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Peacock, M; Kanerva, R L; De Castro, J A

    1996-06-01

    Determine calcium (Ca) absorption from Ca fortified orange and apple juice. Absorbability was assessed by measuring 45Ca absorption in healthy women (mean age 57 years, n = 57/group) and whole body 47Ca retention in adult female beagle dogs (n = 6/group) and young adult male rats (n = 6/group). Women received 6.24 mmol (250 mg) Ca as calcium citrate malate fortified orange juice (CCM-OJ) or apple juice (CCM-AJ). Dogs received 3.12 mmol (125 mg) Ca as CCM-OJ or CCM-AJ. Rats were administered 0.15 mmol (6 mg) Ca as either milk, CCM-OJ, or CCM-AJ. Additional 47Ca whole body retention experiments in rats measured the effects of differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of the juices on Ca absorption. Mean +/- SEM percent Ca fractional absorption was greater (p composition of Ca fortified juices, we found that the greater fructose and lower organic acid content of apple juice accounted for its greater Ca absorbability. CCM fortified versions of orange and apple juice have high Ca absorbability and are potentially important vehicles for increasing dietary Ca intake. The greater Ca absorption from CCM-AJ compared with CCM-OJ is accounted for by differences in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of the juices. These data suggest that by modifying common beverage ingredients, products with even greater Ca absorbability could be formulated.

  10. CEAI: CCM-based email authorship identification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Nizamani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a model for email authorship identification (EAI by employing a Cluster-based Classification (CCM technique. Traditionally, stylometric features have been successfully employed in various authorship analysis tasks; we extend the traditional feature set to include some more interesting and effective features for email authorship identification (e.g., the last punctuation mark used in an email, the tendency of an author to use capitalization at the start of an email, or the punctuation after a greeting or farewell. We also included Info Gain feature selection based content features. It is observed that the use of such features in the authorship identification process has a positive impact on the accuracy of the authorship identification task. We performed experiments to justify our arguments and compared the results with other base line models. Experimental results reveal that the proposed CCM-based email authorship identification model, along with the proposed feature set, outperforms the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM-based models, as well as the models proposed by Iqbal et al. (2010, 2013 [1,2]. The proposed model attains an accuracy rate of 94% for 10 authors, 89% for 25 authors, and 81% for 50 authors, respectively on Enron dataset, while 89.5% accuracy has been achieved on authors’ constructed real email dataset. The results on Enron dataset have been achieved on quite a large number of authors as compared to the models proposed by Iqbal et al. [1,2].

  11. Molecular characterization of Kiss2 receptor and in vitro effects of Kiss2 on reproduction-related gene expression in the hypothalamus of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Quan; Liu, Xuezhou; Xu, Yongjiang; Shi, Bao

    2017-08-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its receptor, KissR (previously known as GPR54), play a critical role in the control of reproduction and puberty onset in mammals. Additionally, a number of studies have provided evidence of the existence of multiple Kiss/KissR systems in teleosts, but the physiological relevance and functions of these kisspeptin forms (Kiss1 and Kiss2) still remain to be investigated. To this end, we examined the direct actions of Kiss2 on hypothalamic functions in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes. As a first step, the full-length cDNA for kiss2r was identified and kiss2r transcripts were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the brain of tongue sole. Then, the effects of Kiss2 decapeptide on reproduction-related gene expression were evaluated using a primary hypothalamus culture system. Our results showed that neither gnrh2 nor gnrh3 mRNA levels were altered by Kiss2. However, Kiss2 significantly increased the amounts of gnih and kiss2 mRNAs. In contrast, Kiss2 elicited an evident inhibitory effect on both gnihr and kiss2r mRNA levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a direct and differential regulation of reproduction-related gene expression by Kiss2 at the hypothalamus level of a teleost fish. Overall, this study provides novel information on the role of Kiss2/Kiss2R system in the reproductive function of teleosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation of the modern arctic climate by the NCAR CCM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David H.; Tzeng, Ren-Yow; Parish, Thomas, R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model Version 1 (CCM1's) simulation of the modern arctic climate is evaluated by comparing a five-year seasonal cycle simulation with the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analyses. The sea level pressure (SLP), storm tracks, vertical cross section of height, 500-hPa height, total energy budget, and moisture budget are analyzed to investigate the biases in the simulated arctic climate. The results show that the model simulates anomalously low SLP, too much storm activity, and anomalously strong baroclinicity to the west of Greenland and vice versa to the east of Greenland. This bias is mainly attributed to the model's topographic representation of Greenland. First, the broadened Greenland topography in the model distorts the path of cyclone waves over the North Atlantic Ocean. Second, the model oversimulates the ridge over Greenland, which intensifies its blocking effect and steers the cyclone waves clockwise around it and hence produces an artificial circum-Greenland trough. These biases are significantly alleviated when the horizontal resolution increases to T42. Over the Arctic basin, the model simulates large amounts of low-level (stratus) clouds in winter and almost no stratus in summer, which is opposite to the observations. This bias is mainly due to the location of the simulated SLP features and the negative anomaly of storm activity, which prevent the transport of moisture into this region during summer but favor this transport in winter. The moisture budget analysis shows that the model's net annual precipitation (P-E) between 70 deg N and the North Pole is 6.6 times larger than the observations and the model transports six times more moisture into this region. The bias in the advection term is attributed to the positive moisture fixer scheme and the distorted flow pattern. However, the excessive moisture transport into the Arctic basin does not solely

  13. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  14. Spontaneous non-canonical assembly of CcmK hexameric components from β-carboxysome shells of cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Garcia-Alles

    Full Text Available CcmK proteins are major constituents of icosahedral shells of β-carboxysomes, a bacterial microcompartment that plays a key role for CO2 fixation in nature. Supported by the characterization of bidimensional (2D layers of packed CcmK hexamers in crystal and electron microscopy structures, CcmK are assumed to be the major components of icosahedral flat facets. Here, we reassessed the validity of this model by studying CcmK isoforms from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Native mass spectrometry studies confirmed that CcmK are hexamers in solution. Interestingly, potential pre-assembled intermediates were also detected with CcmK2. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM imaging under quasi-physiological conditions confirmed the formation of canonical flat sheets with CcmK4. Conversely, CcmK2 formed both canonical and striped-patterned patches, while CcmK1 assembled into remarkable supra-hexameric curved honeycomb-like mosaics. Mutational studies ascribed the propensity of CcmK1 to form round assemblies to a combination of two features shared by at least one CcmK isoform in most β-cyanobacteria: a displacement of an α helical portion towards the hexamer edge, where a potential phosphate binding funnel forms between packed hexamers, and the presence of a short C-terminal extension in CcmK1. All-atom molecular dynamics supported a contribution of phosphate molecules sandwiched between hexamers to bend CcmK1 assemblies. Formation of supra-hexameric curved structures could be reproduced in coarse-grained simulations, provided that adhesion forces to the support were weak. Apart from uncovering unprecedented CcmK self-assembly features, our data suggest the possibility that transitions between curved and flat assemblies, following cargo maturation, could be important for the biogenesis of β-carboxysomes, possibly also of other BMC.

  15. The equine herpesvirus-1 IR3 gene that lies antisense to the sole immediate-early (IE) gene is trans-activated by the IE protein, and is poorly expressed to a protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Chul; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Kim, Seong K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The unique IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is expressed as a late 1.0-kb transcript. Previous studies confirmed the IR3 transcription initiation site and tentatively identified other cis-acting elements specific to IR3 such as a TATA box, a 443 base pair 5'untranslated region (UTR), a 285 base pair open reading frame (ORF), and a poly adenylation (A) signal [Holden, V.R., Harty, R.N., Yalamanchili, R.R., O'Callaghan, D.J., 1992. The IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene regulated by sequences within the intron of the immediate-early gene. DNA Seq. 3, 143-152]. Transient transfection assays revealed that the IR3 promoter is strongly trans-activated by the IE protein (IEP) and that coexpression of the IEP with the early EICP0 and IR4 regulatory proteins results in maximal trans-activation of the IR3 promoter. Gel shift assays revealed that the IEP directly binds to the IR3 promoter region. Western blot analysis showed that the IR3 protein produced in E. coli was detected by antibodies to IR3 synthetic peptides; however, the IR3 protein was not detected in EHV-1 infected cell extracts by these same anti-IR3 antibodies, even though the IR3 transcript was detected by northern blot. These findings suggest that the IR3 may not be expressed to a protein. Expression of an IR3/GFP fusion gene was not observed, but expression of a GFP/IR3 fusion gene was detected by fluorescent microscopy. In further attempts to detect the IR3/GFP fusion protein using anti-GFP antibody, western blot analysis showed that the IR3/GFP fusion protein was not detected in vivo. Interestingly, a truncated form of the GFP/IR3 protein was synthesized from the GFP/IR3 fusion gene. However, GFP/IR3 and IR3/GFP fusion proteins of the predicted sizes were synthesized by in vitro coupled transcription and translation of the fusion genes, suggesting poor expression of the IR3 protein in vivo. The possible role of the IR3 transcript in EHV-1 infection is discussed

  16. An investigation of the Archean climate using the NCAR CCm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Archean (2.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) is of interest climatically, because of the 'Faint-Young Sun Paradox', which can be characterized by the Sun's reduced energy output. This lower energy output leads to a frozen planet if the climate existed as it does today. But, the geologic record shows that water was flowing at the earth's surface 3.8 billion years ago. Energy Balance Models (EBMs) and one-dimensional radiative-convective (1DRC) models predict a frozen planet for this time period, unless large carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations exist in the Archean atmosphere. The goal is to explore the Archean climate with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Community Climate Model (CCM). The search for negative feedbacks to explain the 'Faint-Young Sun Paradox' is the thrust of this study. This study undertakes a series of sensitivity simulations which first explores individual factors that may be important for the Archean. They include rotation rate, lower solar luminosity, and land fraction. Then, these climatic factors along with higher CO2 concentrations are combined into a set of experiments. A faster rotation rate may have existed in the Archean. The faster rotation rate simulations show warmer globally averaged surface temperatures that are caused by a 20 percent decrease in the total cloud fraction. The smaller cloud fraction is brought about by dynamical changes. A global ocean is a possibility for the Archean. A global ocean simulation predicts 4 K increase in global mean surface temperatures compared to the present-day climate control

  17. CCM proteins control endothelial β1 integrin dependent response to shear stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Macek Jilkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic shear stress from blood flow on the endothelium critically regulates vascular function in many physiological and pathological situations. Endothelial cells adapt to shear stress by remodeling their cytoskeletal components and subsequently by changing their shape and orientation. We demonstrate that β1 integrin activation is critically controlled during the mechanoresponse of endothelial cells to shear stress. Indeed, we show that overexpression of the CCM complex, an inhibitor of β1 integrin activation, blocks endothelial actin rearrangement and cell reorientation in response to shear stress similarly to β1 integrin silencing. Conversely, depletion of CCM2 protein leads to an elongated “shear-stress-like” phenotype even in the absence of flow. Taken together, our findings reveal the existence of a balance between positive extracellular and negative intracellular signals, i.e. shear stress and CCM complex, for the control of β1 integrin activation and subsequent adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to mechanostimulation by fluid shear stress.

  18. Novel functions of CCM1 delimit the relationship of PTB/PH domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dubey, Pallavi; Padarti, Akhil; Zhang, Aileen; Patel, Rinkal; Patel, Vipulkumar; Cistola, David; Badr, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Three NPXY motifs and one FERM domain in CCM1 makes it a versatile scaffold protein for tethering the signaling components together within the CCM signaling complex (CSC). The cellular role of CCM1 protein remains inadequately expounded. Both phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains were recognized as structurally related but functionally distinct domains. By utilizing molecular cloning, protein binding assays and RT-qPCR to identify novel cellular partners of CCM1 and its cellular expression patterns; by screening candidate PTB/PH proteins and subsequently structurally simulation in combining with current X-ray crystallography and NMR data to defined the essential structure of PTB/PH domain for NPXY-binding and the relationship among PTB, PH and FERM domain(s). We identified a group of 28 novel cellular partners of CCM1, all of which contain either PTB or PH domain(s), and developed a novel classification system for these PTB/PH proteins based on their relationship with different NPXY motifs of CCM1. Our results demonstrated that CCM1 has a wide spectrum of binding to different PTB/PH proteins and perpetuates their specificity to interact with certain PTB/PH domains through selective combination of three NPXY motifs. We also demonstrated that CCM1 can be assembled into oligomers through intermolecular interaction between its F3 lobe in FERM domain and one of the three NPXY motifs. Despite being embedded in FERM domain as F3 lobe, F3 module acts as a fully functional PH domain to interact with NPXY motif. The most salient feature of the study was that both PTB and PH domains are structurally and functionally comparable, suggesting that PTB domain is likely evolved from PH domain with polymorphic structural additions at its N-terminus. A new β1A-strand of the PTB domain was discovered and new minimum structural requirement of PTB/PH domain for NPXY motif-binding was determined. Based on our data, a novel theory of structure, function and

  19. Structure/Function of the Novel Proteins LCIB and LCIC in the Chlamydomonas CCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Spalding H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology

    2017-05-09

    The goal of this project was to investigate the function of two novel proteins, LCIB and LCIC, which together form an essential protein complex that is required for function of a carbon-dioxide-concentrating mechanism (CCM) required by microalgae to grow in environments where carbon dioxide levels are at or below air equilibration levels.

  20. Flyback CCM inverter for AC module applications: iterative learning control and convergence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Minsung

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an iterative learning controller (ILC) for an interleaved flyback inverter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The flyback CCM inverter features small output ripple current, high efficiency, and low cost, and hence it is well suited for photovoltaic power applications. However, it exhibits the non-minimum phase behaviour, because its transfer function from control duty to output current has the right-half-plane (RHP) zero. Moreover, the flyback CCM inverter suffers from the time-varying grid voltage disturbance. Thus, conventional control scheme results in inaccurate output tracking. To overcome these problems, the ILC is first developed and applied to the flyback inverter operating in CCM. The ILC makes use of both predictive and current learning terms which help the system output to converge to the reference trajectory. We take into account the nonlinear averaged model and use it to construct the proposed controller. It is proven that the system output globally converges to the reference trajectory in the absence of state disturbances, output noises, or initial state errors. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed control scheme, and experiments using 400-W AC module prototype are carried out to demonstrate its practical feasibility.

  1. SOLE: enhanced FIA data analysis capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Spinney; Paul Van Deusen

    2009-01-01

    The Southern On Line Estimator (SOLE), is an Internet-based annual forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data analysis tool developed cooperatively by the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Southern Research Station. Recent development of SOLE has...

  2. Sole risk and non-consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, Tom

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the subjects of sole risk and non-consent in joint operation agreements as used by oil and gas joint ventures in the United Kingdom. The difference between these two concepts is examined in detail. (UK)

  3. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  4. A Unified Voltage Harmonic Control Strategy for Coordinated Compensation with VCM and CCM Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Xie, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    -controlled mode (VCM) and current-controlled mode (CCM), need to cooperatively provide the compensation function. Aiming at this objective, this paper proposes a unified voltage harmonic mitigation strategy for VCM and CCM converters with high harmonic current sharing accuracy. Another advantage of the proposal......Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in modern power grids. Considering the high penetration level of power electronic converter interfaced distributed generators (DGs), it is of interest to provide ancillary services through DG interfacing converters, such as harmonic...... compensation. In case of that, multiple DG interfacing converters are utilized to compensate harmonics, and the compensation effort should be properly shared among these converters. However, it is rarely considered in existing literatures that converters operating in different modes, such as voltage...

  5. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHASEMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  6. Evaluation of stability of interface between CCM (Co-Cr-Mo) UCLA abutment and external hex implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ki-Joon; Park, Young-Bum; Choi, Hyunmin; Cho, Youngsung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Keun-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of interface between Co-Cr-Mo (CCM) UCLA abutment and external hex implant. Sixteen external hex implant fixtures were assigned to two groups (CCM and Gold group) and were embedded in molds using clear acrylic resin. Screw-retained prostheses were constructed using CCM UCLA abutment and Gold UCLA abutment. The external implant fixture and screw-retained prostheses were connected using abutment screws. After the abutments were tightened to 30 Ncm torque, 5 kg thermocyclic functional loading was applied by chewing simulator. A target of 1.0 × 10 6 cycles was applied. After cyclic loading, removal torque values were recorded using a driving torque tester, and the interface between implant fixture and abutment was evaluated by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The means and standard deviations (SD) between the CCM and Gold groups were analyzed with independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05. Fractures of crowns, abutments, abutment screws, and fixtures and loosening of abutment screws were not observed after thermocyclic loading. There were no statistically significant differences at the recorded removal torque values between CCM and Gold groups ( P >.05). SEM analysis revealed that remarkable wear patterns were observed at the abutment interface only for Gold UCLA abutments. Those patterns were not observed for other specimens. Within the limit of this study, CCM UCLA abutment has no statistically significant difference in the stability of interface with external hex implant, compared with Gold UCLA abutment.

  7. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  8. On the cradle of CCM research: discovery, development, and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Aaron

    2017-06-01

    Herein, 40 years after its discovery, I briefly and critically survey the development of ideas that propelled research on CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs; a term proposed by Dean Price) of phytoplankton, mainly focusing on cyanobacteria. This is not a comprehensive review on CCM research, but a personal view on the past developments and challenges that lie ahead. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Improving effectiveness in e-marketing communication for Chinese SMEs: 2CCM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to come up with perspectives on improving effective-ness in e-marketing communication for Chinese SMEs. The aim of this thesis was to analyze Chinese e-marketing communication channels and message delivery. This thesis was done for 2CCM, which is an online store for selling fashionable and stylish high-end products. The thesis was roughly divided into two parts which were theoretical part and rec-ommendations. The theoretical part introduced the concept, Ch...

  10. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Business Jets Wing Using STAR-CCM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong

    2016-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted: to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircrafts swept wing modified with (1) a laminar-flow wing glove, or (2) a seamless flap. The stall aerodynamics of these two different wing configurations were analyzed and compared with the unmodified baseline wing for low-speed flight. The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop.

  11. iCCM policy analysis: strategic contributions to understanding its character, design and scale up in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Brandes, Neal; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria remain leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age and access to effective and appropriate treatment for sick children is extremely low where it is needed most. Integrated community case management (iCCM) enables community health workers to provide basic lifesaving treatment for sick children living in remote communities for these diseases. While many governments in sub-Saharan Africa recently changed policies to support iCCM, large variations in implementation remain. As a result, the collaboration represented in this supplement examined the policy processes underpinning iCCM through qualitative case study research in six purposively identified countries (Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique) and the global context. We introduce the supplement, by reviewing how policy analysis can inform: (a) how we frame iCCM and negotiate its boundaries, (b) how we tailor iCCM for national health systems and (c) how we foster accountability and learning for iCCM. In terms of framing, iCCM boundaries reflect how an array of actors use evidence to prioritize particular aspects of child mortality (lack of access to treatment), and how this underpins the ability to reach consensus and legitimate specific policy enterprises. When promoted at national level, contextual health system factors, such as the profile of CHWs and the history of primary health care, cannot be ignored. Adaptation to these contextual realities may lead to unintended consequences not forseen by technical or managerial expertize alone. Further scaling up of iCCM requires understanding of the political accountabilities involved, how ownership can be fostered and learning for improved policies and programs sustained. Collectively these articles demonstrate that iCCM, although often compartmentalized as a technical intervention, also reflects the larger and messier real world of health politics, policy and practice, for which policy analysis is vital

  12. Impact of Amazon deforestation on climate simulations using the NCAR CCM2/BATS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model validation and results are briefly presented for a simulation of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. This initial study is made using assumptions regarding deforestation similar to those in earlier studies with several versions of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) couples to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The model used is a revised version of the NCAR CCM Version 2 coupled to BATS Version 1e. This paper discusses the portion of validation dealing with the distribution of precipitation; the simulation displays very good agreement with observed rainfall rates for the austral summer. Preliminary results from an 8-year simulation of deforestation are similar to that of previous studies. Annual precipitation and evaporation are reduced, while surface air temperatures show a slight increase. A substantial bimodal pattern appears in the results, with the Amazon decrease of precipitation and temperature increase accompanied by changes in the opposite sign to the southeast of the Amazon. Similar patterns have occurred in other studies, but not always in exactly the same locations. Evidently, how much of the region of rainfall increase occurs in the deforested area over the Amazon strongly affects the inferred statistics. It is likely that this pattern depends on the model control climatology and possibly other features. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde van diverse kwaliteiten graskuil en van CCM bij biologische zeugen = Digestibility and nutritive value of several qualities of grass silage and of CCM in organic housed gestating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility and energy value of five qualities of grass silage and of CCM (Corn cob mix) were investigated in organic housed gestating sows. The dry matter content of the five grass silages varied between 21.3 and 24.9%. The energy value per kg dry matter varied between

  14. Assessing Intraseasonal Variability Produced by Several Deep Convection Schemes in the NCAR CCM3.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, E. D.

    2001-05-01

    The Hack, Zhang/McFarlane, and McRAS convection schemes produce very different simulations of intraseasonal variability in the NCAR CCM3.6. A robust analysis of simulation performance requires an expanded set of diagnostics. The use of only one criterion to analyze model Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) variability, such as equatorial zonal wind variability, may give a misleading impression of model performance. Schemes that produce strong variability in zonal winds may sometimes lack a corresponding coherent signal in precipitation, suggesting that model convection and the large-scale circulation are not as strongly coupled as observed. The McRAS scheme, which includes a parametrization of unsaturated convective downdrafts, produces the best simulation of intraseasonal variability of the three schemes used. Downdrafts in McRAS create a moister equatorial troposphere, which increases equatorial convection. Composite analysis indicates a strong dependence of model intraseasonal variability on the frictional convergence mechanism, which may also be important in nature. The McRAS simulation has limitations, however. Indian Ocean variability is weak, and anomalous convection extends too far east across the Pacific. The dependence of convection on surface friction is too strong, and causes enhanced MJO convection to be associated with low-level easterly wind perturbations, unlike observed MJO convection. Anomalous vertical advection associated with surface convergence influences model convection by moistening the lower troposphere. Based on the work of Hendon (2000), coupling to an interactive ocean is unlikely to change the performance of the CCM3 with McRAS, due to the phase relationship between anomalous convection and zonal winds. Use of the analysis tools presented here indicates areas for improvement in the parametrization of deep convection by atmospheric GCMs.

  15. Nuclear reactor multi-physics simulations with coupled MCNP5 and STAR-CCM+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey Neil; Rizwan-uddin

    2011-01-01

    The MCNP5 Monte Carlo particle transport code has been coupled to the computational fluid dynamics code, STAR-CCM+, to provide a high fidelity multi-physics simulation tool for pressurized water nuclear reactors. The codes are executed separately and coupled externally through a Perl script. The Perl script automates the exchange of temperature, density, and volumetric heating information between the codes using ASCII text data files. Fortran90 and Java utility programs assist job automation with data post-processing and file management. The MCNP5 utility code, MAKXSF, pre-generates temperature dependent cross section libraries for the thermal feedback calculations. The MCNP5–STAR-CCM+ coupled simulation tool, dubbed MULTINUKE, was applied to a steady state, PWR cell model to demonstrate its usage and capabilities. The demonstration calculation showed reasonable results that agree with PWR values typically reported in literature. Temperature and fission reaction rate distributions were realistic and intuitive. Reactivity coefficients were also deemed reasonable in comparison to historically reported data. The demonstration problem consisted of 9,984 CFD cells and 7,489 neutronic cells. MCNP5 tallied fission energy deposition over 3,328 UO_2 cells. The coupled solution converged within eight hours and in three MULTINUKE iterations. The simulation was carried out on a 64 bit, quad core, Intel 2.8 GHz microprocessor with 1 GB RAM. The simulations on a quad core machine indicated that a massively parallelized implementation of MULTINUKE can be used to assess larger multi-million cell models. (author)

  16. STAR-CCM+ (CFD) Calculations and Validation L3:VVI.H2L.P15.02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This milestone presents a demonstration of the High-to-Low (Hi2Lo) process in the VVI focus area. Validation and additional calculations with the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, STAR-CCM+, were performed using a 5x5 fuel assembly with non-mixing geometry and spacer grids. This geometry was based on the benchmark experiment provided by Westinghouse. Results from the simulations were compared to existing experimental data and to the subchannel thermal-hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF). An uncertainty quantification (UQ) process was developed for the STAR-CCM+ model and results of the STAR UQ were communicated to CTF. Results from STAR-CCM+ simulations were used as experimental design points in CTF to calibrate the mixing parameter β and compared to results obtained using experimental data points. This demonstrated that CTF’s β parameter can be calibrated to match existing experimental data more closely. The Hi2Lo process for the STAR-CCM+/CTF code coupling was documented in this milestone and closely linked L3:VVI.H2LP15.01 milestone report.

  17. Economic evaluation of Cardiac Contractility Modulation (CCM therapy with the optimizer IVs in the management of heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Maniadakis

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis indicates that CCM may be cost-effective therapy. This early conclusion should be viewed in the light of the caveats of the modeling methods used, due to data availability limitations. Long-term studies directly collecting hospitalization and mortality data should be undertaken to provide more robust evidence.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of a new strain CCM 8367 of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Zemek, Rostislav; Habuštová, Oxana; Prenerová, Eva; Adel, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 11 (2013), s. 1307-1319 ISSN 0323-5408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic fungi * Isaria fumosorosea * CCM 8367 Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  19. Gas Furnace with Pulsed Feeding of the Heating Agent for Volume Precision Heat Treatment of CCM Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Egorova, V. M.; Gusev, S. V.

    2001-05-01

    A standard chamber batch furnace of the Severstal' plant has been modified for precision heat treatment of CCM rolls. The certification tests of a charge of rolls from steel 24KhM1F have shown the technical and economical advantages of the new design.

  20. 25 CFR 140.1 - Sole power to appoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sole power to appoint. 140.1 Section 140.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.1 Sole power to appoint. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall have the sole power and authority to...

  1. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  2. The module CCM for the simulation of the thermal-hydraulic situation within a coolant channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    2000-01-01

    A coolant channel module (Cc) will be presented which aim is to simulate, in a very general way, the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of single- and two-phase fluids flowing along a heated (or cooled) vertical, inclined or horizontal coolant channel. It is based on a theoretical drift-flux supported 3-equation mixture-fluid model describing the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic thermal-hydraulic parameters of a single- and two-phase flow within such a channel. The module can be applied as an element within an overall theoretical model for large and complex plant assemblies (PWR and BWR core channels, parallel channels in 3D cores, primary and secondary sides of different steam generators types etc.). The model refers to a general (basic) coolant channel (BC) which can consists of different flow regimes. The BC has thus to be subdivided accordingly into a number of subchannels (SC-s). All of them can belong, however, to only two types of SC-s (single-phase fluid with subcooled water or superheated steam or a two-phase flow regime). For both of them the possibility of variable entrance or outlet positions has to be considered. For discretization purposes the BC (and thus also the SC-s) have to be subdivided into a number of (BC and SC) nodes, discretizing thus the conservation equations for mass, energy and momentum along these nodes by applying a very general spatial procedure, namely a 'modified finite volume method'. A special quadratic polygon approximation method (PAX procedure) helps then to establish a connection between nodal boundary and mean nodal parameters. Considering their constitutive equations (among them an adequate drift-flux correlation package) yields finally a set of non-linear algebraic and non-linear ordinary differential equations for the characteristic parameters of each of these SC nodes (mass flow, pressure drop, coolant temperature and/or void fraction). Based on this theory a code package (CCM) could be established

  3. Diagnostics of the Tropical Tropopause Layer from in-situ observations and CCM data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Volk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A suite of diagnostics is applied to in-situ aircraft measurements and one Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM data to characterize the vertical structure of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL. The diagnostics are based on vertical tracer profiles and relative vertical tracer gradients, using tropopause-referenced coordinates, and tracer-tracer relationships in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS.

    Observations were obtained during four tropical campaigns performed from 1999 to 2006 with the research aircraft Geophysica and have been compared to the output of the ECHAM5/MESSy CCM. The model vertical resolution in the TTL (~500 m allows for appropriate comparison with high-resolution aircraft observations and the diagnostics used highlight common TTL features between the model and the observational data.

    The analysis of the vertical profiles of water vapour, ozone, and nitrous oxide, in both the observations and the model, shows that concentration mixing ratios exhibit a strong gradient change across the tropical tropopause, due to the role of this latter as a transport barrier and that transition between the tropospheric and stratospheric regimes occurs within a finite layer. The use of relative vertical ozone and carbon monoxide gradients, in addition to the vertical profiles, helps to highlight the region where this transition occurs and allows to give an estimate of its thickness. The analysis of the CO-O3 and H2O-O3 scatter plots and of the Probability Distribution Function (PDF of the H2O-O3 pair completes this picture as it allows to better distinguish tropospheric and stratospheric regimes that can be identified by their different chemical composition.

    The joint analysis and comparison of observed and modelled data allows to state that the model can represent the background TTL structure and its seasonal variability rather accurately. The model

  4. Costs of implementing integrated community case management (iCCM) in six African countries: implications for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Besada, Donnela; Leon, Natalie; Rohde, Sarah; Sanders, David; Oliphant, Nicholas; Doherty, Tanya

    2017-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa still reports the highest rates of under-five mortality. Low cost, high impact interventions exist, however poor access remains a challenge. Integrated community case management (iCCM) was introduced to improve access to essential services for children 2-59 months through diagnosis, treatment and referral services by community health workers for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis of iCCM implementation in regions supported by UNICEF in six countries and assesses country-level scale-up implications. The paper focuses on costs to provider (health system and donors) to inform planning and budgeting, and does not cover cost-effectiveness. The analysis combines annualised set-up costs and 1 year implementation costs to calculate incremental economic and financial costs per treatment from a provider perspective. Affordability is assessed by calculating the per capita financial cost of the program as a percentage of the public health expenditure per capita. Time and financial implications of a 30% increase in utilization were modeled. Country scale-up is modeled for all children under 5 in rural areas. Utilization of iCCM services varied from 0.05 treatment/y/under-five in Ethiopia to over 1 in Niger. There were between 10 and 603 treatments/community health worker (CHW)/y. Consultation cost represented between 93% and 22% of economic costs per treatment influenced by the level of utilization. Weighted economic cost per treatment ranged from US$ 13 (2015 USD) in Ghana to US$ 2 in Malawi. CHWs spent from 1 to 9 hours a week on iCCM. A 30% increase in utilization would add up to 2 hours a week, but reduce cost per treatment (by 20% in countries with low utilization). Country scale up would amount to under US$ 0.8 per capita total population (US$ 0.06-US$0.74), between 0.5% and 2% of public health expenditure per capita but 8% in Niger. iCCM addresses unmet needs and impacts on under 5 mortality. An

  5. A comparison of ANSYS Fluent and STAR-CCM+ simulations for a tangent ogive slender body with a structured mesh at incompressible flow conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoombie, Janine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available -CCM+ (1) • Why STAR-CCM+? – In 2017 only a STAR-CCM+ v11.06 commercial licence was available – Didn’t want to start from scratch – Test solver with identical mesh STEP 1: • Import Fluent .cas files - Imported as a volume mesh - No mesh continuum... stream_source_info Schoombie_19954_2017.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3069 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Schoombie_19954_2017.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 A comparison of ANSYS...

  6. Health benefits observed after probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 application in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strompfová, Viola; Kubašová, Ivana; Lauková, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. The experiments involved varying duration of application (4 days-14 days), dosage (10 7 -10 9  CFU), form of application (fresh culture or lyophilized from) or combination with natural substances. Results from nine independent studies show the ability of probiotic strains to establish themselves in the canine gastrointestinal tract, alter the composition of intestinal microbiota and metabolites (organic acids), and modulate the physiology (serum biochemical parameters) and immunity parameters in dogs. Almost all observed effects were irrespective of dose or duration of probiotic administration.

  7. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hany M.; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days) compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days). The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days); later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended. PMID:27015633

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M Hussein

    Full Text Available The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days. The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days; later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended.

  10. Effectiveness of using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips to measure the severity levels of air pollutants in indoor and outdoor atmospheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Severity levels of air pollutants rich in oxides, chlorides and sulphides were successfully measured in indoor and outdoor atmospheres using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips when the maximum exposure periods...

  11. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila I; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki

    2011-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B' was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel...

  12. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  13. Tax Policy and Sole Proprietorships: A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The 21 million sole proprietorship returns filed in 2005 represent a wide variety of economic activity. This paper examines three major tax policy issues related to sole proprietorships—taxpayer compliance, taxpayer burden, and incentives for growth. It uses tax return data to take a closer look at sole proprietorships. It proposes a new taxonomy for describing these returns in an economically meaningful way, based on the principal factors of production that they use: their own labor, hired l...

  14. FOREWORD: CCM Second International Seminar: Pressure Metrology from 1 kPa to 1 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinar, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les Grandeurs Apparentées (CCM), through its High Pressure and Medium Pressure Working Groups, organized this Second International Seminar on Pressure Metrology from 1 kPa to 1 GPa, which was held at the Laboratoire National d'Essais (LNE), Paris, France, from 2 to 4 June 1993. The scope of the seminar was to review the state of the art of pressure measurements in the 1 kPa to I GPa pressure range and to present innovative contributions by standards laboratories, universities and industry. The seminar was organized in six sessions: liquid-column manometers; piston gauge pressure standards; properties of liquids and gases relevant to pressure metrology; pressure transducers and transfer standards; pressure standard comparison (methods and results); dynamic pressure measurements. Each session opened with the presentation of a review paper on major requirements in that field and, at the end of the seminar, a general discussion was organized on the actual limits of accuracy of static and dynamic pressure measurements in fluid media, and the fundamental problems in pressure metrology between 1 kPa and 1 GPa. The seminar was attended by sixty scientists from twenty-four countries, all working in the field of pressure measurements. Forty-nine papers were presented. The participation of scientists from so many countries indicates the importance of pressure metrology from the scientific and industrial points of view. Most papers were presented by scientists from national standards laboratories, with eight papers from universities and four from industry. Eleven papers reported the results of cooperative work involving metrological institutions dealing with high pressure, generally national standards laboratories, an indication that scientific links are already well established at this level. Links are also strengthening between industry and standards laboratories. Although industrial participation at the seminar was relatively small

  15. Discards monitoring in the gillnet fishery for sole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 2-3% of the Dutch fishing quota for sole (Solea solea) is caught by a 60-vessel strong inshore fleet of gillnetters. From their home ports in IJmuiden, Scheveningen and Den Helder, these vessels fish typically with bottom-set gillnets for sole during 1 day trips between March and

  16. 31 CFR 515.546 - Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of Cuba... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships. 515.546 Section 515.546 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  17. Optimization of analysis best-estimate of a fuel element BWR with Code STAR-CCM+; Optimizacion del analisis best-estimate de un elemento combustible BWR con el codigo STAR-CCM+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado Canada, E.; Concejal Barmejo, A.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Solar Martinez, A.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the project is the evaluation of the code STAR-CCM +, as well as the establishment of guidelines and standardized procedures for the discretization of the area of study and the selection of physical models suitable for the simulation of BWR fuel. For this purpose several of BFBT experiments have simulated [1] provide a data base for the development of experiments for measuring distribution of fractions of holes to changes in power in order to find the most appropriate models for the simulation of the problem. (Author)

  18. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, Baltazar Gm; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda Re; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-12-01

    In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded 'old' CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the various domains that influence CHW programme

  19. A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  20. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-12-01

    We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care-seeking within 24 hours and care-seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers' ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care-seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  1. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa B Sharkey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  2. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  3. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... probably do not require sophisticated neurological skills or investigations, failure to recognise an underlying disorder or an ...

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Hone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection.

  5. Preliminary evidences of CCM operation and its down regulation in relation to increasing CO2 levels in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Rahman Shaik, Aziz Ur; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2014-05-01

    Bay of Bengal (BoB), a low productive part of the North Indian Ocean, often possesses low CO2 levels in its surface water and diatoms dominate the phytoplankton communities. Virtually no studies are available from this area reporting how this diatom dominated phytoplankton community would respond any increase in dissolved CO2 levels either naturally or anthopogenically. In most of the marine phytoplankton, the inefficiency of the sole carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco necessitates the need of concentrating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (mostly as HCO3) inside the cell in excess of the ambient water concentrations in order to maintain high rate of photosynthesis under low CO2 levels through an energy consuming carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs). The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in CCMs by converting HCO3- to CO2 and usually utilizes the trace metal zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. However, it is evident in many marine phytoplankton species that with increasing external CO2 levels, CCMs can be down-regulated leading to energetic savings which can be reallocated to growth; although exceptions occur. Hence, in order to predict their responses to the projected changes, it is imperative to understand their carbon metabolism patterns. We have conducted a series of incubation experiments in microcosms with natural phytoplankton communities from the coastal waters of BoB under different CO2 levels. Our results revealed that the rate of net photosynthetic oxygen evolution and biomass build-up increased in response to increasing CO2 levels. The depletion in δ13CPOM values were more in the high CO2 treatments relative to the low CO2 treated cells (control), indicating that dissolved CO2 uptake was higher when CO2 levels were increased. When additional Zn was added to the low CO2 treated cells, net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate was increased significantly than that of the untreated control. It is likely that upon the supply of Zn under low CO2

  6. Barriers to Maori sole mothers’ primary health care access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International research consistently shows that sole mothers experience poorer health and suboptimal health care access. New Zealand studies on sole mothers' health report similar findings. The aim of this exploratory research was to better understand the experiences of Maori sole mothers' access to health services, particularly primary health care, for personal health needs. METHODS: This qualitative study employed a general inductive design informed by a Kaupapa Maori approach, providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols for recruiting and engaging Maori participants. Distributing written information and snowballing techniques were used to purposively recruit seven Maori sole mothers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using general inductive thematic analysis to identify commonalities and patterns in participants' experiences. FINDINGS: The dominant themes that emerged captured and described participants' experiences in accessing health care. The major barrier to access reported was cost. Compounding cost, transport difficulties and location or scheduling of services were additional barriers to health service accessibility. Child-related issues also posed a barrier, including prioritising children's needs and childcare over personal health needs. CONCLUSION: The findings illuminate Maori sole mothers' experiences of accessing health care and the complex socioeconomic inequalities affecting access options and uptake of services. Further investigation of barriers to access is needed. The study has implications for addressing barriers to access at policy, funding and practice levels to improve health outcomes and equitable health care access for Maori sole mothers.

  7. Biodistribution of 99mTc labelled anti TAG 72 chimeric McAb ccM4 in nude mice and preliminary clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qingjie; Zhao Jie; Zhang Yingnan; Gao Fengtong; Liu Shuqing

    1995-01-01

    Chimeric McAb ccM 4 was labelled with 99m Tc by direct method. The antibody was reduced by molar excess 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME; Ab, 1000:1). The reduced ccM 4 chimeric McAb was mixed with 99m Tc reduced by SnCl 2 and 99m Tc labelling efficiency was 98%. The immunoreactivity did not change after labelling. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-ccM 4 was performed in nude mice and patients with stomach carcinoma. There was significantly more radioactivity in tumor than in the rest of the body in nude mice. Radioimmunoimaging of ccM 4 in 10 patients of gastric cancer was also presented

  8. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009

  9. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87-30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds.

  10. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chauvigné

    Full Text Available Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1 of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh and luteinizing (rLh hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole's natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species.

  11. Investigating the thermal hydraulic performance of spacer grid with mixing vanes using STAR-CCM+ and MATRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbodemegbe, V. Y.

    2014-07-01

    Enhancement of heat transfer for flow through rod bundles is linked to the extent and sustainability of mixing in the flow geometry. Spacer grids used as support for rod bundles in nuclear reactors, when attached with ditferent designs of mixing vanes promote turbulent mixing by inducing swirl or forced lateral convection that improves mixing within or between sub-channels. The improved turbulent mixing raises the margin of the onset of critical heat flux in light water reactors (LWR) and also ensures a higher fuel cycle economy. To optimize design of mixing vanes and performance of spacer grids with mixing vanes, computational fluid dynamic simulations arc carried out on new designs and validated experimentally prior to industrial application. In the present study, computational fluid dynamic simulation using STAR-CCM+ and sub-channel analysis with MATRA were performed for flow of water through a 5 X 5 rod bundle geometry for which the rod to rod pitch to diameter ratio was 1.33 and the wall to rod pitch to diameter ratio was 0.74. The two layer k-epsilon turbulence model with an all- y + automatic wall treatment function in STAR-CCM+ were adopted for an isothermal single phase flow through the geometry with imposed cyclic periodic and non-cyclic periodic interface boundary conditions. The objective was to primarily investigate the detail flow behavior in rod bundle in the presence of spacer grids with and without attached mixing vanes. Furthermore, the present study also investigated the extent of turbulent mixing and lateral mass flux induced by the mixing vanes through comparative analysis of parametric trends for spacer grid with and without mixing vanes. New models and empirical correlations for describing the mixing vanes effects were also developed. These semi-empirical correlations improved the prediction for lateral mass flux due to turbulence, fraction of flow diverted through gaps and cross-flow resistance coefficients. Validation of simulation results

  12. Uncertainties in modelling Mt. Pinatubo eruption with 2-D AER model and CCM SOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    measurements and from AER model calculation serve as input for the 3D chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL [Schraner et al., 2008]. The heating rates, calculated with SOCOL, are compared with a reference radiative transfer model LibRadtran [Mayer and Kylling, 2005]. This comparison suggests that SOCOL underestimates the net heating rate by 10-20%. In stark contrast, the temperature increase in the lower stratosphere due to absorption of longwave and near infrared radiation is overestimated by all SOCOL scenarios. This lets us conclude that SOCOL, and similarly other state-of-the-art CCMs, misrepresent processes required to model the effect of volcanic eruptions on the lower stratosphere and tropopause region. Possible reasons for model deficiencies could be too coarse vertical resolution or missing dynamical feedbacks near the tropopause and in the lower stratosphere. Another important feature is the warming of the tropical troposphere, which is present in the model simulation but was not observed with comparable amplitude in reality. The heating of the lower stratosphere in the models leads to an increase of stratospheric water vapour and influences the radiative and chemical properties of the stratosphere. Eyring, V. et al (2006), Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111, D22,308. Guo, S., G. J. S. Bluth, W. I. Rose, I. M. Watson, and A. J. Prata (2004), Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 5. Mayer, B., and A. Kylling (2005), Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 5, 1855-1877. McCormick, M. P. (1992), Initial assessment of the stratospheric and climatic impact of the 1991 Mount- Pinatubo eruption - prologue, Geophysical Research Letters, 19 (2

  13. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Sole Ulcers and White Line Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, J K; van Amstel, Sarel R

    2017-07-01

    Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness. Successful treatment requires an orthopedic foot block to the healthy claw and corrective trimming of the lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CCM Continuity Constraint Method: A finite-element computational fluid dynamics algorithm for incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P. T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    As the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) continues to mature, algorithms are required to exploit the most recent advances in approximation theory, numerical mathematics, computing architectures, and hardware. Meeting this requirement is particularly challenging in incompressible fluid mechanics, where primitive-variable CFD formulations that are robust, while also accurate and efficient in three dimensions, remain an elusive goal. This dissertation asserts that one key to accomplishing this goal is recognition of the dual role assumed by the pressure, i.e., a mechanism for instantaneously enforcing conservation of mass and a force in the mechanical balance law for conservation of momentum. Proving this assertion has motivated the development of a new, primitive-variable, incompressible, CFD algorithm called the Continuity Constraint Method (CCM). The theoretical basis for the CCM consists of a finite-element spatial semi-discretization of a Galerkin weak statement, equal-order interpolation for all state-variables, a 0-implicit time-integration scheme, and a quasi-Newton iterative procedure extended by a Taylor Weak Statement (TWS) formulation for dispersion error control. Original contributions to algorithmic theory include: (a) formulation of the unsteady evolution of the divergence error, (b) investigation of the role of non-smoothness in the discretized continuity-constraint function, (c) development of a uniformly H1 Galerkin weak statement for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes pressure Poisson equation, (d) derivation of physically and numerically well-posed boundary conditions, and (e) investigation of sparse data structures and iterative methods for solving the matrix algebra statements generated by the algorithm.

  15. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  16. pigmentation of the sole of the foot in rhodesian africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-23

    Jan 23, 1971 ... basal layer. (Photo by courtesy of Dr C. M. D. Ross.) Fig. 8. From a biopsy of a grade III area on the sole of the foot a section shows, apart from proliferated melanocytes in the basal layer, isolated pigmented cells extending through the stratum malpighii to the stratum granulosum above it, (Photo by courtesy ...

  17. Deaths among West African dwarf goats fed sole Dactyladaenia barteri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dactyladaema barteri is an important shrub utilized in fallow development and as a much-preferred ruminant browse by local farmers in Nigeria. We report the death of two 12 – 15 months old West African Dwarf (WAD) goats used in a digestibility trail with D. barteri as sole feed and in a mixed browse - grass diet in the ...

  18. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  19. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  20. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining neural tube defects: The possible role of autoantibodies. Keat Wei Loo, Siew Hua Gan. Abstract. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe but common congenital malformations. Neonates who suffer from NTDs may experience long-term complications throughout ...

  1. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  2. Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties ... pattern of peasant farmers in Nigeria. Some of the advantages ... in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system as compared to sole crops. While intercropping ...

  3. Setting global research priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM: Results from a CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Wazny

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in

  4. Dual structures for the sole-proprietorship firm

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Robert G.; Quiggin, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a dual representation of firm-level and market-level equilibrium behavior for a sole proprietorship economy with competitive and frictionless financial markets and stochastic production opportunities in a two-period setting. The dual equilibrium model is used to state conditions for the firms' production choices to be independent of their risk preferences in equilibrium. These conditions entail Pareto optimality, but do not require either that the firm's consumption choice...

  5. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  6. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Improving Quality of Shoe Soles Product using Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesslyn Wijaya, Athalia; Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Ma’ruf, Anas; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    A manufacture in Bandung produce kind of rubber-based product i.e. trim, rice rollers, shoe soles, etc. After penetrating the shoe soles market, the manufacture has met customer with tight quality control. Based on the past data, defect level of this product was 18.08% that caused the manufacture’s loss of time and money. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC). In the design phase, the object’s problem and definition were defined. Delphi method was also used in this phase to identify critical factors. In the measure phase, the existing process stability and sigma quality level were measured. Fishbone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analyse the root cause and determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by designing alternative improvement strategy using 5W1H method. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) modifying design of the hanging rack, (ii) create pantone colour book and check sheet, (iii) provide pedestrian line at compound department, (iv) buying stop watch, and (v) modifying shoe soles dies. Some control strategies for continuous improvement were proposed such as SOP or reward and punishment system.

  8. Training, supervision and quality of care in selected integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes: A scoping review of programmatic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Marceau, Claudine

    2014-12-01

    To describe the training, supervision and quality of care components of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programmes and to draw lessons learned from existing evaluations of those programmes. Scoping review of reports from 29 selected iCCM programmes purposively provided by stakeholders containing any information relevant to understand quality of care issues. The number of people reached by iCCM programmes varied from the tens of thousands to more than a million. All programmes aimed at improving access of vulnerable populations to health care, focusing on the main childhood illnesses, managed by Community Health Workers (CHW), often selected bycommunities. Training and supervision were widely implemented, in different ways and intensities, and often complemented with tools (eg, guides, job aids), supplies, equipment and incentives. Quality of care was measured using many outcomes (eg, access or appropriate treatment). Overall, there seemed to be positive effects for those strategies that involved policy change, organisational change, standardisation of clinical practices and alignment with other programmes. Positive effects were mostly achieved in large multi-component programmes. Mild or no effects have been described on mortality reduction amongst the few programmes for which data on this outcome was available to us. Promising strategies included teaming-up of CHW, micro-franchising or social franchising. On-site training and supervision of CHW have been shown to improve clinical practices. Effects on caregivers seemed positive, with increases in knowledge, care seeking behaviour, or caregivers' basic disease management. Evidence on iCCM is often of low quality, cannot relate specific interventions or the ways they are implemented with outcomes and lacks standardisation; this limits the capacity to identify promising strategies to improve quality of care. Large, multi-faceted, iCCM programmes, with strong components of training, supervision, which

  9. Training, supervision and quality of care in selected integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes: A scoping review of programmatic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch–Capblanch, Xavier; Marceau, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the training, supervision and quality of care components of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programmes and to draw lessons learned from existing evaluations of those programmes. Methods Scoping review of reports from 29 selected iCCM programmes purposively provided by stakeholders containing any information relevant to understand quality of care issues. Results The number of people reached by iCCM programmes varied from the tens of thousands to more than a million. All programmes aimed at improving access of vulnerable populations to health care, focusing on the main childhood illnesses, managed by Community Health Workers (CHW), often selected bycommunities. Training and supervision were widely implemented, in different ways and intensities, and often complemented with tools (eg, guides, job aids), supplies, equipment and incentives. Quality of care was measured using many outcomes (eg, access or appropriate treatment). Overall, there seemed to be positive effects for those strategies that involved policy change, organisational change, standardisation of clinical practices and alignment with other programmes. Positive effects were mostly achieved in large multi–component programmes. Mild or no effects have been described on mortality reduction amongst the few programmes for which data on this outcome was available to us. Promising strategies included teaming–up of CHW, micro–franchising or social franchising. On–site training and supervision of CHW have been shown to improve clinical practices. Effects on caregivers seemed positive, with increases in knowledge, care seeking behaviour, or caregivers’ basic disease management. Evidence on iCCM is often of low quality, cannot relate specific interventions or the ways they are implemented with outcomes and lacks standardisation; this limits the capacity to identify promising strategies to improve quality of care. Conclusion Large, multi–faceted, iCCM programmes, with strong

  10. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Listonella anguillarum of diseased half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Li; Zhan, Wenbin

    2008-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther juveniles in a fish farm in Jimo, Shandong Province, China, in June 2006. Gross signs of the diseased tongue sole included several petechiae and ecchymoses on the body and fin necrosis and hemorrhagic lesion at the base of the fin. Bacteria were isolated from kidney, liver and hemorrhagic lesions of the diseased tongue sole. Among14 strains, SJ060621 was proved to be highly virulent to juvenile tongue sole with LD50 value of antibiotics tested, SJ060621 was sensitive to gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. It was identified as Listonella anguillarum with conventional plate and tube tests in combination with API 20E analysis. 16S rRNA gene and partial HSP60 gene sequenceing analysis revealed that the strain was highly homologous with L. anguillarum. Examination of the infected musculature by electron microscopy indicated numerous bacteria and lots of macrophages containing phagocytosed bacteria. Histopathological investigations revealed severe necrotic degenerative changes in the infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was employed to detect the location of occurrence of bacteria, and bacteria were found in aggregations in the inflammatory areas in musculature.

  11. Sole ulcers in dairy-cattle - associations with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Grohn, Y T; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    lactation and body weight were positively associated with sole ulcer. Heel erosion was associated with sole ulcer depending on season of trimming and parity. Presence of sole ulcer but not heel erosion in a lactation increased the risk of sole ulcer in the subsequent lactation. The interval between...

  12. A new version of the CNRM Chemistry-Climate Model, CNRM-CCM: description and improvements from the CCMVal-2 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Michou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new version of the Météo-France CNRM Chemistry-Climate Model, so-called CNRM-CCM. It includes some fundamental changes from the previous version (CNRM-ACM which was extensively evaluated in the context of the CCMVal-2 validation activity. The most notable changes concern the radiative code of the GCM, and the inclusion of the detailed stratospheric chemistry of our Chemistry-Transport model MOCAGE on-line within the GCM. A 47-yr transient simulation (1960–2006 is the basis of our analysis. CNRM-CCM generates satisfactory dynamical and chemical fields in the stratosphere. Several shortcomings of CNRM-ACM simulations for CCMVal-2 that resulted from an erroneous representation of the impact of volcanic aerosols as well as from transport deficiencies have been eliminated.

    Remaining problems concern the upper stratosphere (5 to 1 hPa where temperatures are too high, and where there are biases in the NO2, N2O5 and O3 mixing ratios. In contrast, temperatures at the tropical tropopause are too cold. These issues are addressed through the implementation of a more accurate radiation scheme at short wavelengths. Despite these problems we show that this new CNRM CCM is a useful tool to study chemistry-climate applications.

  13. A genetic linkage map of sole (Solea solea: a tool for evolutionary and comparative analyses of exploited (flatfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Diopere

    Full Text Available Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective forces at play during exploitation or selective breeding. Additionally, they allow the use of genomic information from other related species for which more detailed information is available. Sole (solea solea L. is a commercially important flatfish species in the North Sea, subject to overexploitation and showing evidence of fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in growth- and maturation-related traits. Sole would definitely benefit from a linkage map to better understand how evolution has shaped its genome structure. This study presents a linkage map of sole based on 423 single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from expressed sequence tags and 8 neutral microsatellite markers. The total map length is 1233.8 cM and consists of 38 linkage groups with a size varying between 0 to 92.1 cM. Being derived from expressed sequence tags allowed us to align the map with the genome of four model fish species, namely medaka (Oryzias latipes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis. This comparison revealed multiple conserved syntenic regions with all four species, and suggested that the linkage groups represent 21 putative sole chromosomes. The map was also compared to the linkage map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, another commercially important flatfish species and closely related to sole. For all putative sole chromosomes (except one a turbot homolog was detected, confirming the even higher degree of synteny between these two flatfish species.

  14. Comparison of the seasonal climate simulated by the pattern CCM3 and the data of the reanalysis NCEP/NCAR with the observed data of the temperature of the air and the precipitation in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Aristizabal, Gloria Esperanza; Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal

    2001-01-01

    In this work we carry out a comparison of the simulations of the climatic model CCM3, the data of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and real data, by the practical significance of the model based on the observed differences

  15. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Methods: This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. Results: The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. Conclusion: The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation. PMID:21960925

  16. Inherent variation in multiple shoe-sole test impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Yaron; Wiesner, Sarena; Tsach, Tsadok; Gurel, Ron; Yekutieli, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Shoeprints left at crime scenes are seldom perfect. Many prints are distorted or contaminated by various materials. Noisy background often contributes to vagueness on the shoeprints as well. Test impressions made from the suspect's shoes in the laboratory are considered a genuine replication of the shoe-sole. This naïve attitude is far from being correct. Consecutive test impressions made in the laboratory under strict similar conditions revealed differences among the exemplars of the same sole. Some of them are minor, but some are major, and can mislead the less experienced practitioners during the comparison process. This article focuses on the inherent within source variability between controlled shoeprints made from the same shoe, as it appears on the RACs. To describe and analyze this variability, repeated test impressions were prepared, and datasets were created. Several RACs were marked on each test impression, using an expert assisting software tool (developed in the authors' lab). The variance in repeated test impressions is demonstrated and possible sources are discussed. This variance should be considered when trying to establish the degree of matching between individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  18. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  19. De novo acute leukemia with a sole 5q-: morphological, immunological, and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchayne, E; Dastugue, N; Kuhlein, E; Huguet, F; Pris, J

    1993-11-01

    The 5 q deletion is frequently found in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute non lymphoid leukemia, but this anomaly is usually found in secondary diseases and associated with many other chromosomal aberrations. This report describes four cases of "de novo" acute leukemia with a sole 5q- anomaly. They had no cytological, genetic or clinical characteristics of secondary disorders. It is important to note that of the four patients studied, three had proliferation of immature blast cells. One case was classified as a MO AML and two as "undifferentiated" acute leukemia. Furthermore, these four cases of acute leukemia showed a deletion of the same portion of the long arm of chromosome 5: q22q33. On the same part of this chromosome many hematopoietic growth factor genes have been located, like IL3 and GM-CSF which have early undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells as a their target.

  20. Depth and substrate as determinants of distribution of juvenile flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and rock sole (Pleuronectes bilineatus), in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    1998-01-01

    Three transects in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, were sampled in September 1994, May and August 1995, and February, May, and August 1996. Juvenile flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, and rock sole, Pleuronectes bilineatus, were the most abundant flatfishes, comprising 65-85% of all fiatfishes captured at any period. Collections of fish and sediments were made at regular depth contour intervals of l0 m. Habitat distribution was described by depth at 10 m increments and sediment percent weights of gravel, sand, and mud. Year-round habitat of flathead sole age-0 was primarily from 40 to 60 m, and age-1 habitat was primarily from 40 to 80 m. Summer habitat of rock sole age-0 and -1 was from 10 to 30 m, and in winter they moved offshore to depths of up to 150 m. Both age classes of flathead sole were most abundant on mixed mud sediments, while age-1 were also in high abundance on muddy sand sediments. Rock sole age-0 and -1 were most abundant on sand, though age-1 were also found on a variety of sediments both finer and coarser grained than sand. Flathead sole and rock sole had distinctive depth and sediment habitats. When habitat overlap occurred between the species, it was most often due to rock sole moving offshore in the winter. Abundances were not significantly different among seasons for age-1 flatfishes.

  1. MHC polymorphism and disease resistance to vibrio anguillarum in 8 families of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-hong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC have a critical role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses because of their involvement in presenting foreign peptides to T cells. However, the nature has remained largely unknown. Results We examined the genetic variation in MHC class IIB in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis after challenge with vibrio anguillarum. Two thousand and four hundred fry from 12 half-smooth tongue sole families were challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. To determine any association between alleles and resistance or susceptibility to V. anguillarum, 160 individuals from four high-resistance (HR, 73.27% mortality families were selected for MHC IIB exon2 gene sequence analysis. The MHC IIB exon2 genes of tongue sole displayed a high level of polymorphism and were discovered at least four loci. Meanwhile, the dN/dS [the ratio of non-synonymous (dN substitutions to synonymous (dS substitutions] in the peptide-binding region (PBR was higher than that in the non-peptide-binding region (non-PBR. Eighty-eight alleles were discovered among 160 individuals, and 13 out of 88 alleles were used to analyze the distribution pattern between the resistant and susceptible families. Certain alleles presented in HR and LR with a different frequency, while other alleles were discovered in only the HR or LR families, not both. Five alleles, Cyse-DBB*6501, Cyse-DBB*4002, Cyse-DBB*6102, Cyse-DBB*5601 and Cyse-DBB*2801, were found to be associated with susceptibility to V. anguillarum with a frequency of 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 2.5% in the HR families, and 35%, 33.75%, 27.5%, 16.25%, 15% in the LR families (p Cyse-DBB*3301, Cyse-DBB*4701, Cyse-DBB*6801 and Cyse-DBB*5901, were found to be associated with resistance to V. anguillarum, with a frequency of 13.75%, 11.25%, 11.25%, 8.75% in the HR families and 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25%, 1.25% and 1.25% in the LR families (p Conclusions Elucidation of the

  2. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  3. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Reduction of statistic scale applied to data of the CCM3 to generate data of temperature of the air in surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lizcano Alicia; Bernal Suarez, Nestor Ricardo; Martinez Collantes, Jorge; Pabon Jose Daniel; Vega Rodriguez, Emel

    2000-01-01

    The technique is applied of statistical down scaling to find the relations between the variables simulated by a Climate Community Model, in its third version (CCM3) available on the closest grid points near three stations in the Guajira region in north-eastern Colombia, and the surface temperature at those stations. As training (or calibrating)period we chose the years from 1969 to 1990, while the phase of assessment was from 1991 to 1998. The method used was the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) The results were good insofar as the relations obtained approximate satisfactorily the real behaviour of the surface air temperature at the three stations

  5. Supplement to CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer' report: linkage of EURAMET.M.D-K4 comparison, SIM.M.D-K4 comparison and the supplementary SIM.M.D-S2 to CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, S.; Becerra, L. O.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of different types of comparisons to a common set of reference values of a CIPM key comparison is essential to satisfy the concept of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), where the DoEs of any participant who took part in comparisons should be within the Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) section of the CIPM MRA Key Comparison Data Base. The subject of this supplementary report is therefore to present the equivalence of each National Metrological Institute (NMI) participant in the CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer' key comparison, which was performed in the density range 600 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3 at the temperature of 20 °C, and the linkage of the European and Inter-American NMI results performed in the RMO.M.D-K4 comparisons as well as those of the supplementary SIM.M.D-S2 to the common set of KCRVs of the CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'. The linking procedure has been obtained by numerical simulation, based on the Monte Carlo method, in which the differences in the results of the different comparison between the intended laboratory and one or more linking laboratory/ies, which took part in both comparisons, are correlated with a continuous function describing the DoEs of the linking laboratory/ies with respect to the common set of KCRVs of the CCM.D-K4. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  7. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  8. Glyphosate Shapes a Dinoflagellate-Associated Bacterial Community While Supporting Algal Growth as Sole Phosphorus Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that can potentially be a phosphorus (P source for phytoplankton and microbes when discharged into the coastal ocean. In contrast to bacteria, few eukaryotic phytoplankton species appear capable of directly utilizing glyphosate. In this study, we observed, after a long delay (>60 days, Prorocentrum donghaiense, a dinoflagellate known to cause major harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea, could grow in a medium with glyphosate as the sole P source; suggesting that P. donghaiense growth was through bacterial mediation. To understand how the bacteria community might respond to glyphosate, we analyzed the 16S rRNA genes of the microbial community present in P. donghaiense cultures when grown under lower (36 μM and higher (360 μM glyphosate concentrations. Based on both Sanger and Illumina high throughput sequencing, we obtained more than 55,323 good-quality sequences, which were classified into six phyla. As the concentration of glyphosate rose, our results showed a significant increase in the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and a decrease in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Further qPCR (Quantitative PCR analysis showed higher abundances of two specific phylotypes in the higher-glyphosate P. donghaiense cultures when compared to the lower-glyphosate and no-glyphosate cultures. Correspondingly, qPCR displayed the same trend for the abundance of a gammaproteobacterial type of phnJ, a gene encoding Alpha-D-ribose 1-methylphosphonate 5-phosphate C-P lyase, which is responsible for phosphonate degradation. In addition, Tax4Fun analysis based on our 16S rRNA gene sequences results in higher predicted abundances of phosphonate metabolizing genes in glyphosate-treated cultures. This study demonstrates that glyphosate could selectively promote the growth of particular groups of bacteria within an algal culture and in glyphosate enriched coastal waters, this interaction may potentially further facilitate the growth of

  9. Effect of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of knee joint load in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth G; Kean, Crystal O; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and pain in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 30 individuals (mean (SD): age, 61 (7) yr; 15 (50%) male) with radiographic and symptomatic knee OA under three walking conditions in a randomized order: i) wearing rocker-soled shoes (Skechers Shape-ups), ii) wearing non-rocker-soled shoes (ASICS walking shoes), and iii) barefoot. Peak KAM and KAM angular impulse were measured as primary indicators of knee load distribution. Secondary measures included the knee flexion moment (KFM) and knee pain during walking. Peak KAM was significantly lower when wearing the rocker-soled shoes compared with that when wearing the non-rocker-soled shoes (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.27 (-0.42 to -0.12) N·m/BW × Ht%; P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant difference in KAM impulse between rocker-soled and non-rocker-soled shoe conditions (P = 0.13). Both peak KAM and KAM impulse were significantly higher during both shoe conditions compared with those during the barefoot condition (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in KFM (P = 0.36) or knee pain (P = 0.89) between conditions. Rocker-soled shoes significantly reduced peak KAM when compared with non-rocker-soled shoes, without a concomitant change in KFM, and thus may potentially reduce medial knee joint loading. However, KAM parameters in the rocker-soled shoes remained significantly higher than those during barefoot walking. Wearing rocker-soled shoes did not have a significant immediate effect on walking pain. Further research is required to evaluate whether rocker-soled shoes can influence symptoms and progression of knee OA with prolonged wear.

  10. FOREWORD: The 4th CCM International Conference on Pressure Metrology from Ultra-High Vacuum to Very High Pressures (10-9 Pa to 109 Pa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Claude; Jousten, Karl; Severn, Ian

    2005-12-01

    The fourth CCM (Consultative Committee for Mass and related quantities) International Conference on Pressure Metrology from Ultra-High Vacuum to Very High Pressures (10-9 Pa to 109 Pa) was held at the Institute of Physics in London from 19-21 April 2005. The event, which was organized by the Low, Medium and High Pressure working groups of the CCM, was attended by in excess of one hundred participants with representatives from five continents and every regional metrology organization. The purpose of this conference is to review all the work that is devoted to the highest quality of pressure measurement by primary standards as well as the dissemination of the pressure scale. A total of 52 papers were presented orally, and 26 as posters, in sessions that covered the following topics: Latest scientific advances in pressure and vacuum metrology Innovative transfer standards, advanced sensors and new instrument development Primary (top-level) measurement standards International and regional key comparisons New approaches to calibration It is interesting the note that since the third conference in 1999 the pressure range covered has increased by two orders of magnitude to 109 Pa, to take into account more exacting scientific and industrial demands for traceable vacuum measurement. A further feature of the conference was the increased range of instrumentation and techniques used in the realization and potential realization of pressure standards. Seton Bennett, Director of International Metrology at the National Physical Laboratory, opened the conference and Andrew Wallard, Director of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), gave the keynote address which described the implementation of the mutual recognition arrangement and the resulting removal of metrological barriers to international trade. Many experts have contributed significant amounts of their time to organize the event and to review the submitted papers. Thanks are due to all of these people

  11. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... valuable component of its deliberations in preparing to implement this law, which includes contracting with... Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES...

  12. Growth performances of juvenile sole Solea solea under environmental constraints of embayed nursery areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffargue, P.; Lagardere, F.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Fillon, A.; Amara, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tidal embayments in the Bay of Biscay (France) host nursery grounds where common sole, Solea solea, is the most abundant flatfish species. This study aimed to appraise the way those habitats function as nurseries through juvenile sole's responses in somatic growth and condition (Fulton's K) during

  13. 78 FR 51061 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 32 CFR Part 199 [DoD-2010-HA-0072] RIN 0720-AB41 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals; Correction... TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access...

  14. Variation in behaviour and growth of common sole : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas Muñoz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Common sole (Solea solea) has a high potential for commercial aquaculture because of its consumer popularity and high market values in Europe. However, a major economic constraint for the culture of sole is its slow and variable growth. The aim of this thesis was to investigate: 1) the

  15. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesch, Bettina; Koerdt, Andrea; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB). Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH) domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA. This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T).

  16. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Janesch

    Full Text Available Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB.Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA.This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T.

  17. Complex exon-intron marking by histone modifications is not determined solely by nucleosome distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawandeep Dhami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that nucleosome distribution, histone modifications and RNA polymerase II (Pol II occupancy show preferential association with exons ("exon-intron marking", linking chromatin structure and function to co-transcriptional splicing in a variety of eukaryotes. Previous ChIP-sequencing studies suggested that these marking patterns reflect the nucleosomal landscape. By analyzing ChIP-chip datasets across the human genome in three cell types, we have found that this marking system is far more complex than previously observed. We show here that a range of histone modifications and Pol II are preferentially associated with exons. However, there is noticeable cell-type specificity in the degree of exon marking by histone modifications and, surprisingly, this is also reflected in some histone modifications patterns showing biases towards introns. Exon-intron marking is laid down in the absence of transcription on silent genes, with some marking biases changing or becoming reversed for genes expressed at different levels. Furthermore, the relationship of this marking system with splicing is not simple, with only some histone modifications reflecting exon usage/inclusion, while others mirror patterns of exon exclusion. By examining nucleosomal distributions in all three cell types, we demonstrate that these histone modification patterns cannot solely be accounted for by differences in nucleosome levels between exons and introns. In addition, because of inherent differences between ChIP-chip array and ChIP-sequencing approaches, these platforms report different nucleosome distribution patterns across the human genome. Our findings confound existing views and point to active cellular mechanisms which dynamically regulate histone modification levels and account for exon-intron marking. We believe that these histone modification patterns provide links between chromatin accessibility, Pol II movement and co-transcriptional splicing.

  18. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  19. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb ... Biological, and Social Sciences Research, 2nd Edition. Optimal Publ.

  20. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from northern rock sole

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth data from archival tags on northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were examined to assess whether fish used tidal currents to aid horizontal migration....

  1. Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material in periodontal intrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Chang

    2011-09-01

    Conclusions: From a clinical and radiologic point of view at 6 months after surgery, the use of PRF as the sole grafting material seems to be an effective modality of regenerative treatment for periodontal intrabony defects.

  2. 31 CFR 353.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEFINITIVE... of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e., without a coowner or...

  3. 31 CFR 315.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS... § 315.36 Payment during life of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e...

  4. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuki Tateno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.

  5. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  6. Simulating the Behavioural Effects of Welfare Reforms among Sole Parents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Duncan; Mark N. Harris

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives and estimates an econometric model of labour supply among sole parents in Australia, using modelling techniques which treat the labour supply decision as a utility maximising choice between a given number of discrete states. In estimation, we control for random preference heterogeneity as well as Þxed and search costs. Using our econometric model, we look at the e.ects of actual and hypothetical welfare policy reforms on the employment choices of sole parents in Australia. ...

  7. Assessment of a simplified set of momentum closure relations for low volume fraction regimes in STAR-CCM+ and OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugrue, Rosemary; Magolan, Ben; Lubchenko, Nazar; Baglietto, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A simplified set of momentum closures – Bubbly And Moderate void Fraction (BAMF) – is proposed. •BAMF model is assessed by simulation of 12 cases from the Liu and Bankoff experimental database. •Portability between STAR-CCM+ and OpenFOAM CFD softwares is demonstrated. •Both CFD softwares yield mean flow predictions in close agreement with experimental results. -- Abstract: Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) modeling approaches provide three-dimensional resolution of complex two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer phenomena, which makes them an invaluable tool for nuclear reactor design applications. By virtue of the Eulerian-Eulerian spatial and temporal averaging framework, additional terms manifest in the phase momentum equations that require closure through prescription of interfacial forces in the stream-wise and lateral flow directions, as well as in the near-wall region. These momentum closures are critical to M-CFD prediction of mean flow profiles, including velocity and volume fraction distributions, and yet while an overwhelming number of them has been developed, no consensus exists on how to assemble them to achieve a simplified set of closures that is numerically robust and extensible to a wide array of flow configurations; further, no consistent demonstration has been shown of the cross-code portability of these closures between CFD softwares. To address these challenges, we propose in this work a simplified set of momentum closures for stream-wise drag and lateral redistribution mechanisms—collectively referred to as the Bubbly And Moderate void Fraction (BAMF) model—and assess its performance by simulation of 12 cases from the Liu and Bankoff experimental database using STAR-CCM+ and OpenFOAM. Both CFD softwares yield mean flow predictions that are in close agreement with the experimental results, and also in close agreement with each other. These results confirm the effectiveness of the BAMF model and its

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  9. ALGORITHMS FOR THE PROGRAMMING OF FOOTWEAR SOLES MOULDS ON WORKING POSTS OF INJECTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain

  10. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  11. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  12. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl content on in vitro putrescine and cadaverine production through the growth of Serratia marcescens CCM 303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Buňka, František; Taťáková, Monika; Štajnochová, Kateřina; Purevdorj, Khatantuul; Buňková, Leona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of temperature (10, 20 and 37°C), pH (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), and NaCl content (0, 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6% w/v) on the growth and putrescine and cadaverine production of Serratia marcescens CCM 303 under model conditions. The decarboxylase activity of S. marcescens was monitored in broth after cultivation. The cultivation medium was enriched with selected amino acids (ornithine, arginine and lysine; 0.2% w/v each) serving as precursors of biogenic amines. Levels of putrescine and cadaverine in broth were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography after pre-column derivatisation with o-phthalaldehyde reagent. S. marcescens produced higher amounts of putrescine (up to 2096.8 mg L(-1)) compared to cadaverine content (up to 343.3 mg L(-1)) in all cultivation media. The highest putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were reached during cultivation at 10-20°C, pH 5-7 and NaCl content 1-3% w/v. On the other hand, the highest BAs production of individual cell (recalculated based on a cell; so called "yield factor") was observed at 10°C, pH 4 and salt concentration 3-5% w/v as a response to environmental stress.

  13. Genome-wide identification of regulatory elements and reconstruction of gene regulatory networks of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under carbon deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Vischi Winck

    Full Text Available The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a long-established model organism for studies on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism-related physiology. Under conditions of air-level carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM is induced to facilitate cellular carbon uptake. CCM increases the availability of carbon dioxide at the site of cellular carbon fixation. To improve our understanding of the transcriptional control of the CCM, we employed FAIRE-seq (formaldehyde-assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements, followed by deep sequencing to determine nucleosome-depleted chromatin regions of algal cells subjected to carbon deprivation. Our FAIRE data recapitulated the positions of known regulatory elements in the promoter of the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase (Cah1 gene, which is upregulated during CCM induction, and revealed new candidate regulatory elements at a genome-wide scale. In addition, time series expression patterns of 130 transcription factor (TF and transcription regulator (TR genes were obtained for cells cultured under photoautotrophic condition and subjected to a shift from high to low [CO2]. Groups of co-expressed genes were identified and a putative directed gene-regulatory network underlying the CCM was reconstructed from the gene expression data using the recently developed IOTA (inner composition alignment method. Among the candidate regulatory genes, two members of the MYB-related TF family, Lcr1 (Low-CO 2 response regulator 1 and Lcr2 (Low-CO2 response regulator 2, may play an important role in down-regulating the expression of a particular set of TF and TR genes in response to low [CO2]. The results obtained provide new insights into the transcriptional control of the CCM and revealed more than 60 new candidate regulatory genes. Deep sequencing of nucleosome-depleted genomic regions indicated the presence of new, previously unknown regulatory elements in the C. reinhardtii genome

  14. Plastome Evolution in the Sole Hemiparasitic Genus Laurel Dodder (Cassytha) and Insights into the Plastid Phylogenomics of Lauraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Wang, Ting-Jen; Wu, Chia-Wen; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2017-10-01

    To date, little is known about the evolution of plastid genomes (plastomes) in Lauraceae. As one of the top five largest families in tropical forests, the Lauraceae contain many species that are important ecologically and economically. Lauraceous species also provide wonderful materials to study the evolutionary trajectory in response to parasitism because they contain both nonparasitic and parasitic species. This study compared the plastomes of nine Lauraceous species, including the sole hemiparasitic and herbaceous genus Cassytha (laurel dodder; here represented by Cassytha filiformis). We found differential contractions of the canonical inverted repeat (IR), resulting in two IR types present in Lauraceae. These two IR types reinforce Cryptocaryeae and Neocinnamomum-Perseeae-Laureae as two separate clades. Our data reveal several traits unique to Cas. filiformis, including loss of IRs, loss or pseudogenization of 11 ndh and rpl23 genes, richness of repeats, and accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions in protein-coding genes. Although Cas. filiformis is low in chlorophyll content, our analysis based on dN/dS ratios suggests that both its plastid house-keeping and photosynthetic genes are under strong selective constraints. Hence, we propose that short generation time and herbaceous lifestyle rather than reduced photosynthetic ability drive the accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions in Cas. filiformis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  16. Seasonal incidence of lameness and risk factors associated with thin soles, white line disease, ulcers, and sole punctures in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A H; Shearer, J K; De Vries, A

    2009-07-01

    Lameness is a multifactorial condition with many causes. In this study, cow lifetime records were used to quantify the incidence of specific lameness-causing lesions and investigate factors associated with those lesions. Of primary interest were the effects of seasonality and the effects of thin soles (TS). Thin sole-induced toe ulcers (TSTU) occurring adjacent to the white line in the apical portion of the weight-bearing surface were distinguished from white line disease (WLD) occurring in the region of the abaxial heel sole junction. Sole (SU), heel (HU), and toe (TU) ulcers; TS; sole punctures (SP); leg injuries (INJ); and other (OTH) lesions (e.g., infectious diseases, laminitis, unclassified hemorrhage) were also considered. Data were collected from May 2004 through October 2007 and included records for 4,915 cows of which 1,861 had at least one recorded lameness event. Of these, 20% were TSTU, 20% OTH, 16% SU, 13% TS, 10% WLD, 8% HU, 6% INJ, 4% SP, and 2% TU. Annual incidence risk for lameness was 49.1%. Overall incidence rate for lameness was 1.41/1,000 cow-days, and rates for all lesions were highest in the summer. As parity increased, so did incidence rates for TS, SU, WLD, HU, and INJ. For TS, TSTU, and WLD, incidence rates were lowest in early lactation (16 to 60 DIM), whereas for SU, HU, TU, incidence rates were highest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM). Cox proportional hazard models for TS, TSTU, WLD, SU, HU, TU, and SP included age and year of first calving and milk production capacity. Prior/concurrent lameness events, season, parity, and stage of lactation were included as time-dependent effects. Prior/concurrent TS increased the hazard for all other lesions, particularly TSTU, and HU. Having any other prior claw lesion also increased the hazard for all lesions. Hazard was highest in summer for all lesions except TU. Stage of lactation was a significant effect in hazard of TSTU, which was lowest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM).

  17. Analysis of the behavior of the flow of refrigerant through the bottom head and the impact of the removal of holes in the side panel of the MAEF-2012 with the code CFD STAR-CCM+; Analisis del comportamiento del flujo de refrigerante a traves del cabezal inferior y el impacto de la supresion de los taladros en el faldon lateral del MAEF-2012 con el codigo CFD STAR-CCM+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, J.; Corpa, R.

    2013-07-01

    The scope of this work consists in the study of different pairs of lower headers with a dynamical code detail like the STAR-CCM + v8, to identify and study the consequences of changes in the distribution of flow and variation in the pressure drop of fluid passing through them, as well as check the absence of impact from the point of view of safety.

  18. Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Hindhede, Jens; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Records of claw trimmings were analyzed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole...... stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December...

  19. Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Armando Mares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.

  20. Bifidobacterium longum CCM 7952 Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function and Prevents Acute DSS-Induced Colitis in Strictly Strain-Specific Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Srutkova

    Full Text Available Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis.Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952 and CCDM 372 (Bl 372 were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo.The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum.We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD.

  1. Spatial distribution and deployment of community-based distributors implementing integrated community case management (iCCM): Geographic information system (GIS) mapping study in three South Sudan states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Abigail; Dale, Martin; Olivi, Elena; Miller, Jane

    2014-12-01

    In late 2012 and in conjunction with South Sudan's Ministry of Health - National Malaria Control Program, PSI (Population Services International) conducted a comprehensive mapping exercise to assess geographical coverage of its integrated community case management (iCCM) program and consider scope for expansion. The operational research was designed to provide evidence and support for low-cost mapping and monitoring systems, demonstrating the use of technology to enhance the quality of programming and to allow for the improved allocation of resources through appropriate and need-based deployment of community-based distributors (CBDs). The survey took place over the course of three months and program staff gathered GPS (global positioning system) data, along with demographic data, for over 1200 CBDs and 111 CBD supervisors operating in six counties in South Sudan. Data was collated, cleaned and quality assured, input into an Excel database, and subsequently uploaded to geographic information system (GIS) for spatial analysis and map production. The mapping results showed that over three-quarters of CBDs were deployed within a five kilometer radius of a health facility or another CBD, contrary to program planning and design. Other characteristics of the CBD and CBD supervisor profiles (age, gender, literacy) were more closely matched with other regional programs. The results of this mapping exercise provided a valuable insight into the contradictions found between a program "deployment plan" and the realities observed during field implementation. It also highlighted an important need for program implementers and national-level strategy makers to consider the natural and community-driven diffusion of CBDs, and take into consideration the strength of the local health facilities when developing a deployment plan.

  2. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  3. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruuk, H.

    1963-01-01

    1. 1. The diurnal rhythm in the trawl catch of Solea vulgaris Quensel gave rise to this investigation into the diurnal activity rhythm of the fish. 2. 2. Periodicity in the food intake of the Sole in its natural habitat was studied by analyses of the contents of the intestines. Food intake

  4. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Business Administration (SBA) may not accept a sole- source 8(a) contract in excess of $20 million for... is no conflict with the law. Execution of the J&A prior to the SBA's initiation of contract... small number of businesses that have been awarded 8(a) contracts over the $20 million threshold may be...

  5. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  7. Plantar Sole Unweighting Alters the Sensory Transmission to the Cortical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mouchnino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission. To test this hypothesis, we recorded cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs of individuals following cutaneous stimulation (by mean of an electrical stimulation of the foot sole in different conditions of unweighting when standing still with eyes closed. To this end, the effective bodyweight (BW was reduced from 100% BW to 40% BW. Contrary to what was expected, we found an attenuation of sensory information when the BW was unweighted to 41% which was not compensated by an increase of the late SEP component. Overall these results suggested that the attenuation of sensory transmission observed in 40 BW condition was not solely due to the absence of forces acting on the sole of the feet but rather to the current relevance of the afferent signals related to the balance constraints of the task.

  8. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, B.C.; Vanwanseele, B.; Holtkamp, F.; van der Horst, H.E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Menz, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  9. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Horst; H.B. Menz; ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp; P. Elders; B. Vanwanseele; B. van der Zwaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  10. Effects of climate change on growth of 0-group sole and plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Leeuw, de J.J.; Veer, van der H.W.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of rising seawater temperature on growth of 0-group sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the southeastern North Sea was investigated for the period 1970 to 2004 using annual autumn pre-recruit survey data and frequent surveys on a nursery ground. Autumn length showed an

  11. Retrospective analysis of the treatment of psoriasis of the palms and soles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuls, P. I.; Hadi, S.; Rivera, L.; Lebwohl, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this retrospective analysis, the effect of currently used treatments in 26 patients with psoriasis of the palms and soles were analyzed. In general, patients are treated initially with topical medications including superpotent topical corticosteroids in combination with calcipotriene ointment or

  12. Craniocervical Junction Meningiomas without Hydrocephalus Presenting Solely with Syncope: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-06-01

    To our knowledge, there have not been any reported cases of a meningioma of the craniocervical region presenting solely with syncope as its initial symptom. Only 1 case of meningioma presenting with syncope has been published, but it was associated with hydrocephalus. We report 2 cases of syncope caused by a craniocervical junction meningioma, with syncope being the sole presenting symptom and without hydrocephalus. We discuss the possible pathophysiology, as well as the clinical relevance of this type of presentation. We reviewed the charts, operative details, and imagery of 2 cases of meningioma in the region of the craniocervical junction, with syncope as their sole presenting feature. We also reviewed the literature. In 1 case the syncope occurred spontaneously. In the other, it occurred during a Valsalva maneuver. Both meningiomas were surgically removed via a retromastoid approach. There was no recurrence of syncope following surgery. Following a literature review, we found 1 case of posterior fossa meningioma presenting with syncope, but hydrocephalus was also present. Syncope can be the sole manifestation of a meningioma of the craniocervical junction. Such syncopes are a consequence of transient dysfunction of the autonomous pathways in the medulla and/or of the medulla's output. In the absence of other causes of syncope, a meningioma in this region, even in the absence of hydrocephalus, should not be considered as fortuitous, but rather as the actual cause of syncope. Recognizing this possibility offers the potential for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the syncope. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shoe sole tread designs and outcomes of slipping and falling on slippery floor surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.

  14. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  15. Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Murray, R D; Ward, W R

    1992-10-01

    In dairy cattle, histopathology of the outer hind claws with overgrown sole revealed arteriosclerosis of blood vessels at the ulcer site in the sole. The laminae did not show any hyperplasia of the epidermis and thrombi were not seen in the blood vessels. Partial or complete disappearance of onychogenic substance was observed in the sole as well as in the wall epidermis. In beef animals, typical changes suggestive of chronic laminitis were seen: these included hyperplasia of the epidermis of the laminae, thrombus formation, arteriosclerosis in the corium of the sole, the abaxial wall and the coronary corium. Morphometric analysis quantified measurements of hooves of normal, beef and dairy cattle. It may be concluded that the changes associated with overgrowth of the sole in dairy cattle are localized to the sole without involvement of the laminae and that the term laminitis is not appropriate in the condition seen in dairy cattle.

  16. Probing of brain states in real-time: Introducing the ConSole environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHartmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen huge advancements in the methods available and used in neuroscience employing EEG or MEG. However, the standard approach is to average a large number of trials for experimentally defined conditions in order to reduce intertrial-variability, i.e. treating it as a source of "noise". Yet it is now more and more accepted that trial-to-trial fluctuations bear functional significance, reflecting fluctuations of "brain states" that predispose perception and action. Such effects are often revealed in a pre-stimulus period, when comparing response variability to an invariant stimulus. However such offline analyses are disadvantageous as they are correlational by drawing conclusions in a posthoc-manner and stimulus presentation is random with respect to the feature of interest. A more direct test is to trigger stimulus presentation when the relevant feature is present. The current paper introduces ConSole (CONstance System for OnLine Eeg, a software package capable of analyzing ongoing EEG / MEG in real-time and presenting auditory and visual stimuli via internal routines. Stimulation via external devices (e.g. TMS or third-party software (e.g. Psyscope X is possible by sending TTL-triggers. With ConSole it is thus possible to target the stimulation at specific brain-states. In contrast to many available applications, ConSole is open-source. Its modular design enhances the power of the software as it can be easily adapted to new challenges and writing new experiments is an easy task. ConSole is already pre-equipped with modules performing standard signal processing steps. The software is also independent from the EEG / MEG system, as long as a driver can be written (currently 2 EEG systems are supported. Besides a general introduction, we present benchmark data regarding performance and validity of the calculations used, as well as three example applications of ConSole in different settings. ConSole can be downloaded at: http://console-kn.sf.net.

  17. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  18. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  19. The effects of grading on the growth and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month study was carried out to investigate the effects of grading on the overall production, growth performance and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.). Juvenile fish (4.0–40.4 g) were sorted into three size groups: small (4.0–15.5 g), medium (16.0–21.5 g) and large (22.0–40.5 g)...

  20. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  1. Studies in cross-linking PVC footwear soling compounds using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation cross-linking of polymeric materials has been known for some time, but it is only in recent years that it has been put to commercial advantage. Well known uses are the modification of PVC for higher temperature applications. Fundamental studies were carried out on amongst other materials, plasticised PVC compounds for use in cable applications. The results of this work, encouraged the author to investigate cross-linkable PVC in areas such as footwear soling

  2. Tiny intracranial aneurysms: Endovascular treatment by coil embolisation or sole stent deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jun; Liu Jiachun; Wang Lijun; Qi Peng; Wang Daming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Tiny intracranial aneurysms pose a significant therapeutic challenge for interventional neuroradiologists. The authors report their preliminary results of endovascular treatment of these aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 52 tiny intracranial aneurysms (defined as ≤3 mm in maximum diameter) in 46 patients (22 men; mean age, 57.9 years) were treated by endosaccular coil embolisation or sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Of 52 aneurysms, 29 had ruptured and 23 remained unruptured. The initial angiographic results, procedural complications, and clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge. Imaging follow-up was performed with cerebral angiography. Results: One aneurysm coiling procedure failed because of unsuccessful micro-catheterization. Forty-three aneurysms were successfully coil embolized, of which complete occlusion was obtained in 14, subtotal occlusion in 18 and incomplete occlusion in 11. The other 8 aneurysms were treated by sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Procedural complications (2 intraprocedural ruptures and 3 thromboembolic events) occurred in 5 (9.6%) of 52 aneurysms, resulting in permanent morbidity in only 1 (2.2%, 1/46) patient. No rebleeding occurred during clinical follow-up (mean duration, 46.7 months). Of the 16 coiled aneurysms that receiving repetitive angiography, 6 initially completely and 3 subtotally occluded aneurysms remained unchanged, 4 initially subtotally and 3 incompletely occluded aneurysms progressed to total occlusion. Five sole stent deployed aneurysms received angiographic follow-up (mean duration, 10.0 months), of which 3 remained unchanged, 1 became smaller and 1 progressed to total occlusion. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of tiny intracranial aneurysms is technical feasible and relatively safe. Coil embolisation seems to be effective in preventing early recanalisation, whereas sole stenting technique needs further investigation to determine its effectiveness.

  3. Validation of the space fields and the median zonal of the temperature of the air in surface and of the precipitation in Colombia, simulated by the pattern CCM3 and the data of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez, Jesus Antonio

    2001-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the basic fields of the surface temperature and the precipitation for the national territory, from two sources of information: the data originated by the national meteorological network and the generated ones at world-wide level by means of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis project for the assimilation of data coming from diverse world-wide networks. With them reference scenes are constructed to validate the CCM3 model which is used like tool for the projection of the climatic change in Colombia

  4. CONFERENCE NOTE: Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les grandeurs apparentées (CCM), High Pressure and Medium Pressure Working Groups, Second International Seminar on Pressure Metrology from 1 kPa to 1 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The seminar will be held from 2 to 4 June 1993, preceding the next meeting of the CCM, at the Laboratoire National d'Essais (LNE), 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris, France. Scope of the Seminar The purpose of the seminar is to review the state of the art of pressure measurements in the 1 kPa to 1 GPa range and to present original and innovative contributions from standards laboratories and industry. Main Topics The seminar will be organized in six sessions as follows: Liquid-column manometers Piston gauge pressure standards Properties of liquids and gases relevant to pressure metrology Pressure transducers and transfer standards Pressure standard comparison (methods and results) Dynamic pressure measurements. Each topic will be introduced by a review paper presented by a session chairman. A final session, coordinated by Dr G F Molinar (IMGC), Chairman of the CCM High Pressure Working Group, and Dr P Stuart (NPL), Chairman of the CCM Medium Pressure Working Group, will deal with: Actual limits of accuracy of static pressure measurements in fluid media Fundamental problems in pressure metrology between I kPa and 1 GPa. Call for Papers Papers should be prepared for oral presentation and will be refereed by the session chairmen. The Proceedings will be published as a special issue of Metrologia. Papers should be written according to the instructions for authors printed on the inside back cover of this journal. A one-page abstract should be sent to Dr Molinar at the IMGC, to arrive before 31 January 1993. A participation fee of 900 FFr (175 US) will be charged. This will cover general expenses and a copy of the Proceedings. Hotel reservations, meals and transport are not included. Organizers For further information please contact: 1993 CCM Pressure Seminar, Dr G F Molinar, Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", Strada delle Cacce 73, 1-10135 Torino, Italy telephone (39) 11 39771; telex 212209 IMGCTO-I; fax (39) 11 346761. Contact at the LNE: J C Legras, telephone (33

  5. Origin of the CMS gene locus in rapeseed cybrid mitochondria: active and inactive recombination produces the complex CMS gene region in the mitochondrial genomes of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masao; Kikuchi, Rie; Imamura, Jun; Handa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    CMS (cytoplasmic male sterile) rapeseed is produced by asymmetrical somatic cell fusion between the Brassica napus cv. Westar and the Raphanus sativus Kosena CMS line (Kosena radish). The CMS rapeseed contains a CMS gene, orf125, which is derived from Kosena radish. Our sequence analyses revealed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed originated from recombination between the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region by way of a 63 bp repeat. A precise sequence comparison among the related sequences in CMS rapeseed, Kosena radish and normal rapeseed showed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed consisted of the Kosena orf125/orfB region and the rapeseed nad1C/ccmFN1 region, even though Kosena radish had both the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region in its mitochondrial genome. We also identified three tandem repeat sequences in the regions surrounding orf125, including a 63 bp repeat, which were involved in several recombination events. Interestingly, differences in the recombination activity for each repeat sequence were observed, even though these sequences were located adjacent to each other in the mitochondrial genome. We report results indicating that recombination events within the mitochondrial genomes are regulated at the level of specific repeat sequences depending on the cellular environment.

  6. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.

    2013-02-01

    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  7. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis ) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  8. Novel Thermal Analysis Model of the Foot-Shoe Sole Interface during Gait Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Shimazaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive heat at the foot-shoe sole interface negatively affects a human’s thermal comfort. An understanding of the thermal behavior at this interface is important for alleviating this discomfort. During gait motion, a human’s body weight cyclically compresses a shoe sole (commonly constructed of viscoelastic materials, generating heat during loading. To evaluate the thermal effects of this internal heat generation on foot comfort, we developed and empirically validated a thermal analysis model during gait motion. A simple, one-dimensional prediction model for heat conduction with heat generation during compressive loading was used. Heat generation was estimated as a function of the shoe sole’s material properties (e.g., elastic modulus and various gait parameters. When compared with experimental results, the proposed model proved effective in predicting thermal behavior at the foot-shoe sole interface under various conditions and shows potential for improving a human’s thermal comfort during gait motion through informed footwear design.

  9. Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2017-08-01

    Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.

  10. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  11. [Safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangbin; Ouyang, Wenbin; Li, Shoujun; Guo, Gaili; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Fengwen; Pang, Kunjing; Fang, Nengxin; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    To avoid the radiation injuries and use of contrast agent, we assessed the safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance. From June 2013 to June 2014, thirty patients (mean age: (6.3 ± 2.5) years, mean body weight:(22.5 ± 7.3) kg) with pure patent ductus arteriosus were continuously included in this study. The mean diameter of patent ductus arteriosus was (3.8 ± 0.9) mm. Patients were all treated by percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure via right femoral artery solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated by thoracic echocardiography. Follow-up was performed at one month after procedure. All 30 cases were successfully treated with percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thracic echocardiography guidance. The procedural time was (32.8 ± 5.7) minutes. The mean diameter of Amplatzer ADO II was (4.9 ± 1.0) mm. Postoperative trivial residual shunt occurred in six patients immediately after the procedure. All patients survived without peripheral vascular injury or complications such as cardiac perforation. Hospitalization time was (3.4 ± 0.7) days. At one-month follow-up, no complications such as residual shunt or pericardial effusion were observed. Echocardiography guided percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure by femoral artery approach is safe and effective, and can avoid X-ray and the use of contrast agents.

  12. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with t(14;18(q32;q21 as a Sole Cytogenetic Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Elyamany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common leukemia in adults. The chromosomal abnormality t(14;18(q32;q21 is most commonly associated with neoplasms of a follicular center cell origin. However, t(14;18 has also been reported in rare cases of CLL. Objective We describe the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, conventional, and molecular cytogenetic features of two rare cases proven to be CLL morphologically and immunologically in which t(14;18 was found as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. Methods Morphologic, flow cytometric analysis and molecular cytogenetic of peripheral blood and/or bone marrow samples were analyzed. Results Cytomorphologically, the cells were small mature lymphocytes without any findings that had characteristics of follicular lymphoma (FL such as indented or clefted nuclei. Immunologic findings were characteristic of typical CLL without expression of CD10. A cytogenetic study revealed the two cases of CLL carrying t(14;18(q32;q21. Conclusion We concluded that CLL with t(14;18 is rare and should be differentiated from FL as the therapy is highly diverse between both diseases. Using immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ( IGH probes are important in the workup of patients with suspected CLL and suggest that the IGH probe should be used routinely in all CLL fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH panels.

  13. Thermal preference of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea in relation to thermal acclimation and optimal growth temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Schram

    Full Text Available Dover sole (Solea solea is an obligate ectotherm with a natural thermal habitat ranging from approximately 5 to 27°C. Thermal optima for growth lie in the range of 20 to 25°C. More precise information on thermal optima for growth is needed for cost-effective Dover sole aquaculture. The main objective of this study was to determine the optimal growth temperature of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea and in addition to test the hypothesis that the final preferendum equals the optimal growth temperature. Temperature preference was measured in a circular preference chamber for Dover sole acclimated to 18, 22 and 28°C. Optimal growth temperature was measured by rearing Dover sole at 19, 22, 25 and 28°C. The optimal growth temperature resulting from this growth experiment was 22.7°C for Dover sole with a size between 30 to 50 g. The temperature preferred by juvenile Dover sole increases with acclimation temperature and exceeds the optimal temperature for growth. A final preferendum could not be detected. Although a confounding effect of behavioural fever on temperature preference could not be entirely excluded, thermal preference and thermal optima for physiological processes seem to be unrelated in Dover sole.

  14. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  15. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  16. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carazo, I.; Chereguini, O.; Martín, I.; Huntingford, F.; Duncan, N.

    2016-07-01

    Senegalese e sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  17. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, I.; Chereguini, O.; Martín, I.; Huntingford, F.; Duncan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Senegalese e sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  18. Simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Mi; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Oh, Ji-Hyeon; Fang, Yiqin; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Recently, several authors have shown that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using autologous platelet-rich fibrin as the sole filling material is a reliable procedure promoting bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material on bone formation in a canine sinus model. An implant was placed after sinus membrane elevation in the maxillary sinus of six adult female mongrel dogs. The resulting space between the membrane and sinus floor was filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin retrieved from each dog. The implants were left in place for six months. Bone tissue was seen at the lower part of the implants introduced into the sinus cavity. The height of the newly formed bone around the implants ranged from 0 mm to 4.9 mm (mean; 2.6 ± 2.0 mm) on the buccal side and from 0 mm to 4.2 mm (mean; 1.3 ± 1.8 mm) on the palatal side. The findings from this study suggest that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material is not a predictable and reproducible procedure, especially with respect to the bone formation around the implants in the sinus cavity. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. An econometric viability model for ongrowing sole (Solea senegalensis) in tanks using pumped well sea water

    OpenAIRE

    García García, J.; García García, B.

    2006-01-01

    Sole (Solea senegalensis) is of great interest to marine aquaculture in the Mediterranean because of its relatively fast growth and good commercial prospects (high price). However, the wide mean annual variation in the temperature of Mediterranean sea water (14-26 deg C) is a limiting factor for the ongrowing of this species; the optimum for this process is 19-20 deg C. One of the possible mid-term solutions for ensuring a constant year-round temperature is to ongrow these fish in tanks conta...

  20. Discriminating bot accounts based solely on temporal features of microblog behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junshan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hanping

    2016-05-01

    As the largest microblog service in China, Sina Weibo has attracted numerous automated applications (known as bots) due to its popularity and open architecture. We classify the active users from Sina Weibo into human, bot-based and hybrid groups based solely on the study of temporal features of their posting behavior. The anomalous burstiness parameter and time-interval entropy value are exploited to characterize automation. We also reveal different behavior patterns among the three types of users regarding their reposting ratio, daily rhythm and active days. Our findings may help Sina Weibo manage a better community and should be considered for dynamic models of microblog behaviors.

  1. Sole stenting treatment for small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms:a clinical therapeutic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jiyong; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Huang Qinghai; Yang Pengfei; Zhao Wenyuan; Liu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility, safety and efficacy of sole stenting technique for the treatment of small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between February 2001 and November 2009, 36 consecutive patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms (18 males and 18 females, aged 19-75 years,with a mean age of 52.3 years) were treated with stenting technique only. Of 36 patients, the Grade 0 of Hunt and Hess classification was seen in 22,Grade I in 8, Grade II in 5 and Grade III in 1. The aneurysmal diameter ranged from 1.8 mm to 5.0 mm,with a mean diameter of 3.6 mm. The aneurysms were located at the anterior communicating artery (n=1), posterior communicating artery (n=11), intradural paraclinoid internal carotid artery (n=18), basilar artery (n=1), anterior choroidal artery (n=4) or middle cerebral artery (n=1). The clinical manifestations, the angiographic findings and the follow-up observations were analyzed and the results were evaluated by means of the Modified Rankin Scale, magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. Results: Sole stenting treatment was performed in 36 patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. A total of 37 stents were successfully delivered and deployed at the targeted location. Immediate post-procedural angiography showed that complete occlusion was obtained in one aneurysm, a sluggish intra-aneurysmal vortex motion in 3 aneurysms and a correction of the angle of the parent vessel in two cases, whereas no change was seen in the remaining 30 aneurysms. Angiographic follow-up was carried out in 22 of the 36 patients (61%) during a mean following-up period of 16 months (ranged from 3 to 59 months). The follow-up angiography showed that the complete occlusion was seen in 11 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck with shrinkage of the aneurysm in 9 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck only in 1 case, and shrinkage of the aneurysm only in 1 case.All the patients remained

  2. Pixel Statistical Analysis of Diabetic vs. Non-diabetic Foot-Sole Spectral Terahertz Reflection Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Salas-Gutierrez, I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present a series of hydration mapping images of the foot soles of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects measured by terahertz reflectance. In addition to the hydration images, we present a series of RYG-color-coded (red yellow green) images where pixels are assigned one of the three colors in order to easily identify areas in risk of ulceration. We also present the statistics of the number of pixels with each color as a potential quantitative indicator for diabetic foot-syndrome deterioration.

  3. Successful Treatment of Plantar Hyperkeratosis in the Form of Recurrent Corns With Split-Thickness Sole Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Chang, Chun-Kai; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Chiao, Hao-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tim-Mo; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Plantar hyperkeratosis, such as corns and calluses, is common in older people and associated with pain, mobility impairment, and functional limitations. It usually develops on the palms, knees, or soles of feet, especially under the heels or balls. There are several treatment methods for plantar hyperkeratosis, such as salicylic acid plaster and scalpel debridement, and conservative modalities, such as using a shoe insert and properly fitting shoes. We present an effective method of reconstructing the wound after corn excision using a split-thickness sole skin graft (STSSG). We harvested the skin graft from the arch of the sole using the dermatome with a skin thickness of 14/1000th inches. Because the split-thickness skin graft, harvested from the sole arch near the distal sole, is much thicker than the split-thickness skin graft from the thigh, it is more resistant to weight and friction. The healed wound with STSSG coverage over the distal sole was intact, and the donor site over the sole arch had healed without complication during the outpatient follow-up, 3 months after surgery. The recovery time of STSSG for corn excision is shorter than that with traditional treatment. Therefore, STSSG can be a reliable alternative treatment for recurrent palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.

  4. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation: Clinical Case Series of 245 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Okolo, Patrick I

    2008-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation.

  5. In defence of Kant's moral prohibition on suicide solely to avoid suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, G

    2008-09-01

    In Ian Brassington's article in a previous issue of this journal, he argues that suicide for the purpose of avoiding suffering is not, as Kant has contended, contrary to the moral law. Brassington's objections are not cogent because they rely upon the exegetically incorrect premise that according to Kant the priceless value of personhood is in the noumenal world that we have no perception of. On the basis of Kant's normative, metaphysical and epistemological theory, I argue, contrary to Brassington, that according to Kant personhood's moral value is explicitly in the sensible, phenomenal realm. While I argue that suicide solely to avoid suffering is immoral, I show that Kant's normative system allows some acts of suicide to be morally permissible. In the course of the discussion of the value of humanity's rationality and the immorality of suicide, I will discuss the broader modern medical ethical implications of Kant's arguments, such as the moral impermissibility of using rationality depriving drugs, such as ketamine, solely to avoid pain.

  6. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deli, Martin; Fritz, Jan; Mateiescu, Serban; Busch, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Becker, Jan; Garmer, Marietta; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  7. Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Rocker-Sole Footwear for First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis: Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Inversion of chromosome 7q22 and q36 as a sole abnormality presenting in myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiroto; Shimura, Kazuho; Kuwahara, Saeko; Ohshiro, Muneo; Tsutsumi, Yasuhiko; Iwai, Toshiki; Horiike, Shigeo; Yokota, Shouhei; Ohkawara, Yasuo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-08-05

    Deletions of chromosome 7 are often detected in myelodysplastic syndrome. The most commonly deleted segments are clustered at band 7q22. A critical gene is therefore suggested to be located in this region. We report a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome whose marrow cells carried an inversion of 7q22 and q36 as a sole karyotypic abnormality. How this extremely rare chromosomal aberration contributes to the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome should be clarified by accumulating clinical data of such cases. A 74-year-old Japanese man presented with pancytopenia incidentally detected by routine medical check-up. His complete blood cell counts revealed that his white blood cells had decreased to 2100/mm3, neutrophils 940/mm3, red blood cells 320×104/mm3, hemoglobin 11.1g/dL, hematocrit 33.1%, and platelets 12.6×104/mm3. Bone marrow examination showed normal cellularity with nucleated cells of 9.4×104/mm3. The proportion of blasts was 4%. A morphological examination showed only basophilic stippling of erythroblasts which was seen as dysplasia. According to World Health Organization classification, the diagnosis was myelodysplastic syndrome-u. Karyotypic analysis showed 46,XY,inv(7)(q22q36) in all of 20 metaphases examined. Additional analysis revealed the karyotype of his lymphocytes was 46,XY. He is asymptomatic and cytopenia has slowly progressed. To the best of our knowledge, this karyotype from a clinical sample of de novo malignancies has never been documented although the identical karyotype from secondary myelodysplastic syndrome was reported. Despite the extremely low frequency, inversion of 7q22 appears to play a crucial role for myelodysplastic syndrome in this patient.

  9. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  10. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Polychaete worm tubes modify juvenile northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra depth distribution in Kodiak nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that evaluates whether inter-annual variability in the depth distribution of juvenile northern rock sole on their nursery grounds around...

  11. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Substrate preference and delayed settlement in northern rock sole larvae Lepidopsetta polyxystra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from laboratory experiments testing the onset and ontogenetic changes in habitat selection of pre- and post-settling northern rock sole (NRS) larvae,...

  12. A simple melatonin treatment protocol attenuates the response to acute stress in the sole Solea senegalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Conde-Sieira, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds have been tested in fish in order to attenuate the effects of different stressors, most often following previous observations in mammals. The hormone melatonin (MEL) and the amino acid L-tryptophan have been tested for this purpose with different degree of success. In Senegalese...... sole (Solea senegalensis) we have previously observed that during prolonged exposure to relatively mild stressors, the presence of MEL in the water helped to reduce the stress response. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-stress effects of a short melatonin exposure that could be easily...... performed in fish farms before an intended manipulative event with the animals. Our results demonstrate that adding MEL to the tanks 30. min before an acute chasing stress is effective in reducing the intensity of the stress response in fish from its beginning, as evidenced by the attenuated and delayed...

  13. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species’ sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling...... and identify potential molecular markers that indicate a physiological response to chronic stress. Two groups of fish were reared in duplicate for 28 days, one of them weekly exposed to handling stress (including hypoxia) for 3 min, and the other left undisturbed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis enabled...... the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test, p stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12...

  14. Asymptomatic hyper-creatine-kinase-emia as sole manifestation of inclusion body myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM usually manifests with painless weakness of the hand, finger and hip flexors. Absence of symptoms or signs, but mild hyper-CK-emia as the sole manifestation of IBM, has not been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old male who presented with asymptomatic recurrent hyper-CK-emia ranging from 200 to 1324 U/L (n<171 U/L, since 10 years. Clinical neurologic investigation, nerve conduction studies and EMG were non-informative. Muscle biopsy surprisingly revealed sIBM. sIBM may be asymptomatic and may manifest with hyper-CK-emia exclusively. So, it has to be included in the differential diagnoses of asymptomatic hyper-CK-emia.

  15. Pitted keratolysis – a frequently misdiagnosed, mild, infectious disorder of soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Lewicka-Potocka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Pitted keratolysis (PK is a mild infectious skin disorder caused by Corynebacterium spp., Kytococcus sedentarius or Dermatophilus congolensis . These bacteria produce enzymes that digest keratin, causing superficial lesions in the plantar surface. The disease is predominantly observed in young men. Objective . Pitted keratolysis despite the characteristic presentation of skin lesions is often misdiagnosed. In this article we aimed to remind readers of its clinical aspects and treatment by presenting a typical PK case. Case report. A 35-year-old man was admitted to the dermatological clinic due to skin lesions on both soles. In the physical examination we found multiple crateriform pits, associated with hyperhidrosis and malodour diagnosed as PK. Remission of lesions was observed after treatment with oral erythromycin. Conclusions . The differential diagnosis of plantar skin lesions should include PK. Due to typical clinical manifestation the diagnosis is based on physical examination.

  16. Isolated Tenosynovitis as a Sole Manifestation: The Great Mimicker Still Continues to Surprise Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhishek; Surana, Trupti V; Biswas, Saugato; Reja, Abu Hena Hasanoor; Chatterjee, Gobinda

    2015-01-01

    A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M. leprae. We, thus, report a unique case of isolated tenosynovitis as a sole manifestation of pure neural leprosy which is extremely rare in world literature. PMID:25814736

  17. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  18. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  19. Ultrasound-guided greater auricular nerve block as sole anesthetic for ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Ritchie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater auricular nerve (GAN block was used as the sole anesthetic for facial surgery in an 80-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities which would have made general anesthesia challenging. The GAN provides sensation to the ear, mastoid process, parotid gland, and angle of the mandible. In addition to anesthesia for operating room surgery, the GAN block can be used for outpatient or emergency department procedures without the need for a separate anesthesia team. Although this nerve block has been performed using landmark-based techniques, the ultrasoundguided version offers several potential advantages. These advantages include increased reliability of the nerve block, as well as prevention of inadvertent vascular puncture or blockade of the phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, or deep cervical plexus. The increasing access to ultrasound technology for medical care providers outside the operating room makes this ultrasound guided block an increasingly viable alternative.

  20. Ahistological and histochemical study of the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Arellano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A histological and histochemical study was performed in the buccal cavity and papillae, which were around the teeth, as well as in the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis adult specimens. The oesophagus and oesogaster were made up of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscular and serous. Two morphological types of epithelial cells were distinguishable in the oesophageal mucosa: the more numerous type cells possessed an electron-dense cytoplasm, whereas the cytoplasm was electron-clear in the other cells. Mucussecreting cells were the dominant feature of the epithelium throughout the oesophagus. These goblet cells were filled with numerous mucous droplets of low electron-density. The oesophagus was devoid of taste buds.

  1. Effects of shoe sole geometry on toe clearance and walking stability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, S B; Price, C; Kenney, L P J; Baker, R

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-five percent of people above age 65 fall each year, and half of their falls are associated with tripping: tripping, an apparently 'mundane' everyday problem, therefore, significantly impacts on older people's health and associated medical costs. To avoid tripping and subsequent falling, sufficient toe clearance during the swing phase is crucial. We previously found that a rocker-shaped shoe sole enhances toe clearance in young adults, thereby decreasing their trip-risk. This study investigates whether such sole design also enhances older adults' toe clearance, without inadvertently affecting their walking stability. Toe clearance and its variability are reported together with measures of walking stability for twelve older adults, walking in shoes with rocker angles of 10°, 15°, and 20°. Surface inclinations (flat, incline, decline) were chosen to reflect a potential real-world environment. Toe clearance increased substantially from the 10° to the 15° rocker angle (p=0.003) without compromising measures of walking stability (p>0.05). A further increase in rocker angle to 20° resulted in less substantial enhancement of toe clearance and came at the cost of a decrease in gait speed on the decline. The novelty of this investigation lies in the exploration of the trade-off between reduction of trip-risk through footwear design and adverse effects on walking stability on real-life relevant surfaces. Our two studies suggest that the current focus on slip-resistance in footwear design may need to be generalised to include other factors that affect trip-risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  4. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor using propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, M; Saunders, A M; Guisasola, A; Baeza, J A; Casas, C; Blackall, L L

    2004-01-05

    An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using propionate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community was followed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques and Candidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis' were quantified from the start up of the reactor until steady state. A series of SBR cycle studies was performed when 55% of the SBR biomass was Accumulibacter, a confirmed polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) and when Candidatus 'Competibacter phosphatis', a confirmed glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO), was essentially undetectable. These experiments evaluated two different carbon sources (propionate and acetate), and in every case, two different P-release rates were detected. The highest rate took place while there was volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the mixed liquor, and after the VFA was depleted a second P-release rate was observed. This second rate was very similar to the one detected in experiments performed without added VFA.A kinetic and stoichiometric model developed as a modification of Activated Sludge Model 2 (ASM2) including glycogen economy, was fitted to the experimental profiles. The validation and calibration of this model was carried out with the cycle study experiments performed using both VFAs. The effect of pH from 6.5 to 8.0 on anaerobic P-release and VFA-uptake and aerobic P-uptake was also studied using propionate. The optimal overall working pH was around 7.5. This is the first study of the microbial community involved in EBPR developed with propionate as a sole carbon source along with detailed process performance investigations of the propionate-utilizing PAOs. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  6. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  7. Biomechanical Effects of Prefabricated Foot Orthoses and Rocker‐Sole Footwear in Individuals With First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M.; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker‐sole footwear on spatiotemporal parameters, hip and knee kinematics, and plantar pressures in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. A total of 102 people with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker‐sole footwear. The immediate biomechanical effects of the interventions (compared to usual footwear) were examined using a wearable sensor motion analysis system and an in‐shoe plantar pressure measurement system. Results Spatiotemporal/kinematic and plantar pressure data were available from 88 and 87 participants, respectively. The orthoses had minimal effect on spatiotemporal or kinematic parameters, while the rocker‐sole footwear resulted in reduced cadence, percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance phase, and sagittal plane hip range of motion. The orthoses increased peak pressure under the midfoot and lesser toes. Both interventions significantly reduced peak pressure under the first MTP joint, and the rocker‐sole shoes also reduced peak pressure under the second through fifth MTP joints and heel. When the effects of the orthoses and rocker‐sole shoes were directly compared, there was no difference in peak pressure under the hallux, first MTP joint, or heel; however, the rocker‐sole shoes exhibited lower peak pressure under the lesser toes, second through fifth MTP joints, and midfoot. Conclusion Prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker‐sole footwear are effective at reducing peak pressure under the first MTP joint in people with first MTP joint OA, but achieve this through different mechanisms. Further research is required to determine whether these biomechanical changes result in improvements in symptoms. PMID:26640157

  8. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Assessment of self-organizing maps to analyze sole-carbon source utilization profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflaive, Joséphine; Céréghino, Régis; Danger, Michaël; Lacroix, Gérard; Ten-Hage, Loïc

    2005-07-01

    The use of community-level physiological profiles obtained with Biolog microplates is widely employed to consider the functional diversity of bacterial communities. Biolog produces a great amount of data which analysis has been the subject of many studies. In most cases, after some transformations, these data were investigated with classical multivariate analyses. Here we provided an alternative to this method, that is the use of an artificial intelligence technique, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM, unsupervised neural network). We used data from a microcosm study of algae-associated bacterial communities placed in various nutritive conditions. Analyses were carried out on the net absorbances at two incubation times for each substrates and on the chemical guild categorization of the total bacterial activity. Compared to Principal Components Analysis and cluster analysis, SOM appeared as a valuable tool for community classification, and to establish clear relationships between clusters of bacterial communities and sole-carbon sources utilization. Specifically, SOM offered a clear bidimensional projection of a relatively large volume of data and were easier to interpret than plots commonly obtained with multivariate analyses. They would be recommended to pattern the temporal evolution of communities' functional diversity.

  10. Proximal weakness of lower limbs as the sole presentation of hyperthyroidism: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chin; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Shih, Chen-Houng; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Most children with acute or chronic flaccid limb weakness have a disorder of motor unit. However, it is very important to exclude cerebral or other upper motor neuron disorders before we approach such patients as pure muscle disorders. In general, neuropathy results in distal limb weakness, myopathy manifests with proximal weakness. There are exceptions, however. Accurate diagnosis in this wide array of disorders is dependent on a careful clinical assessment followed by the appropriate investigations. Here we report a 14-year-old girl who presented with progressive difficulty in rising up from the floor for one month. Neurological examination revealed an obese, clumsy but clear girl with stable vital signs. The muscle power of neck and upper limbs was normal. There was positive Gower sign, but the toe and heel gaits were acceptable. The initial blood work and motor/sensory nerve conduction velocity were unremarkable. Further study for thyroid function showed a hyperthyroid state. The proximal myopathy recovered soon after medical treatment. There were no other symptoms, and signs indicating hyperthyroidism and proximal myopathy of lower limbs was the isolated clinical feature. Hyperthyroid myopathy is common in hyperthyroidism, but is unusual as the sole presenting symptom.

  11. Extended adjuvant intermittent letrozole versus continuous letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (SOLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Marco; Luo, Weixiu; Karlsson, Per

    2018-01-01

    of letrozole in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We did the multicentre, open-label, randomised, parallel, phase 3 SOLE trial in 240 centres (academic, primary, secondary, and tertiary care centres) in 22 countries. We enrolled postmenopausal women of any age with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node......-positive, and operable breast cancer for which they had undergone local treatment (surgery with or without radiotherapy) and had completed 4-6 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. They had to be clinically free of breast cancer at enrolment and without evidence of recurrent disease at any time before randomisation. We...... randomly assigned women (1:1) to treatment groups of either continuous use of letrozole (2·5 mg/day orally for 5 years) or intermittent use of letrozole (2·5 mg/day orally for 9 months followed by a 3-month break in years 1-4 and then 2·5 mg/day during all 12 months of year 5). Randomisation was done...

  12. Reduced plantar sole sensitivity facilitates early adaptation to a visual rotation pointing task when standing upright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Billot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans are capable of pointing to a target with accuracy. However, when vision is distorted through a visual rotation or mirror-reversed vision, the performance is initially degraded and thereafter improves with practice. There are suggestions this gradual improvement results from a sensorimotor recalibration involving initial gating of the somatosensory information from the pointing hand. In the present experiment, we examined if this process interfered with balance control by asking participants to point to targets with a visual rotation from a standing posture. This duality in processing sensory information (i.e., gating sensory signals from the hand while processing those arising from the control of balance could generate initial interference leading to a degraded pointing performance. We hypothesized that if this is the case, the attenuation of plantar sole somatosensory information through cooling could reduce the sensorimotor interference, and facilitate the early adaptation (i.e. improvement in the pointing task. Results supported this hypothesis. These observations suggest that processing sensory information for balance control interferes with the sensorimotor recalibration process imposed by a pointing task when vision is rotated.

  13. Pancreatic Tail Cancer with Sole Manifestation of Left Flank Pain: A Very Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Lin Lin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a “silent disease” because it often causes no symptoms in the early stage. The symptoms can be quite vague and various depending on the location of cancer in the pancreas. The anatomic site distribution is 78% in the head of the pancreas, 11% in the body, and 11% in the tail. Pancreatic cancer is rarely detected in the early stage, and it is very uncommon to diagnose pancreatic tail cancer during an emergency department visit. The manifestation of pancreatic tail cancer as left flank pain is very rare and has seldom been identified in the literature. We present a case of pancreatic tail cancer with the sole manifestation of dull left flank pain. Having negative findings on an ultrasound study initially, this female patient was misdiagnosed as having possible acute gastritis, urolithiasis or muscle strain after she received gastroendoscopy and colonofiberscopy. Her symptoms persisted for several months and she visited our emergency department due to an acute exacerbation of a persistent dull pain in the left flank area. Radiographic evaluation with computed tomography was performed, and pancreatic tail tumor with multiple metastases was found unexpectedly. We review the literature and discuss this rare presentation of pancreatic tail cancer.

  14. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  15. The individual tolerance concept is not the sole explanation for the probit dose-effect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.

    2000-02-01

    Predominant methods for analyzing dose- or concentration-effect data (i.e., probit analysis) are based on the concept of individual tolerance or individual effective dose (IED, the smallest characteristic dose needed to kill an individual). An alternative explanation (stochasticity hypothesis) is that individuals do not have unique tolerances: death results from stochastic processes occurring similarly in all individuals. These opposing hypotheses were tested with two types of experiments. First, time to stupefaction (TTS) was measured for zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) exposed to benzocaine. The same 40 fish were exposed during five trials to test if the same order for TTS was maintained among trials. The IED hypothesis was supported with a minor stochastic component being present. Second, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to sublethal or lethal NaCl concentrations until a large portion of the lethally exposed fish died. After sufficient time for recovery, fish sublethally exposed and fish surviving lethal exposure were exposed simultaneously to lethal NaCl concentrations. No statistically significant effect was found of previous exposure on survival time but a large stochastic component to the survival dynamics was obvious. Repetition of this second type of test with pentachlorophenol also provided no support for the IED hypothesis. The authors conclude that neither hypothesis alone was the sole or dominant explanation for the lognormal (probit) model. Determination of the correct explanation (IED or stochastic) or the relative contributions of each is crucial to predicting consequences to populations after repeated or chronic exposures to any particular toxicant.

  16. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers: Is rationalization the sole objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MASSOL, Olivier; TCHUNG-MING, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between 12 countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and belonging to the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study is more specifically focused on a scenario often raised: that of the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. As this is a standard transportation problem, we first assess the gains that may result from this cooperative approach using a simple static model calibrated on the year 2007. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - the per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements: core belonging and mono-tonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, coordination costs are considered and we determine the maximum amount that can be tolerated by such a cooperation. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (authors)

  17. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  18. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  19. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as a Sole Agent Is Not Immunosuppressant in a Highly Immunogenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gassas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy, which is used for many conditions, may also have immunosuppressive effects and could be used for prevention or treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. If HBO is immunosuppressant, then we hypothesize that HBO therapy will delay the T-cell mediated skin graft rejection. Methods. C57/BL6 black-coated (H2B mice received skin graft from CBA (H2D white-coated mice. Mice were treated with either 19 session of 240 kpa oxygen or 29 session of 300 kpa oxygen, for 90 minutes. Mice were housed either 4 per cage or separately, to prevent friction and mechanical factors that may affect graft survival. Skin grafts were assessed daily. Results. There was no difference in length of graft survival between mice that received either regimens of HBO therapy and mice that did not receive HBO therapy. Conclusions. HBO therapy, as a sole agent, did not delay skin graft rejection in a highly immunogenic mouse model.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen as sole treatment for severe radiation - induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios, E-mail: aedellis@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieion Academic Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papatsoris, Athanasios; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Department of Urology, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios [Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary and sole treatment for severe radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as primary treatment in 38 patients with severe radiation cystitis. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment, while the secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications with a mean follow-up of 29.33 months. Median number of sessions needed was 33. Complete and partial response rate was 86.8% and 13.2%, respectively. All 33 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset. One patient needed cystectomy, while 33 patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Our study suggests the early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen for radiation-induced severe cystitis as an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  1. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, Olivier [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, F-92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Tchung-Ming, Stephane [Economic Studies Division, IFP, 1-4 av. de Bois-Preau, F-92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); CREDEN, Universite Montpellier I, Av. de la mer, BP 9606, F-34054, Montpellier (France)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  2. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C.; Bolt, L.; Burns, C. R.; Folatelli, G.; Freedman, W. L.; Krisciunas, K.; Krzeminski, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data

  3. Continuous operation of an ultra-low-power microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inyoung; Sode, Takashi; Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Lowe, Christopher Robin; Sode, Koji

    2017-07-15

    An ultimate goal for those engaged in research to develop implantable medical devices is to develop mechatronic implantable artificial organs such as artificial pancreas. Such devices would comprise at least a sensor module, an actuator module, and a controller module. For the development of optimal mechatronic implantable artificial organs, these modules should be self-powered and autonomously operated. In this study, we aimed to develop a microcontroller using the BioCapacitor principle. A direct electron transfer type glucose dehydrogenase was immobilized onto mesoporous carbon, and then deposited on the surface of a miniaturized Au electrode (7mm 2 ) to prepare a miniaturized enzyme anode. The enzyme fuel cell was connected with a 100 μF capacitor and a power boost converter as a charge pump. The voltage of the enzyme fuel cell was increased in a stepwise manner by the charge pump from 330mV to 3.1V, and the generated electricity was charged into a 100μF capacitor. The charge pump circuit was connected to an ultra-low-power microcontroller. Thus prepared BioCapacitor based circuit was able to operate an ultra-low-power microcontroller continuously, by running a program for 17h that turned on an LED every 60s. Our success in operating a microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source indicated the probability of realizing implantable self-powered autonomously operated artificial organs, such as artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  5. Power flow control based solely on slow feedback loop for heart pump applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bob; Hu, Aiguo Patrick; Budgett, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for regulating power flow via transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) for implantable heart pumps. Previous work on power flow controller requires a fast feedback loop that needs additional switching devices and resonant capacitors to be added to the primary converter. The proposed power flow controller eliminates these additional components, and it relies solely on a slow feedback loop to directly drive the primary converter to meet the heart pump power demand and ensure zero voltage switching. A controlled change in switching frequency varies the resonant tank shorting period of a current-fed push-pull resonant converter, thus changing the magnitude of the primary resonant voltage, as well as the tuning between primary and secondary resonant tanks. The proposed controller has been implemented successfully using an analogue circuit and has reached an end-to-end power efficiency of 79.6% at 10 W with a switching frequency regulation range of 149.3 kHz to 182.2 kHz.

  6. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, J. P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bolt, L. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Folatelli, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Freedman, W. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krisciunas, K. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, W., E-mail: dthomas@das.uchile.cl [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data.

  7. Ultrasound Examination Through The Sole Horn On A Weight‐Bearing Claw: Pilot In‐Vitro Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    of a 700 kg heavy Holstein cow The correlation between the thickness of the soft tissue measured with the two different methods was 0.91 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Figure 1). Discussion The bottom of the tub could carry the weight of a 700 kg cow. It was possible to scan through the sole horn......Introduction A decrease of the soft tissue thickness in the claw increases the pressure on the corium from the pedal bone and may lead to injuries and claw horn lesions (Ossent & Lischer 1998, Tarlton, et al. 2002). Ultrasonography has been described as a useful method to exam the soft tissue...... the sole horn and through the polyethylene plate respectively had an acceptable correlation. Acknowledgements Thanks to Mogens Nielsen Kreaturslagteri A/S for providing slaughter house legs. References Kofler J, Kubber P, and Henninger W 1999 Ultrasonographic imaging and thickness measurement of the sole...

  8. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Onuma, F; Kimpara, N; Nakahara, T

    1995-06-01

    Various soil samples were screened for the presence of microorganisms which have the ability to degrade polyurethane compounds. Two strains with good polyurethane degrading activity were isolated. The more active strain was tentatively identified as Comamonas acidovorans. This strain could utilize polyester-type polyurethanes but not the polyether-type polyurethanes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Adipic acid and diethylene glycol were probably the main degradation products when polyurethane was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. When ammonium nitrate was used as nitrogen source, only diethylene glycol was detected after growth on polyurethane.

  10. Mechanisms of friction and assessment of slip resistance of new and used footwear soles on contaminated floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Raoul

    1995-02-01

    The great number of slipping accidents indicates that footwear providing good slip resistance must be rare. Slip resistance seems to be a purely physical phenomenon, however, more knowledge of the mechanisms of friction is needed to develop slip-resistant footwear and to ensure safer walking in slippery conditions. In the present study the influence of the normal wear of shoe heels and soles on their frictional properties was clarified. The slip resistance of three types of new and used safety shoes on four relatively slippery floor-contaminant combinations, was assessed with a prototype apparatus, which simulates the movements of a human foot and the forces applied to the underfoot surface during an actual slip. The used shoes were collected from 27 workers in a shipbuilding company and classified by sight into four wear classes: Good, satisfactory, poor, and worn-out. The assessed shoe heels and soles were in general more slippery when new compared to used heels and soles. However, footwear must be discarded before the tread pattern is worn-out. Used microcellular polyurethane (PU) heels and soles gave a considerably higher coefficient of kinetic friction (μ k ) on contaminated floors than used heels and soles made of compact nitrile (NR) and compact styrene rubber (SR). The heel-slide coefficient of kinetic friction (μ kl ) for used versus new shoes was on average 66% higher for PU (0·216 versus 0·130), 27% higher for SR (0·143 versus 0·113), and 7% lower for NR (0·098 versus 0·105). The fundamental mechanisms of friction between shoe soles and contaminated floors were also discussed, and experiments with seven slabs of sole materials were carried out to assess contact pressure effects from the viewpoint of slipping. Slip resistance particularly seemed to depend on the squeeze film and the contact pressure effects between the soling materials and the floor. An increasing contact pressure dramatically reduced the μ k , thus indicating that the slip

  11. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  12. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  13. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  14. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year and 2012 (the 4th year the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully

  15. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  16. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  17. Depth filters containing diatomite achieve more efficient particle retention than filters solely containing cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Buyel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g. when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m-2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m-2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  18. Analysis of DNA methylation level by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism in half smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) subjected to salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siping; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Si, Yufeng; Liu, Mingyuan; He, Huiwen; Huang, Zhengju

    2017-04-01

    Increasingly arisen environmental constraints may contribute to heritable phenotypic variation including methylation changes, which can help the animals with development, growth and survival. In this study, we assessed the DNA methylation levels in three tissues (gonad, kidney and gill) of half smooth tongue sole under the salinity stress. The methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique was applied to illustrate the regulation of epigenetic mechanism in environmental stimuli. Fish were subjected to 15 salinity treatment for 7 and 60 days, respectively. A total of 11259 fragments were amplified with 8 pairs of selective primers. The levels of methylated DNA in different tissues of females and males without salinity stress were analyzed, which were 32.76% and 47.32% in gonad; 38.13% and 37.69% in kidney; 37.58% and 34.96% in gill, respectively. In addition, the significant difference was observed in gonad between females and males, indicating that discrepant regulation in gonadal development and differentiation may involve sex-related genes. Further analysis showed that total and hemi-methylation were significantly decreased under 15 salinity for 7 days, probably resulting in up-regulating salt-tolerance genes expression to adjust salt changing. With the adjustment for 60 days, total and hemi-methylation prominently went back to its normal levels to obtain equilibrium. Particularly, full methylation levels were steady along with salinity stress to maintain the stability of gene expression. Additionally, the data showed that gonads in females and gills in males were superior in adaptability. As a result, DNA methylation regulates tissue- specific epiloci, and may respond to salinity stress by regulating gene expression to maintain animal survival and activity.

  19. Effects of the isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: role of the Survivin and proliferation versus apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, María; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan B

    2018-01-17

    ) have been immunohistochemically detected. Besides, both the controls and genistein exposed larvae displayed parallel immunostaining protein patterns in the different organ-systems and tissues. The transcriptional imbalances observed in the studied genes (BIRC-5, CASP-6, Fas) were only temporarily induced, and apparently no changes in the immunohistochemical protein patterns were detected. Thus, the isoflavone genistein caused not harmful effects in the development and metamorphosis of the Senegalese sole exposed to chronic environmentally relevant concentrations (3 and 10 mg/L).

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of re-innervation and hyperinnervation patterns by uninjured CGRP fibers in the rat foot sole epidermis after nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraku Liron S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidermis is innervated by fine nerve endings that are important in mediating nociceptive stimuli. However, their precise role in neuropathic pain is still controversial. Here, we have studied the role of epidermal peptidergic nociceptive fibers that are located adjacent to injured fibers in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Using the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI model, which involves complete transections of the tibial and common peroneal nerve while sparing the sural and saphenous branches, mechanical hypersensitivity was induced of the uninjured lateral (sural and medial (saphenous area of the foot sole. At different time points, a complete foot sole biopsy was taken from the injured paw and processed for Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, a novel 2D-reconstruction model depicting the density of CGRP fibers was made to evaluate the course of denervation and re-innervation by uninjured CGRP fibers. The results show an increased density of uninjured CGRP-IR epidermal fibers on the lateral and medial side after a SNI procedure at 5 and 10 weeks. Furthermore, although in control animals the density of epidermal CGRP-IR fibers in the footpads was lower compared to the surrounding skin of the foot, 10 weeks after the SNI procedure, the initially denervated footpads displayed a hyper-innervation. These data support the idea that uninjured fibers may play a considerable role in development and maintenance of neuropathic pain and that it is important to take larger biopsies to test the relationship between innervation of injured and uninjured nerve areas.

  1. Multiple loci with different cancer specificities within the 8q24 gene desert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoussaini, M.; Song, H.; Koessler, T.

    2008-01-01

    this gene desert were specifically associated with risks of different cancers. One block was solely associated with risk of breast cancer, three others were associated solely with the risk of prostate cancer, and a fifth was associated with the risk of prostate, colorectal, and ovarian cancer...

  2. Clinical assessment of dynamic coefficient of friction effects in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Jamshidi; Firooz, Salami

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was examining the effect of human factors such as plantar friction, contact period time, and impulse on shoe-sole trituration of drop foot patients. Twenty-five patients with drop foot and twenty normal subjects were recruited in the study. The force plate and its related software's recorded human factor (coefficient of friction, ground reaction force, time of stance phase) as time dependent parameters. Dynamic coefficient of friction patterns were categorized based on their magnitude versus time when the longitudinal axis of the sole was plotted as the Y-axis and the transverse axis of the sole as X-axis during stance phase. The result of this research indicated that the average coefficient of friction among drop foot patients is 77.53 % (p value <0.05) lower than the normal subjects. Also the time of stance phase among drop foot patients is 7.56 % (p value <0.05) greater than normal subjects. There is no difference in the peaks, of vertical ground reaction force between normal and control group. The findings of this research revealed that the time of stance phase has a key role in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

  3. 75 FR 55689 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of yellowfin sole from the BSAI trawl... is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification... industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet as well as...

  4. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Wahles (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, L.; Leopold, M.F.; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Deaville, R.; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, J.; Jepson, P.D.; Gröne, A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a

  5. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Deaville, Rob; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, Jooske; Jepson, Paul D; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a

  6. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Social security numbers of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors and...

  7. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  8. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school. The exemption set forth in 49 U.S.C. 13506(a)(1) shall not be construed as being inapplicable to...

  9. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mec...

  10. Translocation (16;20)(p11.2;q13). sole cytogenetic abnormality in a unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richkind, Kathleen E; Mortimer, Errol; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Fraire, Armando

    2002-09-01

    We report the results of cytogenetic analysis of a case of unicameral bone cyst with a t(16;20(p11.2;q13) present as the sole abnormality. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a cytogenetically characterized tumor of this type.

  11. Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of N-pentafluoroaryl benzamides using air as the sole oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Huai-Wei; Spangler, Jillian E; Chen, Kai; Cui, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Wei-Yin; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2015-03-01

    The oxidative olefination of a broad array of arenes and heteroarenes with a variety of activated and unactivated olefins has be achieved via a rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation reaction. The use of an N -pentafluorophenyl benzamide directing group is crucial for achieving catalytic turnovers in the presence of air as the sole oxidant without using a co-oxidant.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed C-H olefination of uracils and caffeines using molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Su, Lv; Qiu, Lin; Fan, Zhenwei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen; Huang, Qiufeng

    2017-04-18

    The palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-H olefination of uracils or caffeines with alkenes using an atmospheric pressure of molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant has been disclosed. This novel strategy offers an efficient and environmentally friendly method to biologically important C5-alkene uracil derivatives or C8-alkene caffeine derivatives.

  13. Assessing effectiveness of electrical stunning and chillingin ice water of farmed yellowtail kingfish, common sole and pike-perch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llonch, P.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Animals should be rendered unconscious before slaughter in order to avoid suffering or pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electrical stunning after dewatering to induce instantaneous unconsciousness and insensibility in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), common sole (Solea

  14. Predictors of response to prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-05-12

    Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ OA) is a common and disabling condition commonly managed with footwear and orthotic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a successful treatment response in people with 1st MTPJ OA provided with prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear as part of a randomised clinical trial. People with 1st MTPJ OA (n = 88) who participated in a randomised trial were allocated to receive prefabricated foot orthoses (n = 47) or rocker-sole footwear (n = 41) and completed a baseline questionnaire including information on demographics, anthropometrics, general health, pain characteristics (including the Foot Health Status Questionnaire [FHSQ] and Foot Function Index [FFI]) and perceptions of the interventions, and a clinical assessment of foot posture, range of motion, radiographic severity and in-shoe plantar pressures. Adherence was documented using diaries. At 12 weeks, participants documented their perception of improvement on a 15-point scale. Those reporting at least moderate improvement on this scale were classified as 'responders'. There were 29 responders (62%) in the orthoses group and 16 responders (39%) in the rocker-sole group. In the orthoses group, responders had greater baseline pain severity while walking, a higher FFI difficulty score, and wore their orthoses more frequently. In the rocker-sole group, responders had a higher FFI stiffness score and greater radiographic severity. However, the accuracy of these variables in identifying responders in each group was modest (62 and 53%, respectively). The response to prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in people with 1st MTPJ OA is related to measures of increased pain and disease severity. However, the overall classification accuracy associated with these factors is not sufficient for identifying individuals who are most likely to benefit from these interventions. Australian New

  15. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  16. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Serrano Manuel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  17. A Case of Myasthenia Gravis Presenting Solely With Bulbar Palsy Not Associated With Easy Fatigability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinank R. Mer

    2015-12-01

    present case shows that it is important to consider MG even in cases presenting solely with progressive bulbar palsy without easy fatigability.

  18. H-index is important for postural control for people with impaired foot sole sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Zhang

    Full Text Available People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN, especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers reflex loop (SAF, might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers reflex loop (LAF for postural control.To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation.Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP and passive (PAP ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS, average sway velocity (VAVG and area (A95 during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and timed up-and-go duration (TUG.Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05 and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05, greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .05 and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5 cm2, P < .05, shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2 m, P < .05, and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3 s, P < .05. Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05. Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05 and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05 performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed.VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering

  19. Crime scene reconstruction-Sex prediction from blood stained foot sole impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    2017-09-01

    in sex prediction from incomplete bloodstained foot sole impressions. In comparison to a system for sex prediction from complete footprint impressions (82.2%), the automated system developed on incomplete foot impressions recorded an accuracy level of 83.47%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunoreactive proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 identified by gnotobiotic mono-colonized mice sera, immune rabbit sera and nonimmune human sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Górska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372.

  1. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK ( B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372).

  2. Essential fatty acids influence metabolic rate and tolerance of hypoxia in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Lund, Ivar; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    Dover sole (Solea solea, Linneaus 1758) were raised from first feeding on brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with different contents and compositions of the essential fatty acids (EFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n - 6); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3......), and their metabolic rate and tolerance to hypoxia measured prior to and following metamorphosis and settlement. Four dietary Artemia preparations were compared: (1) un-enriched; (2) enriched with a commercial EFA mixture (Easy DHA SELCO Emulsion); (3) enriched with a marine fish oil combination (VEVODAR and Incromega...... DHA) to provide a high ratio of ARA to DHA, and (4) enriched with these fish oils to provide a low ratio of ARA to DHA. Sole fed un-enriched Artemia were significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than the other dietary groups. Larvae from this group had significantly higher routine metabolic rate (RMR...

  3. The Influence of Outdoor Shoe Sole Stiffness on the Metatarsophalangeal Joint Kinematics When Walking and Running in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mistretta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the action of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP is fundamental to improving the design process of a new outdoor shoe. Coming from the stated consideration, the aim of this research is to study the influence of shoe sole stiffness and terrain slope on the MTP joint angle of subjects walking in different conditions. To pursue this intent, different data collection sessions have been carried out in-vitro and in-vivo, indoor and outdoor. Two different approaches have been used to collect gait kinematics: an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit based system for the first campaign of tests, and a 2D video analysis for the second. Major findings showed a linear correlation between shoe sole stiffness and peak MTP joint angle during gait, as well as consistency in the value of the slope of the linear regression curves corresponding to the different conditions examined.

  4. Predictors of response to prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Menz, HB; Auhl, M; Tan, JM; Levinger, P; Roddy, E; Munteanu, SE

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ OA) is a common and disabling condition commonly managed with footwear and orthotic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a successful treatment response in people with 1st MTPJ OA provided with prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear as part of a randomised clinical trial. METHODS: People with 1st MTPJ OA (n = 88) who participated in a randomised trial were allocate...

  5. Testing the potential effects of shellfish farming on swimming activity and spatial distribution of sole (Solea solea) in a mesocosm

    OpenAIRE

    Laffargue, Pascal; Begout, Marie-laure; Lagardere, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring coastal fish nursery habitats by extensive shellfish fanning in the French part of the Bay of Biscay could influence fish physiology and behaviour and affect the ecological performance of the species. The influence of oyster-trestle cultivation installations on sole (Solea solea) swimming behaviour was investigated using an experimental pond mesocosm. A pen was constructed with three interconnected zones (two with bags of live oysters or oyster shells on trestles, and one free z...

  6. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  7. Rh(III) -Catalyzed C-H Olefination of Benzoic Acids under Mild Conditions using Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quandi; Zhu, Changlei; Zhao, Huaiqing; Su, Weiping

    2016-02-04

    Phthalide skeletons have been synthesized for the first time through a Rh(III) -catalyzed C-H olefination of benzoic acids under mild conditions using oxygen as the sole oxidant. Aromatic acids bearing a variety of functional groups could react with diverse alkenes to afford the desired cyclized lactones or uncyclized alkenylarenes in moderate-to-excellent yields. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke L IJsseldijk

    Full Text Available Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a rare cause of death in cetaceans. Whilst asphyxiation has been reported in smaller odontocetes, there are no recent records of this occurring in Globicephala species. Here we report the stranding, necropsy and diet study results as well as discuss the unusual nature of this phenomenon. Flatfish are not a primary prey species for pilot whales and are rarely eaten by other cetaceans, such as harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena, in which there are several reports of asphyxiation due to airway obstruction by soles. This risk may be due to the fish's flexible bodies which can enter small cavities either actively in an attempt to escape or passively due to the whale 'coughing' or 'sneezing' to rid itself of the blockage of the trachea. It is also possible that the fish enter the airways whilst the whale is re-articulating the larynx after trying to ingest large, oddly shaped prey. It is unlikely that the soles entered the airways after the death of the whales and we believe therefore that they are responsible for the death of these animals.

  9. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  10. THE TRIAL OF FOUNDING THE DEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE SIZE OF HOOF SOLE AND BIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF HUCUL HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ŁUSZCZYŃSKI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hoofs are an important part of horse body and significantly influence its usability.According to irregular weight of horse limbs, fore-hoofs and hind-hoofs differ withthe shape, the angle of fore-wall inclination and size but they should be proportionalto horse body size. The objective of this study was the trial of founding the dependencebetween the size sole surface of fore- and hind-hoofs and biometric measurementsof Hucul horses. Contours of left fore- and hind-hoof were collected from 50Hucul horses from Gładyszów Stud (7 stallions and 43 mares. The contours werescanned in 1:1 scale and using the AutoCad computer program the surface and circumferenceof hoof sole were evaluated. At the same time the biometrical measurementswere taken from mentioned horses – height at withers, girth and cannon circumferences.In studied population the surface and circumference of fore-hoofs weresignificantly higher than of hind-hoofs. Biometrical measurements and indexescounted highly significantly and significantly affected the surface and circumferenceof Hucul horse hoofs. Horses with higher height at withers and higher girth capacitywere characterized by significantly higher surface and circumference of hind-hoofsthan in horses with lower height. Highly significantly higher sole surface and circumferenceof fore-hoofs was shown in horses with higher cannon circumference.

  11. 5 CFR 890.1048 - Waiver of debarment for a provider that is the sole source of health care services in a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is the sole source of health care services in a community. 890.1048 Section 890.1048 Administrative... HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Exceptions to the Effect of Debarments § 890.1048 Waiver of debarment for a provider that is the sole source of health care...

  12. A hybrid approach of gene sets and single genes for the prediction of survival risks with gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn't been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge.

  13. Cooling reduces the cutaneous afferent firing response to vibratory stimuli in glabrous skin of the human foot sole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Bent, Leah R

    2013-02-01

    Skin on the foot sole plays an important role in postural control. Cooling the skin of the foot is often used to induce anesthesia to determine the role of skin in motor and balance control. The effect of cooling on the four classes of mechanoreceptor in the skin is largely unknown, and thus the aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of cooling on individual skin receptors in the foot sole. Such insight will better isolate individual receptor contributions to balance control. Using microneurography, we recorded 39 single nerve afferents innervating mechanoreceptors in the skin of the foot sole in humans. Afferents were identified as fast-adapting (FA) or slowly adapting (SA) type I or II (FA I n = 16, FA II n = 7, SA I n = 6, SA II n = 11). Receptor response to vibration was compared before and after cooling of the receptive field (2-20 min). Overall, firing response was abolished in 30% of all receptors, and this was equally distributed across receptor type (P = 0.69). Longer cooling times were more likely to reduce firing response below 50% of baseline; however, some afferent responses were abolished with shorter cooling times (2-5 min). Skin temperature was not a reliable indicator of the level of receptor activation and often became uncoupled from receptor response levels, suggesting caution in the use of this parameter as an indicator of anesthesia. When cooled, receptors preferentially coded lower frequencies in response to vibration. In response to a sustained indentation, SA receptors responded more like FA receptors, primarily coding "on-off" events.

  14. Effect of stocking density and protein/fat ratio of the diet on growth of Dover sole (Solea solea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nizza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 250 soles (30g initial weight were randomly placed in 12 experimental tanks at the Discizia’s aquaculture marine station. They were reared at 2 different stocking densities (2.3 and 1.3kg/m2 corresponding to 40% and 25% of the bottom surface area covered by fish and fed on 2 diets with different protein/fat ratio (50% and 54% crude protein and 21% and 18% total lipid, respectively for diets A and B with triplicate tanks per treatment. The trial lasted 120 days. Fish stocked at the lower density resulted in significantly higher weight gain than fish reared at 2.3 kg/m2 (29.0±7.3 g vs 20.3±8.0g; P<0.01 with a specific growth rate (SGR of 0.54±0.09 and 0.42±0.13, respectively. Feed conversion rate (FCR was improved at the lower density (1.8 vs 2.4, P<0.01. The chemical composition of the test diets significantly affected the growth performance of sole. Diet B led to a higher final weight (59.7 vs 50.8g; P<0.01 and better feed utilisation (FCR: 1.8 vs 2.4, P<0.01. These results confirm the necessity to ensure an adequate space for the growing sole and suggest the need for high protein diets to meet sole’s requirements.

  15. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenping Yang

    Full Text Available As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping

  16. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  17. Effects of different dietary DHA:EPA ratios on gonadal steroidogenesis in the marine teleost, tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Cao, Lin; Wei, Yuliang; Zhang, Yuanqin; Liang, Mengqing

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary DHA and EPA on gonadal steroidogenesis in mature females and males, with a feeding trial on tongue sole, a typical marine teleost with sexual dimorphism. Three experimental diets differing basically in DHA:EPA ratio, that is, 0·68 (diet D:E-0·68), 1·09 (D:E-1·09) and 2·05 (D:E-2·05), were randomly assigned to nine tanks of 3-year-old tongue sole (ten females and fifteen males in each tank). The feeding trail lasted for 90 d before and during the spawning season. Fish were reared in a flowing seawater system and fed to apparent satiation twice daily. Compared with diet D:E-0·68, diet D:E-1·09 significantly enhanced the oestradiol production in females, whereas diet D:E-2·05 significantly enhanced the testosterone production in males. In ovaries, diet D:E-1·09 induced highest mRNA expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17α-hydroxylase (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). In testes, diet 2·05 resulted in highest mRNA expression of FSHR, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450c17 and 3β-HSD. Fatty acid profiles in fish tissues reflected closely those of diets. Female fish had more gonadal EPA content but less DHA content than male fish, whereas there was a reverse observation in liver. In conclusion, the dietary DHA:EPA ratio, possibly combined with the dietary EPA:arachidonic acid ratio, differentially regulated sex steroid hormone synthesis in mature female and male tongue soles. Females seemed to require more EPA but less DHA for the gonadal steroidogenesis than males. The results are beneficial to sex-specific nutritive strategies in domestic teleost.

  18. Effects of sole and mixed culture of wheat crop and phosphorus fertilization on the solubility of phosphorus in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, H. R.; Ali, M. A.; Ahmad, N.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers face a challenging task to harvest yield potential of crops as well as improving fertilizer use-efficiency under their limited farm resources. Among the macronutrients, the relative efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer is very low in alkaline-calcareous soils under arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore, a field study was undertaken to quantify the interactive effects of wheat varieties and phosphorous fertilization on grain yield and solubility of phosphorous nutrient in the rhizosphere. The treatments consisted of (a) two wheat varieties (Sehr-2006, Shafaq-2006, mixed culture) and (b) three phosphorus levels (0, 45, 85 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ per hectare) were arranged in randomized complete block design and replicated four times. The Results showed that biological grain yield and 1000-grain weight of wheat increased by 8.7 percent, 14.46 percent and 8.48 percent under mixed culture of varieties sehr-2006 and shafaq-2006, respectively over the solely grown varieties. The application of phosphorus at the rate 85 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ resulted in increased quantity of total biological yield, grain yield and 1000-grain weight compared to unfertilized crop. The uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus contents were substantially enhanced under mixed culture cropping pattern over sole wheat cultivars. The availability of phosphorus was increased by 19.70 percent under mixed cropping over sole culture. It is inferred from the study that mixed cropping produced synergetic effects on the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, and thereby resulted in the higher production of wheat crop. (author)

  19. CCM - Understanding and working with Competencies

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Find out what competencies are, make them come to life by sharing your experience with colleagues, and understand what they represent in our work environment. All staff members are encouraged to attend. Register here for sessions in June.

  20. CCM - Understanding and working with Competencies

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Find out what competencies are, make them come to life by sharing your experience with colleagues, and understand what they represent in our work environment. All staff members are encouraged to attend. Register here for sessions in March and April.

  1. 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites

  2. Experimental and model-based analysis of differences in perception of cutaneous electrical stimulation across the sole of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Grill, Warren M; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2013-09-01

    During electrocutaneous stimulations, variation in skin properties across locations can lead to differences in neural activation. However, little focus has been given to the effect of different skin thicknesses on neural activation. Electrical stimulation was applied to six sites across the sole of the foot. The intensities used were two and four times perception threshold. The subjects (n = 8) rated the perception quality and intensity using the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analog scale (VAS). A finite element model was developed and combined with the activation function (AF) to estimate neural activation. Electrical stimulation was perceived as significantly less sharp at the heel compared to all other sites, except one site in the forefoot (logistic regression, p model showed that the AF was between 91 and 231 % higher at the five other sites than at the heel. The differences in perception across the sole of the foot indicated that the CNS received different inputs depending on the stimulus site. The lower AF at the heel indicated that the skin thicknesses could contribute to the perceived differences.

  3. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes): phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, Jose Pedro; Douglas, Susan E

    2007-07-03

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S) ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29) in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  4. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes: phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañavate Jose

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosomal proteins (RPs are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29 in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. Conclusion The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  5. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  6. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor is processed solely by prohormone convertase 4 in the gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Mbikay, M; Arimura, A

    2000-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is abundant not only in the brain, but also in the testis. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that PACAP-LI in rat testis is expressed stage specifically in spermatids. This suggests that testicular PACAP participates in the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis. Additionally, the ovary contains a relatively small amount of PACAP, conceivably involved in the regulation of folliculogenesis. PACAP is synthesized as a preprohormone and is processed by prohormone convertases, such as PC1, PC2, and PC4. PC4 is expressed only in the testis and ovary, where neither PC1 nor PC2 is expressed. However, whether PC4 is the sole endoprotease for the PACAP precursor in the gonads remains unknown. Recent studies using PC4-transgenic mice revealed that male PC4-null mice exhibited severely impaired fertility, although spermatogenesis appeared to be normal. The female PC4-null mice exhibited delayed folliculogenesis in the ovaries. To examine whether PC4 is the sole processing enzyme for the PACAP precursor in the gonads, we analyzed testicular and ovarian extracts from the PC4-null and wild-type mice for PACAP (PACAP38 and PACAP27) and its messenger RNA using reverse phase HPLC combined with specific RIAs and ribonuclease protection assay, respectively. For RIAs, three different polyclonal antisera with different recognition sites were used to identify PACAP38, PACAP27, and its precursor. Neither the testis nor the ovary from the PC4-null mice expressed PACAP38 or PACAP27, but the levels of PACAP transcripts in the testis and ovary of homozygous PC4-deficient mice were considerably elevated compared with those of the wild-type and heterozygous animals. The findings indicate that PC4 is the sole processing enzyme for the precursor of PACAP in the testis and ovary of mice. The possibility that the absence of bioactive PACAP in the testis and ovary of PC4-null mice caused severely impaired fertility in the males and

  8. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: The effects of temperature on growth, development and settlement of northern rock sole larvae (Lepidopsetta polyxystra)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from an experiment where northern rock sole larvae were reared in the laboratory to measure growth, condition, development and settlement parameters...

  9. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome as the sole manifestation of cystic fibrosis in a child with 711+G>T/IVS8-5T mutation: a new face of an old disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Hadj Fredj, Sondes; Bel Hadj, Imen; Khalsi, Fatma; Abdelhak, Sonia; Boussetta, Khadija; Messaoud, Taieb

    2017-08-01

    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome (PBS) describes an uncommon complication of cystic fibrosis leading to hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. PBS as the sole manifestation of cystic fibrosis in children is extremely rare and has never been described in patients carrying 5T variant. We report a clinical, biochemical and genetic study of a four year-old boy presenting a pseudo-Bartter syndrome as the sole manifestation of cystic fibrosis. All 27 exons and the flanking intron regions of the CFTR gene were analysed by PCR and direct sequencing. Direct sequencing was also used to analyse TG m T n and M470V polymorphisms in the patient and his parents. Two sweat tests were abnormal with elevated chloride levels at 78 and 88 mmol/L. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation 711+1 G>T and an IVS8-T5 allele. The mutation 711+1 G>T is in trans with the IVS8-T5-TG11 allele and the child carried M470/V470 genotype. To the best of our knowledge, the genotype 711+1 G>T /IVS8-5T found in our patient is described for the first time. The role of TG11-5T-V470 allele in cases of cystic fibrosis with PB syndrome remains to be determined.

  10. The effect of roughness, floor polish, water, oil and ice on underfoot friction: current safety footwear solings are less slip resistant than microcellular polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D P; Jones, C

    2001-04-01

    Research over a period of about 18 years has shown that a microcellular polyurethane known as AP66033 is the most slip-resistant safety footwear soling material on oily and wet surfaces. In recent years it has been replaced in commercially available footwear by a dual density polyurethane (DDP) which has a dense outer layer and a soft microcellular backing. This research programme has compared the slip resistance of AP66033 with DDP and some rubber solings. In addition, data were obtained on the effects of soling and floor roughness, and floor polish on slip resistance. Some data were also obtained for walking on ice. The coefficient of friction (CoF) of the solings was measured on 19 water wet surfaces in three conditions: (I) when the solings were new, (II) following abrasion to create maximum roughness and (III) after polishing. The CoF was measured on four oily surfaces after each of 11 abrasion or polishing treatments. The profound effects of the roughening of all soles and of floor roughness on the CoF were demonstrated for both wet and oily surfaces. The superior slip resistance of AP66033 was confirmed for oily and wet conditions; however, some rubbers not suitable for safety footwear achieved higher CoF values on wet floors. All of the floor polishes reduced the CoF of all floors when contaminated with water. The mean CoF of DDP solings was lower than the mean for AP66033 on wet and oily surfaces. No safety footwear soling provided adequate grip on dry ice and the CoF was reduced by water on the ice. A rubber used for rock climbing footwear was one of the most slip-resistant solings on wet surfaces in the laboratory but recorded the lowest CoF on ice. It is concluded that the incidence of occupational injuries caused by slipping could be reduced by the following: (A) returning to safety footwear soled with the microcellular polyurethane AP66033; (B) abrading all new and smooth footwear solings with a belt sanding machine coated with P100 grit; (C) avoiding

  11. Levoglucosan kinase involved in citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger CBX-209 using levoglucosan as sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, X.L.; Zhang, H.X.; Tang, J.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2001-07-01

    Conditions were optimized for the production of citric acid by a mutant A. niger CBX-209 using levoglucosan derived from pyrolysis of wastepaper as a sole carbon and energy source in a simple medium. The optimum concentration of levoglucosan and wheat bran in the medium was 8% and 3%, respectively, at an optimum initial pH between 5.5 and 6.0 at 35{sup o}C. During fermentation, direct formation of glucose 6-phosphate from levogluocosan in the presence of ATP and Mg{sup 2+} as observed by HPLC in the reaction with both cell extracts and partially purified enzyme, suggested that the enzyme acting on levoglucosan isa kinase. Time-course changes in the levels of this special levoglucosan kinase in A. niger CBX-209 grown on levoglucosan and glucose revealed that levoglucosan kinase was an inductive enzyme. (Author)

  12. Influence of vegetable diets on physiological and immune responses to thermal stress in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gesto, Manuel; Batista, Sónia

    2018-01-01

    quality parameters. However, scarce information is available regarding the long-term impact of vegetable diets (combining the inclusion of both vegetable protein and oils) on the stress response and immunity of this fish species. This study aims to evaluate the concomitant effect of the extended use...... of vegetable protein-based diets with fish oil (FO) replacement (0, 50 or 100%) by vegetable oils (VO), on the response to acute (10 min) or prolonged (4 days) stress, induced by thermal shock. Plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate as well as hepatic levels of glucose, glycogen and lactate were......The substitution of fish resources as ingredients for aquafeeds by those based on vegetable sources is needed to ensure aquaculture sustainability in the future. It is known that Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) accepts high dietary content of plant ingredients without altering growth or flesh...

  13. The occurrence of double strand DNA breaks is not the sole condition for meiotic crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, P; Rantanen, M

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the interchromosomal effects of In(2L + 2R)Cy, In(3L + 3R)LVM and their joint effect on the frequencies of single and double crossovers in the cv-v-f region of the X chromosome as well as interference showed that both inversions, occurring separately, increased the frequency of single as well as double crossovers and the coefficient of coincidence. However, when the inversions occurred together the frequencies of single crossovers no longer increased, but the frequency of double crossovers, as well as the coefficient of coincidence did increase. These results indicate firstly that the interchromosomal effects influence some precondition of exchange, but that this precondition is not an occurrence of double strand DNA breaks. Thus, the occurrence of double strand DNA breaks is not the sole condition for crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster.

  14. Color vision abnormality as the sole manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy due to post-partum HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironori; Matsubara, Teppei; Makino, Shinji; Horie, Kenji; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-03-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with several symptoms; of those, visual acuity loss, light oversensitivity (photophobia), and light flashes (photopsia) are known as PRES-related eye symptoms. We report a post-partum woman with PRES associated with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (HELLP), in whom color vision abnormality (achromatopsia) was the sole manifestation. Cesarean section was performed at 28 weeks due to headache, epigastralgia, and severe hypertension. HELLP became evident after delivery. On post-partum day 1, she complained of achromatopsia, stating: "all things look brownish-gray". Ophthalmologic examination was normal, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed occipital lobe lesions, indicative of PRES, and, interestingly, also color vision center (area V4) lesions, suggesting that the achromatopsia had been caused by brain damage. It may be prudent to question HELLP patients concerning achromatopsia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Solely lung-involved IgG4-related disease : a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Guo-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Chang; Yu, Sa; Wang, Hong; Chen, Xuan-Yi; Ren, Zhuo-Chao

    2016-12-23

    By analyzing the clinical data of 1 case of IgG4-related lung disease(IgG4-RLD) and the review of literature, the author investigated the clinical characteristics of IgG4-RLD. IgG4-RLD is a rare disease characterized by significant elevation of serum IgG4 and infiltration of a large number of IgG4+ plasma cells. The clinical manifestations of the disease were nonspecific, and the imaging features were mixed with several types. The disease can only be involved in the lung, but also multiple organ involvement. Solely lung-involved IgG4-RD is not only extremely rare but also easily misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, lung cancer, lymphoma and other common pulmonary diseases. Histopathological examination is the key to the diagnosis of the disease. Corticosteroids are the first choice of treatment, and the overall prognosis is good.

  16. CD10-/ALDH- cells are the sole cisplatin-resistant component of a novel ovarian cancer stem cell hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffrench, Brendan; Gasch, Claudia; Hokamp, Karsten; Spillane, Cathy; Blackshields, Gordon; Mahgoub, Thamir Mahmoud; Bates, Mark; Kehoe, Louise; Mooney, Aoibhinn; Doyle, Ronan; Doyle, Brendan; O'Donnell, Dearbhaile; Gleeson, Noreen; Hennessy, Bryan T; Stordal, Britta; O'Riain, Ciaran; Lambkin, Helen; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Gallagher, Michael F

    2017-10-19

    It is long established that tumour-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess chemoresistant properties. However, little is known of the mechanisms involved, particularly with respect to the organisation of CSCs as stem-progenitor-differentiated cell hierarchies. Here we aimed to elucidate the relationship between CSC hierarchies and chemoresistance in an ovarian cancer model. Using a single cell-based approach to CSC discovery and validation, we report a novel, four-component CSC hierarchy based around the markers cluster of differentiation 10 (CD10) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). In a change to our understanding of CSC biology, resistance to chemotherapy drug cisplatin was found to be the sole property of CD10 - /ALDH - CSCs, while all four CSC types were sensitive to chemotherapy drug paclitaxel. Cisplatin treatment quickly altered the hierarchy, resulting in a three-component hierarchy dominated by the cisplatin-resistant CD10 - /ALDH - CSC. This organisation was found to be hard-wired in a long-term cisplatin-adapted model, where again CD10 - /ALDH - CSCs were the sole cisplatin-resistant component, and all CSC types remained paclitaxel-sensitive. Molecular analysis indicated that cisplatin resistance is associated with inherent- and adaptive-specific drug efflux and DNA-damage repair mechanisms. Clinically, low CD10 expression was consistent with a specific set of ovarian cancer patient samples. Collectively, these data advance our understanding of the relationship between CSC hierarchies and chemoresistance, which was shown to be CSC- and drug-type specific, and facilitated by specific and synergistic inherent and adaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, our data indicate that primary stage targeting of CD10 - /ALDH - CSCs in specific ovarian cancer patients in future may facilitate targeting of recurrent disease, before it ever develops.

  17. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz; Pałecz, Bartłomiej; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L −1 ) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring- 14 C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of 14 CO 2 , proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate

  18. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  19. The Effect of Shoe Sole Tread Groove Depth on the Gait Parameters during Walking on Dry and Slippery Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ziaei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of slipping accidents requires provision of adequate friction through the use of suitable combinations of footwear and underfoot surfaces. Shoe sole tread groove is one of the important factors on friction coefficient during walking. Objective: To measure the effect of different shoe sole tread groove depths and different surfaces on the required quotient of friction (Q, heel strike velocity and occurrence time of ground reaction forces (GRF in stance phase during walking on slippery and dry surfaces. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 22 healthy men were studied under different conditions. The studied independent variables were shoe groove depths (included 1, 2.5 and 5 mm and type of walking surface (dry and slippery. Biomechanical gait analysis was carried out with 396 single steps. Data were collected by motion analysis system and two force platform. Results: The occurrence time of GRF was significantly faster on dry surface than slippery surface (p<0.01. Q was significantly lower on slippery surface and with groove depths of 1 and 2.5 mm. The highest value of Q was observed with the deepest groove depth of 5 mm. Heel strike velocity did not differ significantly in the 6 conditions tested. Conclusion: Tread groove depth is a significant factor affecting the Q at the shoes-surface interface on dry and slippery floors. It seems that deeper groove is more appropriate for maintaining the stability during walking. The walking surface affects the occurrence time of GRF; the force components occur sooner on the dry than slippery surface.

  20. Identification of sole parvalbumin as a major allergen: study of cross-reactivity between parvalbumins in a Spanish fish-allergic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gordo, M; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Maroto, A S; Cases, B; Ibáñez, M D; Vivanco, F; Pastor-Vargas, C

    2011-05-01

    Fish allergy is becoming an important health problem in Spain, a country with the third highest level of fish consumption after Japan and Portugal. The most common fish allergens are parvalbumins. In our area, the most widely consumed fish species are lean, such as whiff (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) and sole (Solea solea). Adverse reactions to fish are usually related to these species, a fact that is largely unknown to allergists in other countries. The aim of this study was to identify and purify the major allergen implicated in allergic response to sole and evaluate the IgE cross-reactivity of purified parvalbumins from whiff and sole, which are phylogenetically close, and more distant species (i.e. cod and salmon). Eighteen Spanish fish-allergic patients with a positive history of type I allergy to fish were recruited from the clinic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from whiff and sole were tested for their IgE-binding properties by combining two-dimensional Western blotting and mass spectrometry. The extent of cross-reactivity between these parvalbumins along with cod and salmon parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assay. An IgE-binding spot of approximately 14 kDa was identified as parvalbumin and confirmed as a major allergen in sole extract, which is recognized by almost 70% of the patients. Whiff parvalbumin was recognized by 83.4% of the patients. High cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition assay. Sole and whiff parvalbumin were confirmed as major allergens. The parvalbumins of sole, whiff, cod and salmon were highly cross-reactive, thus suggesting a high amino acid sequence identity between them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A novel pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum sp. nov., capable of growth on thiocyanate or cyanate as sole nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A P; Kelly, D P; McDonald, I R; Jordan, S L; Morgan, T D; Khan, S; Murrell, J C; Borodina, E

    1998-02-01

    The isolation and properties of a novel species of pink-pigmented methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, are described. This organism satisfied all the morphological, biochemical, and growth-substrate criteria to be placed in the genus Methylobacterium. Sequencing of the gene encoding its 16S rRNA confirmed its position in this genus, with its closest phylogenetic relatives being M. rhodesianum, M. zatmanii and M. extorquens, from which it differed in its ability to grow on several diagnostic substrates. Methanol-grown organisms contained high activities of hydroxypyruvate reductase -3 micromol NADH oxidized min-1 (mg crude extract protein)-1], showing that the serine pathway was used for methylotrophic growth. M. thiocyanatum was able to use thiocyanate or cyanate as the sole source of nitrogen for growth, and thiocyanate as the sole source of sulfur in the absence of other sulfur compounds. It tolerated high concentrations (at least 50 mM) of thiocyanate or cyanate when these were supplied as nitrogen sources. Growing cultures degraded thiocyanate to produce thiosulfate as a major sulfur end product, apparently with the intermediate formation of volatile sulfur compounds (probably hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide). Enzymatic hydrolysis of thiocyanate by cell-free extracts was not demonstrated. Cyanate was metabolized by means of a cyanase enzyme that was expressed at approximately sevenfold greater activity during growth on thiocyanate [Vmax 634 +/- 24 nmol NH3 formed min-1 (mg protein)-1] than on cyanate [89 +/- 9 nmol NH3 min-1 (mg protein)-1]. Kinetic study of the cyanase in cell-free extracts showed the enzyme (1) to exhibit high affinity for cyanate (Km 0.07 mM), (2) to require bicarbonate for activity, (3) to be subject to substrate inhibition by cyanate and competitive inhibition by thiocyanate (Ki 0.65 mM), (4) to be unaffected by 1 mM ammonium chloride, (5) to be strongly inhibited by selenocyanate, and (6) to be slightly inhibited by 5 m

  2. GEO-SOLE - A comparative hydrogeological and technical evaluation of heat transfer fluids for near-surface geothermal applications; GEO-SOLE. Vergleichende hydrogeologische und anlagentechnische Bewertung von Waermetraegerfluessigkeiten fuer oberflaechennahe geothermische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsdorff, Roland; Feuerstein, Philipp; Ryba, Meinhard [Hochschule Biberach (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Energiesysteme IGE

    2010-07-01

    Ground-coupled heat pump plants are commonly operated with mixtures of water and anti-freezing agents. Brines based on glycol are most frequently used, but there is also a variety of other organic and inorganic fluids available. Even the use of pure water is possible when frost-proof operation can be assured. The material properties of the fluids are well-known, but there exists no complete and consistent data basis to compare them, neither for the case of a leakage in the borehole heat exchanger's piping, nor with respect to the energy efficiency and operational characteristics of whole plants. The joint project GEO-SOLE of the Univerity of Applied Sciences Biberach (UASB) and the University Karlsruhe comprises experimental and theoretical investigations of various heat carrier fluids regarding their operational performance within heat pump plants and their characteristics when passing through the backfilling of boreholes and being dispersed within the ground. The results gained at UASB indicate that the thermal and energetic performance of the brines investigated show comparably small variations, i.e. not more then 5 % in the plant COP. The differences in the required borehole depth sum up to less than 10 % for turbulent flow. (orig.)

  3. NOVEL ORGANIZATION OF THE GENES FOR PHTHALATE DEGRADATION FROM BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA DBO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholderia cepacia DBO1 is able to utilize phthalate as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. Two overlapping cosmid clones containing the genes for phthalate degradation were isolated from this strain. Subcloning and activity analysis localized the genes for phthala...

  4. Modelling the transport of common sole larvae in the southern North Sea: Influence of hydrodynamics and larval vertical movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Marie; Lacroix, Geneviève; Ruddick, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    In the present work we used a particle-tracking model coupled to a 3D hydrodynamic model to study the combined effect of hydrodynamic variability and active vertical movements on the transport of sole larvae in the southern North Sea. Larval transport from the 6 main spawning grounds was simulated during 40 day periods starting on 2 plausible spawning dates, the 15/04 and the 01/05, during 2 years, 1995 and 1996. In addition to a "passive" behaviour, 3 types of active vertical movements inspired from previous studies have been tested: (1) Eggs and early larvae float in the surface waters, late larvae migrate toward the bottom and stay there until the end of the simulation; (2 and 3) Eggs float in the surface waters, early larvae perform diel vertical migrations in the surface waters, and (2) Late larvae perform diel vertical migrations in the bottom waters until the end of the simulation; or (3) Late larvae perform tidally synchronised vertical migrations in the bottom waters until the end of the simulation. These behaviours have been implemented in the model with vertical migration rates, positive or negative, which can account for buoyancy or real swimming activity. Variations in larval transport were analysed in terms of mean trajectories, final larvae distribution, larval retention above nurseries, and connectivity. Results suggest that the variations in larval retention above nurseries due to the varying hydrodynamic conditions are not consistent in space i.e. not the same for all the spawning sites. The effect of active vertical movements on larval transport is also not consistent in space: Effects of active vertical movements include decreased retention above nurseries, decreased transport and/or decreased horizontal dispersion of larvae through reduced vertical shear (depending on the zone). The variability in larval retention due to hydrodynamic variability is higher than variability due to differences in the behaviour of larvae. In terms of connectivity

  5. Offshore-onshore linkages in the larval life history of sole in the Gulf of Lions (NW-Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Blamart, Dominique; Pécheyran, Christophe; Darnaude, Audrey M.; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-08-01

    Understanding individual dispersion from offshore natal areas to coastal nurseries during pelagic larval life is especially important for the sustainable management of exploited marine fish species. For several years, the hatching period, the larval life duration, the average growth rate and the otolith chemical composition (δ13C, δ18O, Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca) during the larval life were studied for young of the year (YOY) of sole collected in three main nurseries of the Gulf of Lions (GoL) (Thau, Mauguio and Berre). We investigated the spatial variation in the origin of the sole larvae which colonised the nurseries around the GoL, and whether temporal differences in environmental conditions during this life stage affected growth and larval life duration. The hatching period ranges from October to March, depending on year and site. Average ages at metamorphosis varied between 43 and 50 days, with the lowest and highest values consistently found for Mauguio and Berre, respectively. Otolith growth rates ranged between 2.7 and 3.2 μm d-1, with the lowest values in Thau and Mauguio and the highest in Berre. Otolith chemical composition during the larval life also varied, suggesting contrasted larval environmental histories in YOY among nurseries. In fishes from Berre and Mauguio, larval life was more influenced by the Rhône River, showing consistently higher larval Ba:Ca ratios (10/23 μmol mol-1) and lower δ13C (-6.5/-6.1‰) and δ18O values (-1.6/0.1‰) than for Thau (with Ba:Ca ratios < 8 μmol mol-1, δ13C ˜-2.3‰ and δ18O ˜1.5‰). Differences in larval otolith composition were observed for 2004, with higher Ba:Ca and lower δ13C and δ18O values than in the two other years. These differences were explained by changes in composition and chemical signatures of water masses after an exceptional flooding event of the Rhône River in late 2003.

  6. Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Stamm, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly there is a need to assess the contaminant levels in fish as indicators of the health and well-being of both the fish and their consumers, including humans. This paper examines the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the kidney, liver, and muscle of great sculpin and flathead sole from Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Both species are consumed by the local Aleuts and others. There were significant differences in the levels of heavy metals as a function of tissue for both fish species; the liver of sculpin and sole generally had the highest levels of most metals, except for arsenic, lead, and selenium. Sole had significantly higher mean levels of arsenic in kidney (32,384 vs. 531 ppb, wet weight), liver (18,954 vs. 2532 ppb), and muscle (19,452 vs. 1343 ppb) than did sculpin. Sole also had higher mean levels of cadmium (230 vs. 63 ppb), lead (1236 vs. 48 ppb), mercury (150 vs. 107 ppb), and selenium (5215 vs. 1861 ppb) in kidney than did sculpin. There were significant correlations among weight and length measurements for both species. However, except for mercury, there were few significant correlations among tissue types for most metals. Only mercury and manganese levels were significantly correlated with size for sculpin (but not for sole). Levels of arsenic, lead, and mercury may pose a risk to predators that consume them, and arsenic and mercury may pose a risk to human consumers

  7. Variable expression of cerebral cavernous malformations in carriers of a premature termination codon in exon 17 of the Krit1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamero Miguel A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM present as either sporadic or autosomal dominant conditions with incomplete penetrance of symptoms. Differences in genetic and environmental factors might be minimized among first-degree relatives. We therefore studied clinical expression in a family with several affected members. Methods We studied a three-generation family with the onset of CCM as a cerebral haemorrhage in the younger (four-year-old sibling. Identification and enumeration of CCMs were performed in T2-weighted or gradient-echo MRIs of the whole brains. Genetic analysis comprised SCCP, sequencing and restriction polymorphism of the Krit1 gene in the proband and at risk relatives. Results The phenotypes of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs in carriers of Krit1 mutations were very variable. We identified a novel frameshift mutation caused by a 1902A insertion in exon 17 of the Krit1 gene, which leads to a premature TAA triplet and predicts the truncating phenotype Y634X. A very striking finding was the absence of both clinical symptoms and CCMs in the eldest sibling harbouring the 1902insA. Conclusions Patients in this family, harbouring the same mutation, illustrate the very variable clinical and radiological expression of a Krit1 mutation. The early and critical onset in the proband contrasts with minor clinical findings in affected relatives. This consideration is important in genetic counselling.

  8. Exploring Fingerprints of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula Grown on Synthetic Martian Regolith Materials as the Sole Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Kölbl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The biology of metal transforming microorganisms is of a fundamental and applied importance for our understanding of past and present biogeochemical processes on Earth and in the Universe. The extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula is a metal mobilizing archaeon, which thrives in hot acid environments (optimal growth at 74°C and pH 2.0 and utilizes energy from the oxidation of reduced metal inorganic sources. These characteristics of M. sedula make it an ideal organism to further our knowledge of the biogeochemical processes of possible life on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. Exploring the viability and metal extraction capacity of M. sedula living on and interacting with synthetic extraterrestrial minerals, we show that M. sedula utilizes metals trapped in the Martian regolith simulants (JSC Mars 1A; P-MRS; S-MRS; MRS07/52 as the sole energy sources. The obtained set of microbiological and mineralogical data suggests that M. sedula actively colonizes synthetic Martian regolith materials and releases free soluble metals. The surface of bioprocessed Martian regolith simulants is analyzed for specific mineralogical fingerprints left upon M. sedula growth. The obtained results provide insights of biomining of extraterrestrial material as well as of the detection of biosignatures implementing in life search missions.

  9. Design and characterization of a soft magneto-rheological miniature shock absorber for a controllable variable stiffness sole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivon Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper discusses the design and characterization of a soft miniature Magneto-Rheological (MR shock absorber. In particular, the final application considered for the insertion of the designed devices is a controllable variable stiffness sole for patients with foot neuropathy. Such application imposes particularly challenging constraints in terms of miniaturization (cross-sectional area ≤ 1.5 cm2, height ≤ 25 mm and high sustainable loads (normal loads up to 60 N and shear stresses at the foot/device interface up to 80 kPa while ensuring moderate to low level of power consumption. Initial design considerations are done to introduce and justify the chosen novel configuration of soft shock absorber embedding a MR valve as the core control element. Successively, the dimensioning of two different MR valves typologies is discussed. In particular, for each configuration two design scenarios are evaluated and consequently two sets of valves satisfying different specifications are manufactured. The obtained prototypes result in miniature modules (external diam. ≤ 15 mm, overall height ≤ 30 mm with low power consumption (from a minimum of 63 mW to a max. of 110 mW and able to sustain a load up to 65 N. Finally, experimental sessions are performed to test the behaviour of the realized shock absorbers and results are presented.

  10. Production of FucoPol by Enterobacter A47 using waste tomato paste by-product as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sílvia; Freitas, Filomena; Sevrin, Chantal; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-03-01

    Out-of-specification tomato paste, a by-product from the tomato processing industry, was used as the sole substrate for cultivation of the bacterium Enterobacter A47 and production of FucoPol, a value-added fucose-rich extracellular polysaccharide. Among the different tested fed-batch strategies, pH-stat, DO-stat and continuous substrate feeding, the highest production (8.77gL -1 ) and overall volumetric productivity (2.92gL -1 d -1 ) were obtained with continuous substrate feeding at a constant flow rate of 11gh -1 . The polymer produced had the typical FucoPol composition (37mol% fucose, 27mol% galactose, 23mol% glucose and 12mol% glucuronic acid, with an acyl groups content of 13wt%). The average molecular weight was 4.4×10 6 Da and the polydispersity index was 1.2. This study demonstrated that out-of-specification tomato paste is a suitable low-cost substrate for the production of FucoPol, thus providing a route for the valorization of this by-product into a high-value microbial product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants - global method and the method per orders - by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  12. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliana Geta Roman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  13. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for meningioma: Light ion beam therapy as boost versus sole treatment option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, Ulrike; Georg, Dietmar; Sölkner, Lukas; Suppan, Christian; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M.; Flechl, Birgit; Mayer, Ramona; Dieckmann, Karin; Knäusl, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare photons, protons and carbon ions and their combinations for treatment of atypical and anaplastical skull base meningioma. Material and methods: Two planning target volumes (PTV initial /PTV boost ) were delineated for 10 patients (prescribed doses 50 Gy(RBE) and 10 Gy(RBE)). Plans for intensity modulated photon (IMXT), proton (IMPT) and carbon ion therapy ( 12 C) were generated assuming a non-gantry scenario for particles. The following combinations were compared: IMXT + IMXT/IMPT/ 12 C; IMPT + IMPT/ 12 C; and 12 C + 12 C. Plan quality was evaluated by target conformity and homogeneity (CI, HI), V 95% , D 2% and D 50% and dose-volume-histogram (DVH) parameters for organs-at-risk (OAR). If dose escalation was possible, it was performed until OAR tolerance levels were reached. Results: CI was worst for IMXT. HI < 0.05 ± 0.01 for 12 C was significantly better than for IMXT. For all treatment options dose escalation above 60 Gy(RBE) was possible for four patients, but impossible for six patients. Compared to IMXT + IMXT, ion beam therapy showed an improved sparing for most OARs, e.g. using protons and carbon ions D 50% was reduced by more than 50% for the ipsilateral eye and the brainstem. Conclusion: Highly conformal IMPT and 12 C plans could be generated with a non-gantry scenario. Improved OAR sparing favors both sole 12 C and/or IMPT plans

  14. Heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa using sucrose as the sole carbon source by co-culture with Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shikai; Wu, Yong; Wang, Xu

    2016-11-01

    Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae is a feasible alternative strategy to avoid the light limitation of photoautotrophic culture, but the heterotrophic utilization of disaccharides is difficult for microalgae. Aimed at this problem, a co-culture system was developed by mix culture of C. pyrenoidosa and R. glutinis using sucrose as the sole carbon source. In this system, C. pyrenoidosa could utilize glucose and fructose which were hydrolyzed from sucrose by R. glutinis. The highest specific growth rate and final cell number proportion of algae was 1.02day(-1) and 45%, respectively, when cultured at the initial algal cell number proportion of 95.24% and the final algal cell density was 111.48×10(6)cells/mL. In addition, the lipid content was also promoted due to the synergistic effects in mix culture. This study provides a novel approach using sucrose-riched wastes for the heterotrophic culture of microalgae and may effectively decrease the cost of carbon source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Richner-Hanhart Syndrome (Tyrosinemia Type II A Case Report of Delay Diagnosis with Hyperkeratotic Lesions of Palmes and Soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Alian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Richner-Hanhart syndrome (tyrosinemia type II is a rare autosomal recessive disease associated with high serum tyrosine levels caused by the deficiency of tyrosine ami-notransferase enzyme. Case Report: We report a 7-year-old female patient with complaints of hyperkeratosis lesions of palms and soles which started 3 years ago. Chromatography of serum amino acids showed a tyrosine level of 120micromole/L (normal range: 22-87. She had normal ophthalmologic examination and mild mental retardation was detected. One month after the tyrosine- and phenylalanine-restricted diet, her tyrosine level dropped to 42 micromol/L level, her keratotic lesions subsided, and a symptomatic relief in learning was achieved. Conclusion: Tyrosinemia type II should be suspected in patients demonstrating dermatologic signs, especially palmoplantar keratosis, associated with bilateral pseudodendritic corneal lesions unresponsive to antiviral therapy and mild to moderate mental retardation, although our patient without ophthalmic lesions is a very rare case of this syndrome. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 251-254

  16. Exploring Fingerprints of the Extreme Thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula Grown on Synthetic Martian Regolith Materials as the Sole Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Somoza, Veronika; Schimak, Mario P; Strbak, Oliver; Blazevic, Amir; Milojevic, Tetyana

    2017-01-01

    The biology of metal transforming microorganisms is of a fundamental and applied importance for our understanding of past and present biogeochemical processes on Earth and in the Universe. The extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera sedula is a metal mobilizing archaeon, which thrives in hot acid environments (optimal growth at 74°C and pH 2.0) and utilizes energy from the oxidation of reduced metal inorganic sources. These characteristics of M. sedula make it an ideal organism to further our knowledge of the biogeochemical processes of possible life on extraterrestrial planetary bodies. Exploring the viability and metal extraction capacity of M. sedula living on and interacting with synthetic extraterrestrial minerals, we show that M. sedula utilizes metals trapped in the Martian regolith simulants (JSC Mars 1A; P-MRS; S-MRS; MRS07/52) as the sole energy sources. The obtained set of microbiological and mineralogical data suggests that M. sedula actively colonizes synthetic Martian regolith materials and releases free soluble metals. The surface of bioprocessed Martian regolith simulants is analyzed for specific mineralogical fingerprints left upon M. sedula growth. The obtained results provide insights of biomining of extraterrestrial material as well as of the detection of biosignatures implementing in life search missions.

  17. Comparison of bacterial DNA profiles of footwear insoles and soles of feet for the forensic discrimination of footwear owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Haruhisa

    2012-09-01

    It is crucial to identify the owner of unattended footwear left at a crime scene. However, retrieving enough DNA for DNA profiling from the owner's foot skin (plantar skin) cells from inside the footwear is often unsuccessful. This is sometimes because footwear that is used on a daily basis contains an abundance of bacteria that degrade DNA. Further, numerous other factors related to the inside of the shoe, such as high humidity and temperature, can encourage bacterial growth inside the footwear and enhance DNA degradation. This project sought to determine if bacteria from inside footwear could be used for footwear trace evidence. The plantar skins and insoles of shoes of volunteers were swabbed for bacteria, and their bacterial community profiles were compared using bacterial 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Sufficient bacteria were recovered from both footwear insoles and the plantar skins of the volunteers. The profiling identified that each volunteer's plantar skins harbored unique bacterial communities, as did the individuals' footwear insoles. In most cases, a significant similarity in the bacterial community was identified for the matched foot/insole swabs from each volunteer, as compared with those profiles from different volunteers. These observations indicate the probability to discriminate the owner of footwear by comparing the microbial DNA fingerprint from inside footwear with that of the skin from the soles of the feet of the suspected owner. This novel strategy will offer auxiliary forensic footwear evidence for human DNA identification, although further investigations into this technique are required.

  18. Weaning of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis postlarvae to an inert diet with a co-feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the weaning success of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, postlarvae when cofed a compound diet, by means of the analysis of growth parameters (relative growth rate [RGR] and condition factor [K], survival, protein and lipid content. Total ammonia in the rearing water was also measured. The experiment lasted for 46 days (36 to 82 days posthatching. One group was fed only with enriched Artemia sp. metanauplii (Artemia treatment, whereas in another group, the Artemia sp. metanauplii were gradually replaced by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES diet over a period of 39 days (ICES treatment. Postlarvae were sampled on rearing days 0, 9, 23, 30, 39 and 46 for growth and biochemical analysis. Water was sampled on rearing day 30 during a 24-h cycle in both treatments. Postlarvae from the ICES treatment were weaned, though by the end of the experiment the Artemia treatment exhibited significantly higher values for growth, RGR, K and survival rates (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed concerning total lipid content. Protein content was significantly higher for the Artemia treatment after 46 days of rearing (P < 0.05. The total ammonia nitrogen concentration in the water increased after each meal and remained below a harmless level for postlarvae.

  19. Coral calcifying fluid pH is modulated by seawater carbonate chemistry not solely seawater pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, S; Tambutté, E; Carpenter, R C; Edmunds, P J; Evensen, N R; Allemand, D; Ferrier-Pagès, C; Tambutté, S; Venn, A A

    2017-01-25

    Reef coral calcification depends on regulation of pH in the internal calcifying fluid (CF) in which the coral skeleton forms. However, little is known about calcifying fluid pH (pH CF ) regulation, despite its importance in determining the response of corals to ocean acidification. Here, we investigate pH CF in the coral Stylophora pistillata in seawater maintained at constant pH with manipulated carbonate chemistry to alter dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration, and therefore total alkalinity (A T ). We also investigate the intracellular pH of calcifying cells, photosynthesis, respiration and calcification rates under the same conditions. Our results show that despite constant pH in the surrounding seawater, pH CF is sensitive to shifts in carbonate chemistry associated with changes in [DIC] and [A T ], revealing that seawater pH is not the sole driver of pH CF Notably, when we synthesize our results with published data, we identify linear relationships of pH CF with the seawater [DIC]/[H + ] ratio, [A T ]/ [H + ] ratio and [[Formula: see text

  20. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 1. Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of individual congeners and their debrominated metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munschy, C.; Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Olivier, N.; Gastineau, O.; Le Bayon, N.; Buchet, V.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, then depurated over a five-month period. The results show that all of the studied PBDEs accumulate in fish tissues, including the higher brominated congener BDE-209. Several additional PBDE congeners were identified in the tissues of exposed fish, revealing PBDE transformation, mainly via debromination. The identified congeners originating from PBDE debromination include BDE-49 and BDE-202 and a series of unidentified tetra-, penta-, and hepta- BDEs. Contaminant assimilation efficiencies (AEs) were related to their hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and influenced by PBDE biotransformation. Metabolism via debromination appears to be a major degradation route of PBDEs in juvenile sole in comparison to biotransformation into hydroxylated metabolites. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food accumulate PBDEs, including the higher brominated congeners, and have a debromination capacity.

  1. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence confirms that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA are involved in growth as well in pigmentation of marine fish larvae. In the present study we examined the performance of common sole larvae reared...... on Artemia enriched with 10 formulated emulsions, differing in inclusions of ARA, EPA, and DHA. The specific growth rate of the sole larvae until late metamorphosis, 21 days after hatching (dah) was 20 to 27% d(-1). Even though the relative tissue essential fatty acid (EFA) concentrations significantly...... reflected dietary composition, neither standard growth nor larval survival were significantly related to the absolute concentrations of ARA, EPA and DHA or their ratios. This suggests low requirements for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in common sole. Malpigmentation was significantly related...

  2. Dominance behaviour in a non-aggressive flatfish, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and brain mRNA abundance of selected transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Fatsini

    Full Text Available Dominance is defined as the preferential access to limited resources. The present study aimed to characterise dominance in a non-aggressive flatfish species, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis by 1 identifying dominance categories and associated behaviours and 2 linking dominance categories (dominant and subordinate with the abundance of selected mRNA transcripts in the brain. Early juveniles (n = 74, 37 pairs were subjected to a dyadic dominance test, related to feeding, and once behavioural phenotypes had been described the abundance of ten selected mRNAs related to dominance and aggressiveness was measured in the brain. Late juveniles were subjected to two dyadic dominance tests (n = 34, 17 pairs, related to feeding and territoriality and one group test (n = 24, 4 groups of 6 fish. Sole feeding first were categorized as dominant and sole feeding second or not feeding as subordinate. Three social behaviours (i. "Resting the head" on another fish, ii. "Approaching" another fish, iii. "Swimming above another" fish were associated with dominance of feeding. Two other variables (i. Total time occupying the preferred area during the last 2 hours of the 24 h test, ii. Organisms occupying the preferred area when the test ended were representative of dominance in the place preference test. In all tests, dominant fish compared to subordinate fish displayed a significantly higher number of the behaviours "Rest the head" and "Approaches". Moreover, dominant sole dominated the sand at the end of the test, and in the group test dominated the area close to the feed delivery point before feed was delivered. The mRNA abundance of the selected mRNAs related to neurogenesis (nrd2 and neuroplasticity (c-fos in dominant sole compared to subordinate were significantly different. This is the first study to characterise dominance categories with associated behaviours and mRNA abundance in Senegalese sole and provides tools to study dominance related problems in

  3. Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2005-09-01

    Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole.

  4. Does Contemporary Neo-Kantianism Only Allow for Moral Realism or Constructivism? Elements for a Kantian Grounding of Morality Solely on the basis of the Idea of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Fleitas González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a reflection on the sources of normativity in contemporary Neo-Kantianism, which has divided Neo-Kantians into realists and constructivists. After analyzing the constructivist Kantianism of Christine Korsgaard, we propose an alternative: that of grounding normativity solely on the idea of freedom, as an internal value or non-normative absolute, as Kant understands it. This proposal makes it possible to outline a Neo-Kantianism that articulates constructivist and realist models on the sole basis of the idea of freedom.

  5. Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography in CRPS: Assessment of Muscles Before and After Motor Function Recovery with Dry Needling as the Sole Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Lakshmi Champak; Pai, Renuka; Pattnaik, Manorama

    2016-01-01

    Motor impairment is an important criterion in the Clinical Diagnostic Criteria (CDC) of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type-1 (CRPS-1) as defined by International Association for Study of Pain (IASP). To describe the changes in musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSKUSG) in CRPS-1 before and after treatment with ultrasound-guided dry needling (USGDN) in retrospective data from 44 patients. Patients irrespective of age, gender, or cause of CRPS were included in this retrospective data analysis; the Budapest criteria for the diagnosis of CRPS were stringently adhered to. The analysis was done at Ashirvad Institute for Pain Management and Research with the database of CRPS patients who were treated between December 2005 and December 2014. The CDC, range of motion at upper extremity joints, dynamometry, Disability of arm, shoulder and hand score (DASH) and ultrasonography were documented on days one, 15, and 45. MSKUSG demonstrated loss of myoarchitecture and reduced bulk. All 44 patients received USGDN as the sole intervention with medications and physiotherapy. MSKUSG at 15 and 45 days after starting USGDN showed a return of normalcy to the myoarchitecture and muscle bulk increase that coincided with the disappearance of CDC and a progressive and predictable improvement of the DASH scores in all the 44 patients. The analysis focuses on only 2 parameters: the musculoskeletal changes of the forearm flexors and extensors on ultrasound guidance and the efficacy of the dry needling treatment. It is not a comparative study with another accepted form of treatment or intervention. We have not looked into the age and gender predilection of the condition owing to the small sample size of the study. Analysis of long term maintenance of relief and rehabilitation of the disability were limited to one year. Myofascial pathology of co-contraction appears to cause CDC of CRPS and probable ischemic loss of myoarchitecture. Relief of co-contraction with USGDN allowed resolution of

  6. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor; Thalasso, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microrespirometry was used to characterize aerobic granules. • Kinetic parameters for 4-chorophenol degradation were determined. • Intrinsic and apparent kinetic parameters were quantified and contrasted. • Aerobic granules presented lower μ_m_a_x and higher K_S than disaggregated granules. • Microrespirometry can be useful in model development and calibration. - Abstract: In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9 kg COD m"−"3 d"−"1, and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems.

  7. Risk of Foot-and-Mouth Disease spread due to sole occupancy authorities and linked cattle holdings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Orton

    Full Text Available Livestock movements in Great Britain are well recorded, have been extensively analysed with respect to their role in disease spread, and have been used in real time to advise governments on the control of infectious diseases. Typically, livestock holdings are treated as distinct entities that must observe movement standstills upon receipt of livestock, and must report livestock movements. However, there are currently two dispensations that can exempt holdings from either observing standstills or reporting movements, namely the Sole Occupancy Authority (SOA and Cattle Tracing System (CTS Links, respectively. In this report we have used a combination of data analyses and computational modelling to investigate the usage and potential impact of such linked holdings on the size of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD epidemic. Our analyses show that although SOAs are abundant, their dynamics appear relatively stagnant. The number of CTS Links is also abundant, and increasing rapidly. Although most linked holdings are only involved in a single CTS Link, some holdings are involved in numerous links that can be amalgamated to form "CTS Chains" which can be both large and geographically dispersed. Our model predicts that under a worst case scenario of "one infected - all infected", SOAs do pose a risk of increasing the size (in terms of number of infected holdings of a FMD epidemic, but this increase is mainly due to intra-SOA infection spread events. Furthermore, although SOAs do increase the geographic spread of an epidemic, this increase is predominantly local. Whereas, CTS Chains pose a risk of increasing both the size and the geographical spread of the disease substantially, under a worse case scenario. Our results highlight the need for further investigations into whether CTS Chains are transmission chains, and also investigations into intra-SOA movements and livestock distributions due to the lack of current data.

  8. Effect of step-synchronized vibration stimulation of soles on gait in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Vera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that impaired proprioceptive processing in the striatum may contribute to abnormal gait in Parkinson's disease (PD. Methods This pilot study assessed the effects of enhanced proprioceptive feedback using step-synchronized vibration stimulation of the soles (S-VS on gait in PD. S-VS was used in 8 PD subjects (3 women and 5 men, age range 44–79 years, on medication and 8 age-matched healthy subjects (5 women and 3 men. PD subjects had mild or moderate gait impairment associated with abnormal balance, but they did not have gait freezing. Three vibratory devices (VDs were embedded in elastic insoles (one below the heel and two below the forefoot areas inserted into the shoes. Each VD operates independently and has a pressure switch that activates the underlying vibratory actuator. The VD delivered the 70-Hz suprathreshold vibration pulse upon touch by the heel or forefoot, and the vibration pulse was deactivated upon respective push-offs. Six-minute hallway walking was studied with and without S-VS. Gait characteristics were measured using the force-sensitive foot switches. The primary outcome was the stride variability expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of gait steadiness. Secondary outcome measures were walking distance and speed, stride length and duration, cadence, stance, swing and double support duration, and respective CVs (if applicable. Results The walking speed (p Conclusion Augmented sensory feedback improves parkinsonian gait steadiness in the short-term setting. Because the suprathreshold stimulation prevented blinding of subjects, the learning effect and increased attention can be a confounding factor underlying results. Long-term studies are needed to establish the clinical value of the S-VS.

  9. Microrespirometric determination of the effectiveness factor and biodegradation kinetics of aerobic granules degrading 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital-Jacome, Miguel [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. IPN 2508, 07360 México DF, México (Mexico); Buitrón, Germán; Moreno-Andrade, Ivan; Garcia-Rea, Victor [Laboratory for Research on Advanced Process for Water Treatment, Unidad Académica Juriquilla, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76320, México (Mexico); Thalasso, Frederic, E-mail: thalasso@cinvestav.mx [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Av. IPN 2508, 07360 México DF, México (Mexico)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Microrespirometry was used to characterize aerobic granules. • Kinetic parameters for 4-chorophenol degradation were determined. • Intrinsic and apparent kinetic parameters were quantified and contrasted. • Aerobic granules presented lower μ{sub max} and higher K{sub S} than disaggregated granules. • Microrespirometry can be useful in model development and calibration. - Abstract: In this study, a microrespirometric method was used, i.e., pulse respirometry in microreactors, to characterize mass transfer and biodegradation kinetics in aerobic granules. The experimental model was an aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) degrading synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol as the sole carbon source. After 15 days of acclimation, the SBR process degraded 4-chlorophenol at a removal rate of up to 0.9 kg COD m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and the degradation kinetics were well described by the Haldane model. The microrespirometric method consisted of injecting pulses of 4-chlorophenol into the 24 wells of a microreactor system containing the SBR samples. From the respirograms obtained, the following five kinetic parameters were successfully determined during reactor operation: (i) Maximum specific oxygen uptake rate, (ii) substrate affinity constant, (iii) substrate inhibition constant, (iv) maximum specific growth rate, and (v) cell growth yield. Microrespirometry tests using granules and disaggregated granules allowed for the determination of apparent and intrinsic parameters, which in turn enabled the determination of the effectiveness factor of the granular sludge. It was concluded that this new high-throughput method has the potential to elucidate the complex biological and physicochemical processes of aerobic granular biosystems.

  10. Comparative study of four interleukin 17 cytokines of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis: Genomic structure, expression pattern, and promoter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2015-11-01

    The interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family participates in the regulation of many cellular functions. In the present study, we analyzed the genomic structure, expression, and promoter activity of four IL-17 members from the teleost fish tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), i.e. CsIL-17C CsIL-17D, CsIL-17F, and IL-17F like (IL-17Fl). We found that CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, CsIL-17F, and CsIL-17Fl share 21.2%-28.6% overall sequence identities among themselves and 31.5%-71.2% overall sequence identities with their counterparts in other teleost. All four CsIL-17 members possess an IL-17 domain and four conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis classified the four CsIL-17 members into three clusters. Under normal physiological conditions, the four CsIL-17 expressed in multiple tissues, especially non-immune tissues. Bacterial infection upregulated the expression of all four CsIL-17, while viral infection upregulated the expression of CsIL-17D and CsIL-17Fl but downregulated the expression of CsIL-17C and CsIL-17F. The 1.2 kb 5'-flanking regions of the four CsIL-17 exhibited apparent promoter activity and contain a number of putative transcription factor-binding sites. Furthermore, the promoter activities of CsIL-17C, CsIL-17D, and CsIL-17F, but not CsIL-17Fl, were modulated to significant extents by lipopolysaccharide, PolyI:C, and PMA. This study provides the first evidence that in teleost, different IL-17 members differ in expression pattern and promoter activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. AffyMiner: mining differentially expressed genes and biological knowledge in GeneChip microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yuannan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for monitoring the expression of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. With the advance of microarray technology, the challenge issue becomes how to analyze a large amount of microarray data and make biological sense of them. Affymetrix GeneChips are widely used microarrays, where a variety of statistical algorithms have been explored and used for detecting significant genes in the experiment. These methods rely solely on the quantitative data, i.e., signal intensity; however, qualitative data are also important parameters in detecting differentially expressed genes. Results AffyMiner is a tool developed for detecting differentially expressed genes in Affymetrix GeneChip microarray data and for associating gene annotation and gene ontology information with the genes detected. AffyMiner consists of the functional modules, GeneFinder for detecting significant genes in a treatment versus control experiment and GOTree for mapping genes of interest onto the Gene Ontology (GO space; and interfaces to run Cluster, a program for clustering analysis, and GenMAPP, a program for pathway analysis. AffyMiner has been used for analyzing the GeneChip data and the results were presented in several publications. Conclusion AffyMiner fills an important gap in finding differentially expressed genes in Affymetrix GeneChip microarray data. AffyMiner effectively deals with multiple replicates in the experiment and takes into account both quantitative and qualitative data in identifying significant genes. AffyMiner reduces the time and effort needed to compare data from multiple arrays and to interpret the possible biological implications associated with significant changes in a gene's expression.

  12. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ...

  13. The Study of the Impacts of "Running" on the Contact Area of Soles and Maximal Strength among Elite Middle Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ahmet; Aydos, Latif; Kaya, Metin; Yuksel, Mehmet Fatih; Pekel, Haci Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    It is possible that running training for many years in athletics affects athletes' running patterns and sole structure. The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of maximal force applied to the floor area and contact area of the athletes with related to mid-distance training for athletics. 18 male athletes who represent Turkey on the…

  14. Analyses of changes in spatial distribution of the beam trawl fleet and their effects on the plaice and sole stock, 1990 - 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, F.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Grift, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Management measures directed at limiting fishing effort may have had an influence on the behaviour of the beam trawl fleet that negatively affected the North Sea plaice and sole stocks. This study analyses trends in fleet behaviour and fishing pressure in relation to management measures proposed by

  15. Growth of Candida famata and Trichosporon cutaneum on uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy, a hitherto unknown property of yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.; Brink, Jolanda A. van den; Veenhuis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of utilizing uric acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil by the enrichment culture method. The strains were identified as Candida famata (Harrison) Meyer et Yarrow and Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurm., Gougerot et Vaucher) Ota. On the subcellular

  16. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  17. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  18. Measuring Ocean Literacy in Pre-Service Teachers: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Angelos; Boubonari, Theodora; Mogias, Athanasios; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to respond to the increasing demand for comprehensive tools for the measurement of ocean literacy, by investigating the psychometric characteristics of a Greek version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE), an instrument that assesses conceptual understanding of general ocean sciences content,…

  19. Ex post and ex ante evaluation of the long term management plan for sole and plaice in the North Sea (part 1): ex post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.C.M.; Poos, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the first part of an ex post and ex ante evaluation of the long term management plan for sole and plaice in the North Sea as laid out in Council Regulation (EC) No 676/2007. This plan has been in place since 2007. The plan aims to ensure, in its first stage, that the stocks of

  20. The effect of footwear adapted with a multi-curved rocker sole in conjunction with knee-ankle-foot orthoses on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojaver, Ali; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Aminian, Gholamreza; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Sharifi, Guive; Sherafatvaziri, Arash

    2017-10-01

    Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are used by people with poliomyelitis to ambulate. Whist advances in orthotic knee joint designs for use in KAFOs such the provision of stance control capability have proven efficacy, little attention has been paid to shoe adaptations which may also improve gait. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration to the kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters of gait caused by the use of heel-to-toe rocker-soled footwear when ambulating with KAFOs. Nine adults with a history of poliomyelitis who routinely wore KAFOs participated in the study. A heel-to-toe rocker sole was added to footwear and worn on the affected side. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to quantify the resulting alteration to specific gait parameters. Maximum hip joint extension was significantly increased (p = 0.011), and hip abduction and adduction were both significantly reduced (p = 0.011 and p = 0.007, respectively) when walking with the rocker sole. A significant increase in stride length (p = 0.035) was demonstrated but there were no significant increases in either walking speed or cadence. A heel-to-toe rocker sole adaptation may be useful for walking in patients with poliomyelitis who use KAFOs. Implications for Rehabilitation The poor functionality and difficulty in walking when using an orthotic device such as a KAFO which keeps the knee locked during ambulation, plus the significant energy required to walk, are complications of orthoses using. Little evidence exists regarding the biomechanical effect of walking with a KAFO incorporating fixed knee joints, in conjunction with rocker-soled footwear. The main aim of walking with a heel-to-toe rocker sole is to facilitate forward progression of the tibia when used with an AFO or KAFO or to provide easier walking for patients who have undergone an ankle arthrodesis. In this study, a rocker sole profile adaptation produced no significant alteration to hip joint flexion

  1. A Functional Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Operates during Growth of Bordetella pertussis on Amino Acid Mixtures as Sole Carbon Substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Izac

    Full Text Available It has been claimed that citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities are non-functional in Bordetella pertussis and that this might explain why this bacterium's growth is sometimes associated with accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB and/or free fatty acids. However, the sequenced genome includes the entire citric acid pathway genes. Furthermore, these genes were expressed and the corresponding enzyme activities detected at high levels for the pathway when grown on a defined medium imitating the amino acid content of complex media often used for growth of this pathogenic microorganism. In addition, no significant PHB or fatty acids could be detected. Analysis of the carbon balance and stoichiometric flux analysis based on specific rates of amino acid consumption, and estimated biomass requirements coherent with the observed growth rate, clearly indicate that a fully functional tricarboxylic acid cycle operates in contrast to previous reports.

  2. Molecular Method for Sex Identification of Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Using a Novel Sex-Linked Microsatellite Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis is one of the most important flatfish species for aquaculture in China. To produce a monosex population, we attempted to develop a marker-assisted sex control technique in this sexually size dimorphic fish. In this study, we identified a co-dominant sex-linked marker (i.e., CyseSLM by screening genomic microsatellites and further developed a novel molecular method for sex identification in the tongue sole. CyseSLM has a sequence similarity of 73%–75% with stickleback, medaka, Fugu and Tetraodon. At this locus, two alleles (i.e., A244 and A234 were amplified from 119 tongue sole individuals with primer pairs CyseSLM-F1 and CyseSLM-R. Allele A244 was present in all individuals, while allele A234 (female-associated allele, FAA was mostly present in females with exceptions in four male individuals. Compared with the sequence of A244, A234 has a 10-bp deletion and 28 SNPs. A specific primer (CyseSLM-F2 was then designed based on the A234 sequence, which amplified a 204 bp fragment in all females and four males with primer CyseSLM-R. A time-efficient multiplex PCR program was developed using primers CyseSLM-F2, CyseSLM-R and the newly designed primer CyseSLM-F3. The multiplex PCR products with co-dominant pattern could be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, which accurately identified the genetic sex of the tongue sole. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and reliable method for sex identification in tongue sole with a newly identified sex-linked microsatellite marker.

  3. Growth of Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Fe(III)-Reducing Microorganisms on a Ferruginous Smectite as the Sole Electron Acceptor▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Kazem; Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Elliott, W. Crawford; Lovley, Derek R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the structural Fe(III) within phyllosilicate minerals, including smectite and illite, is an important electron acceptor for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in sedimentary environments at moderate temperatures. The reduction of structural Fe(III) by thermophiles, however, has not previously been described. A wide range of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria from marine and freshwater environments that are known to reduce poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides were tested for their ability to reduce structural (octahedrally coordinated) Fe(III) in smectite (SWa-1) as the sole electron acceptor. Two out of the 10 organisms tested, Geoglobus ahangari and Geothermobacterium ferrireducens, were not able to conserve energy to support growth by reduction of Fe(III) in SWa-1 despite the fact that both organisms were originally isolated with solid-phase Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. The other organisms tested were able to grow on SWa-1 and reduced 6.3 to 15.1% of the Fe(III). This is 20 to 50% less than the reported amounts of Fe(III) reduced in the same smectite (SWa-1) by mesophilic Fe(III) reducers. Two organisms, Geothermobacter ehrlichii and archaeal strain 140, produced copious amounts of an exopolysaccharide material, which may have played an active role in the dissolution of the structural iron in SWa-1 smectite. The reduction of structural Fe(III) in SWa-1 by archaeal strain 140 was studied in detail. Microbial Fe(III) reduction was accompanied by an increase in interlayer and octahedral charges and some incorporation of potassium and magnesium into the smectite structure. However, these changes in the major element chemistry of SWa-1 smectite did not result in the formation of an illite-like structure, as reported for a mesophilic Fe(III) reducer. These results suggest that thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing organisms differ in their ability to reduce and solubilize structural Fe(III) in SWa-1 smectite and that SWa-1

  4. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet. Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture, reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain

  5. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of seven Na+/K+-ATPase β subunit paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Paula; Infante, Carlos; Cousin, Xavier; Ponce, Marian; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, seven genes encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) β-subunits in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of the predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation with those of other vertebrate species and maintenance of important motifs involved in structure and function. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the seven genes into four main clades: β1 (atp1b1a and atp1b1b), β2 (atp1b2a and atp1b2b), β3 (atp1b3a and atp1b3b) and β4 (atp1b4). In juveniles, all paralogous transcripts were detected in the nine tissues examined albeit with different expression patterns. The most ubiquitous expressed gene was atp1b1a whereas atp1b1b was mainly detected in osmoregulatory organs (gill, kidney and intestine), and atp1b2a, atp1b2b, atp1b3a, atp1b3b and atp1b4 in brain. An expression analysis in three brain regions and pituitary revealed that β1-type transcripts were more abundant in pituitary than the other β paralogs with slight differences between brain regions. Quantification of mRNA abundance in gills after a salinity challenge showed an activation of atp1b1a and atp1b1b at high salinity water (60 ppt) and atp1b3a and atp1b3b in response to low salinity (5 ppt). Transcriptional analysis during larval development showed specific expression patterns for each paralog. Moreover, no differences in the expression profiles between larvae cultivated at 10 and 35 ppt were observed except for atp1b4 with higher mRNA levels at 10 than 35 ppt at 18 days post hatch. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that atp1b1b was mainly localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, and chordacentrum of newly hatched larvae. All these data suggest distinct roles of NKA β subunits in tissues, during development and osmoregulation with β1 subunits involved in the adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions and β3 subunits to hypoosmotic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression control of nitrile hydratase and amidase genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis and substrate specificities of the enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucká, Lenka; Volkova, Olga; Pavlík, Adam; Kaplan, Ondřej; Kracík, Martin; Nešvera, Jan; Martínková, Ludmila; Pátek, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial amidases and nitrile hydratases can be used for the synthesis of various intermediates and products in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries and for the bioremediation of toxic pollutants. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of the amidase and nitrile hydratase genes of Rhodococcus erythropolis and test the stereospecific nitrile hydratase and amidase activities on chiral cyanohydrins. The nucleotide sequences of the gene clusters containing the oxd (aldoxime dehydratase), ami (amidase), nha1, nha2 (subunits of the nitrile hydratase), nhr1, nhr2, nhr3 and nhr4 (putative regulatory proteins) genes of two R. erythropolis strains, A4 and CCM2595, were determined. All genes of both of the clusters are transcribed in the same direction. RT-PCR analysis, primer extension and promoter fusions with the gfp reporter gene showed that the ami, nha1 and nha2 genes of R. erythropolis A4 form an operon transcribed from the Pami promoter and an internal Pnha promoter. The activity of Pami was found to be weakly induced when the cells grew in the presence of acetonitrile, whereas the Pnha promoter was moderately induced by both the acetonitrile or acetamide used instead of the inorganic nitrogen source. However, R. erythropolis A4 cells showed no increase in amidase and nitrile hydratase activities in the presence of acetamide or acetonitrile in the medium. R. erythropolis A4 nitrile hydratase and amidase were found to be effective at hydrolysing cyanohydrins and 2-hydroxyamides, respectively.

  8. Does Contemporary Neo-Kantianism Only Allow for Moral Realism or Constructivism? Elements for a Kantian Grounding of Morality Solely on the basis of the Idea of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Fleitas González

    2015-01-01

    The article carries out a reflection on the sources of normativity in contemporary Neo-Kantianism, which has divided Neo-Kantians into realists and constructivists. After analyzing the constructivist Kantianism of Christine Korsgaard, we propose an alternative: that of grounding normativity solely on the idea of freedom, as an internal value or non-normative absolute, as Kant understands it. This proposal makes it possible to outline a Neo-Kantianism that articulates constructivist and realis...

  9. DinB Upregulation Is the Sole Role of the SOS Response in Stress-Induced Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, Rodrigo S.; Do, Robert; Yamada, Masami; Friedberg, Errol C.; Hastings, P. J.; Nohmi, Takehiko; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-induced mutagenesis is a collection of mechanisms observed in bacterial, yeast, and human cells in which adverse conditions provoke mutagenesis, often under the control of stress responses. Control of mutagenesis by stress responses may accelerate evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environments, i.e., are stressed. It is therefore important to understand how stress responses increase mutagenesis. In the Escherichia coli Lac assay, stress-induced point mutagenesis requires induction of at least two stress responses: the RpoS-controlled general/starvation stress response and the SOS DNA-damage response, both of which upregulate DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, among other genes required for Lac mutagenesis. We show that upregulation of DinB is the only aspect of the SOS response needed for stress-induced mutagenesis. We constructed two dinB(oc) (operator-constitutive) mutants. Both produce SOS-induced levels of DinB constitutively. We find that both dinB(oc) alleles fully suppress the phenotype of constitutively SOS-“off” lexA(Ind−) mutant cells, restoring normal levels of stress-induced mutagenesis. Thus, dinB is the only SOS gene required at induced levels for stress-induced point mutagenesis. Furthermore, although spontaneous SOS induction has been observed to occur in only a small fraction of cells, upregulation of dinB by the dinB(oc) alleles in all cells does not promote a further increase in mutagenesis, implying that SOS induction of DinB, although necessary, is insufficient to differentiate cells into a hypermutable condition. PMID:19270270

  10. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 2. Formation, bioaccumulation and elimination of hydroxylated metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munschy, C.; Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The uptake, elimination and transformation of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, and then depurated over a five-month period. Methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) PBDEs were determined in fish plasma exposed to PBDEs and compared to those obtained in control fish. While all MeO- and some OH- congeners identified in fish plasma were found to originate from non-metabolic sources, several OH- congeners, i.e., OH-tetraBDEs and OH-pentaBDEs, were found to originate from fish metabolism. Among these, 4'-OH-BDE-49 was identified as a BDE-47 metabolite. Congener 4'-OH-BDE-101, identified here for the first time, may be the result of BDE-99 metabolic transformation. Our results unequivocally showed that PBDEs are metabolised in juvenile sole via the formation of OH- metabolites. However, this was not a major biotransformation route compared to biotransformation through debromination. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food showed the ability to biotransform PBDEs into hydroxylated metabolites; these meta-bolites accumulated in fish.

  11. Long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic gamma knife surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of glomus jagulare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M; Hassan, Hamdy T

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to report and confirm long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic Gamma Knife Surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of 40 glomus jagulare tumors patients. Retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes of 40 GJTs consecutive patients treated with GKS as primary sole treatment at International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo-Egypt from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2014,with mean follow-up period of 84 months (range 36-156 months), mean tumor volume was 6.5 cc, and mean peripheral radiation dose of 15 Gy, to mean isodose curve of 38%. The most common neurological deficit at initial evaluation was bulbar symptoms in 24 patients, followed by pulsatile tinnitus in 22, deterioration of hearing in 20 patients. The overall clinical control achieved in 92.5% of patients, while actuarial tumor size control rate post- GKS was 97.5% at 3 years, 97% at 5 years and 92% at 10 years of follow-up period. Gamma knife surgery could be used effectively and safely as a primary sole treatment tool in the management of glomus jugulare tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. GSMA: Gene Set Matrix Analysis, An Automated Method for Rapid Hypothesis Testing of Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cheadle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has become highly valuable for identifying complex global changes in gene expression patterns. The assignment of functional information to these complex patterns remains a challenging task in effectively interpreting data and correlating results from across experiments, projects and laboratories. Methods which allow the rapid and robust evaluation of multiple functional hypotheses increase the power of individual researchers to data mine gene expression data more efficiently.Results: We have developed (gene set matrix analysis GSMA as a useful method for the rapid testing of group-wise up- or downregulation of gene expression simultaneously for multiple lists of genes (gene sets against entire distributions of gene expression changes (datasets for single or multiple experiments. The utility of GSMA lies in its flexibility to rapidly poll gene sets related by known biological function or as designated solely by the end-user against large numbers of datasets simultaneously.Conclusions: GSMA provides a simple and straightforward method for hypothesis testing in which genes are tested by groups across multiple datasets for patterns of expression enrichment.

  13. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  14. Functional clustering of time series gene expression data by Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A common approach for time series gene expression data analysis includes the clustering of genes with similar expression patterns throughout time. Clustered gene expression profiles point to the joint contribution of groups of genes to a particular cellular process. However, since genes belong to intricate networks, other features, besides comparable expression patterns, should provide additional information for the identification of functionally similar genes. Results In this study we perform gene clustering through the identification of Granger causality between and within sets of time series gene expression data. Granger causality is based on the idea that the cause of an event cannot come after its consequence. Conclusions This kind of analysis can be used as a complementary approach for functional clustering, wherein genes would be clustered not solely based on their expression similarity but on their topological proximity built according to the intensity of Granger causality among them. PMID:23107425

  15. Effect of water pollution on expression of immune response genes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to study quality of water in Lake Qarun and effects of pollution on expression of immune genes in Egyptian sole (Solea aegyptiaca) fish. The study was carried out from August 2006 to the end of April 2007. The water samples were collected from different locations of Lake Qarun at Al-Oberge within ...

  16. Influence of Healing Period Upon Bone Turn Over on Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation Grafted Solely with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral: A Prospective Human Histological and Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhou, Wenjie; Monje, Alberto; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yueping; Wu, Yiqun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the influence of maturation timing upon histological, histomorphometric and clinical outcomes when deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) was used as a sole biomaterial for staged maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA). Patients with a posterior edentulous maxillary situation and a vertical bone height ≤ 4 mm were included in this study. A staged MSFA was carried out. After MSFA with DBBM as a sole grafting material, biopsy cores were harvested with simultaneous implant placement followed by a healing period of 5, 8, and 11 months, respectively. Micro-CT, histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Forty-one patients were enrolled and 38 bone core biopsies were harvested. Significantly greater BV/TV was observed between 5- and 8-month healing from micro-CT analysis. Histomorphometric analyses showed the ratio of mineralized newly formed bone increased slightly from 5 to 11 months; however, no statistically significant difference was reached (p = .409). Residual bone substitute decreased from 37.3 ± 5.04% to 20.6 ± 7.45%, achieving a statistical significant difference from of 5 up to 11 months (p < .01). Moreover, no implant failure, biological or technical complication occurred after 12-month follow-up of functional loading. DBBM utilized as sole grafting material in staged MSFA demonstrated to be clinically effective regardless of the healing period. Histomorphometrical and micro-CT assessments revealed that at later stages of healing (8 and 11 months) there is a higher proportion of newly-bone formation compared to earlier stages (5 months). Moreover, the longer the maturation period, the substantially lesser remaining biomaterial could be expected. Even though, these facts did not seem to negatively impact on the implant prognosis 1-year after loading. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The influence of calving and puerperium on clinical and histopathologic changes associated with laminitis and sole ulceration in a group of first-calving cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, R

    1990-08-01

    The left hind and front claws of 43 heifers having recently calved were studied for signs of laminitis and sole ulceration. The left hind and front claws of 8 non-pregnant heifers served as controls. Thirty claws were selected for histologic examination. No influence of parturition and puerperium was found on signs of laminitis in both clinical and histologic investigations. A remarkable histologic finding was the occurrence of numerous vascular buds in the solar corium. It is suggested that the vascular buds may give rise to the glomus-like vascular clusters, which are commonly found in older cattle.

  18. Use of probiotics intercropped with plant protein diets and their influence on the growth performance and immunological status of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis aquaculture, infectious diseases represent a major challenge, leading to significant economic losses (Arijo et al, 2005. According to FAO / WHO (2001, probiotics are defined as "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Previous studies working with different fish species provided evidence on the effectiveness of various probiotic bacteria in promoting the fish welfare (Castex et al., 2009; Hernandez et al., 2010; Merrifield et al., 2011. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation intercropped with plant protein as fishmeal replacement on the growth performance and immunological status in sole (Solea senegalensis. Fish were fed for 10 weeks on six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (55% protein and 8% lipid, dry matter basis, formulated to have 35% or 72% of fishmeal replacement by plant protein (PP35 or PP72 intercropped with three probiotic supplementation (NO – unsupplemented, PRO1 and PRO2, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The probiotics were tested at a dosage recommended by the manufacturer. PRO1 was a multi-species probiotic bacteria (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. supplemented at 1.8 × 1010 CFU kg-1 diet (CFU - colony forming unit and PRO2 was an autolyzed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplemented at 4g kg-1 diet. Zootechnical parameters were measured at start and the end of the feeding trial for growth performance determination. Plasma was collected at 3, 17, 38 and 73 days of feeding dietary treatment for the determination of innate immune response (plasma lysozyme and peroxidase contents, plasma alternative complement pathway activity – ACH50 in order to detect differences between treatments as well to identify the influence of long or short-time probiotic supplementation. Fish with an initial body weight of 33.1 ± 0.2 g grew to a maximum final body

  19. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane block as a sole anesthetic technique in emergency surgery for perforative peritonitis in a high risk patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is an effective way of providing analgesia in post-operative abdominal surgery patients; however, it can be considered as an anesthetic technique in high-risk cases for surgery. We report a case of a geriatric female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the respiratory failure, hypotension, posted in an emergency with old perforation leading to peritonitis. The surgery was successfully conducted under bilateral TAP block, which was used as a sole anesthetic technique. TAP block can be considered as an anesthetic technique for abdominal surgery in moribund patients.

  20. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyfer Viacheslav

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA + IMRT of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors.

  1. Ageing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The idea of gerontogenes is in line with the evolutionary explanation of ageing as being an emergent phenomenon as a result of the imperfect maintenance and repair systems. Although evolutionary processes did not select for any specific ageing genes that restrict and determine the lifespan...... of an individual, the term ‘gerontogenes’ primarily refers to any genes that may seem to influence ageing and longevity, without being specifically selected for that role. Such genes can also be called ‘virtual gerontogenes’ by virtue of their indirect influence on the rate and process of ageing. More than 1000...... virtual gerontogenes have been associated with ageing and longevity in model organisms and humans. The ‘real’ genes, which do influence the essential lifespan of a species, and have been selected for in accordance with the evolutionary life history of the species, are known as the longevity assurance...

  2. Deep sole burns in several participants in a traditional festival of the firewalking ceremony in Kee-lung, Taiwan--clinical experiences and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Kang; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Teng, Shou-Cheng; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Feng, Chun-Che

    2012-11-01

    Firewalking is a common Taoist cleansing ceremony in Taiwan, but burns associated with the practice have rarely been reported. We analyzed the patients with plantar burns from one firewalking ceremony. In one firewalking ceremony, 12 Taoist disciples suffered from contact burns to the soles of their feet while walking over burning coals. Eight of them had at least second-degree burns over areas larger than 1% of their total body surface areas (TBSAs). The age, sex, medical history, date of injury, time taken to traverse the fire pit, depth and TBSA of the burns, treatment, length of stay, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. Deep, disseminated second- to third-degree burns were noted and healing took as long as three weeks in some patients. Because disseminated hypertrophic scars form after burns, the soles involved regain much of their tensile strength while walking. The patients experienced only a few difficulties in their daily lives three months after injury. From our experience treating patients with deep disseminated second- to third-degree plantar burns caused by firewalking, we conclude that they should be treated conservatively, with secondary healing rather than a skin graft. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, to assess the impact of heavy metal pollution in a Huelva estuary (SW Spain): seasonal and spatial variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Milagrosa; José Vicente, Juan; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lucia; Dolores Galindo-Riaño, María

    2012-01-01

    The response of wild fish to heavy metals was studied in sole (Solea senegalensis) collected in 2004, 2005 and 2006 at three sampling sites from Huelva estuary (SW Spain), in the vicinity of a petrochemical and mining industry. Heavy metals As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were analyzed in samples collected from sediment, water and tissue (liver) to examine their bioconcentration and effects in fish such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.8.1.7), glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.11.1.6) were also analyzed in the fish liver. The results showed different effects in sole from diverse locations with varying degrees of pollution. Significant differences in LPO, CAT and GR activities between control fish and fish from sampling sites were observed as well as seasonal differences for biomarkers. Significant correlations were established between some biomarkers and heavy metals concentrations in liver, sediment and water. This study indicates the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to assess the effects of pollutants in aquatic environments under complex mix of pollutants and chronic pollution situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Palomero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938 in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help. Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.

  5. Distribución atómica y morfología de las micelas de soles precursores de boehmita, bismutinita, hidrotalcita y rutilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xim Bokhimi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se prepararon soles precursores de boehmita, bismutinita, hidrotalcita y rutilo. Las micelas de estos soles se analizaron mediante difracción de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. En todos los casos las micelas fueron nanocápsulas con diámetros entre 20 y 100 nm y paredes entre 3 y 4 nm de espesor, con sus átomos formando cúmulos arreglados sin simetría traslacional. Cuando las micelas interactúan entre sí, en la región en contacto, los átomos, inicialmente ordenados en cúmulos, se reordenan formando la estructura cristalina de la fase de la cual el sol es precursor. Esta interacción entre micelas produjo su agregación para dar origen a estructuras tridimensionales porosas o a estructuras unidimensionales, precursoras de nanotubos y nanobarras, o de redes tridimensionales que finalmente pueden generar un gel.

  6. The Effect of Minarex B Oil and Gamma Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber-LDPE Mixture for Shoe Sole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudradjat Iskandar; Isni Marliyanti

    2004-01-01

    To obtain the optimum concentration of minarex B oil and gamma irradiation dose on natural rubber compound for shoe sole, study on the effect of minarex B oil and gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber-LDPE mixture has been done. Natural rubber was masticated and mixed with additive and filler using two-roll machine, at 120 o C of forward roll and 100 o C of backward roll, with rotation speed of 18 rpm. The additives added with irganox 1076, paraffin wax, stearic acid, and minarex B oil, while fillers used were polyethylene (LDPE) and calcium carbonate. Minarex B oil mixed was vary such as 5, 10 and 20 phr (part per hundred of rubber). The amount of filler and other additives mixed was not varied. The natural rubber film was obtained by pressing the mixture using hot and cold press machine at 135 o C and room temperature for about 3 minutes. The film then irradiated with gamma rays from cobalt-60 source, at the doses of 150, 300, and 500 kGy. The results show that the mechanical properties of natural rubber vulcanized decreases by increasing minarex B oil, and increases by increasing of irradiation dose. The concentration optimum of minarex B oil in the natural rubber compound for shoe sole and irradiation dose about 5 phr and 300 kGy were agree with SII 0944-84. (author)

  7. Interactive effects of a high-quality protein diet and high stocking density on the stress response and some innate immune parameters of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Afonso, António; Conceição, Luís E C

    2013-10-01

    Amino acids (AA) regulate key metabolic pathways, including some immune responses. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether an increased availability of dietary AA can mitigate the expected increase in plasma cortisol and metabolites levels due to high stocking density and its subsequent immunosuppression. Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were maintained at low stocking density (LSD; 3.5 kg m(-2)) or high stocking density (HSD; 12 kg m(-2)) for 18 days. Additionally, both treatments were fed a control or a high protein (HP) diet (LSD, LSD HP, HSD and HSD HP). The HP diet slightly increased the levels of digestible indispensable AA, together with tyrosine and cysteine. HSD was effective in inducing a chronic stress response after 18 days of treatment since fish held at HSD presented higher plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels. Moreover, this increase in stress indicators translated in a decrease in plasma lysozyme, alternative complement pathway (ACP) and peroxidase activities, suggesting some degree of immunosuppression. Interestingly, while plasma glucose and lactate levels in HSD HP specimens decreased to similar values than LSD fish, plasma lysozyme, ACP and peroxidase activities increased, with even higher values than LSD groups for ACP activity. It is suggested that the HP diet may be used as functional feed since it may represent a metabolic advantage during stressful events and may counteract immunosuppression in sole.

  8. Scale-up of an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514 utilizing fish meal as a sole source of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Prasad, Dinesh; Sathesh, Jaykumar; Naidu, Ramachandra Boopathy; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Palanivel, Saravanan; Gowthaman, Marichetti Kuppuswami

    2012-09-01

    Fish meal grades SL1 and SL2 from Sardine (Sardinella longiceps) and NJ from Pink Perch (Nemipterus japonicas) were evaluated as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in the medium for alkaline protease production by Bacillus pumilus MTCC 7514. The analysis of the fish meal suggests that the carbon and nitrogen contents in fish meal are sufficient to justify its choice as replacement for other nutrients. Protease production increased significantly (4,914 U/ml) in medium containing only fish meal, compared with the basal medium (2,646 U/ml). However, the elimination of inorganic salts from media reduced the protease productivity. In addition, all the three grades of fish meal yielded almost the same amounts of protease when employed as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nevertheless, the best results were observed in fish meal SL1 medium. Furthermore, protease production was enhanced to 6,966 U/ml and 7,047 U/ml on scaling up from flask (4,914 U/ml) to 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively, using fish meal (10 g/l). Similarly, the corresponding improvement in productivities over flask (102.38 U/ml/h) was 193.5 and 195.75 U/ml/h in 3.7 and 20 L fermenters, respectively. The crude protease was found to have dehairing ability in leather processing, which is bound to have great environmental benefits.

  9. Double silencing of relevant genes suggests the existence of the direct link between DNA replication/repair and central carbon metabolism in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Aneta; Fornalewicz, Karolina; Mocarski, Łukasz; Łyżeń, Robert; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2018-04-15

    Genetic evidence for a link between DNA replication and glycolysis has been demonstrated a decade ago in Bacillus subtilis, where temperature-sensitive mutations in genes coding for replication proteins could be suppressed by mutations in genes of glycolytic enzymes. Then, a strong influence of dysfunctions of particular enzymes from the central carbon metabolism (CCM) on DNA replication and repair in Escherichia coli was reported. Therefore, we asked if such a link occurs only in bacteria or it is a more general phenomenon. Here, we demonstrate that effects of silencing (provoked by siRNA) of expression of genes coding for proteins involved in DNA replication and repair (primase, DNA polymerase ι, ligase IV, and topoisomerase IIIβ) on these processes (less efficient entry into the S phase of the cell cycle and decreased level of DNA synthesis) could be suppressed by silencing of specific genes of enzymes from CMM. Silencing of other pairs of replication/repair and CMM genes resulted in enhancement of the negative effects of lower expression levels of replication/repair genes. We suggest that these results may be proposed as a genetic evidence for the link between DNA replication/repair and CMM in human cells, indicating that it is a common biological phenomenon, occurring from bacteria to humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gene doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisma, H J; de Hon, O

    2006-04-01

    Together with the rapidly increasing knowledge on genetic therapies as a promising new branch of regular medicine, the issue has arisen whether these techniques might be abused in the field of sports. Previous experiences have shown that drugs that are still in the experimental phases of research may find their way into the athletic world. Both the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) have expressed concerns about this possibility. As a result, the method of gene doping has been included in the list of prohibited classes of substances and prohibited methods. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge gained in the field of genetic therapies may be misused in elite sports. Many genes are readily available which may potentially have an effect on athletic performance. The sporting world will eventually be faced with the phenomena of gene doping to improve athletic performance. A combination of developing detection methods based on gene arrays or proteomics and a clear education program on the associated risks seems to be the most promising preventive method to counteract the possible application of gene doping.

  11. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  12. Allisonella histaminiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. A novel bacterium that produces histamine, utilizes histidine as its sole energy source, and could play a role in bovine and equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Matthew R; Flint, Joseph F; Russell, James B

    2002-12-01

    When cattle and horses are fed large amounts of grain, histamine can accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract, and this accumulation can cause an acute inflammation of the hooves (laminitis). When ruminal fluid from dairy cattle fed grain supplements was serially diluted in anaerobic MRS medium containing histidine (50 mM), histamine was detected at dilutions as high as 10(-7). The histidine enrichments were then transferred successively in an anaerobic, carbonate-based medium (50 mM histidine) without glucose. The histamine producing bacteria could not be isolated from the rumens of cattle fed hay; however, histamine producing bacteria could be isolated the feces of cattle fed grain and the cecum of a horse. All of the histamine producing isolates had the same ovoid morphology. The cells stained Gram-negative and were resistant to the ionophore, monensin (25 microM). The doubling time was 110 min, and the yield was 1.5 mg cell protein per mmol histidine. The G+C content was 46.8%. Lysine was the only other amino acid used, but lysine did not allow growth if histidine was absent. Because carbohydrate and organic acid utilization was not detected, it appeared that the isolates used histidine decarboxylation as their sole mechanism of energy derivation. 16s rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolates were most closely related to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (firmicutes), but similarities were < or = 94%. Because the most closely related bacteria (Dialister pneumonsintes, Megasphaera elsdenii and Selenomonas ruminantium) did not produce histamine from histidine, we propose that these histamine producing bacteria be assigned to a new genus, Allisonella, as Allisonella histaminiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is MR2 (ATCC BAA610, DSM 15230).

  13. Rocker-sole footwear versus prefabricated foot orthoses for the treatment of pain associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis affecting the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot is a common condition which results in pain, stiffness and impaired ambulation. Footwear modifications and foot orthoses are widely used in clinical practice to treat this condition, but their effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated. This article describes the design of a randomised trial comparing the effectiveness of rocker-sole footwear and individualised prefabricated foot orthoses in reducing pain associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis. Methods Eighty people with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis will be randomly allocated to receive either a pair of rocker-sole shoes (MBT® Matwa, Masai Barefoot Technology, Switzerland) or a pair of individualised, prefabricated foot orthoses (Vasyli Customs, Vasyli Medical™, Queensland, Australia). At baseline, the biomechanical effects of the interventions will be examined using a wireless wearable sensor motion analysis system (LEGSys™, BioSensics, Boston, MA, USA) and an in-shoe plantar pressure system (Pedar®, Novel GmbH, Munich, Germany). The primary outcome measure will be the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), measured at baseline and 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures will include the function, footwear and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ, severity of pain and stiffness at the first metatarsophalangeal joint (measured using 100 mm visual analog scales), global change in symptoms (using a 15-point Likert scale), health status (using the Short-Form-12® Version 2.0 questionnaire), use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain, the frequency and type of self-reported adverse events and physical activity levels (using the Incidental and Planned Activity Questionnaire). Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Discussion This study is the first randomised trial to compare the effectiveness of rocker-sole

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on eggs and larvae of a North Pacific flatfish (northern rock sole, Lepidopsetta polyxystra) from laboratory experiment studies from 2012-02-01 to 2013-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0136906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the results of a laboratory experiment study to understand the effect of ocean acidification on eggs and larvae of northern rock sole,...

  15. Whole-body multislice computed tomography as the primary and sole diagnostic tool in patients with blunt trauma: searching for its appropriate indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmb, Thomas Erik; Frühwald, Peter; Hopfner, Wittiko; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2007-11-01

    In our hospital, whole-body multislice computed tomography is used as the primary diagnostic tool in patients with suspected multiple trauma. A triage rule is used for its indication. We have retrospectively analyzed data of sedated, intubated and ventilated patients consecutively admitted to our trauma center to assess whether the triage rule can help identify patients with severe trauma (injury severity score > or = 16). We have found that overtriage (injury severity score < 16) occurs in 30%, and undertriage occurs in 6% of patients. Although we have found the triage rule to be highly sensitive, this results in a high rate of overtriage. Until we know more about the most relevant and independent predictive factors, sole reliance upon multislice computed tomography in triaging suspected polytrauma victims will imply the risk to overscan many patients.

  16. Self-assembling hydrogels crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions: tunability, rationalization of physical properties, and 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael S; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Chwalek, Karolina; Bornhauser, Martin; Schlierf, Michael; Werner, Carsten; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-02-16

    We report a novel, noncovalent hydrogel system crosslinked solely by receptor-ligand interactions between biotin and avidin. The simple hydrogel synthesis and functionalization together with the widespread use of biotinylated ligands in biosciences make this versatile system suitable for many applications. The gels possess a range of tunable physical properties, including stiffness, lifetime, and swelling. The erosion rates, unexpectedly fast compared to the kinetic parameters for biotin-avidin, are explored in terms of stretching tensions on the polymers, a concept well-known on the single-molecule level, but largely unexplored in supramolecular systems. As proof of utility, the gels were functionalized with different peptide sequences to control human mesenchymal stromal cell morphology in 3D culture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Evaluation of Weed Diversity and Modelling Light Interception and Distribution in Multiple and Sole Cropping of Millet (Setaria italica L. and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the weed diversity and modeling light interception in sole and intercropping millet and bean an experiment was conducted as complete randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2008. Treatments included monocultures, intercropping of millet and bean and a control treatment where weeds grew without crops. In this experiment Shannon diversity index and Sorensen similarity index was investigated at six stages. Results indicated that in each stage Shannon index was affected by treatments. In first stage intercropping had the lowest weed diversity but in another stages it has no significant with monocultures. Control treatment has highest weed diversity. For modeling light interception were used INTERCOM model. Results showed that in light interception plant height and leaf distribution was more effective than LAI (Leaf Area Index. Light interception in intercropping was more effective than monoculture.

  18. Otolith oxygen isotopes measured by high-precision secondary ion mass spectrometry reflect life history of a yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Mary Elizabeth; Orland, Ian J; Ushikubo, Takayuki; Helser, Thomas E; Black, Bryan A; Valley, John W

    2013-03-30

    The oxygen isotope ratio (δ(18)O value) of aragonite fish otoliths is dependent on the temperature and the δ(18)O value of the ambient water and can thus reflect the environmental history of a fish. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) offers a spatial-resolution advantage over conventional acid-digestion techniques for stable isotope analysis of otoliths, especially given their compact nature. High-precision otolith δ(18)O analysis was conducted with an IMS-1280 ion microprobe to investigate the life history of a yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera), a Bering Sea species known to migrate ontogenetically. The otolith was cut transversely through its core and one half was roasted to eliminate organic contaminants. Values of δ(18)O were measured in 10-µm spots along three transects (two in the roasted half, one in the unroasted half) from the core toward the edge. Otolith annual growth zones were dated using the dendrochronology technique of crossdating. Measured values of δ(18)O ranged from 29.0 to 34.1‰ (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Ontogenetic migration from shallow to deeper waters was reflected in generally increasing δ(18)O values from age-0 to approximately age-7 and subsequent stabilization after the expected onset of maturity at age-7. Cyclical variations of δ(18)O values within juvenile otolith growth zones, up to 3.9‰ in magnitude, were caused by a combination of seasonal changes in the temperature and the δ(18)O value of the ambient water. The ion microprobe produced a high-precision and high-resolution record of the relative environmental conditions experienced by a yellowfin sole that was consistent with population-level studies of ontogeny. Furthermore, this study represents the first time that crossdating has been used to ensure the dating accuracy of δ(18)O measurements in otoliths. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effects of the soya isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: Thyroid, estrogenic and metabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, Maria; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan Bosco

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3mg/L and 10mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated. In the control larvae, progressive increases of constitutive hormonal signalling pathways have been evidenced from the pre-metamorphosis phase onwards, reaching the highest expression basal levels at the metamorphosis (Tg, TPO, Dio2) and/or during post-metamorphosis (TTR, TRβ, ERβ). When the early larvae were exposed to both genistein concentrations (3mg/L and 10mg/L), a statistically significant down-regulation of TPO, TTR and Tg mRNA levels was clearly detected at the metamorphic stages. In addition, the Dio2 and Dio3 transcript expression levels were also down and up-regulated when exposed to both genistein concentrations. In the larvae exposed to genistein, no statistically significant responses were recorded for the TRβ expression patterns. Nevertheless, the ERβ and Cyp1a transcript levels were up-regulated at the middle metamorphic stage (S2, at 16 dph) in the larvae exposed to high genistein concentrations and, only the ERβ was down-regulated (S1, at 12dph) at the lower doses. Finally, all these pointed out imbalances were only temporarily disrupted by exposure to genistein, since most of the modulated transcriptional signals (i.e. up or down-regulation) were quickly restored to the baseline levels. Additionally, the control and genistein-exposed Senegalese sole specimens showed characteristic ontogenetic patterns and completely suitable for an optimal development, metamorphosis, and growth. Copyright © 2017

  20. Mid-Sole Release of the Plantar Fascia Combined With Percutaneous Drilling of the Calcaneus for Treatment of Resistant Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Ahmed Shawkat; Kandel, Wael A; Tabl, Eslam Abd Elshafi; Kandil, Mahmoud I

    2017-11-01

    Heel pain with or without calcaneal spur is a challenging problem. Once conservative measures have failed, surgery may be indicated; there has been debate about the best surgical procedure. Two standard operative procedures have been either releasing the plantar fascia or removing the spur with drilling of the calcaneus. In this study, we evaluated the results of percutaneous drilling of the calcaneus combined with mid-sole release of the plantar fascia for treatment of resistant heel pain. This study included 20 cases with resistant heel pain after failure of conservative measures for 6 months. Clinical, radiological evaluation and scoring patients' conditions according to the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale was done preoperatively and postoperatively. Percutaneous drilling of the calcaneus combined with mid-sole release of the plantar fascia was done in all cases, and the functional results were evaluated through the follow-up period that extended from 9 to 16 months with a mean duration of 12 ± 2.3 months. There was statistically significant improvement in the mean AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale score from 50.8 ± 7.5 preoperatively to 91.6 ± 7 postoperatively at the last follow-up. There were no surgery-related complications, and the mean time for full recovery was 8 ± 3.7 weeks with no recurrence of pain by the last follow-up. The results were very satisfactory with using this minimally invasive and simple technique for treatment for resistant heel pain. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  1. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of CuFeO{sub 2} (delafossite) at 70 °C: A new process solely by precipitation and ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.john@min.uni-muenchen.de [Section Mineralogy, Petrology & Geochemistry, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 41, 80333 Munich (Germany); Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya [Section Mineralogy, Petrology & Geochemistry, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 41, 80333 Munich (Germany); Park, So-Hyun [Section Crystallography, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 41, 80333 Munich (Germany); Ullrich, Aladin [Experimental Physics II, University of Augsburg, Universitätsstr. 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Benka, Georg [Physics Department, Technical University Munich, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Petersen, Nikolai [Section Geophysics, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 41, 80333 Munich (Germany); Rettenwander, Daniel [Department of Materials Research & Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Horn, Siegfried R. [Experimental Physics II, University of Augsburg, Universitätsstr. 1, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    This study presents a new low temperature synthesis method to obtain pure delafossite (Cu{sup 1+}Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 2}) at a temperature of 70 °C within 24 h. For the first time delafossite is synthesized solely by precipitation and subsequent ageing process and without usage of any additives controlling the oxidation state of copper. The synthesized material, called LT-delafossite, consists of pure Cu{sup 1+}Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 2} exclusive of any side products. Rietveld analysis confirms the presence of both 3R (space group (SG): R-3m) and 2H (SG: P6{sub 3}/mmc) polytypes in LT-delafossite. Electron microscopy images show nanometer-sized hexagonal plates with a diameter <500 nm and a thickness of <30 nm. Measurements of the magnetic susceptibility from 2 K to 350 K in zero-field show one peak ∼18.5 K, which is attributed to an AFM phase transition. Zero-field-cooled magnetization data between −14 T and +14 T at 2 K revealed an s-shape form around the origin having no remanent magnetization. - Highlights: • New process: low temperature synthesis of pure CuFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Synthesis at 70 °C within 24 h solely by precipitation and ageing. • Nanoparticle characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP–OES, TEM and Mößbauer. • Special magnetic properties of nano-sized CuFeO{sub 2} synthesized at low temperatures.

  3. Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of the prepronociceptin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollereau, C; Simons, M J; Soularue, P; Liners, F; Vassart, G; Meunier, J C; Parmentier, M

    1996-08-06

    Nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the newly discovered natural agonist of opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor, is a neuropeptide that is endowed with pronociceptive activity in vivo. Nociceptin is derived from a larger precursor, prepronociceptin (PPNOC), whose human, mouse, and rat genes we have now isolated. The PPNOC gene is highly conserved in the three species and displays organizational features that are strikingly similar to those of the genes of preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, and preproopiomelanocortin, the precursors to endogenous opioid peptides, suggesting the four genes belong to the same family-i.e., have a common evolutionary origin. The PPNOC gene encodes a single copy of nociceptin as well as of other peptides whose sequence is strictly conserved across murine and human species; hence it is likely to be neurophysiologically significant. Northern blot analysis shows that the PPNOC gene is predominantly transcribed in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and, albeit weakly, in the ovary, the sole peripheral organ expressing the gene. By using a radiation hybrid cell line panel, the PPNOC gene was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 8 (8p21), between sequence-tagged site markers WI-5833 and WI-1172, in close proximity of the locus encoding the neurofilament light chain NEFL. Analysis of yeast artificial chromosome clones belonging to the WC8.4 contig covering the 8p21 region did not allow to detect the presence of the gene on these yeast artificial chromosomes, suggesting a gap in the coverage within this contig.

  4. Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K. Mazandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide coverage and biological relevance of the Gene Ontology (GO, confirmed through its successful use in protein function prediction, have led to the growth in its popularity. In order to exploit the extent of biological knowledge that GO offers in describing genes or groups of genes, there is a need for an efficient, scalable similarity measure for GO terms and GO-annotated proteins. While several GO similarity measures exist, none adequately addresses all issues surrounding the design and usage of the ontology. We introduce a new metric for measuring the distance between two GO terms using the intrinsic topology of the GO-DAG, thus enabling the measurement of functional similarities between proteins based on their GO annotations. We assess the performance of this metric using a ROC analysis on human protein-protein interaction datasets and correlation coefficient analysis on the selected set of protein pairs from the CESSM online tool. This metric achieves good performance compared to the existing annotation-based GO measures. We used this new metric to assess functional similarity between orthologues, and show that it is effective at determining whether orthologues are annotated with similar functions and identifying cases where annotation is inconsistent between orthologues.

  5. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, David

    2012-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted...

  6. TAL effectors and the executor R genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junli; Yin, Zhongchao; White, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R) genes have been characterized-recessive, dominant non-transcriptional, and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  7. TAL effectors and the executor R genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription activation-like (TAL effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R genes have been characterized - recessive, dominant non-transcriptional and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  8. The Use of the Profunda Femoral Artery as the Sole Target Vessel to Bypass Aortoiliac Disease in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia and Concomitant Unreconstructable Infrainguinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Lioudaki, Stella; Chronis, Christos; Kalogerakos, Paris; Lazopoulos, George; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ioannou, Christos V

    2018-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) often results from multilevel occlusive disease. There are occasions where a patent profunda femoral artery (PFA) is the only target artery that can be used as outflow during reconstruction to bypass aortoiliac disease (AOID), with no further option for infrainguinal revascularization. We aim to report results of the use of PFA as the sole target vessel for the treatment of these patients. This is a retrospective, single-center study including CLI patients treated during 36 months. All procedures were included regardless of inflow site. The outcomes examined were hemodynamic improvement, clinical status change, amputation-free and overall survival, and patency of the prosthesis. Univariate analysis was performed to identify possible predictors of adverse outcomes. Twenty-three patients and 27 limbs were included (2 female, mean age 70.6). Sixteen limbs presented rest pain and 11 tissue loss. Inflow was obtained from the axillary (n = 9), contralateral femoral (n = 8), abdominal aorta (n = 2), thoracic aorta (n = 1), ipsilateral external iliac (n = 2), and contralateral external iliac artery (n = 1). Immediately postoperatively ankle-brachial index significantly increased from 0.15 (0-0.5) to 0.50 (0.25-0.9), (P-value limbs presented clinical improvement (3 minimally, 18 moderately, and 3 markedly improved) and 3 presented no change. During a mean follow-up of 15.8 (2-36) months, we recorded 4 deaths and 4 major amputations. Mean predicted overall survival and amputation-free survival were 29.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 24.5-35.1) and 26.5 months (95% CI 21.1-31.8), respectively. Predicted primary patency was 76% at 3 years. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations only between bypass patency and limp loss (P-value = 0.021). In the presence of CLI due to AOID and unreconstructable infrainguinal disease, the use of PFA as the sole target vessel during bypass is associated with significant rates of clinical

  9. Drilling the leading edge of the mantle wedge and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail Ophiolite: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Kelemen, P. B.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole BT1B (23°21.861' N, 58°10.957' E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) on the north side of Wadi Mansah in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole BT1B was cored from 6 to 23 March 2017, to a depth of 300.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described onsite before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu. Hole BT1B sampled carbonated peridotite (listvenite), 2 carbonate-veined serpentinite bands at 80-100 and 180-185 m depth, a few cm of ultracataclasite and 70 cm of fault gouge at 197 m depth, followed by 103 m metamorphic sole. Onboard Chikyu, BT1B underwent X-ray computed tomography (CT) and multi-sensor logging, imaging and spectroscopy, macroscopic and thin section observations, physical properties measurements, and XRF, XRD and ICP-MS analyses. 1st authors of abstracts reporting initial results are Beinlich (matrix characteristics), de Obeso (modeling mass transfer), Godard (XRF and ICP-MS whole rock data), Greenberger (infrared spectroscopy), Johnson (XRF core scanner), Kelemen (overall petrology), Manning (veins), and Michibayashi (X-ray CT). Listvenite is composed of carbonate + quartz + Fe-oxyhydroxides, + minor relict spinel ± chromian mica (fuchsite). The mineralogy suggests formation at < 150°C. The bulk rock density is similar to that of gabbro but the P-wave velocity is generally higher. Rock textures suggest viscous deformation, while additional brittle deformation is recorded by older veins and younger breccias and faults. The metamorphic sole consists of fine-grained to microcrystalline

  10. Urban prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in the European capital city Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  12. "For Their Own Good": A Response to Popular Arguments Against Permitting Medical Assistance in Dying (MAID) where Mental Illness Is the Sole Underlying Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Justine; Schuklenk, Udo; Reggler, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Canada is approaching its federal government's review of whether patients should be eligible for medical assistance in dying (MAID) where mental illness is the sole underlying medical condition, and when "natural death" is not "reasonably foreseeable". For those opposed, arguments involve the following themes: capacity, value of life, vulnerability, stigma, irremediability, and the role of physicians. It has also been suggested that those who are able-bodied should have to kill themselves, even though suicide may be painful, lonely, and violent. Opponents of MAID for severe, refractory suffering due to mental illness imply that it is acceptable to remove agency from such patients on paternalistic grounds. After years of efforts to destigmatise mental illness, these kinds of arguments effectively declare all patients with mental illness, regardless of capacity, unable to make considered choices for themselves. The current paper argues that decisions about capacity must be made on an individual-patient basis. Given the rightful importance granted to respect for patient autonomy in liberal democracies, the wholesale removal of agency advocated by opponents of a permissive MAID regime is difficult to reconcile with Canadian constitutional values.

  13. Production of Extra-Cellular Proteases from Marine Bacillus Sp. Cultured in Media Containing Ammonium Sulfate as the Sole Nitrogen Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Intan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Useful bacterial strains can be used to increase mineralize activity of an aquatic system. These bacteria can specifically degrade targeted compound by producing extra-cellular enzymes. Three species of Bacillus i.e. B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheniformis acquired from shrimp ponds were tested for their ability to utilize ammonia and produce extracellular enzymes. These bacteria were grown in artificial seawater (30 ppt salinity and pH 7.6 supplemented with decreasing yeast extract concentration but increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. All three bacteria grew in artificial seawater containing only 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate. However, only B. pumilus and B. licheniformis were able to grow in the medium containing only 1% ammonium sulfate as a sole energy source. Bacterialgrowth reduced when alkaline proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 24 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammonium sulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 9. Bacterial growth increased when acid proteases activities was maximum from culture filtrates of all three bacterial cultures during 48 hour culturing in artificial seawater containing 0.01% yeast extract and 1% ammoniumsulfate at 30 C when assayed at pH 5.

  14. Real-time PCR method applied to seafood products for authentication of European sole (Solea solea) and differentiation of common substitute species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Beatriz; Lago, Fátima C; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Judged by quality and taste, the European sole (Solea solea) is considered one of the finest flatfish and is, thus, of considerable commercial value. In the present work, a specific fast real-time PCR was developed for the authentication of S. solea, i.e. to distinguish it from other related species and avoid substitution of this species, either deliberately or unintentionally. The method is based on a species-specific set of primers and MGB Taqman probe which amplifies a 116-bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1) ribosomal DNA region. This assay combines the high specificity and sensitivity of real-time PCR with the rapidity of the fast mode, allowing the detection of S. solea in a short period of time. The present methodology was validated for application to all types of manufactured products for the presence of S. solea, with successful results. Subsequently, the method was applied to 40 commercial samples to determine whether correct labeling had been employed in the market. It was demonstrated that the assay is a useful tool in monitoring and verifying food labeling regulations.

  15. On the Diels-Alder approach to solely biomass-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET): conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrolein into p-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Mika; Toste, F Dean

    2011-10-24

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a polymeric material with high global demand. Conventionally, PET is produced from fossil-fuel-based materials. Herein, we explored the feasibility of a sustainable method for PET production by using solely bio-renewable resources. Specifically, 2,5-dimethylfuran (derived from lignocellulosic biomass through 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) and acrolein (produced from glycerol, a side product of biodiesel production) were converted into the key intermediate p-xylene (a precursor of terephthalic acid). This synthesis consists of a sequential Diels-Alder reaction, oxidation, dehydration, and decarboxylation. In particular, the pivotal first step, the Diels-Alder reaction, was studied in detail to provide useful kinetic and thermodynamic data. Although it was found that this reaction requires low temperature to proceed efficiently, which presents a limitation on economic feasibility on an industrial scale, the concept was realized and bio-derived p-xylene was obtained in 34% overall yield over four steps. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Key enzymes enabling the growth of Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 with nitroglycerin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B; Spain, Jim C

    2012-05-01

    Flavoprotein reductases that catalyze the transformation of nitroglycerin (NG) to dinitro- or mononitroglycerols enable bacteria containing such enzymes to use NG as the nitrogen source. The inability to use the resulting mononitroglycerols limits most strains to incomplete denitration of NG. Recently, Arthrobacter strain JBH1 was isolated for the ability to grow on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, but the enzymes and mechanisms involved were not established. Here, the enzymes that enable the Arthrobacter strain to incorporate NG into a productive pathway were identified. Enzyme assays indicated that the transformation of nitroglycerin to mononitroglycerol is NADPH dependent and that the subsequent transformation of mononitroglycerol is ATP dependent. Cloning and heterologous expression revealed that a flavoprotein catalyzes selective denitration of NG to 1-mononitroglycerol (1-MNG) and that 1-MNG is transformed to 1-nitro-3-phosphoglycerol by a glycerol kinase homolog. Phosphorylation of the nitroester intermediate enables the subsequent denitration of 1-MNG in a productive pathway that supports the growth of the isolate and mineralization of NG.

  17. Reduced intracellular drug accumulation in drug-resistant leukemia cells is not solely due to MDR-mediated efflux but also to decreased uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oliveira Pisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of ABC family transporter proteins that promote drug efflux from cancer cells is a widely observed mechanism of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Cell adaptation in long-term culture of HL60 leukemic cells in the presence of chemotherapy leads to induction and maintenance of the ABC transporters expression, preventing further accumulation of drugs. However, we found that decreased accumulation of drugs and fluorescent dyes was also contributed by a reduced uptake by the resistant cells. Confocal time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that fluid-phase endocytosis was diminished in drug-resistant cells compared to drug-sensitive cells. Drug uptake was increased by insulin co-treatment when cells were grown in methylcellulose and monitored under the microscope, but not when cultured in suspension. We propose that multi-drug resistance is not solely achieved by enhanced efflux capacity but also by supressed intake of the drug offering an alternative target to overcome drug resistance or potentiate chemotherapy.

  18. Strain-Annealing Based Grain Boundary Engineering to Evaluate its Sole Implication on Intergranular Corrosion in Extra-Low Carbon Type 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S. K.; Bhuyan, P.; Kaithwas, C.; Mandal, Sumantra

    2018-07-01

    Strain-annealing based thermo-mechanical processing has been performed to promote grain boundary engineering (GBE) in an extra-low carbon type austenitic stainless steel without altering the grain size and residual strain to evaluate its sole influence on intergranular corrosion. Single-step processing comprising low pre-strain ( 5 and 10 pct) followed by annealing at 1273 K for 1 hour have resulted in a large fraction of Σ3 n boundaries and significant disruption in random high-angle grain boundaries (RHAGBs) connectivity. This is due to the occurrence of prolific multiple twinning in these specimens as confirmed by their large twin-related domain and twin-related grain size ratio. Among the iterative processing, the schedule comprising two cycles of 10 and 5 pct deformation followed by annealing at 1173 K for 1 hour has yielded the optimum GBE microstructure with the grain size and residual strain akin to the as-received condition. The specimens subjected to the higher number of iterations failed to realize GBE microstructures due to the occurrence of partial recrystallization. Owing to the optimum grain boundary character distribution, the GBE specimen has exhibited remarkable resistance against sensitization and intergranular corrosion as compared to the as-received condition. Furthermore, the lower depth of percolation in the GBE specimen is due to the significant disruption of RHAGBs connectivity as confirmed from its large twin-related domain and lower fractal dimension.

  19. Spawning and nursery habitat of the wedge sole Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881 in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva García-Isarch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton samples and hydrological data were obtained in an inshore area, between the mouths of the Rivers Guadalquivir and Guadiana (Gulf of Cádiz, SW Spain during monthly surveys carried out from March 2002 to March 2003. Horizontal and temporal distributions of wedge sole (Dicologlossa cuneata egg and larval abundances were analysed during this annual cycle in relation to environmental parameters. This area proved to be an important spawning and nursery ground for the species, which showed a winter-spring reproductive strategy with a long reproductive period lasting from autumn until early summer. Spawning areas were located in the shallowest waters (above 30 m depth between the mouths of the Rives Guadiana and Tinto-Odiel, and to a lesser extent in the coastal zone between the mouths of the Rivers Tinto-Odiel and Guadalquivir. The spawning habitat was mainly determined by the distribution of the adults, the bathymetry and the temperature, and a preference for shallow and colder waters was observed. The inshore zone between the mouths of the Rivers Tinto-Odiel and Guadalquivir is the main nursery ground, with the greatest larval concentration and productivity in the area, due to the influence of the River Guadalquivir. The presence of recruits in this area may be linked to these favourable conditions for larval growth and survival.

  20. Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Zhang Liqun; Yang Lijuan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Dorward, David W.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Murphy, Brian R.; Feldmann, Heinz; Collins, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV

  1. The specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index is solely determined by the viral coat protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andret-Link, Peggy; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne; Demangeat, Gerard; Komar, Veronique; Fuchs, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The viral determinants involved in the specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) by its nematode vector Xiphinema index are located within the 513 C-terminal residues of the RNA2-encoded polyprotein, that is, the 9 C-terminal amino acids of the movement protein (2B MP ) and contiguous 504 amino acids of the coat protein (2C CP ) [Virology 291 (2001) 161]. To further delineate the viral determinants responsible for the specific spread, the four amino acids that are different within the 9 C-terminal 2B MP residues between GFLV and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), another nepovirus which is transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum but not by X. index, were subjected to mutational analysis. Of the recombinant viruses derived from transcripts of GFLV RNA1 and RNA2 mutants that systemically infected herbaceous host plants, all with the 2C CP of GFLV were transmitted by X. index unlike none with the 2C CP of ArMV, regardless of the mutations within the 2B MP C-terminus. These results demonstrate that the coat protein is the sole viral determinant for the specific spread of GFLV by X. index

  2. Updating on Italian stroke units: the "CCM study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Spallazzi, M; Toni, D; Rota, E; Morelli, N; Immovilli, P; Baldereschi, M; Polizzi, B M; Ferro, S; Inzitari, D

    2013-07-01

    The stroke units (SUs) have been demonstrated to be efficient and cost effective for acute stroke care. Nevertheless, the level of stroke unit implementation in Italy does not correspond to expectations yet. This study is a survey, which aims at assessing the current status of in-hospital stroke care in the Italian regions and at updating SUs. The survey was conducted by means of a semi-structured questionnaire, based on 18 stroke care "quality indicators", submitted to all the Italian centres that had taken part in the SITS-MOST study, and to other centres advised by the coordinator of SITS studies and by regional opinion leaders of stroke. SUs were defined as acute wards, with stroke-dedicated beds and dedicated teams that had been formally authorised to administer rt-PA. A statistical analysis was performed by a descriptive statistics and logistic regression model. The study was carried out from November 2009 to September 2010. A total of 168 forms were sent out and 153 replies received. Seven centres, which had not performed any thrombolytic treatment, and 16 which did not fulfil the criteria for the definition of SU were excluded from the study. Most of the centres reported more than 100 stroke patient admissions per year, i.e., 122 (84%) from 100 to 500, 18 (12%) more than 500. The 19% of the centres admitted more than 30% of patients within 3 h from the symptom onset and only 30% admitted more than 30% of patients within 4.5 h. The mean number of thrombolyses performed in the last 6 months was 10 for centres with a doctor on duty 24 h a day, 6 for those that have a doctor on duty from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. and a doctor on call for night, and 5 for centres with a doctor on call 24 h a day. The territorial distribution of the SUs is remarkably heterogeneous: 87 SUs (67%) are located in the North of Italy, 28 (22%) in the central part of Italy and only 15 (11%) in the South. The last few years have witnessed a rise in both the diffusion of SUs and access to thrombolytic therapy in Italy. Despite this, there are a few large areas, mostly in the south, where the requirements of healthcare legislation are not met, and access to a dedicated SU and thrombolytic treatment is still limited and poor.

  3. The CCM Model: A Management Approach to Performance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroy, Gary D.; Bray, Amber; Venneberg, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Three leadership styles are frequently discussed in the literature today: transactional, transformational, and most recently--transcendental. Managers may be able to put transactional, transformational, and transcendental leadership style theories into practice without inventing a new set of processes and procedures to achieve individual follower…

  4. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T.W.

    2007-01-01

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  5. Cloning and expression of calmodulin gene in Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Shite, Masato; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2007-06-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone, designated Sd-cam, encoding calmodulin protein from Scoparia dulcis. The restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal when probed with the fragment of this gene in Southern blot analyses, suggesting that Sd-cam occurs as a sole gene encoding calmodulin in the plant. The reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Sd-cam was appreciably expressed in leaf, root and stem tissues. It appeared that transcription of this gene increased transiently when the leaf cultures of S. dulcis were treated with methyl jasmonate and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggest that transcriptional activation of Sd-cam is one of the early cellular events of the methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis.

  6. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  7. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beco, V. de; Baillet, G.; Tamgac, F.; Tofighi, M.; Weinmann, P.; Vergote, J.; Moretti, J.L.; Tamgac, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  8. Effect of ploughing depth and mechanical soil loading on soil physical properties, weed infestation, yield performance and grain quality in sole and intercrops of pea and oat in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Gronle, Annkathrin; Lux, Guido; Böhm, Herwart; Schmidtke, Knut; Wild, Melanie; Demmel, Markus; Brandhuber, Robert; Wilbois, Klaus-Peter; Heß, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ploughing depth and mechanical soil loading on the performance of pea sole crops, oat sole crops and pea–oat intercrops was investigated in field experiments under organic farming conditions at two sites in Germany in 2009 and 2010. The two ploughing depths were short-term shallow ploughing to a soil depth of 7–10 cm and deep ploughing to 25–30 cm. Wheel loads of 26 and 45 kN, which correspond to typical rear wheel loads of field machinery used during sowing operations, were com...

  9. The economic viability of a feed-in tariff scheme that solely rewards self-consumption to promote the use of integrated photovoltaic battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, Giovanni; Burgio, Alessandro; Menniti, Daniele; Pinnarelli, Anna; Sorrentino, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A FIT scheme for grid-connected integrated PV-battery systems is discussed. • The FIT tariff scheme solely rewards self-consumption. • An optimization problem minimizes the tariff and it sizes the integrated systems. • The saving on bill is approximately 50%, the end user attains 25% self-sufficiency. • The self-generation is 50% at least, the self-consumption is 80% at least. - Abstract: With reference to an integrated photovoltaic battery (PV-BES) system for grid-connected end users, a feed-in tariff scheme is discussed in this article. This scheme solely rewards self-consumption. Zero is the generation price paid for the generated renewable energy, and zero is the export price paid for the renewable energy delivered to the grid. This feed-in tariff scheme, referred to as S-FIT, also excludes the net-metering service and the possibility that the grid recharges or discharges the batteries. To calculate the incentive tariff, an optimization problem is adopted. The problem returns the minimum value of the tariff so that the subsidy given to the end user is equal to the difference between the instalments paid for the integrated PV-BES system and the savings obtained from the electricity bill. The period during which the end user has secured this grant is ten years. The S-FIT scheme is applied to the case of the Italian Public Administration from 2011 to 2015. Consequently, the real values of temperature, irradiation, and energy consumption are measured every 15 min, and the real electricity prices over the period 2011–2015 are considered. The optimal solution returned by the optimization problem allows for a significant reduction of the electricity bill by 49.56%; moreover, the self-produced energy is equal to at least 50%, whereas the self-consumed energy is equal to at least 80%. The optimal solution that is calculated using 2011 data is applied for 2012–2015. Although the electricity prices were subject to a radical change during this

  10. Clinopyroxenite dikes crosscutting banded peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in the Oman ophiolite: early cumulates from the primary V3 lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro

    2013-04-01

    Oman ophiolite is one of the well-known ophiolites for excellent exposures not only of the mantle section but also of the crustal section including effusive rocks and the underlying metamorphic rocks. In the Oman ophiolite, three types of effusive rocks (V1, V2 and V3 from the lower sequences) are recognized: i.e., V1, MORB-like magma, V2, island-arc type lava, and V3, intra-plate lava (Godard et al., 2003 and references there in). V1 and V2 lavas are dominant (> 95 %) as effusive rocks and have been observed in almost all the blocks of northern part of the Oman ophiolite (Godard et al., 2003), but V3 lava has been reported only from Salahi area (Alabaster et al., 1982). It is clear that there was a time gap of lava eruption between V1-2 and V3 based on the presence of pelagic sediments in between (Godard et al., 2003). In addition, V3 lavas are fed by a series of doleritic dikes crosscutting V2 lava (Alley unit) (Alabaster et al., 1982). We found clinopyroxenite (CPXITE) dikes crosscutting deformation structure of basal peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in Wadi Ash Shiyah. The sole metamorphic rock is garnet amphibolite, which overlies the banded and deformed harzburgite and dunite. The CPXITE is composed of coarse clinopyroxene (CPX) with minor amount of chlorite, garnet (hydrous/anhydrous grossular-andradite) with inclusions of titanite, and serpentine formed at a later low-temperature stage. The width of the CPXITE dikes is 2-5 cm (10 cm at maximum) and the dikes contain small blocks of wall harzburgite. Almost all the silicates are serpentinized in the harzburgite blocks except for some CPX. The Mg# (= Mg/(Mg + Fe) atomic ratio) of the CPX is almost constant (= 0.94-0.95) in the serpentinite blocks but varies within the dikes, highest at the contact with the block (0.94) and decreasing with the distance from the contact to 0.81 (0.85 on average). The contents of Al2O3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 in the CPX of the dikes are 0.5-2.0, 0.2-0.6, and 0

  11. Modelling the spatial distribution of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), sole ( Solea solea) and thornback ray ( Raja clavata) in UK waters for marine management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D. L.; Stelzenmüller, V.; Eastwood, P. D.; Rogers, S. I.

    2009-04-01

    Species distribution maps are needed for ecosystem-based marine management including the development of marine spatial plans. If such maps are based on predictive models then modelling procedures should aim to maximise validation success, and any uncertainty in the predictions needs to be made explicit. We developed a predictive modelling approach to produce robust maps of the distributions of selected marine species at a regional scale. We used 14 years of survey data to map the distributions of plaice, sole and thornback ray in three hydrographic regions comprising parts of the Irish Sea, Celtic Sea and the English Channel with the help of the hybrid technique regression kriging, which combines regression models with geostatistical tools. For each species-region combination we constructed logistic Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) based on presence-absence data using the environmental variables: depth, bottom temperature, bed shear stress and sediment type, as predictors. We selected GLMs using the mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) estimated by cross-validation then conducted a geostatistical analysis of the residuals to incorporate spatial structure in the predictions. In general, we found that species occurrence was positively related to shallow areas, a bed shear stress of between 0 and 1.5 N/m 2, and the presence of sandy sediment. Predicted species occurrence probabilities were in good agreement with survey observations. This modelling framework selects environmental models based on predictive ability and considers the effect of spatial autocorrelation on predictions, together with the simultaneous presentation of observations, associated uncertainties, and predictions. The potential benefit of these distribution maps to marine management and planning is discussed.

  12. Dose Specification and Quality Assurance of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 95-17; a Cooperative Group Study of Iridium-192 Breast Implants as Sole Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hanson, W.F.; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Kuske, Robert R.; Arthur, Douglas; Rabinovitch, Rachel; White, Julia; Wilenzick, Raymond M.; Harris, Irene; Tailor, Ramesh C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 95-17 was a Phase I/II trial to evaluate multicatheter brachytherapy as the sole method of adjuvant breast radiotherapy for Stage I/II breast carcinoma after breast-conserving surgery. Low- or high-dose-rate sources were allowed. Dose prescription and treatment evaluation were based on recommendations in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), Report 58 and included the parameters mean central dose (MCD), average peripheral dose, dose homogeneity index (DHI), and the dimensions of the low- and high-dose regions. Methods and Materials: Three levels of quality assurance were implemented: (1) credentialing of institutions was required before entering patients into the study; (2) rapid review of each treatment plan was conducted before treatment; and (3) retrospective review was performed by the Radiological Physics Center in conjunction with the study chairman and RTOG dosimetry staff. Results: Credentialing focused on the accuracy of dose calculation algorithm and compliance with protocol guidelines. Rapid review was designed to identify and correct deviations from the protocol before treatment. The retrospective review involved recalculation of dosimetry parameters and review of dose distributions to evaluate the treatment. Specifying both central and peripheral doses resulted in uniform dose distributions, with a mean dose homogeneity index of 0.83 ± 0.06. Conclusions: Vigorous quality assurance resulted in a high-quality study with few deviations; only 4 of 100 patients were judged as representing minor variations from protocol, and no patient was judged as representing major deviation. This study should be considered a model for quality assurance of future trials

  13. Loss of genetic variability in a hatchery strain of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis revealed by sequence data of the mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the levels of genetic variation within and between a hatchery F1 (FAR, n=116 of Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and its wild donor population (ATL, n = 26, both native to the SW Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula, as well as between the wild donor population and a wild western Mediterranean sample (MED, n=18, were carried out by characterizing 412 base pairs of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region I, and six polymorphic microsatellite loci. FAR showed a substantial loss of genetic variability (haplotypic diversity, h=0.49±0.066; nucleotide diversity, π=0.006±0.004; private allelic richness, pAg=0.28 to its donor population ATL (h=0.69±0.114; π=0.009±0.006; pAg=1.21. Pairwise FST values of microsatellite data were highly significant (P < 0.0001 between FAR and ATL (0.053 and FAR and MED (0.055. The comparison of wild samples revealed higher values of genetic variability in MED than in ATL, but only with mtDNA CR-I sequence data (h=0.948±0.033; π=0.030±0.016. However, pairwise ΦST and FST values between ATL and MED were highly significant (P < 0.0001 with mtDNA CR-I (0.228 and with microsatellite data (0.095, respectively. While loss of genetic variability in FAR could be associated with the sampling error when the broodstock was established, the results of parental and sibship inference suggest that most of these losses can be attributed to a high variance in reproductive success among members of the broodstock, particularly among females.

  14. A Biotin Biosynthesis Gene Restricted to Helicobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Jia, Jia; Cronan, John E.

    2016-01-01

    In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections. PMID:26868423

  15. In- and outdoor reproduction of first generation common sole Solea solea under a natural photothermal regime: Temporal progression of sexual maturation assessed by monitoring plasma steroids and gonadotropin mRNA experssion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Blok, M.C.; Kals, J.; Blom, E.; Tuinhof-Koelma, N.; Dirks, R.P.; Forlenza, M.; Blonk, R.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction of many temperate fishes is seasonal and maturation and spawning of gametes are under photothermal control. Reproductive success of first generation (G1) common sole Solea solea in captivity has been low. In this study, the sexual maturation status has been assessed during the

  16. Ten-year technical and clinical outcomes in TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II infrainguinal C/D lesions using duplex ultrasound arterial mapping as the sole imaging modality for critical lower limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duplex ultrasound arterial mapping (DUAM) as the sole imaging modality when planning for bypass surgery (BS) and endovascular revascularization (EvR) in patients with critical limb ischemia for TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II C\\/D infrainguinal lesions.

  17. Sensory functions in the foot soles in victims of generalized torture, in victims also beaten under the feet (falanga) and in healthy controls - A blinded study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, Anja; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Falanga torture (beatings on the foot soles) produces local chronic pain and severe walking difficulties. We have previously reported signs of neuropathic pain in the feet of falanga victims. The objective here was to clarify underlying pain mechanisms by quantifying sensory impairmen...

  18. Factors influencing the attitudes of cattle veterinarians, farmers, and claw trimmers towards the pain associated with the treatment of sole ulcers and the sensitivity to pain of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Johanna; Reist, Martin; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of personnel involved in therapeutic claw trimming of dairy cattle in Switzerland towards pain associated with sole ulcers and their treatment. Data from 77 farmers, 32 claw trimmers, and 137 cattle veterinarians were used. A large range of factors were associated with whether the respondents thought that anaesthesia during the treatment of sole ulcers was beneficial; these included year of graduation, work experience, attitude to costs of analgesia, perception of competition between veterinarians and claw trimmers, estimation of pain level associated with treatment, estimated sensitivity of dairy cows to pain, knowledge of the obligation to provide analgesia, and whether the respondent thought lesion size and occurrence of defensive behaviour by the cow were important. Respondents' estimation of the pain level associated with sole ulcer treatment was linked to frequency of therapeutic claw trimming, age, farmers' income, estimated knowledge of the benefits of analgesia, and estimated sensitivity of dairy cows to pain. The latter factor was associated with profession, frequency of therapeutic claw trimming, capability of pain recognition, opinion on the benefits of analgesia, knowledge of the obligation to provide analgesia, and self-estimation of the ability to recognise pain. Improving the knowledge of personnel involved in therapeutic claw trimming with regard to pain in dairy cows and how to alleviate it is crucial if management of pain associated with treatment of sole ulcer and the welfare of lame cows are to be optimised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evapotranspiración y eficiencia en el uso de agua en intercultivos maíz-soja vs cultivos puros Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in maize-soybean intercrops and the sole crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Valenzuela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la evapotranspiración real (ETR y la eficiencia en el uso de agua (EUA del intercultivo maíz-soja bajo dos arreglos espaciales y en los respectivos cultivos puros. El experimento se realizó en la Unidad Integrada Balcarce Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP-EEA INTA durante la campaña 2007-08. Los tratamientos fueron: a Intercultivo con dos surcos de soja y uno de maíz (2_1, b intercultivo con tres surcos de soja y dos de maíz (3_2, c maíz puro (M y d soja pura (S. El cultivo de maíz se sembró el 18/10 y el de soja el 3/12. La ETR acumulada entre la emergencia de maíz y la madurez fisiológica de soja fue de 586,7, 564,8, 570,5 y 596,0 mm para 2_1, 3_2, M y S, respectivamente. La EUA en biomasa (EUA B resultó significativamente más alta en M (44,5 kg-1mm-1 que en S (18,6 kg ha-1mm-1, 2_1 (35,3 kg ha-1mm-1 y 3_2 (35,3 kg ha-1mm-1. La EUA B de S fue significativamente menor que en los intercultivos. Las EUA en grano fueron 21,2, 5,5, 16,9 y 17,0 kg ha-1mm-1 para M, S, 2_1 e 3_2, respectivamente. La significancia de las diferencias entre tratamientos coincidió con la descripta para la EUA B.This work studies the real evapotranspiration (RET and the water use efficiency (WUE in a maize-soybean intercrop with two spatial arrangements and in their sole crops. The experiment was conducted in the UIB, FCA-UNMdP EEA INTA during the 2007-2008 season. Treatments were: a 2 rows soybeans and 1 row maize intercrop (2_1, b 3 rows soybean and 2 rows maize intercrop (3_2, c sole maize and d sole soybean. Crops were sown on October 18 (maize and December 3 (soybean. RET accumulated from maize emergence to soybean physiological maturity was 586,7, 564,8, 570,5 y 596,0 mm for 2_1, 3_2, sole maize and sole soybean, respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE as the quotient between accumulated shoot biomass and RET was significantly higher in sole maize (44,5 kg ha-1mm-1 than in sole soybean (18,6 kg ha-1mm-1, 2_1 (35,3 kg ha-1mm

  20. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li-Ping; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Tang, Lei-Han

    2010-09-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Auto-Activation and Small RNA Regulation on Gene Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ping, Xiong; Yu-Qiang, Ma; Lei-Han, Tang

    2010-01-01

    Auto-activation and small ribonucleic acid (RNA)-mediated regulation are two important mechanisms in controlling gene expression. We study the synergistic effect of these two regulations on gene expression. It is found that under this combinatorial regulation, gene expression exhibits bistable behaviors at the transition regime, while each of these two regulations, if working solely, only leads to monostability. Within the stochastic framework, the base pairing strength between sRNA and mRNA plays an important role in controlling the transition time between on and off states. The noise strength of protein number in the off state approaches 1 and is smaller than that in the on state. The noise strength also depends on which parameters, the feedback strength or the synthesis rate of small RNA, are tuned in switching the gene expression on and off. Our findings may provide a new insight into gene-regulation mechanism and can be applied in synthetic biology

  2. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  3. The increased use of computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography as the sole imaging modalities prior to infrainguinal bypass has had no effect on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Bing; Damle, Rachelle N; Flahive, Julie; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Stone, David H; Patel, Virendra I; Schanzer, Andres; Baril, Donald T

    2015-08-01

    difference in 1 year primary patency (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.16), secondary patency (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.99-1.72), or MALE (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89-1.32). CTA and MRA are being increasingly used as the sole preoperative imaging modality before infrainguinal bypass. This shift in practice patterns appears to have no measurable effect on outcomes at 1 year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Temporary Inactivation of Nucleus Accumbens on Chronic Stress Induced by Electric Shock to the Sole of the Foot in Female NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nicaeili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Activity changes in the neurons of nucleus accumbens during stress have been previously identified. However, the role of nucleus accumbens in diminishing stress-induced side-effects is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens on stress-induced metabolic changes in female mice. METHODS: This experimental study was performed on 48 female NMRI mice with an average 27±3 g. The nucleus accumbens was unilaterally and bilaterally cannulated. After one week of recovery, 2% lidocaine or saline was administered in mice for four consecutive days (5 min per day before inducing electric shock to the sole of the foot. Plasma corticosterone level, food and water intake, and delay in eating were assessed as stress-induced metabolic parameters. FINDINGS: Stress lonely, caused an increase in plasma corticosterone (17±0.8 compared with the control group (4.5±0.3 (p<0.001. It also, caused an increase delay in eating (%218±9.8, p<0.01 and, decrease water (%80±4.5 and food (%84±5.5 intake (p<0.05. Temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens did not affect the stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone, and it suppressed the effect of stress on the amount of water intake; inactivation of the left nucleus accumbens was more effective (%195±7.6, p<0.01. Temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens neutralized the effect of stress on the amount of food intake. Temporary inactivation of the right nucleus accumbens augmented the effect of stress on delay in eating (%264±10.8, p<0.01, and inactivation of the left nucleus accumbens could suppress this effect. CONCLUSION: It seems that temporary inactivation of nucleus accumbens can be effective in diminishing stress-induced metabolic changes. However, this influence is indicative of asymmetry in the function of right and left nucleus accumbens. 

  5. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  6. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k + ) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k + gene expression where the H S V-1 t k + gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([ 18 F]F H P G; [ 18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([ 123 / 131 I]I V R F U; [ 124 / 131I ]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [ 123 / 131I ]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k + reporter gene will be presented

  7. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

  8. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Appetite for the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, Iztok; Poljsak, Borut; Simcic, Marjan; Tijskens, L M M

    2010-06-01

    In developed countries, where the majority of the population has enough income to afford healthy diets, a large number of the inhabitants nevertheless choose unhealthy nutrition. WHO and FAO strategies to overcome this problem are mostly based on educational means. Implicitly, this approach is based on the presumption that the main causes of the problem are ignorance and culturally acquired bad habits. It has already been shown that wild animals, evidently acting solely on instinct without cultural effects, display tendencies that may damage their longevity: they tend to avoid healthy types of caloric restriction, prefer processed to raw food, and have an excessive intake of food stimulants and proteins when available (Ostan et al., 2009). This paper presents evidence for such nutritional patterns in humans as well and broadens the discourse to include proteins and fats and describes some human biological traits that present important differences between humans and other primates; among them are the human tendency for overeating and the inadequacy of a totally raw diet for human consumption (despite having some advantages for the human immune system). From an evolutionary perspective these strategies offer a biological advantage by enhancing the reproductive capability of the organisms, according to Dawkins' theory of the Selfish Gene. Genomic-based pleasure of such nutrition seems to be the main cause of instinctive nutritional drives. Further research on the process of food acceptance is needed to determine the role and importance of genomic-based pleasure compared to epigenetic or culture-based pleasure. Both, however, seem to be important and very stable factors in human nutritional choice and seem to prevail over conscious factors in food acceptance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A deep auto-encoder model for gene expression prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Wen, Jia; Quitadamo, Andrew; Cheng, Jianlin; Shi, Xinghua

    2017-11-17

    Gene expression is a key intermediate level that genotypes lead to a particular trait. Gene expression is affected by various factors including genotypes of genetic variants. With an aim of delineating the genetic impact on gene expression, we build a deep auto-encoder model to assess how good genetic variants will contribute to gene expression changes. This new deep learning model is a regression-based predictive model based on the MultiLayer Perceptron and Stacked Denoising Auto-encoder (MLP-SAE). The model is trained using a stacked denoising auto-encoder for feature selection and a multilayer perceptron framework for backpropagation. We further improve the model by introducing dropout to prevent overfitting and improve performance. To demonstrate the usage of this model, we apply MLP-SAE to a real genomic datasets with genotypes and gene expression profiles measured in yeast. Our results show that the MLP-SAE model with dropout outperforms other models including Lasso, Random Forests and the MLP-SAE model without dropout. Using the MLP-SAE model with dropout, we show that gene expression quantifications predicted by the model solely based on genotypes, align well with true gene expression patterns. We provide a deep auto-encoder model for predicting gene expression from SNP genotypes. This study demonstrates that deep learning is appropriate for tackling another genomic problem, i.e., building predictive models to understand genotypes' contribution to gene expression. With the emerging availability of richer genomic data, we anticipate that deep learning models play a bigger role in modeling and interpreting genomics.

  11. Evolution of homeobox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter W H

    2013-01-01

    Many homeobox genes encode transcription factors with regulatory roles in animal and plant development. Homeobox genes are found in almost all eukaryotes, and have diversified into 11 gene classes and over 100 gene families in animal evolution, and 10 to 14 gene classes in plants. The largest group in animals is the ANTP class which includes the well-known Hox genes, plus other genes implicated in development including ParaHox (Cdx, Xlox, Gsx), Evx, Dlx, En, NK4, NK3, Msx, and Nanog. Genomic data suggest that the ANTP class diversified by extensive tandem duplication to generate a large array of genes, including an NK gene cluster and a hypothetical ProtoHox gene cluster that duplicated to generate Hox and ParaHox genes. Expression and functional data suggest that NK, Hox, and ParaHox gene clusters acquired distinct roles in patterning the mesoderm, nervous system, and gut. The PRD class is also diverse and includes Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, Pax4/6, Gsc, Hesx, Otx, Otp, and Pitx genes. PRD genes are not generally arranged in ancient genomic clusters, although the Dux, Obox, and Rhox gene clusters arose in mammalian evolution as did several non-clustered PRD genes. Tandem duplication and genome duplication expanded the number of homeobox genes, possibly contributing to the evolution of developmental complexity, but homeobox gene loss must not be ignored. Evolutionary changes to homeobox gene expression have also been documented, including Hox gene expression patterns shifting in concert with segmental diversification in vertebrates and crustaceans, and deletion of a Pitx1 gene enhancer in pelvic-reduced sticklebacks. WIREs Dev Biol 2013, 2:31-45. doi: 10.1002/wdev.78 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author declares that he has no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gene cluster statistics with gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Narayanan; Durand, Dannie

    2009-05-01

    Identifying genomic regions that descended from a common ancestor is important for understanding the function and evolution of genomes. In distantly related genomes, clusters of homologous gene pairs are evidence of candidate homologous regions. Demonstrating the statistical significance of such "gene clusters" is an essential component of comparative genomic analyses. However, currently there are no practical statistical tests for gene clusters that model the influence of the number of homologs in each gene family on cluster significance. In this work, we demonstrate empirically that failure to incorporate gene family size in gene cluster statistics results in overestimation of significance, leading to incorrect conclusions. We further present novel analytical methods for estimating gene cluster significance that take gene family size into account. Our methods do not require complete genome data and are suitable for testing individual clusters found in local regions, such as contigs in an unfinished assembly. We consider pairs of regions drawn from the same genome (paralogous clusters), as well as regions drawn from two different genomes (orthologous clusters). Determining cluster significance under general models of gene family size is computationally intractable. By assuming that all gene families are of equal size, we obtain analytical expressions that allow fast approximation of cluster probabilities. We evaluate the accuracy of this approximation by comparing the resulting gene cluster probabilities with cluster probabilities obtained by simulating a realistic, power-law distributed model of gene family size, with parameters inferred from genomic data. Surprisingly, despite the simplicity of the underlying assumption, our method accurately approximates the true cluster probabilities. It slightly overestimates these probabilities, yielding a conservative test. We present additional simulation results indicating the best choice of parameter values for data

  13. Carboxylesterase 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk

    2018-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase that metabolizes commonly used drugs. The CES1-related pseudogene, carboxylesterase 1 pseudogene 1 (CES1P1), has been implicated in gene exchange with CES1 and in the formation of hybrid genes including the carboxylesterase 1A2 gene (CES1A2...

  14. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 plus Interleukin-2-Stimulated canine B-Cell lymphoma cells reveals the loss of one X Chromosome as the sole abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Murua Escobar, H; Kiefer, Y; Mischke, R; Willenbrock, S; Eberle, N; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2011-01-01

    Human and canine lymphoid neoplasms are characterized by non-random cytogenetic abnormalities. However, due to the low mitotic activity of the B cells, cytogenetic analyses of B-cell lymphoid proliferations are difficult to perform. In the present study we stimulated canine B-cell lymphoma cells with the immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 in combination with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and obtained an adequate number of metaphases. Cytogenetic analyses revealed the loss of one X chromosome as the sole cytogenetic aberration. Chromosome analysis of the corresponding blood showed a normal female karyotype. Monosomy X as the sole clonal chromosomal abnormality is found in human hematopoietic malignancies as well, thus the dog may serve as a promising animal model. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Sensory functions in the foot soles in victims of generalized torture, in victims also beaten under the feet (falanga and in healthy controls – A blinded study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falanga torture (beatings on the foot soles produces local chronic pain and severe walking difficulties. We have previously reported signs of neuropathic pain in the feet of falanga victims. The objective here was to clarify underlying pain mechanisms by quantifying sensory impairments in the feet of torture victims who had experienced both generalized torture and those who had been exposed to falanga in addition. An ethnically matched control group was available. Methods We employed quantitative sensory testing (QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain as were interview data on sensory symptoms. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli in the foot soles. Clinical data on anxiety and depression were retrieved. Results Almost all falanga victims had moderate or strong pain in their feet and in twice as large an area of their foot soles as other torture victims. One-third of the latter had no pain in their feet and many reported slight pain; in spite of this, there were no differences in foot sole QST data between the tortured groups. A comparison with normal data indicated that both tortured groups had hypoesthesia for all cutaneous sensory fibre groups except those transmitting cold and heat pain, in addition to deep mechano-nociceptive hyperalgesia. Conclusion A comparison of the QST data between victims having been exposed to generalized torture and victims who in addition had been exposed to falanga, showed no differences on the group level. The sensory disturbances in relation to our control group are compatible with central sensitization and de-sensitization, pointing to a core role of central mechanisms. A further analysis to create individual

  17. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  18. Desempenho agroeconômico do bicultivo de alface em sistema solteiro e consorciado com cenoura Agrieconomic performance of lettuce under bicropping, sole crop and intercropped with carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Q. de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    ções', tiveram os melhores indicadores agroeconômicos, com índices de uso eficiente da terra de 2,16 e 2,15, taxas de retorno de 2,05 e 2,33, e índices de lucratividade de 53,92% e 59,83%, respectivamente.Two experiments were carried out from September to May 2002, in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, to evaluate the agrieconomic performance of two lettuce groups under bicropping, sole crop and intercropping system with two carrot cultivars (Alvorada and Brasília in a strip-intercropping arrangement. The experimental design was of group balanced blocks with four replications. The evaluated lettuce cvs. were from the crispleaf group (Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel and Verônica and looseleaf group (Babá de Verão, Maravilha das Quatro Estações, Elisa and Carolina. In the intercropping experiment, the split-plot scheme was used. In the plots the carrot cvs. were assigned and in the subplots the lettuce cvs. of both groups. From the lettuce cvs. were obtained data of leaf yield and, for the carrot cvs. were obtained total and commercial yield, besides the root classes. Agrieconomic indices such as land equivalent ratio, gross and net income, monetary advantage, rate of return and profit margin were used to measure the efficiency of intercropping systems. No significant interaction was obtained between carrot and lettuce cvs. in yield of both crops. Carrot cvs. did not influence crop yield and lettuce cvs. had no influence on carrot yield. In the bicropping of lettuce with carrot, the cvs. Lucy Brown and Tainá (crispleaf group and Babá de Verão and Maravilha das Quatro Estações (looseleaf group had presented the best yield performance in the first planting. In the second planting, only cv. Maravilha das Quatro Estações of looseleaf lettuce group had presented the best performance under intercropping. Lettuce cvs. of crispleaf group intercropped with carrot had presented the best yield performance when compared to those of the looseleaf group. The intercropping

  19. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  20. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  1. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  2. Independent Evaluation of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy in Malawi Using a National Evaluation Platform Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Kanyuka, Mercy; Hazel, Elizabeth; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Marsh, Andrew; Mleme, Tiope; Munthali, Spy; Park, Lois; Banda, Benjamin; Moulton, Lawrence H; Black, Robert E; Hill, Kenneth; Perin, Jamie; Victora, Cesar G; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) on careseeking for childhood illness and child mortality in Malawi, using a National Evaluation Platform dose-response design with 27 districts as units of analysis. "Dose" variables included density of iCCM providers, drug availability, and supervision, measured through a cross-sectional cellular telephone survey of all iCCM-trained providers. "Response" variables were changes between 2010 and 2014 in careseeking and mortality in children aged 2-59 months, measured through household surveys. iCCM implementation strength was not associated with changes in careseeking or mortality. There were fewer than one iCCM-ready provider per 1,000 under-five children per district. About 70% of sick children were taken outside the home for care in both 2010 and 2014. Careseeking from iCCM providers increased over time from about 2% to 10%; careseeking from other providers fell by a similar amount. Likely contributors to the failure to find impact include low density of iCCM providers, geographic targeting of iCCM to "hard-to-reach" areas although women did not identify distance from a provider as a barrier to health care, and displacement of facility careseeking by iCCM careseeking. This suggests that targeting iCCM solely based on geographic barriers may need to be reconsidered. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Functional characterization of diverse ring-hydroxylating oxygenases and induction of complex aromatic catabolic gene clusters in Sphingobium sp. PNB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratick Khara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingobium sp. PNB, like other sphingomonads, has multiple ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO genes. Three different fosmid clones have been sequenced to identify the putative genes responsible for the degradation of various aromatics in this bacterial strain. Comparison of the map of the catabolic genes with that of different sphingomonads revealed a similar arrangement of gene clusters that harbors seven sets of RHO terminal components and a sole set of electron transport (ET proteins. The presence of distinctly conserved amino acid residues in ferredoxin and in silico molecular docking analyses of ferredoxin with the well characterized terminal oxygenase components indicated the structural uniqueness of the ET component in sphingomonads. The predicted substrate specificities, derived from the phylogenetic relationship of each of the RHOs, were examined based on transformation of putative substrates and their structural homologs by the recombinant strains expressing each of the oxygenases and the sole set of available ET proteins. The RHO AhdA1bA2b was functionally characterized for the first time and was found to be capable of transforming ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, cumene, p-cymene and biphenyl, in addition to a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Overexpression of aromatic catabolic genes in strain PNB, revealed by real-time PCR analyses, is a way forward to understand the complex regulation of degradative genes in sphingomonads.

  4. Radiotechnologies and gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy is an exciting frontier in medicine today. Radiologist will make an uniquely contribution to these exciting new technologies at every level by choosing sites for targeting therapy, perfecting and establishing routes of delivery, developing imaging strategies to monitor therapy and assess gene expression, developing radiotherapeutic used of gene therapy

  5. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  6. Genes on B chromosomes: old questions revisited with new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaei-Moghaddam, Ali M; Martis, Mihaela M; Macas, Jiří; Gundlach, Heidrun; Himmelbach, Axel; Altschmied, Lothar; Mayer, Klaus F X; Houben, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable parts of the karyotype which appear in some individuals of some populations in some species. Often, they have been considered as 'junk DNA' or genomic parasites without functional genes. Due to recent advances in sequencing technologies, it became possible to investigate their DNA composition, transcriptional activity and effects on the host transcriptome profile in detail. Here, we review the most recent findings regarding the gene content of B chromosomes and their transcriptional activities and discuss these findings in the context of comparable biological phenomena, like sex chromosomes, aneuploidy and pseudogenes. Recent data suggest that B chromosomes carry transcriptionally active genic sequences which could affect the transcriptome profile of their host genome. These findings are gradually changing our view that B chromosomes are solely genetically inert selfish elements without any functional genes. This at one side could partly explain the deleterious effects which are associated with their presence. On the other hand it makes B chromosome a nice model for studying regulatory mechanisms of duplicated genes and their evolutionary consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. BRAKER1: Unsupervised RNA-Seq-Based Genome Annotation with GeneMark-ET and AUGUSTUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Katharina J; Lange, Simone; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Stanke, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Gene finding in eukaryotic genomes is notoriously difficult to automate. The task is to design a work flow with a minimal set of tools that would reach state-of-the-art performance across a wide range of species. GeneMark-ET is a gene prediction tool that incorporates RNA-Seq data into unsupervised training and subsequently generates ab initio gene predictions. AUGUSTUS is a gene finder that usually requires supervised training and uses information from RNA-Seq reads in the prediction step. Complementary strengths of GeneMark-ET and AUGUSTUS provided motivation for designing a new combined tool for automatic gene prediction. We present BRAKER1, a pipeline for unsupervised RNA-Seq-based genome annotation that combines the advantages of GeneMark-ET and AUGUSTUS. As input, BRAKER1 requires a genome assembly file and a file in bam-format with spliced alignments of RNA-Seq reads to the genome. First, GeneMark-ET performs iterative training and generates initial gene structures. Second, AUGUSTUS uses predicted genes for training and then integrates RNA-Seq read information into final gene predictions. In our experiments, we observed that BRAKER1 was more accurate than MAKER2 when it is using RNA-Seq as sole source for training and prediction. BRAKER1 does not require pre-trained parameters or a separate expert-prepared training step. BRAKER1 is available for download at http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/bioinf/braker/ and http://exon.gatech.edu/GeneMark/ katharina.hoff@uni-greifswald.de or borodovsky@gatech.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  9. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  10. In- and outdoor reproduction of first generation common sole Solea solea under a natural photothermal regime: Temporal progression of sexual maturation assessed by monitoring plasma steroids and gonadotropin mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, A P; Blok, M C; Kals, J; Blom, E; Tuinhof-Koelma, N; Dirks, R P; Forlenza, M; Blonk, R J W

    2015-09-15

    Reproduction of many temperate fishes is seasonal and maturation and spawning of gametes are under photothermal control. Reproductive success of first generation (G1) common sole Solea solea in captivity has been low. In this study, the sexual maturation status has been assessed during the prespawning months in G1 sole that were housed (a) outdoor under the natural photoperiod and temperature, or (b) indoor under artificial photothermal induction. Maturation was assessed in male and female G1 broodstock in November as controls, after which the remaining population was divided over two outdoor flow-through tanks placed in a pond and two indoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) tanks. Subsequently, maturation status (gonadosomatic index GSI and plasma levels of testosterone T and 17β-estradiol E2) was assessed in one tank for each condition in January, February and during spawning in early April, while fish in the other tank were not disturbed in achieving reproductive success. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine species-specific gonadotropin mRNA expression in females. Successful G1 spawning and egg fertilisation occurred in all experimental tanks. Gonadal development was similar under both conditions. Higher E2 and T levels were found in indoor housed females. Gonadotropin expression revealed similar profiles between outdoor and indoor housed females. G1 sole could be reproduced in the outdoor tanks under the natural photoperiod and in the indoor tanks under artificial simulation of this regime that includes a potentially crucial chilling period of 2-3 months at 5-7 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth and condition of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. as indicators of habitat quality in coastal and estuarine nurseries in the Bay of Biscay with a focus on sites exposed to Erika oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Gilliers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of growth and condition were used to compare the habitat quality of nurseries of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. in the Bay of Biscay, based on one survey in 2000. The four biological indicators are poorly correlated with each other, suggesting that no single measure may give an adequate description of fish health and of its habitat’s quality. Growth indicators showed significant differences between northern and southern areas. Juveniles from the two southernmost nurseries, the Gironde estuary and the Pertuis Antioche, displayed significant lower otolith increment widths and mean sizes. These differences were inversely related to water temperature and unrelated to genetic or age differences, and are unlikely to be due to limiting trophic conditions in the nurseries. Hence, they may be considered in terms of differences in habitat quality and potential anthropogenic impacts. Condition indices do not show this north-south pattern but highlight low condition values in the Pertuis Antioche. Short-term and fluctuating biochemical indicators such as RNA/DNA ratios appeared to be unreliable over a long-term study, while morphometric indices seemed to be relevant, complementary indicators as they integrate the whole juvenile life-history of sole in the nurseries. The growth and condition indices of juveniles in September 2000 from nursery grounds exposed to the Erika oil spill in December 1999 were relatively high. These results lead us to suggest that there was no obvious impact of this event on the health of juvenile sole and on the quality of the exposed nursery grounds a few months after the event.

  12. Gene expression profiling of cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sequence of events leading to wound repair has been described at the cellular and, to a limited extent, at the protein level this process has yet to be fully elucidated. Genome wide transcriptional analysis tools promise to further define the global picture of this complex progression of events. Study Design This study was part of a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial in which basal cell carcinomas were treated topically with an immunomodifier – toll-like receptor 7 agonist: imiquimod. The fourteen patients with basal cell carcinoma in the placebo arm of the trial received placebo treatment consisting solely of vehicle cream. A skin punch biopsy was obtained immediately before treatment and at the end of the placebo treatment (after 2, 4 or 8 days. 17.5K cDNA microarrays were utilized to profile the biopsy material. Results Four gene signatures whose expression changed relative to baseline (before wound induction by the pre-treatment biopsy were identified. The largest group was comprised predominantly of inflammatory genes whose expression was increased throughout the study. Two additional signatures were observed which included preferentially pro-inflammatory genes in the early post-treatment biopsies (2 days after pre-treatment biopsies and repair and angiogenesis genes in the later (4 to 8 days biopsies. The fourth and smallest set of genes was down-regulated throughout the study. Early in wound healing the expression of markers of both M1 and M2 macrophages were increased, but later M2 markers predominated. Conclusion The initial response to a cutaneous wound induces powerful transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory stimuli which may alert the host defense. Subsequently and in the absence of infection, inflammation subsides and it is replaced by angiogenesis and remodeling. Understanding this transition which may be driven by a change from a mixed macrophage population to predominately M2

  13. The influence of dietary concentrations of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid at various stages of larval ontogeny on eye migration, pigmentation and prostaglandin content of common sole larvae ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Banta, G.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary manipulations of arachidonic acid, ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA may have an influence on pigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L., Linnaeus 1758) which may be related to a "pigmentation window". This is a specific period in the larval ontogeny where nutritional factors...... metamorphosis. Initiation of metamorphosis (i.e. start of eye migration) was related to the size of larvae and not related to ARA or EPA content. Dietary EPA or DHA did not retard the advance of eye migration. More than 90 % of highly malpigmented juveniles, (i.e. "albinos") had a permanent aberrant eye...

  14. The map-1 gene family in root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.: a set of taxonomically restricted genes specific to clonal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Tomalova

    Full Text Available Taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs, i.e., genes that are restricted to a limited subset of phylogenetically related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, TRG-encoded proteins are possible determinants of the specificity of host-parasite interactions. In the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita, the map-1 gene family encodes expansin-like proteins that are secreted into plant tissues during parasitism, thought to act as effectors to promote successful root infection. MAP-1 proteins exhibit a modular architecture, with variable number and arrangement of 58 and 13-aa domains in their central part. Here, we address the evolutionary origins of this gene family using a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. Map-1 genes were solely identified in one single member of the phylum Nematoda, i.e., the genus Meloidogyne, and not detected in any other nematode, thus indicating that the map-1 gene family is indeed a TRG family. A phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of map-1 genes in RKNs further showed that these genes are specifically present in species that reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, with the exception of M. floridensis, and could not be detected in RKNs reproducing by either meiotic parthenogenesis or amphimixis. These results highlight the divergence between mitotic and meiotic RKN species as a critical transition in the evolutionary history of these parasites. Analysis of the sequence conservation and organization of repeated domains in map-1 genes suggests that gene duplication(s together with domain loss/duplication have contributed to the evolution of the map-1 family, and that some strong selection mechanism may be acting upon these genes to maintain their functional role(s in the specificity of the plant-RKN interactions.

  15. Primetime for Learning Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-02-11

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene ( BDNF ), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be "poised" for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli.

  16. High-throughput Microarray Detection of Vomeronasal Receptor Gene Expression in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed comprehensive data mining to explore the vomeronasal receptor (V1R & V2R repertoires in mouse and rat using the mm5 and rn3 genome, respectively. This bioinformatic analysis was followed by investigation of gene expression using a custom designed high-density oligonucleotide array containing all of these receptors and other selected genes of interest. This array enabled us to detect the specific expression of V1R and V2Rs which were previously identified solely based on computational prediction from gene sequence data, thereby establishing that these genes are indeed part of the vomeronasal system, especially the V2Rs. 168 V1Rs and 98 V2Rs were detected to be highly enriched in mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO, and 108 V1Rs and 87 V2Rs in rat VNO. We monitored the expression profile of mouse VR genes in other non-VNO tissues with the result that some VR genes were re-designated as VR-like genes based on their non-olfactory expression pattern. Temporal expression profiles for mouse VR genes were characterized and their patterns were classified, revealing the developmental dynamics of these so-called pheromone receptors. We found numerous patterns of temporal expression which indicate possible behavior-related functions. The uneven composition of VR genes in certain patterns suggests a functional differentiation between the two types of VR genes. We found the coherence between VR genes and transcription factors in terms of their temporal expression patterns. In situ hybridization experiments were performed to evaluate the cell number change over time for selected receptor genes.

  17. The use of acetonitrile as the sole nitrogen and carbon source by Geotrichum sp. JR1 Uso de acetonitrila como única fonte de carbono e nitrogênio por Geotrichum sp. JR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Passos Rezende

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A yeast strain identified as Geotrichum sp. JR1 was able to use acetonitrile as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The strain grew in 0.5 to 2M acetonitrile. Ammonia generation as enzymatic product during the strain growth indicates the presence of an acetonitrile degrading enzyme. Acetic acid and acetamide were detected during assays with the resting cells cultivated in acetonitrile, indicating the presence of nitrile and amide degrading enzymes. This paper is the first to describe the use of acetonitrile as the sole carbon and nitrogen source by a yeast.Uma linhagem de levedura identificada como Geotrichum sp. JR1 foi capaz de utilizar acetonitrila, em concentrações de 0,5 a 2M, como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio. A geração de amônia durante o crescimento do microrganismo indica a presença de sistema enzimático capaz de degradar acetonitrila. Durante os ensaios enzimáticos, com células cultivadas em acetonitrila, foram detectados ácido acético e acetamida como produtos indicando a presença de sistema enzimático capaz de degradar acetonitrila e acetamida. Este trabalho é o primeiro a descrever a utilização de acetonitrila como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio por uma levedura.

  18. Identification of genes specifically required for the anaerobic metabolism of benzene in Geobacter metallireducens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Although the biochemical pathways for the anaerobic degradation of many of the hydrocarbon constituents in petroleum reservoirs have been elucidated, the mechanisms for anaerobic activation of benzene, a very stable molecule, are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that Geobacter...... metallireducens can anaerobically oxidize benzene to carbon dioxide with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor and that phenol is an intermediate in benzene oxidation. In an attempt to identify enzymes that might be involved in the conversion of benzene to phenol, whole-genome gene transcript abundance...... was compared in cells metabolizing benzene and cells metabolizing phenol. Eleven genes had significantly higher transcript abundance in benzene-metabolizing cells. Five of these genes had annotations suggesting that they did not encode proteins that could be involved in benzene metabolism and were not further...

  19. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  20. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  2. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candy M Taylor

    Full Text Available Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC, Helicase (HEL, and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other

  3. Identification of two gene clusters and a transcriptional regulator required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycine betaine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Matthew J; Szwergold, Benjamin S; Hogan, Deborah A

    2008-04-01

    Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twelve mutants defective in growth on GB as the sole carbon source were identified through a genetic screen of a nonredundant PA14 transposon mutant library. Further growth experiments showed that strains with mutations in two genes, gbcA (PA5410) and gbcB (PA5411), were capable of growth on dimethylglycine (DMG), a catabolic product of GB, but not on GB itself. Subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with 1,2-(13)C-labeled choline indicated that these genes are necessary for conversion of GB to DMG. Similar experiments showed that strains with mutations in the dgcAB (PA5398-PA5399) genes, which exhibit homology to genes that encode other enzymes with demethylase activity, are required for the conversion of DMG to sarcosine. Mutant analyses and (13)C NMR studies also confirmed that the soxBDAG genes, predicted to encode a sarcosine oxidase, are required for sarcosine catabolism. Our screen also identified a predicted AraC family transcriptional regulator, encoded by gbdR (PA5380), that is required for growth on GB and DMG and for the induction of gbcA, gbcB, and dgcAB in response to GB or DMG. Mutants defective in the previously described gbt gene (PA3082) grew on GB with kinetics similar to those of the wild type in both the PAO1 and PA14 strain backgrounds. These studies provided important insight into both the mechanism and the regulation of the catabolism of GB in P. aeruginosa.

  4. Identification and Heterologous Expression of Genes Involved in Anaerobic Dissimilatory Phosphite Oxidation by Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Wilson, Marlena Marie; Metcalf, William W.; Schink, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans is a strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes phosphite as the sole electron source for homoacetogenic CO2 reduction or sulfate reduction. A genomic library of D. phosphitoxidans, constructed using the fosmid vector pJK050, was screened for clones harboring the genes involved in phosphite oxidation via PCR using primers developed based on the amino acid sequences of phosphite-induced proteins. Sequence analysis of two positive clones revealed a putative operon of seven genes predicted to be involved in phosphite oxidation. Four of these genes (ptxD-ptdFCG) were cloned and heterologously expressed in Desulfotignum balticum, a related strain that cannot use phosphite as either an electron donor or as a phosphorus source. The ptxD-ptdFCG gene cluster was sufficient to confer phosphite uptake and oxidation ability to the D. balticum host strain but did not allow use of phosphite as an electron donor for chemolithotrophic growth. Phosphite oxidation activity was measured in cell extracts of D. balticum transconjugants, suggesting that all genes required for phosphite oxidation were cloned. Genes of the phosphite gene cluster were assigned putative functions on the basis of sequence analysis and enzyme assays. PMID:20622064

  5. Identification and heterologous expression of genes involved in anaerobic dissimilatory phosphite oxidation by Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diliana Dancheva; Wilson, Marlena Marie; Metcalf, William W; Schink, Bernhard

    2010-10-01

    Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans is a strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes phosphite as the sole electron source for homoacetogenic CO2 reduction or sulfate reduction. A genomic library of D. phosphitoxidans, constructed using the fosmid vector pJK050, was screened for clones harboring the genes involved in phosphite oxidation via PCR using primers developed based on the amino acid sequences of phosphite-induced proteins. Sequence analysis of two positive clones revealed a putative operon of seven genes predicted to be involved in phosphite oxidation. Four of these genes (ptxD-ptdFCG) were cloned and heterologously expressed in Desulfotignum balticum, a related strain that cannot use phosphite as either an electron donor or as a phosphorus source. The ptxD-ptdFCG gene cluster was sufficient to confer phosphite uptake and oxidation ability to the D. balticum host strain but did not allow use of phosphite as an electron donor for chemolithotrophic growth. Phosphite oxidation activity was measured in cell extracts of D. balticum transconjugants, suggesting that all genes required for phosphite oxidation were cloned. Genes of the phosphite gene cluster were assigned putative functions on the basis of sequence analysis and enzyme assays.

  6. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae: Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupei Jin

    Full Text Available The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  7. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae): Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yupei; Wang, Yubing; Zhang, Dechun; Shen, Xiangling; Liu, Wen; Chen, Faju

    2017-01-01

    The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  8. Chromatin loops, gene positioning, and gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, S.; de Laat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments and intense research over the last years have led to a better understanding of the 3D structure of the genome and its influence on genome function inside the cell nucleus. We will summarize topological studies performed on four model gene loci: the alpha- and beta-globin

  9. Alternative splicing and differential gene expression in colon cancer detected by a whole genome exon array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugnet Charles

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing protein diversity by excluding or including exons during post-transcriptional processing. Alternatively spliced proteins are particularly relevant in oncology since they may contribute to the etiology of cancer, provide selective drug targets, or serve as a marker set for cancer diagnosis. While conventional identification of splice variants generally targets individual genes, we present here a new exon-centric array (GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST that allows genome-wide identification of differential splice variation, and concurrently provides a flexible and inclusive analysis of gene expression. Results We analyzed 20 paired tumor-normal colon cancer samples using a microarray designed to detect over one million putative exons that can be virtually assembled into potential gene-level transcripts according to various levels of prior supporting evidence. Analysis of high confidence (empirically supported transcripts identified 160 differentially expressed genes, with 42 genes occupying a network impacting cell proliferation and another twenty nine genes with unknown functions. A more speculative analysis, including transcripts based solely on computational prediction, produced another 160 differentially expressed genes, three-fourths of which have no previous annotation. We also present a comparison of gene signal estimations from the Exon 1.0 ST and the U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Novel splicing events were predicted by experimental algorithms that compare the relative contribution of each exon to the cognate transcript intensity in each tissue. The resulting candidate splice variants were validated with RT-PCR. We found nine genes that were differentially spliced between colon tumors and normal colon tissues, several of which have not been previously implicated in cancer. Top scoring candidates from our analysis were also found to substantially overlap with EST-based bioinformatic

  10. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  11. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  12. Antisense gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied...

  13. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  14. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  15. Self-excising Cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silai; Ban, Akihiko; Ebara, Naoki; Mizutani, Osamu; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a self-excising Cre/loxP-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into Aspergillus oryzae. To construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the Aspergillus nidulans adeA gene, and the Cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. However, construction of the plasmid failed, possibly owing to a slight expression of cre downstream of the fungal gene promoter in Escherichia coli. Hence, to avoid the excision of the cassette in E. coli, a 71-bp intron of the A. oryzae xynG2 gene was inserted into the cre gene. The A. oryzae adeA deletion mutant was transformed with the resulting plasmid in the presence of glucose, and the transformants were cultured in medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from resultant colonies revealed the excision of both the marker and Cre expression construct, indicating that the self-excising marker cassette was efficient at removing the selectable marker. Using the marker recycling system, hyperproduction of kojic acid could be achieved in A. oryzae by the introduction of two genes that encode oxidoreductase and transporter. Furthermore, we also constructed an alternative marker recycling cassette bearing the A. nidulans pyrithiamine resistant gene (ptrA) as a dominant selectable marker. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  17. Methanogenesis and methane genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, J.N.; Shref, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the pathways leading to methane biosynthesis is presented. The steps investigated to date by gene cloning and DNA sequencing procedures are identified and discussed. The primary structures of component C of methyl coenzyme M reductase encoded by mcr operons in different methanogens are compared. Experiments to detect the primary structure of the genes encoding F420 reducing hydrogenase (frhABG) and methyl hydrogen reducing hydrogenase (mvhDGA) in methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain H are compared with each other and with eubacterial hydrogenase encoding genes. A biotechnological use for hydrogenases from hypermorphillic archaebacteria is suggested. (author)

  18. EDITORIAL: `Il sole - no si move'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-05-01

    The Sun may not have moved for Galileo but it is certain that this coming August the Sun will have moved millions of folk towards a thin strip of land about 100 km wide stretching from Cornwall to the Indian Ocean. If you have yet to book your place for the biggest live show of this millennium year there are still places in hotels and campsites. The April edition of the UK camping and caravaning club magazine included at least four sites in Cornwall alone with vacancies. I am told that the difference between seeing a 98% eclipse and totality is considerably greater than 2%. The message appears to be - try to get to the line. However, a popular misconception among lay folk seems to be that you will only be able to see the event in Cornwall. As you will read in this issue the partial event will be visible from virtually the whole of Europe. Anyone who has tried to holiday in Cornwall or Devon will tell you how congested the roads become in any ordinary August. The best advice for this year is either to travel to the south west by bicycle or attack the totality path as it crosses Europe. Access will be much easier. For my part I have booked a hotel in Trier, Germany, about 20 km north of the totality path. An early breakfast on the 11th should leave enough time to motorcycle down to see the shadow. Of course, the whole business is weather dependent. With the chance of a clear sky in Cornwall, Devon and most of western Europe being about 50% on the date in question, forward planning depends on whether you are a `half empty' or a `half full' person. It is worth keeping this fact in mind especially if you drag an expectant family hundreds of miles through traffic just to watch the clouds drift by. Take a colouring book and a board game just in case. Of course, the chance of a clear sky increases to about 90% across Turkey but there are reasons why such a trip might not be so wise in the current political climate. In this special issue readers will find plenty to interest them about the eclipse event but also much of additional interest about the physics of the Sun. Seek out Richard Harrison's article for an up-to-the-minute report on the information gathered from the SOHO mission. Clare Parnell from St Andrews takes readers on an excursion into the Sun's interior, revealing a structure beyond what meets the eye. For those planning an eclipse excursion Gerry Bond offers his wisdom about how to make the most of the event. A second view is offered from Francisco Diego, whose research interest focuses on the solar corona. In his article you will read an almost spiritual account of the magic of witnessing a total solar eclipse. For those looking for ideas to use with students David Sang introduces us to two substantial curriculum resource packs published jointly by PPARC and the ASE. For those with a more practical bent there are guidelines to help you to create a millennium sundial to adorn your home or place of work and an article from Australia that supports our understanding of longitude and time. I should also point out that our reviews section has a distinctly solar flavour for this special issue. There will be much more to read about the Sun and the eclipse in the coming months. Teacher journals, commemorative booklets, T-shirts, badges and videos all sporting Eclipse '99 messages are already on the market. The most observed eclipse in history is about to happen and there is no doubt in my mind that on the crest of this wave will ride future aspirations of many pupils and students. The wave will pass and enthusiasm might fade, supernova-like, into history, but for a few years there will be a heightened sensitivity in the public domain about space, the sky and astronomy. I wouldn't be surprised if applications to degrees in astrophysics might increase in number, as perhaps will the sale of filters and the membership of local astronomical societies. One route to astrophysics is of course via physics at school. Can we hope that 11 August might mark a date for a revival of interest in physics? Perhaps we can. And if not, then we can always make a sundial.

  19. Is refinancing solely motivated by misappropriation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Misappropriation has become the accepted explanation for the refinancing behavior of Chinese listed companies, although the evidence in support of such an explanation is worthy of further discussion. We argue that if a planned refinancing exercise does not become a reality, post-refinancing performance depends on the initial motivation for refinancing, i.e. misappropriation or the maximization of firm value. The success and failure samples provided by the approval system of the Chinese securities market provide us with a natural laboratory in which to distinguish between these two possible motivations for the refinancing behavior of Chinese listed firms. The results show the post-refinancing performance of firms in the success sample to be significantly better than the performance in the failure sample, with the difference even more significant when larger agency costs or more financial constraints exist. These findings indicate that Chinese listed companies do not engage in refinancing for misappropriation purposes alone. Rather, refinancing is more likely to be a rational choice made in full consideration of the costs and benefits. This paper provides new ideas for reexamining the motivations for the refinancing behavior of China’s listed firms. It also has one major policy implication. That is, relaxing and/or simplifying the country’s refinancing regulations could help to improve the efficiency of resource allocation in the Chinese securities market.

  20. 32 CFR 700.311 - Sole responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Acquisition; (2) Auditing; (3) Comptroller (including financial management); (4) Information management; (5... Executive and Senior Department of the Navy Information Resource Management Official. Responsibilities..., production, shipbuilding and production/logistics support programs; and Department of the Navy international...