WorldWideScience

Sample records for sole aqueous conduit

  1. EPA Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information on sole source aquifers (SSAs) is widely used in assessments under the National Environmental Policy Act and at the state and local level. A national...

  2. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  3. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  4. Sealing a conduit end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentz, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing or blocking conduits, such as the primary nozzles of a nuclear steam generator is described. It includes an annular bracket sealingly attached to the open end of the nozzle, the bracket having a plurality of threaded holes therein. Mounted atop the bracket is a generally circular nozzle dam for covering the opening. Interposed between the nozzle dam and the bracket is an extrusion-resistant seal member having a plurality of apertures therethrough for receiving each bolt. The seal member is configured to resist extrusion by having laminated layers of differing hardnesses, so that the seal member will not laterally extrude away from each bolt in a manner that enlarges the aperture surrounding each bolt as the nozzle dam is bolted to the bracket. (author)

  5. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  6. The corrosion effect on the conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaidi, Naouar; Belattar, Sougratti

    2009-01-01

    The conduits in the buildings require a regular and permanent control, in order to avoid the risks of deterioration caused by the corrosion or the escape of water. In this work, we present a thermal nondestructive testing method of concrete structures containing water conduits, based on numerical modeling in three dimensions. The goal is to study the detectability of these conduits in different situations and to give a thermal characterization of the rust behaviour in the steel conduits. (author)

  7. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  8. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  9. Conduit for regeneration of biological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a conduit comprising a first material, having 1) a through-going hole, 2) fibers aligned along the long-axis in the through-going hole, each fiber having a diameter in the range 200-2000 nm. The conduit is preferably for regeneration of biological material, even...

  10. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduit systems. 32.2441 Section 32.2441 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2441 Conduit systems. (a...

  11. Bentall Operation with Valved Homograft Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shiv K.; Talwar, Sachin; Kumar, A. Sampath

    2000-01-01

    Lesions of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease are usually treated by implanting a prosthetic valved conduit (Bentall procedure). In this report, we present our experience in which a valved homograft conduit was used for the procedure. Six patients underwent a Bentall procedure with the use of a cryopreserved valved homograft conduit. Two of the patients had annuloaortic ectasia, 2 had Marfan syndrome, and 1 had an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the aorta. One patient had severe aortic stenosis due to a bicuspid aortic valve, along with an aneurysm and localized dissection of the ascending aorta. In all of the patients, the aortic annulus was substantially dilated, with accompanying moderate-to-severe aortic regurgitation. A standard procedure was performed with moderate hypothermia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and aortic and bicaval cannulation. The ascending aorta and the aortic valve were replaced with a cryopreserved valved homograft conduit (aortic in 5 patients and pulmonary in 1). The native coronary ostia were anastomosed directly to the homograft. Echocardiography, which was performed intraoperatively, before discharge from the hospital, and at follow-up visits (1 to 36 months), revealed good valve function without dilatation of the homograft conduits. There was 1 late death due to Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis, 6 months postoperatively. In 1 patient, magnetic resonance imaging performed at 24 months revealed normal caliber of the homograft conduit. We conclude that the Bentall procedure can be performed, safely and with excellent results, using cryopreserved homograft conduits. PMID:11198310

  12. Conduit enlargement in an eogenetic karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul J.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Neuhoff, Philip S.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryMost concepts of conduit development have focused on telogenetic karst aquifers, where low matrix permeability focuses flow and dissolution along joints, fractures, and bedding planes. However, conduits also exist in eogenetic karst aquifers, despite high matrix permeability which accounts for a significant component of flow. This study investigates dissolution within a 6-km long conduit system in the eogenetic Upper Floridan aquifer of north-central Florida that begins with a continuous source of allogenic recharge at the Santa Fe River Sink and discharges from a first-magnitude spring at the Santa Fe River Rise. Three sources of water to the conduit include the allogenic recharge, diffuse recharge through epikarst, and mineralized water upwelling from depth. Results of sampling and inverse modeling using PHREEQC suggest that dissolution within the conduit is episodic, occurring only during 30% of 16 sampling times between March 2003 and April 2007. During low flow conditions, carbonate saturated water flows from the matrix to the conduit, restricting contact between undersaturated allogenic water with the conduit wall. When gradients reverse during high flow conditions, undersaturated allogenic recharge enters the matrix. During these limited periods, estimates of dissolution within the conduit suggest wall retreat averages about 4 × 10 -6 m/day, in agreement with upper estimates of maximum wall retreat for telogenetic karst. Because dissolution is episodic, time-averaged dissolution rates in the sink-rise system results in a wall retreat rate of about 7 × 10 -7 m/day, which is at the lower end of wall retreat for telogenetic karst. Because of the high permeability matrix, conduits in eogenetic karst thus enlarge not just at the walls of fractures or pre-existing conduits such as those in telogenetic karst, but also may produce a friable halo surrounding the conduits that may be removed by additional mechanical processes. These observations stress the

  13. Stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Dowd, Peter A.; Xu, Chaoshui; Durán-Valsero, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Karst aquifers have very high spatial heterogeneity. Essentially, they comprise a system of pipes (i.e., the network of conduits) superimposed on rock porosity and on a network of stratigraphic surfaces and fractures. This heterogeneity strongly influences the hydraulic behavior of the karst and it must be reproduced in any realistic numerical model of the karst system that is used as input to flow and transport modeling. However, the directly observed karst conduits are only a small part of the complete karst conduit system and knowledge of the complete conduit geometry and topology remains spatially limited and uncertain. Thus, there is a special interest in the stochastic simulation of networks of conduits that can be combined with fracture and rock porosity models to provide a realistic numerical model of the karst system. Furthermore, the simulated model may be of interest per se and other uses could be envisaged. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient method for conditional and non-conditional stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks. The method comprises two stages: generation of conduit geometry and generation of topology. The approach adopted is a combination of a resampling method for generating conduit geometries from templates and a modified diffusion-limited aggregation method for generating the network topology. The authors show that the 3D karst conduit networks generated by the proposed method are statistically similar to observed karst conduit networks or to a hypothesized network model. The statistical similarity is in the sense of reproducing the tortuosity index of conduits, the fractal dimension of the network, the direction rose of directions, the Z-histogram and Ripley's K-function of the bifurcation points (which differs from a random allocation of those bifurcation points). The proposed method (1) is very flexible, (2) incorporates any experimental data (conditioning information) and (3) can easily be modified when

  14. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  15. Conduit Stability and Collapse in Explosive Volcanic Eruptions: Coupling Conduit Flow and Failure Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, B.; Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can exhibit abrupt changes in physical behavior. In the most extreme cases, high rates of mass discharge are interspaced by dramatic drops in activity and periods of quiescence. Simple models predict exponential decay in magma chamber pressure, leading to a gradual tapering of eruptive flux. Abrupt changes in eruptive flux therefore indicate that relief of chamber pressure cannot be the only control of the evolution of such eruptions. We present a simplified physics-based model of conduit flow during an explosive volcanic eruption that attempts to predict stress-induced conduit collapse linked to co-eruptive pressure loss. The model couples a simple two phase (gas-melt) 1-D conduit solution of the continuity and momentum equations with a Mohr-Coulomb failure condition for the conduit wall rock. First order models of volatile exsolution (i.e. phase mass transfer) and fragmentation are incorporated. The interphase interaction force changes dramatically between flow regimes, so smoothing of this force is critical for realistic results. Reductions in the interphase force lead to significant relative phase velocities, highlighting the deficiency of homogenous flow models. Lateral gas loss through conduit walls is incorporated using a membrane-diffusion model with depth dependent wall rock permeability. Rapid eruptive flux results in a decrease of chamber and conduit pressure, which leads to a critical deviatoric stress condition at the conduit wall. Analogous stress distributions have been analyzed for wellbores, where much work has been directed at determining conditions that lead to wellbore failure using Mohr-Coulomb failure theory. We extend this framework to cylindrical volcanic conduits, where large deviatoric stresses can develop co-eruptively leading to multiple distinct failure regimes depending on principal stress orientations. These failure regimes are categorized and possible implications for conduit flow are discussed, including

  16. Extreme loads seismic testing of conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.E.; Ibanez, P.; Harrison, S.; Shi, Z.T.

    1991-01-01

    Rigid steel conduit (thin-wall tubes with threaded connections) containing electrical cabling are a common feature in nuclear power plants. Conduit systems are in many cases classified in U.S.A. practice as Seismic Category I structures. this paper summarizes results and others aspects of a dynamic test program conducted to investigate conduit systems seismic performance under three-axis excitation for designs representative at a nuclear power plant sited near Ft. Worth, Texas (a moderate seismic zone), with a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) of 0.12 g. Test specimens where subjected to postulated seismic events, including excitation well in excess of Safe Shutdown Earthquake events typical for U.S.A. nuclear power stations. A total of 18 conduit systems of 9-meter nominal lengths were shake table mounted and subjected to a variety of tests. None of the specimens suffered loss of load capacity when subjected to a site-enveloping Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Clamp/attachment hardware failures only began to occur when earthquake input motion was scaled upward to minimum values of 2.3-4.6 times site enveloping SSE response spectra. Tensile and/or shear failure of clamp attachment bolts or studs was the failure mode in all case in which failure was induced. (author)

  17. SOLE: enhanced FIA data analysis capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Spinney; Paul Van Deusen

    2009-01-01

    The Southern On Line Estimator (SOLE), is an Internet-based annual forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data analysis tool developed cooperatively by the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Southern Research Station. Recent development of SOLE has...

  18. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  19. Sole risk and non-consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, Tom

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the subjects of sole risk and non-consent in joint operation agreements as used by oil and gas joint ventures in the United Kingdom. The difference between these two concepts is examined in detail. (UK)

  20. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  1. Optimization of Design of Steam Turbine Exhaust Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Goldin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving effectiveness turbine was and remains a key issue for today. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine is necessary to reduce losses in the steam turbine exhaust conduit.This paper presents the design optimization exhaust conduit steam turbine K-27-2.9 produced by JSC «KTW» at the design stage. The aims of optimizing the design were: decreasing hydraulic resistance of the conduit, reduction of non-uniformity of the flow at the outlet of the conduit, equalizing steam flow ahead of the condenser tube bundle.The conduit models were made and flows in it were simulated in environment of the Solid Works and its application COSMOS Flo Works.As the initial conduit model was selected exhaust conduit of turbine PT-25/34-3.4 produced by JSC «KTW». Was obtained by the calculated velocity field at the outlet of the conduit. The analysis of the calculation results revealed the necessity of changes to the initial design of the conduit. The changes were accompanied by calculating currents flow in the conduit, and assessed the impact of design changes on the nature of the course. Further transformation of the construction of the conduit was held on the results of these calculations. Construction changes are not touched by the outer geometry of the conduit, and were introduced to meet technological.According to calculation results, conclusions were drawn and selected three versions of the conduit.Given are the research results for the initial conduit model and modified design versions. In order to evaluate the flow degree of irregularity the momentum factor (Bussinesku factor for outlet crosssection of the selected conduit design version. Analysis of the research results made it possible to determine optimum design of the exhaust conduit.Introducing the suggested alterations in the conduit design will result in improvement of heat exchange in the condenser, an increase in reliability of the tube bundle operation, a decrease in noise and

  2. SQUG cable tray and conduit evaluation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.; Eder, S.J.; Conoscente, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cable tray and conduit systems for electrical cables are a common feature and industrial facilities. They have an excellent performance history in past strong earthquake, even though they are rarely designed for earthquakes. Considerable data have been gathered on their performance in earthquakes and in shake table testing. The data have been used to develop a procedure for the verification of the seismic adequacy of cable tray and conduit systems in operating nuclear plants. The procedure is discussed in this paper. It will result in substantial savings, such as reduced engineering effort, fewer modifications of existing hardware, and simpler documentation, relative to alternate procedures like dynamic analysis of shake table testing. The procedure ensures safety-function in a unique manner since the methodology used to develop it (1) is based on a large body of historical data and (2) uses a relative approach of ensuring that nuclear plant systems will perform at least as well as systems that performed well in past earthquakes. (orig.)

  3. LOAD ON BURIED PRESSURE CONDUITS WITH REFERENCE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    width of conduit or trench; the shearing forces on the plane between the backfill and adjacent earth; for embankment condition, the amounL of relative settlement between the backfill and adjacent earth; the rigidity of the conduit support under embankment loading. Table 3. Selected values of c'' for use in Eq. 8. Sand and.

  4. Water Flow in Karst Aquifer Considering Dynamically Variable Saturation Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoqun; Hu, Bill X.

    2017-04-01

    The karst system is generally conceptualized as dual-porosity system, which is characterized by low conductivity and high storage continuum matrix and high conductivity and quick flow conduit networks. And so far, a common numerical model for simulating flow in karst aquifer is MODFLOW2005-CFP, which is released by USGS in 2008. However, the steady-state approach for conduit flow in CFP is physically impractical when simulating very dynamic hydraulics with variable saturation conduit. So, we adopt the method proposed by Reimann et al. (2011) to improve current model, in which Saint-Venant equations are used to model the flow in conduit. Considering the actual background that the conduit is very big and varies along flow path and the Dirichlet boundary varies with rainfall in our study area in Southwest China, we further investigate the influence of conduit diameter and outflow boundary on numerical model. And we also analyze the hydraulic process in multi-precipitation events. We find that the numerical model here corresponds well with CFP for saturated conduit, and it could depict the interaction between matrix and conduit during very dynamic hydraulics pretty well compare with CFP.

  5. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  6. Magma wagging and whirling in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Bercovici, David; Jellinek, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Seismic tremor characterized by 0.5-7 Hz ground oscillations commonly occur before and during eruptions at silicic volcanoes with widely ranging vent geometries and edifice structures. The ubiquitous characteristics of this tremor imply that its causes are potentially common to silicic volcanoes. Here we revisit and extend to three dimensions the magma-wagging model for tremor (Jellinek and Bercovici, 2011; Bercovici et al., 2013), wherein a stiff magma column rising in a vertical conduit oscillates against a surrounding foamy annulus of bubbly magma, giving rise to tremor. While prior studies were restricted to two-dimensional lateral oscillations, here we explore three-dimensional motion and additional modes of oscillations. In the absence of viscous damping, the magma column undergoes 'whirling' motion: the center of each horizontal section of the column traces an elliptical trajectory. In the presence of viscous effect we identify new 'coiling' and 'uncoiling' column bending shapes with relatively higher and comparable rates of dissipation to the original two-dimensional magma wagging model. We also calculate the seismic P-wave response of the crustal material around the volcanic conduit to the new whirling motions and propose seismic diagnostics for different wagging patterns using the time-lag between seismic stations. We test our model by analyzing pre-eruptive seismic data from the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. In addition to suggesting that the occurrence of elliptical whirling motion more than 1 week before the eruption, our analysis of seismic time-lags also implies that the 2009 eruption was accompanied by qualitative changes in the magma wagging behavior including fluctuations in eccentricity and a reversal in the direction of elliptical whirling motion when the eruption was immediately impending.

  7. Reverse Saphenous Conduit Flap in 19 Dogs and 1 Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Jacqueline V J; Barry, Sabrina L; Lanz, Otto I; Barnes, Katherine; Coutin, Julia V

    2018-05-14

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the outcomes of 19 dogs and 1 cat undergoing reverse saphenous conduit flap between 1999 and 2016. Reverse saphenous conduit flap was used to treat traumatic wounds and wounds resulting from tumor excision in the hind limb; the majority of cases had medial shearing injuries. All animals had complete flap survival. In five animals (20%), minor donor site dehiscence occurred, which did not require surgery. Other postoperative complications included signs of severe venous congestion in one dog. Reverse saphenous conduit flap is a useful technique to repair skin defects of the distal hind limb.

  8. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  9. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determines that such recharacterization is appropriate to prevent avoidance of any tax imposed by title 26 of...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit financing...

  10. Artificial urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Tomasz; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Incontinent urinary diversion using an ileal conduit is the most popular method used by urologists after bladder cystectomy resulting from muscle invasive bladder cancer. The use of gastrointestinal tissue is related to a series of complications with the necessity of surgical procedure extension which increases the time of surgery. Regenerative medicine together with tissue engineering techniques gives hope for artificial urinary conduit construction de novo without affecting the ileum. In this review we analyzed history of urinary diversion together with current attempts in urinary conduit construction using tissue engineering methods. Based on literature and our own experience we presented future perspectives related to the artificial urinary conduit construction. A small number of papers in the field of tissue engineered urinary conduit construction indicates that this topic requires more attention. Three main factors can be distinguished to resolve this topic: proper scaffold construction along with proper regeneration of both the urothelium and smooth muscle layers. Artificial urinary conduit has a great chance to become the first commercially available product in urology constructed by regenerative medicine methods.

  11. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystoprostatectomy and Intracorporeal Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion for a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and Objectives: Robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an alternative to open radical cystectomy. As experience is gained with the RARC approach the technique is being applied to more complex surgical cases. We describe here our technique for RARC with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion for a renal transplant recipient. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 60-year old man with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. He has a history of renal failure due to polycystic kidney disease and received a deceased donor renal transplant in 2008. His hospital course at time of transplant was complicated by low-level BK virus viremia. Interestingly his trans-urethral bladder tumor resection specimen at time of bladder cancer diagnosis stained positive for SV40. His native kidneys were anuric so bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in a staged fashion 2 weeks prior to RARC. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12-mm assistant trocar is placed 1 cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the stapled enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: identification of native ureters bilaterally (removed en bloc with the bladder specimen; identification of the transplanted ureter at the right bladder dome; posterior bladder and prostate dissection along Denonvilliers’ fascia; development of the space of Retzius; ligation and transection of the bladder and prostate vascular bundles; apical prostate dissection and transection of urethra; left pelvic lymphadenectomy; ilium resection for creation of the ileal conduit; stapled enteric anastomosis; ureteroileal anastomosis; maturation of the ileal conduit stoma. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 443 minutes (7.4 hours. Estimated blood loss was 250 cc. Length of hospital stay was 5 days. The patient

  12. 25 CFR 140.1 - Sole power to appoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sole power to appoint. 140.1 Section 140.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.1 Sole power to appoint. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall have the sole power and authority to...

  13. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  14. In Vitro Study of Directly Bioprinted Perfusable Vasculature Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Akkouch, Adil; Dababneh, Amer; Dolati, Farzaneh; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create three dimensional (3D) thick tissues is still a major tissue engineering challenge. It requires the development of a suitable vascular supply for an efficient media exchange. An integrated vasculature network is particularly needed when building thick functional tissues and/or organs with high metabolic activities, such as the heart, liver and pancreas. In this work, human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMCs) were encapsulated in sodium alginate and printed in the form of vasculature conduits using a coaxial deposition system. Detailed investigations were performed to understand the dehydration, swelling and degradation characteristics of printed conduits. In addition, because perfusional, permeable and mechanical properties are unique characteristics of natural blood vessels, for printed conduits these properties were also explored in this work. The results show that cells encapsulated in conduits had good proliferation activities and that their viability increased during prolonged in vitro culture. Deposition of smooth muscle matrix and collagen was observed around the peripheral and luminal surface in long-term cultured cellular vascular conduit through histology studies.

  15. Ash production by attrition in volcanic conduits and plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T J; Russell, J K

    2017-07-17

    Tephra deposits result from explosive volcanic eruption and serve as indirect probes into fragmentation processes operating in subsurface volcanic conduits. Primary magmatic fragmentation creates a population of pyroclasts through volatile-driven decompression during conduit ascent. In this study, we explore the role that secondary fragmentation, specifically attrition, has in transforming primary pyroclasts upon transport in volcanic conduits and plumes. We utilize total grain size distributions from a suite of natural and experimentally produced tephra to show that attrition is likely to occur in all explosive volcanic eruptions. Our experimental results indicate that fine ash production and surface area generation is fast (eruption column stability, tephra dispersal, aggregation, volcanic lightening generation, and has concomitant effects on aviation safety and Earth's climate.

  16. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  17. Tax Policy and Sole Proprietorships: A Closer Look

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    The 21 million sole proprietorship returns filed in 2005 represent a wide variety of economic activity. This paper examines three major tax policy issues related to sole proprietorships—taxpayer compliance, taxpayer burden, and incentives for growth. It uses tax return data to take a closer look at sole proprietorships. It proposes a new taxonomy for describing these returns in an economically meaningful way, based on the principal factors of production that they use: their own labor, hired l...

  18. Design of barrier coatings on kink-resistant peripheral nerve conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Acan Clements

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the design of braided peripheral nerve conduits with barrier coatings. Braiding of extruded polymer fibers generates nerve conduits with excellent mechanical properties, high flexibility, and significant kink-resistance. However, braiding also results in variable levels of porosity in the conduit wall, which can lead to the infiltration of fibrous tissue into the interior of the conduit. This problem can be controlled by the application of secondary barrier coatings. Using a critical size defect in a rat sciatic nerve model, the importance of controlling the porosity of the nerve conduit walls was explored. Braided conduits without barrier coatings allowed cellular infiltration that limited nerve recovery. Several types of secondary barrier coatings were tested in animal studies, including (1 electrospinning a layer of polymer fibers onto the surface of the conduit and (2 coating the conduit with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel. Sixteen weeks after implantation, hyaluronic acid-coated conduits had higher axonal density, displayed higher muscle weight, and better electrophysiological signal recovery than uncoated conduits or conduits having an electrospun layer of polymer fibers. This study indicates that braiding is a promising method of fabrication to improve the mechanical properties of peripheral nerve conduits and demonstrates the need to control the porosity of the conduit wall to optimize functional nerve recovery.

  19. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.; Hewitt, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems

  20. Discards monitoring in the gillnet fishery for sole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 2-3% of the Dutch fishing quota for sole (Solea solea) is caught by a 60-vessel strong inshore fleet of gillnetters. From their home ports in IJmuiden, Scheveningen and Den Helder, these vessels fish typically with bottom-set gillnets for sole during 1 day trips between March and

  1. 31 CFR 515.546 - Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of Cuba... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships. 515.546 Section 515.546 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  2. Development of a comprehensive inventory management system for underground fiber optic conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Major State Departments of Transportation operate and maintain networks of thousands of miles of conduits, many : carrying fiber optic cables that are vital to State communication systems. These conduits are located alongside or : across highways and...

  3. POROSITY OF THE WALL OF A NEUROLAC (R) NERVE CONDUIT HAMPERS NERVE REGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; Den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2009-01-01

    One way to improve nerve regeneration and bridge longer nerve gaps may be the use of semipermeable/porous conduits. With porosity less biomaterial is used for the nerve conduit. We evaluated the short-term effects of porous Neurolac (R) nerve conduits for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration. In 10

  4. A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  5. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo melting along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a

  6. Biocarbon urinary conduit: laboratory experience and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, L I; Raible, D A

    1980-07-01

    A new urinary conduit utilizing pure vitreous carbon has been used successfully in dogs. Pure carbon appears to be inert with respect to urine and urothelium. Lack of urinary salt encrustation on the exposed surface provides a well-functioning urinary conduit for vesical drainage. Twenty-one vesicostomies were performed in dogs. Careful follow-up and histologic studies of removed specimens were done to establish the biocompatibility of pure carbon. All vesicostomies functioned well. A description of the device, protocol, and results of laboratory experimentation are outlined. The surgical procedure is explained in detail. Results encourage the clinical trial of these devices in humans. Indications include patients with neurogenic vesicla dysfunction and those with total urinary incontinence, both of which require permanent indwelling catheters.

  7. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  8. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  9. Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disorders presenting with headache as the sole symptom. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... probably do not require sophisticated neurological skills or investigations, failure to recognise an underlying disorder or an ...

  10. Erosion of cohesive soil layers above underground conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Li-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed 2D numerical modelling that combines Discrete Element (DEM and Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM, we simulate the destabilisation by an hydraulic gradient of a cohesive granular soil clogging the top of an underground conduit. We aim to perform a multi-scale study that relates the grain scale behavior to the macroscopic erosion process. In particular, we study the influence of the flow conditions and the inter-particle contact forces intensity on the erosion kinetic.

  11. Erosion of cohesive soil layers above underground conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Li-Hua; Philippe, Pierre; Noury, Gildas; Perrin, Jérôme; Brivois, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Using a recently developed 2D numerical modelling that combines Discrete Element (DEM) and Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM), we simulate the destabilisation by an hydraulic gradient of a cohesive granular soil clogging the top of an underground conduit. We aim to perform a multi-scale study that relates the grain scale behavior to the macroscopic erosion process. In particular, we study the influence of the flow conditions and the inter-particle contact forces intensity on the erosion kinetic.

  12. CIBLAGE D'INFLATION ET CONDUITE DE LA POLITIQUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    de l'amendement de la loi relative à la monnaie et au crédit, l'Algérie a explicitement ... la Banque d'Algérie, très importante pour la conduite de la politique monétaire. ..... matière de contrainte budgétaire entre les secteurs public et privé. En.

  13. Explosive device of conduit using Ti Ni alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, materials have been developed which are capable at changing temperate to return significant inelastic deformations, exhibit rubber-like elasticity, convert heat into mechanical work, etc. The aggregate of these effects is usually called the shape memory effect.At present a great number of compounds and alloys with a shape memory effect has been known.These are alloys based on titanium nickelide (TiNi, copper-based alloys (Cu-Al, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al-Ni, Cu-Zn-Si, etc., gold and silver (Ag-Cd, Au-Ag-Cd, Au-Cd-Cu, Au-Zn-Cu, etc., manganese (Mn-Cr, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu-Ni, Mn-Cu-Zr, Mn-Ni, etc., iron (Fe-Mn, Fe-Ni, Fe-Al, etc., and other compounds.The alloys based on titanium nickelide (nitinol are the most widely used.Alloys with shape memory effect find various applications in engineering and medicine, namely connecting devices, actuators, transformable design, multipurpose medical implants, etc.There is a task of breaking fuel conduit during separating the spacecraft from the rocket in space technology.The paper examines the procedure for design calculation of the separating device of conduit with the use of Ti-Ni alloy. This device can be used instead of the pyro-knives.The device contains two semi-rings from Ti-Ni alloy. In the place of break on the conduit an annular radius groove is made.At a temperature of martensite passage the semi-rings undergo deformation and in the strained state are set in the device. With heating to the temperature of the austenitic passage of bushing macro-deformation the energy stored by the nitinol bushing is great enough to break the conduit on the neck.The procedures of design calculation and response time of device are given.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Hone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection.

  15. Novel drug delivering conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroo, Pratima; Shea, Jill; Edwards, Kyle; Ho, Scott; Davis, Brett; Sant, Himanshu; Goodwin, Isak; Gale, Bruce; Agarwal, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Objective. This paper describes the design of a novel drug delivery apparatus integrated with a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nerve guide conduit for controlled local delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and application in peripheral nerve gap injury. Approach. An NGF dosage curve was acquired to determine the minimum in vitro concentration for optimal neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells; PLGA based drug delivery devices were then designed and tested in vitro and in vivo across 15 mm rat sciatic nerve gap injury model. Main results. The drug delivery nerve guide was able to release NGF for 28 d at concentrations (0.1-10 ng ml-1) that were shown to enhance DRG neurite growth. Furthermore, the released NGF was bioactive and able to enhance DRG neurite growth. Following these tests, optimized NGF-releasing nerve conduits were implanted across 15 mm sciatic nerve gaps in a rat model, where they demonstrated significant myelination and muscle innervation in vivo as compared to empty nerve conduits (p  design process and provides increased versatility for releasing a variety of different growth factors. This innovative device has the potential for broad applicability and allows for easier customization to change the type of drugs and dosage of individual drugs without devising a completely new biomaterial-drug conjugate each time.

  16. Free-boundary models of a meltwater conduit

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, Michael C.

    2014-08-01

    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. We analyse the cross-sectional evolution of an englacial meltwater conduit that contracts due to inward creep of the surrounding ice and expands due to melting. Making use of theoretical methods from free-boundary problems in Stokes flow and Hele-Shaw squeeze flow we construct an exact solution to the coupled problem of external viscous creep and internal heating, in which we adopt a Newtonian approximation for ice flow and an idealized uniform heat source in the conduit. This problem provides an interesting variant on standard free-boundary problems, coupling different internal and external problems through the kinematic condition at the interface. The boundary in the exact solution takes the form of an ellipse that may contract or expand (depending on the magnitudes of effective pressure and heating rate) around fixed focal points. Linear stability analysis reveals that without the melting this solution is unstable to perturbations in the shape. Melting can stabilize the interface unless the aspect ratio is too small; in that case, instabilities grow largest at the thin ends of the ellipse. The predictions are corroborated with numerical solutions using boundary integral techniques. Finally, a number of extensions to the idealized model are considered, showing that a contracting circular conduit is unstable to all modes of perturbation if melting occurs at a uniform rate around the boundary, or if the ice is modelled as a shear-thinning fluid.

  17. Mechanical cleaning of oil spills in seawater using circular conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S.; Abou Kassem, J.; Zekri, A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain City (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Treatment of the crude oil pollution in seawater has attracted global attention during the last two decades. This study was undertaken using circular conduits as a mechanical means to clean oil spills in seawater under different conditions of temperature, oil gravity, shaking frequency, conduit diameter, and initial thickness of oil layer. An experimental model was designed and built to achieve the study. It consists of shaking water bath (to represent sea waves) fitted with temperature controller and glass tubes of different inside diameters of 0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.7 cm. Three crude oils of different oil gravity of 35{sup o}API, 38{sup o}API, and 47{sup o}API were investigated under different shaking frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 stroke/minute with different tube diameters. The results proved that application of mechanical cleaning of oil spills using circular conduits is a practical technique. The cleaning of black oil spills is more efficient than one of volatile oil. Furthermore, the results indicated that the increase of shaking frequency and/or water temperature provide(s) faster cleaning of oil spills while temperature increase recovers the maximum oil. (Author)

  18. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabongi, Rodrigo Guerra; Fernandes, Marcela; Dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  19. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  20. Parastomal hernias after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F. Donahue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parastomal hernia, defined as an “incisional hernia related to an abdominal wall stoma”, is a frequent complication after conduit urinary diversion that can negatively impact quality of life and present a clinically significant problem for many patients. Parastomal hernia (PH rates may be as high as 65% and while many patients are asymptomatic, in some series up to 30% of patients require surgical intervention due to pain, leakage, ostomy appliance problems, urinary obstruction, and rarely bowel obstruction or strangulation. Local tissue repair, stoma relocation, and mesh repairs have been performed to correct PH, however, long-term results have been disappointing with recurrence rates of 30%–76% reported after these techniques. Due to high recurrence rates and the potential morbidity of PH repair, efforts have been made to prevent PH development at the time of the initial surgery. Randomized trials of circumstomal prophylactic mesh placement at the time of colostomy and ileostomy stoma formation have shown significant reductions in PH rates with acceptably low complication profiles. We have placed prophylactic mesh at the time of ileal conduit creation in patients at high risk for PH development and found it to be safe and effective in reducing the PH rates over the short-term. In this review, we describe the clinical and radiographic definitions of PH, the clinical impact and risk factors associated with its development, and the use of prophylactic mesh placement for patients undergoing ileal conduit urinary diversion with the intent of reducing PH rates.

  1. Barriers to Maori sole mothers’ primary health care access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International research consistently shows that sole mothers experience poorer health and suboptimal health care access. New Zealand studies on sole mothers' health report similar findings. The aim of this exploratory research was to better understand the experiences of Maori sole mothers' access to health services, particularly primary health care, for personal health needs. METHODS: This qualitative study employed a general inductive design informed by a Kaupapa Maori approach, providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols for recruiting and engaging Maori participants. Distributing written information and snowballing techniques were used to purposively recruit seven Maori sole mothers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using general inductive thematic analysis to identify commonalities and patterns in participants' experiences. FINDINGS: The dominant themes that emerged captured and described participants' experiences in accessing health care. The major barrier to access reported was cost. Compounding cost, transport difficulties and location or scheduling of services were additional barriers to health service accessibility. Child-related issues also posed a barrier, including prioritising children's needs and childcare over personal health needs. CONCLUSION: The findings illuminate Maori sole mothers' experiences of accessing health care and the complex socioeconomic inequalities affecting access options and uptake of services. Further investigation of barriers to access is needed. The study has implications for addressing barriers to access at policy, funding and practice levels to improve health outcomes and equitable health care access for Maori sole mothers.

  2. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chung, Chia-Hua; Hsia, Chi-Chun; Chang, Chih-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects’ gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87–30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds. PMID:28046009

  3. Stiffness Effects in Rocker-Soled Shoes: Biomechanical Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest. The plantar force of flat shoes is greater than the vertical ground reaction force, while that of both rocker shoes is much less, 13.87-30.55% body weight. However, as locomotion speed increased to jogging, for all shoe types, except at the second peak plantar force of the denser sole material rocker shoes, plantar forces were greater than for bare feet. More interestingly, because the transmission of force was faster while jogging, greater plantar force was seen in the rocker-soled shoes with softer material than with denser material; results for higher-speed shock absorption in rocker-soled shoes with softer material were thus not as good. In general, the rolling phenomena along the bottom surface of the rocker shoes, as well as an increase in the duration of simultaneous curve rolling and ankle rotation, could contribute to the reduction of plantar force for both rocker designs. The possible mechanism is the conversion of vertical kinetic energy into rotational kinetic energy. To conclude, since plantar force is related to foot-ground interface and deceleration methods, rocker-design shoes could achieve desired plantar force reduction through certain rolling phenomena, shoe-sole stiffness levels, and locomotion speeds.

  4. Pseudotachylyte formation in volcanic conduits: Montserrat vs. Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Petrakova, L.; Ferk, A.; Di Toro, G.; Hess, K.; Ferri, F.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seismogenic fracture and faulting may result in non-equilibrium frictional melting of rock, which upon cooling and recrystallisation forms pseudotachylyte. In volcanic environments, the transition from endogenous to exogenous growth can be attributed to a shift in magma rheology into the brittle regime, and thus the ascent of high-viscosity magma can form discrete shear zones, comparable to tectonic faults, along conduit margins. Pseudotachylytes have, until now, rarely been noted in exogenous volcanic materials and seldom in active volcanic environments. This is despite the simultaneous occurrence of high pressures and differential stresses, which make high-viscosity magmas ideal candidates for the occurrence of frictional melting. Here, we compare the chemical, thermal, magnetic and structural properties of two candidate volcanic pseudotachylytes; one from Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and one from Mount St. Helens (USA). Additionally, we present data from a set of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on the host materials of these natural pseudotachylytes in which melting was induced after just 10's of centimeters of slip at realistic extrusion velocities (0.4 - 1.6 ms-1) and low normal stresses (0.5-2 MPa). After 1-2 meters of slip a continuous melt layer formed, at which point friction decreased and the fault zone displayed slip-weakening behaviour. For volcanic conduits, this would facilitate temporarily elevated slip rates, or an increase in extrusion rate, and could cause transitions in dome morphology and eruption style. This study demonstrates that shear fracturing in magma or sliding along conduit margins can readily result in frictional melting. The conspicuous absence of pseudotachylytes in active volcanic environments is likely the result of exceptionally high background temperatures which precipitate near-equilibrium melting, thereby obviating one of the characteristic signatures of pseudotachylyte - glassy protomelts formed by selective melting of

  5. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Sole Ulcers and White Line Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, J K; van Amstel, Sarel R

    2017-07-01

    Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness. Successful treatment requires an orthopedic foot block to the healthy claw and corrective trimming of the lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Geometry and Hydraulics of Englacial Conduits, Storglaciaren, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.; Schlichting, R.; Frodin, S.; Jacobel, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    Englacial conduits are the primary structure responsible for transporting surface water to the base of a glacier, where it supplies the subglacial hydraulic system and, in turn, affects glacier movement. Despite the well-known theoretical descriptions of englacial conduits, little direct evidence exists about their geometry and hydraulics. In July 2001, we initiated a field effort on Storglaciären, Sweden, to intersect englacial conduits by drilling into the glacier using a hot water drill. A companion project (Jacobel et al., this session) attempted to detect the englacial conduits using ground-penetrating radar. In a typical borehole, the water level remained at the surface while drilling through the impermeable ice. Once a connection was made, the water level dropped roughly 10 m and remained low despite continued water pumping. A small video camera was lowered, with attachments, to measure the geometry of the opening, and water flow speed. The water level in the hole provided a piezometric measure of the pressure. We drilled 22 holes at 3 separate locations and 17 (77%) connected englacially, the remaining 5 reached the bed without englacial connection, of which 2 drained at the bed. The geometry of the connections was highly irregular in cross-section with 1-2 cm openings, reminiscent of crevasse-like features rather than circular cross-sections as anticipated from the theoretical literature. Flow behavior was observed by tracking particle motion. The flow was complicated, in part by the inferred tangential intersection between the borehole and structure, and by the observed surging behavior. Flow speeds were low, on the order of 1 cm sec-1. Water level records from 3 different holes over several days exhibited highly correlated variations and large diurnal excursions. In contrast, records from holes drilled to the bed showed little variation. Based on these measurements, our conceptual picture of the englacial system is that of a sluggish flow system

  7. Short-term outcomes after incontinent conduit for gynecologic cancer: comparison of ileal, sigmoid, and transverse colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbaa, Zaid M; Janco, Jo Marie T; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Cliby, William A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the overall rates of significant incontinent conduit-related complications and compare rates between conduit types. This was a retrospective review of 166 patients who underwent incontinent urinary diversion from April 1993 through April 2013. Patients were categorized by conduit type-ileal, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon. Significant conduit-related complications were assessed at 30 and 90days after surgery. Significant conduit-related complication was defined as any of the following: ureteral stricture, conduit leak, conduit obstruction, conduit ischemia, ureteral anastomotic leak, stent obstruction requiring intervention via interventional radiology procedure or reoperation, and renal failure. A total of 166 patients underwent formation of an incontinent urinary conduit, most commonly during exenteration for gynecologic malignancy. There were 129 ileal, 11 transverse colon, and 26 sigmoid conduits. The overall significant conduit-related complication rate within 30days was 15.1%. Complication rates for ileal, transverse and sigmoid conduits were 14.7%, 0%, and 23.1%, respectively (Fisher's exact test, p=0.24). By 90days, the Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of significant complications were 21.8% overall, and 22.3%, 0%, and 28.9%, respectively, by conduit type (log-rank test, p=0.19). The most common significant conduit-related complications were conduit or ureteral anastomotic leaks and conduit obstructions. By 1 and 2years following surgery, the Kaplan-Meier estimated overall rate of significant conduit-related complication increased to 26.5% and 30.1%, respectively. Our study suggests that there are multiple appropriate tissue sites for use in incontinent conduit formation, and surgical approach should be individualized. Most significant conduit-related complications occur within 90days after surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit stenosis in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterer, Andrea; Kasnar-Samprec, Jelena; Hörer, Jürgen; Cleuziou, Julie; Eicken, Andreas; Malcic, Ivan; Lange, Rüdiger; Schreiber, Christian

    2013-09-01

    To determine the incidence of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit stenosis after the Norwood I operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and to determine whether the treatment strategy of RV-PA conduit stenosis has an influence on interstage and overall survival. Ninety-six patients had a Norwood operation with RV-PA conduit between 2002 and 2011. Details of reoperations/interventions due to conduit obstruction prior to bidirectional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (BSCPA) were collected. Overall pre-BSCPA mortality was 17%, early mortality after Norwood, 6%. Early angiography was performed in 34 patients due to desaturation at a median of 8 days after the Norwood operation. Fifteen patients (16%) were diagnosed with RV-PA conduit stenosis that required treatment. The location of the conduit stenosis was significantly different in the patients with non-ringed (proximal) and the patients with ring-enforced conduit (distal), P = 0.004. In 6 patients, a surgical revision of the conduit was performed; 3 of them died prior to BSCPA. Another 6 patients had a stent implantation and 3 were treated with balloon dilatation followed by a BSCPA in the subsequent 2 weeks. All patients who were treated interventionally for RV-PA conduit obstruction had a successful BSCPA. Patients who received a surgical RV-PA conduit revision had a significantly higher interstage (P = 0.044) and overall mortality (P = 0.011) than those who received a stent or balloon dilatation of the stenosis followed by an early BSCPA. RV-PA conduit obstruction after Norwood I procedure in patients with HLHS can be safely and effectively treated by stent implantation, balloon dilatation and early BSCPA. Surgical revision of the RV-PA conduit can be reserved for patients in whom an interventional approach fails, and an early BSCPA is not an option.

  9. A novel conduit-based coaptation device for primary nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Cardwell, Nancy; Pollins, Alonda C; Afshari, Ashkan; Nguyen, Lyly; Dortch, Richard D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2018-06-01

    Conduit-based nerve repairs are commonly used for small nerve gaps, whereas primary repair may be performed if there is no tension on nerve endings. We hypothesize that a conduit-based nerve coaptation device will improve nerve repair outcomes by avoiding sutures at the nerve repair site and utilizing the advantages of a conduit-based repair. The left sciatic nerves of female Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and repaired using a novel conduit-based device. The conduit-based device group was compared to a control group of rats that underwent a standard end-to-end microsurgical repair of the sciatic nerve. Animals underwent behavioral assessments at weekly intervals post-operatively using the sciatic functional index (SFI) test. Animals were sacrificed at four weeks to obtain motor axon counts from immunohistochemistry. A sub-group of animals were sacrificed immediately post repair to obtain MRI images. SFI scores were superior in rats which received conduit-based repairs compared to the control group. Motor axon counts distal to the injury in the device group at four weeks were statistically superior to the control group. MRI tractography was used to demonstrate repair of two nerves using the novel conduit device. A conduit-based nerve coaptation device avoids sutures at the nerve repair site and leads to improved outcomes in a rat model. Conduit-based nerve repair devices have the potential to standardize nerve repairs while improving outcomes.

  10. Evidence for Arbovirus Dissemination Conduits from the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Midgut

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romoser, William

    2004-01-01

    .... Experiments using Venezuelan equine encephalitis viral replicon particles, which express the green fluorescent protein gene in cells, indicate the operation of tissue conduits, possibly involving...

  11. Regenerative potential of silk conduits in repair of peripheral nerve injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Begum, R; Barber, T; Ibba, V; Tee, N C H; Hussain, M; Arastoo, M; Yang, Q; Robson, L G; Lesage, S; Gheysens, T; Skaer, Nicholas J V; Knight, D P; Priestley, J V

    2012-01-01

    Various attempts have been made to develop artificial conduits for nerve repair, but with limited success. We describe here conduits made from Bombyx mori regenerated silk protein, and containing luminal fibres of Spidrex(®), a silk-based biomaterial with properties similar to those of spider silk. Assessment in vitro demonstrated that Spidrex(®) fibres support neurite outgrowth. For evaluation in vivo, silk conduits 10 mm in length and containing 0, 100, 200 or 300 luminal Spidrex(®) fibres, were implanted to bridge an 8 mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 weeks, conduits containing 200 luminal Spidrex(®) fibres (PN200) supported 62% and 59% as much axon growth as autologous nerve graft controls at mid-conduit and distal nerve respectively. Furthermore, Spidrex(®) conduits displayed similar Schwann cell support and macrophage response to controls. At 12 weeks, animals implanted with PN200 conduits showed similar numbers of myelinated axons (81%) to controls, similar gastrocnemius muscle innervation, and similar hindpaw stance assessed by Catwalk footprint analysis. Plantar skin innervation was 73% of that of controls. PN200 Spidrex(®) conduits were also effective at bridging longer (11 and 13 mm) gaps. Our results show that Spidrex(®) conduits promote excellent axonal regeneration and function recovery, and may have potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 3D-engineering of Cellularized Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Yao; Gou, Zhiyuan; Tao, Jie; Zhang, Jiumeng; Liu, Qianqi; Kang, Tianyi; Jiang, Shu; Huang, Siqing; He, Jiankang; Chen, Shaochen; Du, Yanan; Gou, Maling

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineered conduits have great promise for bridging peripheral nerve defects by providing physical guiding and biological cues. A flexible method for integrating support cells into a conduit with desired architectures is wanted. Here, a 3D-printing technology is adopted to prepare a bio-conduit with designer structures for peripheral nerve regeneration. This bio-conduit is consisted of a cryopolymerized gelatin methacryloyl (cryoGelMA) gel cellularized with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). By modeling using 3D-printed “lock and key” moulds, the cryoGelMA gel is structured into conduits with different geometries, such as the designed multichannel or bifurcating and the personalized structures. The cryoGelMA conduit is degradable and could be completely degraded in 2-4 months in vivo. The cryoGelMA scaffold supports the attachment, proliferation and survival of the seeded ASCs, and up-regulates the expression of their neurotrophic factors mRNA in vitro. After implanted in a rat model, the bio-conduit is capable of supporting the re-innervation across a 10 mm sciatic nerve gap, with results close to that of the autografts in terms of functional and histological assessments. The study describes an indirect 3D-printing technology for fabricating cellularized designer conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration, and could lead to the development of future nerve bio-conduits for clinical use.

  13. pigmentation of the sole of the foot in rhodesian africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-23

    Jan 23, 1971 ... basal layer. (Photo by courtesy of Dr C. M. D. Ross.) Fig. 8. From a biopsy of a grade III area on the sole of the foot a section shows, apart from proliferated melanocytes in the basal layer, isolated pigmented cells extending through the stratum malpighii to the stratum granulosum above it, (Photo by courtesy ...

  14. Deaths among West African dwarf goats fed sole Dactyladaenia barteri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dactyladaema barteri is an important shrub utilized in fallow development and as a much-preferred ruminant browse by local farmers in Nigeria. We report the death of two 12 – 15 months old West African Dwarf (WAD) goats used in a digestibility trail with D. barteri as sole feed and in a mixed browse - grass diet in the ...

  15. Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Loes; Holtslag, Herman R.; Schellekens, Pascal P A; Leenen, Luke P H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The current opinion is that split thickness skin grafts are not suitable to reconstruct a degloved foot sole. The tissue is too fragile to carry full bodyweight; and therefore, stress lesions frequently occur. The treatment of choice is the reuse of the avulsed skin whenever possible,

  16. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  17. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining neural tube defects: The possible role of autoantibodies. Keat Wei Loo, Siew Hua Gan. Abstract. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe but common congenital malformations. Neonates who suffer from NTDs may experience long-term complications throughout ...

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  19. Yield Performance of Some Cowpea Varieties under Sole and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The mean number of pod/plant, pod weight and seed yield of the cowpea varieties ... pattern of peasant farmers in Nigeria. Some of the advantages ... in maize-pigeon pea intercropping system as compared to sole crops. While intercropping ...

  20. Convection in a volcanic conduit recorded by bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rebecca J.; Manga, Michael; Degruyter, Wim; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Swanson, Donald; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Patrick, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Microtextures of juvenile pyroclasts from Kīlauea’s (Hawai‘i) early A.D. 2008 explosive activity record the velocity and depth of convection within the basaltic magma-filled conduit. We use X-ray microtomography (μXRT) to document the spatial distribution of bubbles. We find small bubbles (radii from 5 μm to 70 μm) in a halo surrounding larger millimeter-size bubbles. This suggests that dissolved water was enriched around the larger bubbles—the opposite of what is expected if bubbles grow as water diffuses into the bubble. Such volatile enrichment implies that the volatiles within the large bubbles were redissolving into the melt as they descended into the conduit by the downward motion of convecting magma within the lava lake. The thickness of the small bubble halo is ∼100–150 μm, consistent with water diffusing into the melt on time scales on the order of 103 s. Eruptions, triggered by rockfall, rapidly exposed this magma to lower pressures, and the haloes of melt with re-dissolved water became sufficiently supersaturated to cause nucleation of the population of smaller bubbles. The required supersaturation pressures are consistent with a depth of a few hundred meters and convection velocities of the order of 0.1 m s−1, similar to the circulation velocity observed on the surface of the Halema‘uma‘u lava lake.

  1. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  2. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  3. Documentation of a Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Birk, Steffen; Bauer, Sebastian; Swain, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for the modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2005. The CFP has the ability to simulate turbulent ground-water flow conditions by: (1) coupling the traditional ground-water flow equation with formulations for a discrete network of cylindrical pipes (Mode 1), (2) inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 2), or (3) simultaneously coupling a discrete pipe network while inserting a high-conductivity flow layer that can switch between laminar and turbulent flow (Mode 3). Conduit flow pipes (Mode 1) may represent dissolution or biological burrowing features in carbonate aquifers, voids in fractured rock, and (or) lava tubes in basaltic aquifers and can be fully or partially saturated under laminar or turbulent flow conditions. Preferential flow layers (Mode 2) may represent: (1) a porous media where turbulent flow is suspected to occur under the observed hydraulic gradients; (2) a single secondary porosity subsurface feature, such as a well-defined laterally extensive underground cave; or (3) a horizontal preferential flow layer consisting of many interconnected voids. In this second case, the input data are effective parameters, such as a very high hydraulic conductivity, representing multiple features. Data preparation is more complex for CFP Mode 1 (CFPM1) than for CFP Mode 2 (CFPM2). Specifically for CFPM1, conduit pipe locations, lengths, diameters, tortuosity, internal roughness, critical Reynolds numbers (NRe), and exchange conductances are required. CFPM1, however, solves the pipe network equations in a matrix that is independent of the porous media equation matrix, which may mitigate numerical instability associated with solution of dual flow components within the same matrix. CFPM2 requires less hydraulic information and knowledge about the specific location and hydraulic properties of conduits, and turbulent flow is approximated by

  4. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  5. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  6. Silicic magma differentiation in ascent conduits. Experimental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Castro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Crystallization of water-bearing silicic magmas in a dynamic thermal boundary layer is reproduced experimentally by using the intrinsic thermal gradient of piston-cylinder assemblies. The standard AGV2 andesite under water-undersaturated conditions is set to crystallize in a dynamic thermal gradient of about 35 °C/mm in 10 mm length capsules. In the hotter area of the capsule, the temperature is initially set at 1200 °C and decreases by programmed cooling at two distinct rates of 0.6 and 9.6 °C/h. Experiments are conducted in horizontally arranged assemblies in a piston cylinder apparatus to avoid any effect of gravity settling and compaction of crystals in long duration runs. The results are conclusive about the effect of water-rich fluids that are expelled out the crystal-rich zone (mush), where water saturation is reached by second boiling in the interstitial liquid. Expelled fluids migrate to the magma ahead of the solidification front contributing to a progressive enrichment in the fluxed components SiO2, K2O and H2O. The composition of water-rich fluids is modelled by mass balance using the chemical composition of glasses (quenched melt). The results are the basis for a model of granite magma differentiation in thermally-zoned conduits with application of in-situ crystallization equations. The intriguing textural and compositional features of the typical autoliths, accompanying granodiorite-tonalite batholiths, can be explained following the results of this study, by critical phenomena leading to splitting of an initially homogeneous magma into two magma systems with sharp boundaries. Magma splitting in thermal boundary layers, formed at the margins of ascent conduits, may operate for several km distances during magma transport from deep sources at the lower crust or upper mantle. Accordingly, conduits may work as chromatographic columns contributing to increase the silica content of ascending magmas and, at the same time, leave behind residual mushes that

  7. Characterization of molecule and particle transport through nanoscale conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin

    Nanofluidic devices have been of great interest due to their applications in variety of fields, including energy conversion and storage, water desalination, biological and chemical separations, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Although these applications cross the boundaries of many different disciplines, they all share the demand for understanding transport in nanoscale conduits. In this thesis, different elusive aspects of molecule and particle transport through nanofluidic conduits are investigated, including liquid and ion transport in nanochannels, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels, and finally translocation of nanobeads through nanopores. Liquid or solvent transport through nanoconfinements is an essential yet barely characterized component of any nanofluidic systems. In the first chapter, water transport through single hydrophilic nanochannels with heights down to 7 nm is experimentally investigated using a new measurement technique. This technique has been developed based on the capillary flow and a novel hybrid nanochannel design and is capable of characterizing flow in both single nanoconduits as well as nanoporous media. The presence of a 0.7 nm thick hydration layer on hydrophilic surfaces and its effect on increasing the hydraulic resistance of the nanochannels is verified. Next, ion transport in a new class of nanofluidic rectifiers is theoretically and experimentally investigated. These so called nanofluidic diodes are nanochannels with asymmetric geometries which preferentially allow ion transport in one direction. A nondimensional number as a function of electrolyte concentration, nanochannel dimensions, and surface charge is derived that summarizes the rectification behavior of this system. In the fourth chapter, diffusion- and reaction-governed enzyme transport in nanofluidic channels is studied and the theoretical background necessary for understanding enzymatic activity in nanofluidic channels is presented. A

  8. Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

  9. 26 CFR 1.58-2 - General rules for conduit entities; partnerships and partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General rules for conduit entities; partnerships...; partnerships and partners. (a) General rules for conduit entities. Sections 1.58-3 through 1.58-6 provide rules... example, if a trust has $100,000 of capital gains for the taxable year, all of which are distributed to A...

  10. Midterm performance of a novel restorative pulmonary valved conduit: preclinical results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, Osama I.; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Abdelghani, Mohammad; Brugmans, Marieke; Witsenburg, Maarten; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cox, Martijn; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The Xeltis bioabsorbable pulmonary valved conduit (XPV), designed to guide functional restoration of patients' own tissue, is potentially more durable than current pulmonary bioprosthetic valves/valved conduits. The aim of this study was to assess the haemodynamic performance of the novel XPV

  11. 78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ..., Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting... construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The Nelson Street 17 kW...

  12. 78 FR 66355 - Pleasant Grove City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... City, UT; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and... Grove City, Utah (Pleasant Grove) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower...

  13. 78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ... District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting... construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The Corbett Hydroelectric...

  14. 78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and... intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The Little...

  15. 78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    ..., Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting... of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The...

  16. 78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To... of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The...

  17. Dual structures for the sole-proprietorship firm

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Robert G.; Quiggin, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a dual representation of firm-level and market-level equilibrium behavior for a sole proprietorship economy with competitive and frictionless financial markets and stochastic production opportunities in a two-period setting. The dual equilibrium model is used to state conditions for the firms' production choices to be independent of their risk preferences in equilibrium. These conditions entail Pareto optimality, but do not require either that the firm's consumption choice...

  18. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  19. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Improving Quality of Shoe Soles Product using Six Sigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesslyn Wijaya, Athalia; Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Ma’ruf, Anas; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    A manufacture in Bandung produce kind of rubber-based product i.e. trim, rice rollers, shoe soles, etc. After penetrating the shoe soles market, the manufacture has met customer with tight quality control. Based on the past data, defect level of this product was 18.08% that caused the manufacture’s loss of time and money. Quality improvement effort was done using six sigma method that included phases of define, measure, analyse, improve, and control (DMAIC). In the design phase, the object’s problem and definition were defined. Delphi method was also used in this phase to identify critical factors. In the measure phase, the existing process stability and sigma quality level were measured. Fishbone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were used in the next phase to analyse the root cause and determine the priority issues. Improve phase was done by designing alternative improvement strategy using 5W1H method. Some improvement efforts were identified, i.e. (i) modifying design of the hanging rack, (ii) create pantone colour book and check sheet, (iii) provide pedestrian line at compound department, (iv) buying stop watch, and (v) modifying shoe soles dies. Some control strategies for continuous improvement were proposed such as SOP or reward and punishment system.

  1. Studying the causes for corrosive destruction of water conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azamatova, F I; Kulinichev, G P; Porubov, I S

    1979-01-01

    Pipes from different oil and gas production administrations were selected for X-ray and metallographic studies of the cause of corrosive destruction. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the pipe material are presented in tables. The phase composition of the corrosion products was studied by X-rays. The complex structure of the layer made up of the corrosion products was taken into consideration. The studies were conducted in an X-ray diffraction chamber. The obtained results are presented in a table. The metallographic studies showed that a significant corrosive damage of the materials of water conduits occurs as a result of the development of local corrosion processes, caused by the substantive heterogeneity of the structure of the metal, related to the nonuniform distribution of the pearlite because of carbon liquidation.

  2. Injunctions against mere conduit of information protected by copyright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld Jakobsen, Søren; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes an in-depth analysis of EU law and Scandinavian law on injunctions against internet access providers (IAPs) performing as mere conduit of information protected by copyright. In recent Scandinavian case law, courts have granted preliminary injunctions which have caused IAPs...... to either shut down specific internet connections allegedly used to infringe copyright or to block access to internet content, which allegedly infringed applicable copyright rules. This paper considers some significant legal challenges, which are emerging in the wake of this case law, and which should...... requires rules, which take into due consideration the special aspects related to enforcement of copyright on the internet through IAPs. Secondly, it is shown that the termination of internet connections and the blocking of access to internet content may not support the public policies behind copyright law...

  3. Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  4. Investigating the influence of conduit residues on polyurethane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Faverzani Magnago

    Full Text Available Abstract Converting waste into a product similar to the original one or into another useful product is to save energy, protect natural resources, and bring back to the production cycle what was discarded. In that direction, new polyurethane-based composites have been developed by incorporating 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% PVC conduit discarded by the construction industry. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the phases of waste incorporation and the effect upon the new material properties. The samples were produced by the polycondensation process. Microstructural analysis revealed a reduction in pore size across the polymer matrix. However, there were no changes in thermal insulation, water absorption, compressive strength, and burning rate tests and in the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results from this study showed that the replacement of raw material by waste did not affect its properties.

  5. Cable-in-conduit conductor optimization for fusion magnet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Careful design of the toroidal-field (TF) and poloidal-field (PF) coils in a tokamak machine using cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) can result in quite high overall winding-pack current densities - even with the high nuclear heat loads that may be imposed in operating a fusion reactor - and thereby help reduce the overall machine size. In our design process, we systematically examined the operational environment of a magnet, e.g., mechanical stresses, current, field, heat load, coolant temperature, and cooldown stresses, to determine the optimum amounts of copper, superconductor, helium, and sheath material for the CICC. This process is being used to design the superconducting magnet systems that comprise the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II). 13 refs., 2 figs

  6. Novel technique for airless connection of artificial heart to vascular conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Gao, Shengqiang; Dessoffy, Raymond; Sunagawa, Gengo; Sinkewich, Martin; Grady, Patrick; Sale, Shiva; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2017-12-01

    Successful implantation of a total artificial heart relies on multiple standardized procedures, primarily the resection of the native heart, and exacting preparation of the atrial and vascular conduits for pump implant and activation. Achieving secure pump connections to inflow/outflow conduits is critical to a successful outcome. During the connection process, however, air may be introduced into the circulation, traveling to the brain and multiple organs. Such air emboli block blood flow to these areas and are detrimental to long-term survival. A correctly managed pump-to-conduit connection prevents air from collecting in the pump and conduits. To further optimize pump-connection techniques, we have developed a novel connecting sleeve that enables airless connection of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) to the conduits. In this brief report, we describe the connecting sleeve design and our initial results from two acute in vivo implantations using a scaled-down version of the CFTAH.

  7. Development and Implementation of a Segment/Junction Box Level Database for the ITS Fiber Optic Conduit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project initiated the development of a computerized database of ITS facilities, including conduits, junction : boxes, cameras, connections, etc. The current system consists of a database of conduit sections of various lengths. : Over the length ...

  8. Sole ulcers in dairy-cattle - associations with season, cow characteristics, disease, and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Grohn, Y T; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    lactation and body weight were positively associated with sole ulcer. Heel erosion was associated with sole ulcer depending on season of trimming and parity. Presence of sole ulcer but not heel erosion in a lactation increased the risk of sole ulcer in the subsequent lactation. The interval between...

  9. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate

  10. Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Haixing [School of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yan Yuhua; Wan Tao; Li Shipu, E-mail: yanyuhua8@126.co [Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

  11. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  12. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Methods: This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. Results: The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. Conclusion: The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation. PMID:21960925

  13. Inherent variation in multiple shoe-sole test impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Yaron; Wiesner, Sarena; Tsach, Tsadok; Gurel, Ron; Yekutieli, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Shoeprints left at crime scenes are seldom perfect. Many prints are distorted or contaminated by various materials. Noisy background often contributes to vagueness on the shoeprints as well. Test impressions made from the suspect's shoes in the laboratory are considered a genuine replication of the shoe-sole. This naïve attitude is far from being correct. Consecutive test impressions made in the laboratory under strict similar conditions revealed differences among the exemplars of the same sole. Some of them are minor, but some are major, and can mislead the less experienced practitioners during the comparison process. This article focuses on the inherent within source variability between controlled shoeprints made from the same shoe, as it appears on the RACs. To describe and analyze this variability, repeated test impressions were prepared, and datasets were created. Several RACs were marked on each test impression, using an expert assisting software tool (developed in the authors' lab). The variance in repeated test impressions is demonstrated and possible sources are discussed. This variance should be considered when trying to establish the degree of matching between individual characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  15. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Mary; Shuman, Clayton; Galinato, Jose; Patak, Lance; Anderson, Christine A; Titler, Marita G

    2017-01-01

    Background Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients’ perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients’ perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Methods Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated). Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Results Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients’ perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants’ perceptions of “nurse work”). Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Discussion Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients’ understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery. PMID:29075125

  16. Conduits to care: call lights and patients' perceptions of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Mary; Shuman, Clayton; Galinato, Jose; Patak, Lance; Anderson, Christine A; Titler, Marita G

    2017-01-01

    Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients' perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients' perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated). Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients' perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants' perceptions of "nurse work"). Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients' understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery.

  17. Relaxation of microparticles exposed to hydrodynamic forces in microfluidic conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janča, Josef; Halabalová, Věra; Polášek, Vladimír; Vašina, Martin; Menshikova, Anastasia Yu

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of microparticles exposed to gravitational and lift forces and to the velocity gradient in flow velocity profile formed in microfluidic conduits is studied from the viewpoint of the transient period (the relaxation) between the moment at which a particle starts to be transported by the hydrodynamic flow and the time at which it reaches an equilibrium position, characterized by a balance of all active forces. The theoretical model allowing the calculation of the relaxation time is proposed. The numerical calculus based on the proposed model is compared with the experimental data obtained under different experimental conditions, namely, for different lengths of microfluidic channels, different average linear velocities of the carrier liquid, and different sizes and densities of the particles used in the study. The results are important for the optimization of microfluidic separation units such as microthermal field-flow fractionation channels in which the separation or manipulation of the microparticles of various origin, synthetic, natural, biological, etc., is performed under similar experimental conditions but by applying an additional thermodynamic force.

  18. Scientific Results of Conduit Drilling in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozo Uto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Directional drilling at Unzen Volcano in Japan duringmid of 2004 penetrated the magma conduit and successfullyrecovered samples of the lava dike that is believed to havefed the 1991–1995 eruption. The dike was sampled about1.3 km below the volcano’s summit vent and is intrudedinto a broader conduit zone that is 0.5 km wide. This zoneconsists of multiple older lava dikes and pyroclastic veinsand has cooled to less than 200˚C. The lava dike sample wasunexpectedly altered, suggesting that circulation of hydrothermalfluids rapidly cools the conduit region of even veryactive volcanoes. It is likely that seismic signals monitoredprior to emergence of the lava dome reflected fracturing ofthe country rocks, caused by veining as volatiles escapedpredominantly upward, not outward, from the rising magma.Geophysical and geological investigation of cuttings andcore samples from the conduit and of bore-hole logging datacontinues.

  19. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Matthew J; McElhinney, Doff B; Kreutzer, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review of databa......BACKGROUND: Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure. METHODS: Retrospective review....... Of these, 56 (84%) received a Melody valve; in 5 of the 11 patients who did not, the implant was aborted due to concern for coronary artery compression, and 1 implanted patient required emergent surgery for left coronary compression. The RVOT gradient decreased from a median 38 mm Hg to 13.5 mm Hg (p

  20. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  1. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, S; Kruithof, A C; Bouwstra, J; Liebl, H; Tomerius, M; Lademann, J; Meinke, M

    2010-01-01

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 μm in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface

  2. In vivo visualization of microneedle conduits in human skin using laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, S.; Kruithof, A. C.; Liebl, H.; Tomerius, M.; Bouwstra, J.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M.

    2010-03-01

    Solid microneedles enhance the penetration of drugs into the viable skin but little is known about the geometry of the conduits in vivo. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the conduits of a microneedle system with needles at a length of 300 μm in 6 healthy subjects over a period of time. The model drug, a fluorescent dye was applied before and after piercing. Laser scanning microscopy was evaluated as being an excellent method to monitor the geometry and closure of the conduits over time. The used microneedle system was evaluated as suitable to enhance the transport of model drugs into the viable epidermis without bleeding and a short closure time of the conduits at the skin surface.

  3. Silk fibroin enhances peripheral nerve regeneration by improving vascularization within nerve conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyang; Jia, Yachao; Yang, Weichao; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Kuihua; Chai, Yimin

    2018-07-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)-based nerve conduits have been widely used to bridge peripheral nerve defects. Our previous study showed that nerve regeneration in a SF-blended poly (l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) [P(LLA-CL)] nerve conduit is better than that in a P(LLA-CL) conduit. However, the involved mechanisms remain unclarified. Because angiogenesis within a nerve conduit plays an important role in nerve regeneration, vascularization of SF/P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL) conduits was compared both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we observed that SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibers significantly promoted fibroblast proliferation, and vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by fibroblasts seeded in SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibers was more than seven-fold higher than that in P(LLA-CL) nanofibers. Conditioned medium of fibroblasts in the SF/P(LLA-CL) group stimulated more human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to form capillary-like networks and promoted faster HUVEC migration. The two kinds of nerve conduits were used to bridge 10-mm-length nerve defects in rats. At 3 weeks of reparation, the blood vessel area in the SF/P(LLA-CL) group was significantly larger than that in the P(LLA-CL) group. More regenerated axons and Schwann cells were also observed in the SF/P(LLA-CL) group, which was consistent with the results of blood vessels. Collectively, our data revealed that the SF/P(LLA-CL) nerve conduit enhances peripheral nerve regeneration by improving angiogenesis within the conduit. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 2070-2077, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ureteric catheterization via an ileal conduit: technique and retrieval of a JJ stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, T M; Kellett, M J

    2004-11-01

    Retrograde ureteric catheterization of a patient with an ileal conduit is difficult, because guide wires and catheters coil in the conduit. A modified loopogram, using a Foley catheter as a fulcrum through which catheters can be advanced to the ureteric anastomosis, is described. This technique was used to remove a JJ stent, which had been inserted previously across a stricture in one ureter, the stent crossing from one kidney to the other.

  5. Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst conduit network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Zexuan Xu; Seth Willis Bassett; Bill Hu; Scott Barrett Dyer

    2016-01-01

    Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst conduits supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed conduit networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and travel...

  6. Generation of Complex Karstic Conduit Networks with a Hydro-chemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rooij, R.; Graham, W. D.

    2016-12-01

    The discrete-continuum approach is very well suited to simulate flow and solute transport within karst aquifers. Using this approach, discrete one-dimensional conduits are embedded within a three-dimensional continuum representative of the porous limestone matrix. Typically, however, little is known about the geometry of the karstic conduit network. As such the discrete-continuum approach is rarely used for practical applications. It may be argued, however, that the uncertainty associated with the geometry of the network could be handled by modeling an ensemble of possible karst conduit networks within a stochastic framework. We propose to generate stochastically realistic karst conduit networks by simulating the widening of conduits as caused by the dissolution of limestone over geological relevant timescales. We illustrate that advanced numerical techniques permit to solve the non-linear and coupled hydro-chemical processes efficiently, such that relatively large and complex networks can be generated in acceptable time frames. Instead of specifying flow boundary conditions on conduit cells to recharge the network as is typically done in classical speleogenesis models, we specify an effective rainfall rate over the land surface and let model physics determine the amount of water entering the network. This is advantageous since the amount of water entering the network is extremely difficult to reconstruct, whereas the effective rainfall rate may be quantified using paleoclimatic data. Furthermore, we show that poorly known flow conditions may be constrained by requiring a realistic flow field. Using our speleogenesis model we have investigated factors that influence the geometry of simulated conduit networks. We illustrate that our model generates typical branchwork, network and anastomotic conduit systems. Flow, solute transport and water ages in karst aquifers are simulated using a few illustrative networks.

  7. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  8. In vitro evaluation of carbon-nanotube-reinforced bioprintable vascular conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolati, Farzaneh; Yu, Yin; Zhang, Yahui; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Jesus, Aribet M De; Sander, Edward A

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization of thick engineered tissue and organ constructs like the heart, liver, pancreas or kidney remains a major challenge in tissue engineering. Vascularization is needed to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove waste in living tissues and organs through a network that should possess high perfusion ability and significant mechanical strength and elasticity. In this paper, we introduce a fabrication process to print vascular conduits directly, where conduits were reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance their mechanical properties and bioprintability. In vitro evaluation of printed conduits encapsulated in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells was performed to characterize the effects of CNT reinforcement on the mechanical, perfusion and biological performance of the conduits. Perfusion and permeability, cell viability, extracellular matrix formation and tissue histology were assessed and discussed, and it was concluded that CNT-reinforced vascular conduits provided a foundation for mechanically appealing constructs where CNTs could be replaced with natural protein nanofibers for further integration of these conduits in large-scale tissue fabrication. (paper)

  9. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mottaghitalab

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  10. Depth and substrate as determinants of distribution of juvenile flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and rock sole (Pleuronectes bilineatus), in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Norcross, Brenda L.

    1998-01-01

    Three transects in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, were sampled in September 1994, May and August 1995, and February, May, and August 1996. Juvenile flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, and rock sole, Pleuronectes bilineatus, were the most abundant flatfishes, comprising 65-85% of all fiatfishes captured at any period. Collections of fish and sediments were made at regular depth contour intervals of l0 m. Habitat distribution was described by depth at 10 m increments and sediment percent weights of gravel, sand, and mud. Year-round habitat of flathead sole age-0 was primarily from 40 to 60 m, and age-1 habitat was primarily from 40 to 80 m. Summer habitat of rock sole age-0 and -1 was from 10 to 30 m, and in winter they moved offshore to depths of up to 150 m. Both age classes of flathead sole were most abundant on mixed mud sediments, while age-1 were also in high abundance on muddy sand sediments. Rock sole age-0 and -1 were most abundant on sand, though age-1 were also found on a variety of sediments both finer and coarser grained than sand. Flathead sole and rock sole had distinctive depth and sediment habitats. When habitat overlap occurred between the species, it was most often due to rock sole moving offshore in the winter. Abundances were not significantly different among seasons for age-1 flatfishes.

  11. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  13. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montie M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary Montie,1 Clayton Shuman,1 Jose Galinato,1 Lance Patak,2 Christine A Anderson,1 Marita G Titler1 1Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients’ perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients’ perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Methods: Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated. Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Results: Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients’ perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants’ perceptions of “nurse work”. Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Discussion: Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients’ understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery. Keywords: nurse–patient communication, medical technology, quality of care, qualitative research

  14. A polymer foam conduit seeded with Schwann cells promotes guided peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, T; Sundback, C; Hunter, D; Cheney, M; Vacanti, J P

    2000-04-01

    Alternatives to autografts have long been sought for use in bridging neural gaps. Many entubulation materials have been studied, although with generally disappointing results in comparison with autografts. The purpose of this study was to design a more effective neural guidance conduit, to introduce Schwann cells into the conduit, and to determine regenerative capability through it in an in vivo model. A novel, fully biodegradable polymer conduit was designed and fabricated for use in peripheral nerve repair, which approximates the macro- and microarchitecture of native peripheral nerves. It comprised a series of longitudinally aligned channels, with diameters ranging from 60 to 550 microns. The lumenal surfaces promoted the adherence of Schwann cells, whose presence is known to play a key role in nerve regeneration. This unique channel architecture increased the surface area available for Schwann cell adherence up to five-fold over that available through a simple hollow conduit. The conduit was composed of a high-molecular-weight copolymer of lactic and glycolic acids (PLGA) (MW 130,000) in an 85:15 monomer ratio. A novel foam-processing technique, employing low-pressure injection molding, was used to create highly porous conduits (approximately 90% pore volume) with continuous longitudinal channels. Using this technique, conduits were constructed containing 1, 5, 16, 45, or more longitudinally aligned channels. Prior to cellular seeding of these conduits, the foams were prewet with 50% ethanol, flushed with physiologic saline, and coated with laminin solution (10 microg/mL). A Schwann cell suspension was dynamically introduced into these processed foams at a concentration of 5 X 10(5) cells/mL, using a simple bioreactor flow loop. In vivo regeneration studies were carried out in which cell-laden five-channel polymer conduits (individual channel ID 500 microm, total conduit OD 2.3 mm) were implanted across a 7-mm gap in the rat sciatic nerve (n = 4), and midgraft

  15. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  16. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foroutan Koudehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study,compound water solution of gelatin and nano bioglass synthesized through sol gel method, was made. After preparing the solution, special mandrels were dipped in solution several times and freeze dried in order to be emptied of wa-ter via sublimation. The conduits had the following dimensions: internal diameter: 1.6 mm, outside diameter: 2.2 mm and length about 12 mm. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility of conduits we used cytotoxicity test by Chinese ovary cells and MTT assay by Miapaca-2 (pancreatic cancer cell line. Results: The prepared nano bioglass and conduits were characterized using transmission elec-tron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of biocompatibility test showed no sign of cytotoxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the conduits. Conclusion: According to the results, nano bioglass conduits could be a good candidate for peripheral nerve regeneration. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:152-160

  18. Polymeric Nerve Conduits with Contact Guidance Cues Used in Nerve Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G DAI; X NIU; J YIN

    2016-01-01

    In the modern life, the nerve injury frequently happens due to mechanical, chemical or thermal accidents. In the trivial injuries, the peripheral nerves can regenerate on their own; however, in most of the cases the clinical treatments are required, where relatively large nerve injury gaps are formed. Currently, the nerve repair can be accomplished by direct suture when the injury gap is not too large;while the autologous nerve graft working as the gold standard of peripheral nerve injury treatment for nerve injuries with larger gaps. However, the direct suture is limited by heavy tension at the suture sites, and the autologous nerve graft also has the drawbacks of donor site morbidity and insufifcient donor tissue. Recently, artiifcial nerve conduits have been developed as an alternative for clinical nerve repair to overcome the limitations associated with the above treatments. In order to further improve the efifciency of nerve conduits, various guidance cues are incorporated, including physical cues, biochemical signals, as well as support cells. First, this paper reviewed the contact guidance cues applied in nerve conduits, such as lumen ifllers, multi-channels and micro-patterns on the inner surface. Then, the paper focused on the polymeric nerve conduits with micro inner grooves. The polymeric nerve conduits were fabricated using the phase inversion-based ifber spinning techniques. The smart spinneret with grooved die was designed in the spinning platform, while different spinning conditions, including flow rates, air-gap distances, and polymer concentrations, were adjusted to investigate the inlfuence of fabrication conditions on the geometry of nerve conduits. The inner groove size in the nerve conduits can be precisely controlled in our hollow ifber spinning process, which can work as the efifcient contact guidance cue for nerve regeneration.

  19. Visualization of conduit-matrix conductivity differences in a karst aquifer using time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Steven B.; Karaoulis, Marios; Fiebig, Florian; Maxwell, Reed M.; Revil, André; Martin, Jonathan B.; Graham, Wendy D.

    2012-12-01

    In the karstic upper Floridan aquifer, surface water flows into conduits of the groundwater system and may exchange with water in the aquifer matrix. This exchange has been hypothesized to occur based on differences in discharge at the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north central Florida, but has yet to be visualized using any geophysical techniques. Using electrical resistivity tomography, we conducted a time-lapse study at two locations with mapped conduits connecting the Santa Fe River Sink to the Santa Fe River Rise to study changes of electrical conductivity during times of varying discharge over a six-week period. Our results show conductivity differences between matrix, conduit changes in resistivity occurring through time at the locations of mapped karst conduits, and changes in electrical conductivity during rainfall infiltration. These observations provide insight into time scales and matrix conduit conductivity differences, illustrating how surface water flow recharged to conduits may flow in a groundwater system in a karst aquifer.

  20. A NEW 3D DESIGN METHOD FOR FOOTWEAR SOLES USING DELCAM PowerSHAPE-e SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Design methods of soles and soles injection moulds must be accurate, timely and at the same time, accessible to a wide category of soles and injection moulds designers and manufacturers. For designing soles and injection moulds for soles, various dedicated CAD/CAM systems have been developed, such as: Delcam Shoe Solution (3D, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e (2D and 3D, Padsy II (2D and Padsy III (3D, Shoemaster System (2D and 3D, Lectra System (2D and 3D, Parmel System (2D and ATOS II System (3D. These systems are equipped with colour displays, plotters, digitizers, terminals and other equipment dedicated for computer aided design activities. Designing 3D soles models using computer systems enables the prevention of ambiguities inherited from 2D drawings, thus reducing errors and remanufacturing. Depending on the design complexity of soles, the technical means available for copying shoe soles and the technologies at the disposal of the soles manufacturers, soles and injection moulds designers adopt various design methods. Not all CAD/CAM systems are accessible for all users, because often their purchasing costs are high. Design method developed and presented in this paper, uses Delcam PowerSHAPE software program, which has the advantage that it can be accessed free of charge from the manufacturer's website. At the same time, this software program provides the user with all the necessary tools and instruments needed to design the most complex injection moulds and footwear sole.

  1. Structures and lithofacies of inferred silicic conduits in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP, southernmost Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M. S.; Lima, E. F.; Sommer, C. A.; Rossetti, L. M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Extensive silicic units in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP have been long interpreted as pyroclastic density currents (rheomorphic ignimbrites) derived from the Messum Complex in Namibia. In recent literature, however, they have been characterized as effusive lava flows and domes. In this paper we describe structures and lithofacies related to postulated silicic lava feeder conduits at Mato Perso, São Marcos and Jaquirana-Cambará do Sul areas in southern Brazil. Inferred conduits are at least 15-25 m in width and the lithofacies include variably vesicular monomictic welded and non-welded breccias in the margins to poorly vesicular, banded, spherulitic and microfractured vitrophyres in the central parts. Flat-lying coherent vitrophyres and massive obsidian are considered to be the subaerial equivalents of the conduits. Large-scale, regional tectonic structures in southern Brazil include the NE-SW aligned Porto Alegre Suture, Leão and Açotea faults besides the Antas Lineament, a curved tectonic feature accompanying the bed of Antas river. South of the Antas Lineament smaller-scale, NW-SE lineaments limit the exposure areas of the inferred conduits. NE-SW and subordinate NW-SE structures within this smaller-scale lineaments are represented by the main postulated conduit outcrops and are parallel to the dominant sub-vertical banding in the widespread banded vitrophyre lithofacies. Upper lava flows display flat-lying foliation, pipe-like and spherical vesicles and have better developed microlites. Petrographic characteristics of the silicic vitrophyres indicate that crystal-poor magmas underwent distinct cooling paths for each inferred conduit area. The vitrophyre chemical composition is defined by the evolution of trachydacitic/dacitic vitrophyres with 62-65 wt% SiO2 to rhyodacite and rhyolite with 66-68 wt% SiO2. The more evolved rocks are assigned to the latest intrusive grey vitrophyre outcropping in the center of the conduits. Degassing pathways formed during

  2. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  3. Uncovering Offshore Financial Centers: Conduits and Sinks in the Global Corporate Ownership Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Fichtner, Jan; Takes, Frank W; Heemskerk, Eelke M

    2017-07-24

    Multinational corporations use highly complex structures of parents and subsidiaries to organize their operations and ownership. Offshore Financial Centers (OFCs) facilitate these structures through low taxation and lenient regulation, but are increasingly under scrutiny, for instance for enabling tax avoidance. Therefore, the identification of OFC jurisdictions has become a politicized and contested issue. We introduce a novel data-driven approach for identifying OFCs based on the global corporate ownership network, in which over 98 million firms (nodes) are connected through 71 million ownership relations. This granular firm-level network data uniquely allows identifying both sink-OFCs and conduit-OFCs. Sink-OFCs attract and retain foreign capital while conduit-OFCs are attractive intermediate destinations in the routing of international investments and enable the transfer of capital without taxation. We identify 24 sink-OFCs. In addition, a small set of five countries - the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Singapore and Switzerland - canalize the majority of corporate offshore investment as conduit-OFCs. Each conduit jurisdiction is specialized in a geographical area and there is significant specialization based on industrial sectors. Against the idea of OFCs as exotic small islands that cannot be regulated, we show that many sink and conduit-OFCs are highly developed countries.

  4. Small-sized conduits in the right ventricular outflow tract in young children: bicuspidalized homografts are a good alternative to standard conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Katrien; De Groote, Katya; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; De Wilde, Hans; De Wolf, Daniel; Bové, Thierry

    2017-10-03

    Downsizing a homograft (HG) through bicuspidalization has been used for more than 2 decades to overcome the shortage of small-sized conduits for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in young children. Our goal was to investigate the durability of bicuspidalized HGs compared with other small HGs. A retrospective analysis of 93 conduits ≤20 mm, implanted over 23 years, was performed. The end-points were survival, structural valve degeneration and conduit replacement. The conduits comprised 40 pulmonary HGs, 12 aortic HGs, 17 bicuspidalized HGs and 24 xenografts. The median age, mean conduit diameter and z-value at implantation were 1.4 (interquartile range 0.3-3) years, 16.5 ± 2.7 mm and 2.8 ± 1.3, respectively. Valve position was heterotopic in 59 patients and orthotopic in 34 patients. At a mean follow-up period of 7.6 ± 5.9 years, the hospital survival rate was 89%. Freedom from explant at 5 and 10 years was 83 ± 5% and 52 ± 6%, respectively. Freedom from structural valve degeneration was 79 ± 5% at 5 years and 47 ± 6% at 10 years [68 ± 8% for pulmonary HG, 42 ± 16% for bicuspidalized HG, 31 ± 15% for aortic HG and 20 ± 9% for xenografts (log rank P right ventricular outflow tract conduit in young children. However, when a small pulmonary HG is unavailable, bicuspidalization offers a valid alternative, preferable to xenograft conduits, at mid-term follow-up. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Shallow conduit processes of the 1991 Hekla eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, J.; Thordarson, T.; Houghton, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    On January 17, 1991 at 17:00 hrs, the 17th eruption of Hekla since 1104AD began. Lasting for almost two months, it produced 0.02 km3 of icelandite tephra and ~0.15km3 of icelandite lava. This eruption was the third of four eruptions since 1980 with a recurrence period of approximately 10 years, as opposed to a recurrence interval of c. 55 years for the eruptions in the period 1104AD to 1947AD. [1] The last four Hekla eruptions are typified by a 0.5-2 hour-long initial phase of subplinian intensity and discharge ranging from 2900-6700 m3/s [2]. In all 4 events the inital phase was followed by a sustained and relatively low-discharge(sorted tephra fall covering >20,000 km2. Here we examine the first phase of the Hekla 1991 eruption with focus on vesiculation and fragmentation processes in the shallow conduit and ash production. Samples of the tephra fall were collected on snow immediately after the initial phase at multiple sites providing a representative spatial coverage within the 0.1mm isopach [3]. This set was augmented by samples collected in 2012 to provide tighter coverage of near vent region. Grain size of all samples has been measured down to 1 micron. Density measurements have been conducted on 4 near-vent pumice samples (100 clasts each) and the pumice vesicle size distribution has been determined in a selected subset of clasts. The reconstructed whole deposit grain size distribution exhibits a unimodal, log-normal distribution peaking at -3 phi, typical of dry, magmatic fragmentation. Pumice densities range from 520-880 kg/m3 and exhibit a tight unimodal and log-normal distribution indicating a mean vesicularity of 77% to 79% for the magma erupted during the initial phase. Along with preliminary results for bubble number density and vesicle size distribution this implies a single late-stage homogeneous bubble nucleation and very uniform conditions of magma fragmentation during this short-lived initial phase of the Hekla 1991 eruption. 1. Gudmundsson, A

  6. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  7. Transverse colon conduit urinary diversion in patients treated with very high dose pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, R.; Dewan, A.K.; Pandey, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary diversion may be required in patients receiving pelvic irradiation for gynaecological or genitourinary cancers either as part of a planned or salvage surgical procedure or for urological complications of irradiation. Records were reviewed for 30 such patients who underwent transverse colon conduit as a primary form of urinary diversion. Most of the conduits were constructed using refluxing ureterocolic anastomoses with stents. The results showed no operative mortality. Although the procedure was associated with a complication rate of 37% and a re-operation rate of 20%, there were no bowel or urinary anastomotic leaks. The operation could be safely performed on patients with renal failure, with 83% of such patients showing normal or improved serum creatinine levels post operatively. The advantages of transverse colon conduit urinary diversion are the use of non-irradiated bowel and ureters for diversion. It is recommended as a primary form of urinary diversion in these high risk cases. (Author)

  8. Collagen-coated polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) seeded with neural-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells as a potential nerve conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Ahmad Fadzli; Hassan, Nur Hidayah; Hwei, Ng Min; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Naicker, Amaramalar Selvi; Abdullah, Shalimar; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Htwe, Ohnmar; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Haflah, Nor Hazla Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Autologous nerve grafts to bridge nerve gaps pose various drawbacks. Nerve tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration using artificial neural conduits has emerged as a promising alternative. To develop an artificial nerve conduit using collagen-coated polylactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) and to analyse the survivability and propagating ability of the neuro-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells in this conduit. The PLGA conduit was constructed by dip-molding method and coated with collagen by immersing the conduit in collagen bath. The ultra structure of the conduits were examined before they were seeded with neural-differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (nMSC) and implanted sub-muscularly on nude mice thighs. The non-collagen-coated PLGA conduit seeded with nMSC and non-seeded non-collagen-coated PLGA conduit were also implanted for comparison purposes. The survivability and propagation ability of nMSC was studied by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The collagen-coated conduits had a smooth inner wall and a highly porous outer wall. Conduits coated with collagen and seeded with nMSCs produced the most number of cells after 3 weeks. The best conduit based on the number of cells contained within it after 3 weeks was the collagen-coated PLGA conduit seeded with neuro-transdifferentiated cells. The collagen-coated PLGA conduit found to be suitable for attachment, survival and proliferation of the nMSC. Minimal cell infiltration was found in the implanted conduits where nearly all of the cells found in the cell seeded conduits are non-mouse origin and have neural cell markers, which exhibit the biocompatibility of the conduits. The collagen-coated PLGA conduit is biocompatible, non-cytotoxic and suitable for use as artificial nerve conduits.

  9. Genipin-Cross-Linked Chitosan Nerve Conduits Containing TNF-α Inhibitors for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhao, Weijia; Niu, Changmei; Zhou, Yujie; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Yumin; Tang, Xin

    2018-07-01

    Tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) are considered a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafting, which is considered the "gold standard" clinical strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Here, we immobilized tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors onto a nerve conduit, which was introduced into a chitosan (CS) matrix scaffold utilizing genipin (GP) as the crosslinking agent, to fabricate CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits. The in vitro release kinetics of TNF-α inhibitors from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vivo continuous release profile of the TNF-α inhibitors released from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 days. We found that the amount of TNF-α inhibitors released decreased with time after the bridging of the sciatic nerve defects in rats. Moreover, 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, histological analyses and functional evaluations were carried out to assess the influence of the TENG on regeneration. Immunochemistry performed 4 weeks after grafting to assess early regeneration outcomes revealed that the TENG strikingly promoted axonal outgrowth. Twelve weeks after grafting, the TENG accelerated myelin sheath formation, as well as functional restoration. In general, the regenerative outcomes following TENG more closely paralleled findings observed with autologous grafting than the use of the CS matrix scaffold. Collectively, our data indicate that the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits comprised an elaborate system for sustained release of TNF-α inhibitors in vitro, while studies in vivo demonstrated that the TENG could accelerate regenerating axonal outgrowth and functional restoration. The introduction of CS-GP-TNF-α-inhibitor nerve conduits into a scaffold may contribute to an efficient and adaptive immune microenvironment that can be used to facilitate peripheral nerve repair.

  10. FDG-PET identification of infected pulmonary artery conduit following tetralogy of fallot (TOF) repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Williams, Hadyn; Pucar, Darko [Dept. of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease usually managed by serial surgical repairs. The repaired prosthetic valve or conduit is susceptible to life-threatening infection. FDG-PET is an effective alternative to evaluate the source of infection when other examinations are inconclusive. We report an unusual case of an infected pulmonary artery conduit after TOF repair although the echocardiogram was negative for vegetation, which was later confirmed by surgery and pathology. The case highlights the role of FDG-PET as a problem-solving tool for potential endocarditis and cardiac device infection cases after complex cardiac surgery.

  11. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  12. Havery Mudd 2014-2015 Computer Science Conduit Clinic Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspesi, G [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bai, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Deese, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shin, L [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Conduit, a new open-source library developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, provides a C++ application programming interface (API) to describe and access scientific data. Conduit’s primary use is for inmemory data exchange in high performance computing (HPC) applications. Our team tested and improved Conduit to make it more appealing to potential adopters in the HPC community. We extended Conduit’s capabilities by prototyping four libraries: one for parallel communication using MPI, one for I/O functionality, one for aggregating performance data, and one for data visualization.

  13. A rare case of prosthetic endocarditis and dehiscence in a mechanical valved conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Smith, Cristy; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-02-07

    A middle-aged adult patient with a history of aortic root replacement with a mechanical valved conduit and remote chest trauma was referred to our institution with prosthetic endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram at our institution confirmed a near-complete dehiscence of the prosthetic aortic valve from the conduit, with significant perivalvular flow forming a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent a high-risk re-operation, involving redo aortic root replacement with a homograft after extensive debridement of the infected tissue. The patient was discharged to an outside facility after an uncomplicated hospital course, and remains stable.

  14. FDG-PET identification of infected pulmonary artery conduit following tetralogy of fallot (TOF) repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu Yang; Williams, Hadyn; Pucar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common forms of cyanotic congenital heart disease usually managed by serial surgical repairs. The repaired prosthetic valve or conduit is susceptible to life-threatening infection. FDG-PET is an effective alternative to evaluate the source of infection when other examinations are inconclusive. We report an unusual case of an infected pulmonary artery conduit after TOF repair although the echocardiogram was negative for vegetation, which was later confirmed by surgery and pathology. The case highlights the role of FDG-PET as a problem-solving tool for potential endocarditis and cardiac device infection cases after complex cardiac surgery

  15. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  16. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  17. MIPs in Aqueous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying-chun; Ma, Hui-ting; Lu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    When organic solvent-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are used in aqueous environment, how to reduce nonspecific binding is a major challenge. By modifying the binding solvents and introducing appropriate washing and elution steps, even relatively hydrophobic MIPs can gain optimal rebinding selectivity in aqueous conditions. Furthermore, water-compatible MIPs that can be used to treat aqueous samples directly have been prepared. The use of hydrophilic co-monomers, the controlled surface modification through controlled radical polymerization, and the new interfacial molecular imprinting methods are different strategies to prepare water-compatible MIPs. By combining MIPs with other techniques, both organic solvent-compatible and water-compatible MIPs can display better functional performances in aqueous conditions. Intensive studies on MIPs in aqueous conditions can provide new MIPs with much-improved compatibilities that will lead to more interesting applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  18. Effect of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of knee joint load in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth G; Kean, Crystal O; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of rocker-soled shoes on parameters of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and pain in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 30 individuals (mean (SD): age, 61 (7) yr; 15 (50%) male) with radiographic and symptomatic knee OA under three walking conditions in a randomized order: i) wearing rocker-soled shoes (Skechers Shape-ups), ii) wearing non-rocker-soled shoes (ASICS walking shoes), and iii) barefoot. Peak KAM and KAM angular impulse were measured as primary indicators of knee load distribution. Secondary measures included the knee flexion moment (KFM) and knee pain during walking. Peak KAM was significantly lower when wearing the rocker-soled shoes compared with that when wearing the non-rocker-soled shoes (mean difference (95% confidence interval), -0.27 (-0.42 to -0.12) N·m/BW × Ht%; P < 0.001). Post hoc tests revealed no significant difference in KAM impulse between rocker-soled and non-rocker-soled shoe conditions (P = 0.13). Both peak KAM and KAM impulse were significantly higher during both shoe conditions compared with those during the barefoot condition (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in KFM (P = 0.36) or knee pain (P = 0.89) between conditions. Rocker-soled shoes significantly reduced peak KAM when compared with non-rocker-soled shoes, without a concomitant change in KFM, and thus may potentially reduce medial knee joint loading. However, KAM parameters in the rocker-soled shoes remained significantly higher than those during barefoot walking. Wearing rocker-soled shoes did not have a significant immediate effect on walking pain. Further research is required to evaluate whether rocker-soled shoes can influence symptoms and progression of knee OA with prolonged wear.

  19. Perinatal development influences mechanisms of bradykinin-induced relaxations in pulmonary resistance and conduit arteries differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boels, P J; Deutsch, J; Gao, B; Haworth, S G

    2001-07-01

    As bradykinin (BYK) relaxes conduit (EPA) and resistance (RPA) pulmonary arteries from both perinatal and adult lungs, we investigated whether this vasodilator's relaxation-mechanisms were altered during perinatal development, differed between EPA and RPA and differed with other endothelium-dependent vasodilators, acetyicholine (ACH) and substance P (SP). Arteries from mature foetal (5 days), neonatal (approximately 5 min), newborn (60-84 h) and adult pigs (> or =6 months) were isolated, mounted for in vitro isometric force recording, activated with PGF(2alpha) (30 micromol/l) and relaxed with BYK (10 pmol/l-1 micromol/l), SP (10 pmol/l-0.1 micromol/l) or ACH (1 nmol/l-1 mmol/l). (i) BYK: L-NAME (100 micromol/l) attenuated relaxations in foetal EPA ( approximately 55%) but nearly abolished them in the adult ( approximately 80%). In RPA, L-NAME nearly abolished ( approximately 90%) relaxations in the foetus and this effect diminished progressively with age to approximately 20% in the adult. Indomethacin (IND, micromol/l) attenuated relaxations in neonatal (approximately 25%), new-born and adult EPA (both approximately 45%). Together, L-NAME and IND abolished relaxations in all EPA and in neonatal RPA but not in older RPA. SKF525a (100 micromol/l) attenuated relaxations in foetal RPA ( approximately 4%), diminishing in the adult RPA to approximately 10%. Together, SKF52Sa and L-NAME largely abolished relaxations in postnatal RPA (approximately 80%). Activation with K(+)=125 mmol/l attenuated relaxations in adult EPA (approximately 80%), foetal RPA ( approximately 45%) and neonatal RPA (approximately 75%) and abolished relaxations in RPA from older ages. (ii) ACH: L-NAME abolished relaxations in new-born EPA and RPA. In adult EPA, combined L-NAME and IND moderately attenuated relaxations. (iii) SP: Combined application of L-NAME and IND attenuated relaxations to a similar degree in new-born and adult EPA and RPA. In postnatal EPA, BYK-relaxations depend completely on

  20. Improved axonal regeneration of transected spinal cord mediated by multichannel collagen conduits functionalized with neurotrophin-3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, L; Daly, W; Newland, B; Yao, S; Wang, W; Chen, B K K; Madigan, N; Windebank, A; Pandit, A

    2013-12-01

    Functionalized biomaterial scaffolds targeted at improving axonal regeneration by enhancing guided axonal growth provide a promising approach for the repair of spinal cord injury. Collagen neural conduits provide structural guidance for neural tissue regeneration, and in this study it is shown that these conduits can also act as a reservoir for sustained gene delivery. Either a G-luciferase marker gene or a neurotrophin-3-encoding gene, complexed to a non-viral, cyclized, PEGylated transfection vector, was loaded within a multichannel collagen conduit. The complexed genes were then released in a controlled fashion using a dual release system both in vitro and in vivo. For evaluation of their biological performance, the loaded conduits were implanted into the completely transected rat thoracic spinal cord (T8-T10). Aligned axon regeneration through the channels of conduits was observed one month post-surgery. The conduits delivering neurotrophin-3 polyplexes resulted in significantly increased neurotrophin-3 levels in the surrounding tissue and a statistically higher number of regenerated axons versus the control conduits (P<0.05). This study suggests that collagen neural conduits delivering a highly effective non-viral therapeutic gene may hold promise for repair of the injured spinal cord.

  1. A novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique for repositioning an embolized stent in the pulmonary conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Gowda, Srinath T; Forbes, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    A 9-year-old male, with history of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, status post complete repair with a 16 mm pulmonary homograft in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) underwent 3110 Palmaz stent placement for conduit stenosis. Following deployment the stent embolized proximally into the right ventricle (RV). We undertook the choice of repositioning the embolized stent into the conduit with a transcatheter approach. Using a second venous access, the embolized stent was carefully maneuvered into the proximal part of conduit with an inflated Tyshak balloon catheter. A second Palmaz 4010 stent was deployed in the distal conduit telescoping through the embolized stent. The Tyshak balloon catheter was kept inflated in the RV to stabilize the embolized stent in the proximal conduit until it was successfully latched up against the conduit with the deployment of the overlapping second stent. One year later, he underwent Melody valve implantation in the pre-stented conduit relieving conduit insufficiency. This novel balloon assisted two-stents telescoping technique is a feasible transcatheter option to secure an embolized stent from the RV to the RVOT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nitric oxide permits hypoxia-induced lymphatic perfusion by controlling arterial-lymphatic conduits in zebrafish and glass catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Ejby Jensen, Lasse; Cao, Renhai; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2009-01-01

    and lymphatic perfusion. Here we show in the adult zebrafish and glass catfish (Kryptopterus bicirrhis) that blood-lymphatic conduits directly connect arterial vessels to the lymphatic system. Under hypoxic conditions, arterial-lymphatic conduits (ALCs) became highly dilated and linearized by NO...

  3. Design and production of stopper made of concrete foam composite used for open channel conduit cover and parking bumper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Bustami; Sebayang, Alexander; Sebayang, Septian; Muttaqin, Maraghi; Darmadi, Harry; Basuki, WS; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-03-01

    Open channel conduit is designed and produced with the aims to reduce excess water, whether from rain, seepage, or excess irrigation water in an area. It is also included in one of the important components of urban infrastructure in tackling the problem of flooding and waterlogging. On the roadway, e.g. housing complex the open channel conduits should function the same, however conduit covers are needed. The covers should be also designed to function as parking bumper. This paper discusses the design and production of the stoppers using our newly invented materials; the stoppers are structurally tested under static, dynamic, and bump test. Response of the conduit cover are found from structural analysis using finite element software ANSYS MECHANICAL version 17.5. Two types of stoppers are introduced: flat and curvy configuration. It was obtained that both types are suitable for open channel conduit cover and parking bumper.

  4. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Impact of bed rest on conduit artery remodeling: effect of exercise countermeasures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Green, D.J.; Felsenberg, D.; Belavy, D.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a potent stimulus for vascular remodeling, leading to a marked decrease in conduit artery diameter. However, little is known about the impact of physical inactivity on artery wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio or the potential of exercise countermeasures to modify artery wall

  6. The Railway and the River: Conduits of Dickens’s Imaginary City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, B.; Murail, E.; Thornton, S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the railway and the river as two key conduits of Dickens’ imaginary city, arguing that each simultaneously connects and fractures the modern urban world that he depicts. Focusing on Dombey and Son and Our Mutual Friend, the chapter explores how railway and river combine

  7. Phase separation phenomena in branching conduits. Topical report Dec 78-Dec 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The analysis of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCA's) requires that one be able to accurately calculate the two-phase flow splits in complex, branching conduits. The purpose of this study is to provide a general method for calculating the phase separation in a branching conduit. The degree of phase separation of a two-phase (air/water) mixture flowing through a plexiglas tee test section was measured. In addition, flow visualization, using high speed photography, was performed. The experimental design considerations, error analysis and the dependence of the observed phase separation on global parameters, such as inlet quality, mass flux and separation angle, are discussed. The pressure gradients were measured along the various conduits and the differential pressure was obtained at the tee junction by extrapolation. It was found that the degree of phase separation was quite pronounced, with the vapor phase preferentially separating into the branch. Using these data, a physically-based empirical model was developed with which to calculate the phasic distribution of a subsonic two-phase mixture in the downstream branches of a branching conduit

  8. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  9. Enhancing Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with a Novel Drug-Delivering Nerve Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    our novel nerve conduit. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...growth in dorsal root ganglion ( DRG ) cell culture Tasks/Subtasks: 1. In Vitro NGF/GNDF release kinetics experiments.......................... (Gale...Axonal growth of DRGs ................................................................ (Terry, Shea) (11-18months) Progress: We have started these

  10. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  11. 76 FR 53678 - Calleguas Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Municipal Water District Notice of Surrender of Exemption (Conduit) Pursuant to section 4.95(a) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Calleguas Municipal Water District filed with the Commission a petition to... Municipal Water District, 87 FERC ] 62,256 (1999). \\3\\ See filing of July 11, 2011 by Calleguas Municipal...

  12. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  13. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.

    2008-01-01

    The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Thoracoscopic management of volvulus of the gastric conduit following minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linson, Jeremy; Latzko, Michael; Ahmed, Bestoun; Awad, Ziad

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of emergent thoracoscopic management of volvulus of the gastric conduit following minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. The patient is a 69-year-old Caucasian male with a history of adenocarcinoma of the lower third of the esophagus. Initial presentation was dysphagia with solid foods, which progressed in severity until he was unable to swallow anything. EUS demonstrated a partially obstructing mass at 33 cm; biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, stage T3N2Mx. PET scan did not reveal any metastatic disease. Preoperative management included neo-adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (5-FU and cisplatin) and early placement of a jejunal feeding tube. Intra-operative leak test was performed as a matter of routine following completion of the esophagogastric anastomosis. A nasogastric tube was placed intra-operatively and removed on POD2 according to our standard pathway. Postoperatively, the patient progressed without difficulty to POD4, when we routinely obtain an upper GI swallow study. This demonstrated a lack of transit of contrast through the distal neo-esophagus. Follow-up endoscopy revealed volvulus of the gastric conduit with obliteration of the lumen. We immediately took the patient to the OR for thoracoscopic detorsion, which we accomplished successfully by entering the existing trochar sites and using blunt dissection.␣Upon entering the thoracic cavity, the staple line that had been oriented anteriorly was now posterior. Attachments were gently teased away from the chest wall and the conduit was detorsed and anchored to the chest wall in the correct orientation with silk suture. Intra-operative endoscopy demonstrated a patent conduit. Postoperative upper GI fluoroscopy now showed good transit of contrast. The patient continued to improve and was eventually advanced to mechanical soft diet and discharged on postoperative day 9. Early intervention is indicated in cases of volvulus of the gastric conduit following Ivor

  15. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... valuable component of its deliberations in preparing to implement this law, which includes contracting with... Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES...

  16. Growth performances of juvenile sole Solea solea under environmental constraints of embayed nursery areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffargue, P.; Lagardere, F.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Fillon, A.; Amara, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tidal embayments in the Bay of Biscay (France) host nursery grounds where common sole, Solea solea, is the most abundant flatfish species. This study aimed to appraise the way those habitats function as nurseries through juvenile sole's responses in somatic growth and condition (Fulton's K) during

  17. 78 FR 51061 - TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 32 CFR Part 199 [DoD-2010-HA-0072] RIN 0720-AB41 TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access Hospitals; Correction... TRICARE; Reimbursement of Sole Community Hospitals and Adjustment to Reimbursement of Critical Access...

  18. Variation in behaviour and growth of common sole : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas Muñoz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Common sole (Solea solea) has a high potential for commercial aquaculture because of its consumer popularity and high market values in Europe. However, a major economic constraint for the culture of sole is its slow and variable growth. The aim of this thesis was to investigate: 1) the

  19. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  20. Interstage evaluation of homograft-valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduits for palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Punn, Rajesh; Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Smith, Shea N; Reinhartz, Olaf; Zhang, Yulin; Wright, Gail E; Peng, Lynn F; Wise-Faberowski, Lisa; Hanley, Frank L; McElhinney, Doff B

    2018-04-01

    Palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a standard nonvalved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit results in an inefficient circulation in part due to diastolic regurgitation. A composite right ventricle pulmonary artery conduit with a homograft valve has a hypothetical advantage of reducing regurgitation, but may differ in the propensity for stenosis because of valve remodeling. This retrospective cohort study included 130 patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent a modified stage 1 procedure with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit from 2002 to 2015. A composite valved conduit (cryopreserved homograft valve anastomosed to a polytetrafluoroethylene tube) was placed in 100 patients (47 aortic, 32 pulmonary, 13 femoral/saphenous vein, 8 unknown), and a nonvalved conduit was used in 30 patients. Echocardiographic functional parameters were evaluated before and after stage 1 palliation and before the bidirectional Glenn procedure, and interstage interventions were assessed. On competing risk analysis, survival over time was better in the valved conduit group (P = .040), but this difference was no longer significant after adjustment for surgical era. There was no significant difference between groups in the cumulative incidence of bidirectional Glenn completion (P = .15). Patients with a valved conduit underwent more interventions for conduit obstruction in the interstage period, but this difference did not reach significance (P = .16). There were no differences between groups in echocardiographic parameters of right ventricle function at baseline or pre-Glenn. In this cohort of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, inclusion of a valved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit was not associated with any difference in survival on adjusted analysis and did not confer an identifiable benefit on right ventricle function. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  1. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Using MODFLOW with CFP to understand conduit-matrix exchange in a karst aquifer during flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, P.; Screaton, E.; Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Brown, A.

    2011-12-01

    Karst springs may reverse flow when allogenic runoff increases river stage faster than groundwater heads and may exchange of surface water with groundwater in the surrounding aquifer matrix. Recharged flood water is rich in nutrients, metals, and organic matter and is undersaturated with respect to calcite. Understanding the physical processes controlling this exchange of water is critical to understanding metal cycling, redox chemistry and dissolution in the subsurface. Ultimately the magnitude of conduit-matrix exchange should be governed by head gradients between the conduit and the aquifer which are affected by the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix, conduit properties and antecedent groundwater heads. These parameters are interrelated and it is unknown which ones exert the greatest control over the magnitude of exchange. This study uses MODFLOW-2005 coupled with the Conduit Flow Processes (CFP) package to determine how physical properties of conduits and aquifers influence the magnitude of surface water-groundwater exchange. We use hydraulic data collected during spring reversals in a mapped underwater cave that sources Madison Blue Spring in north-central Florida to explore which factors are most important in governing exchange. The simulation focused on a major flood in 2009, when river stage increased by about 10 meters over 9 days. In a series of simulations, we varied hydraulic conductivity, conduit diameter, roughness height and tortuosity in addition to antecedent groundwater heads to estimate the relative effects of each parameter on the magnitude of conduit-matrix exchange. Each parameter was varied across plausible ranges for karst aquifers. Antecedent groundwater heads were varied using well data recorded through wet and dry seasons throughout the spring shed. We found hydraulic conductivity was the most important factor governing exchange. The volume of exchange increased by about 61% from the lowest value (1.8x10-6 m/d) to the highest value (6 m

  3. Lorentz force effect on mixed convection micropolar flow in a vertical conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-wahed, Mohamed S.

    2017-05-01

    The present work provides a simulation of control and filtration process of hydromagnetic blood flow with Hall current under the effect of heat source or sink through a vertical conduit (pipe). This work meets other engineering applications, such as nuclear reactors cooled during emergency shutdown, geophysical transport in electrically conducting and heat exchangers at low velocity conditions. The problem is modeled by a system of partial differential equations taking the effect of viscous dissipation, and these equations are simplified and solved analytically as a series solution using the Differential Transformation Method (DTM). The velocities and temperature profiles of the flow are plotted and discussed. Moreover, the conduit wall shear stress and heat flux are deduced and explained.

  4. Engineering based assessment for a shape design of a pediatric ePTFE pulmonary conduit valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboko, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Akihiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Miura, Hidekazu; Mura, Seitaro; Yamagishi, Masaaki

    2016-08-01

    The authors examined the hemodynamic characteristics of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) pulmonary valved conduits quantitatively by our originally developed pediatric pulmonary mechanical circulatory system, in order to suggest the optimal shape design. The system consisted of pneumatically driven right atrium and ventricle model, a pulmonary valve chamber, and elastic pulmonary compliance model with peripheral vascular resistance units, a venous reservoir. We employed two different types of ePTFE valve and evaluated the relationship between the leaflets motion and hemodynamic characteristics by using a high-speed video camera. As a result, we successfully reproduced hemodynamic simulations in our pediatric pulmonary mock system. We confirmed that the presence of bulging sinuses in the pulmonary valved conduit reduced the transvalvular energy loss and increased the valve opening area during systolic period. Our engineering-based in vitro analysis could be useful for proposing a shape design optimization of sophisticated pediatric ePTFE pulmonary valve.

  5. AC losses and stability on large cable-in-conduit superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    1998-12-01

    The cable-in-conduit superconductors are preferred for applications where the AC losses and stability are a major concern, e.g., fusion magnets and SMES. A review of coupling currents loss results for both NbTi and Nb 3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) is presented and the AC loss relevant features are listed, with special emphasis for the role of the interstrand resistance and strand coating. The transient stability approach for CICCs is discussed and the analytical models are quoted as well as the relevant experimental database. The likely spectrum of transient disturbance in CICC is reviewed and the need to account for interstrand current sharing in the design is outlined. Eventually a practical criterion for the interstrand resistance is proposed to link the stability and AC loss design.

  6. Electromagnetic nondestructive testing at high lift-off using a magnetic image conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Yi; Jun, Jong Woo; Kim, Jung Min; Le, Min Hhuy

    2013-01-01

    To protect sensors from the extreme environments, such as, heat, moisture, pollution and radiation, cracks must be inspected for; this can be done by measuring the distribution of magnetic fields at high lift-off through nondestructive electro-magnetic testing. However, as the intensity of an electro-magnetic field is inversely proportional to the square of the lift-off, it becomes increasingly difficult to effective inspect a crack as the lift-off increases. In this paper, a magnetic image conduit to minimize the intensity loss of an electro-magnetic field at high lift-off is proposed, and the effectiveness of a conduit for magnetic imaging is verified by means of both theoretical and experimental approaches.

  7. Ceramic fiber blanket wrap for fire protection of cable trays and conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaille, C.E.; Reiman, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In some areas of nuclear power plants, cables of redundant electrical systems, which are necessary for the safe shutdown of the reactor, are in close proximity. If a fire should occur in one of these areas, both electrical systems could be destroyed before the fire is extinguished and control of the reactor may be lost. A ceramic fiber blanket was evaluated as a fire protective wrap around cable trays and conduits. 2 refs

  8. Ileal-conduit following cystectomy, single-institution revision of indications and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abol-Enein, Hassan A.; Abdul-Muhsin, Ausama S.; Alhallaq, Yousuf M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to revise indications, case fatality ratio, and postoperative early and late complications of ileal conduit as a method of urinary diversion. This is a retrospective study in which 200 patients underwent an ileal conduit from August 1994 to December 2000 in Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt. Preoperative criteria of patient selection, preoperative findings and postoperative follow-up data were reviewed. In 200 patients aged 29-75 years, with a mean age of 55.84-/+ 8.91 years, the ileal conduit was chosen as a method of urinary diversion, due to one of the following patient or surgical factors; 50 (25%) cardiopulmonary co-morbidities, 27(13.5%) liver cirrhosis, 20 (10%) impaired renal function, 18 (9%) poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and 3 (1.5%) morbid obesity. Frozen section pathological examination showed carcinoma invasion of the urethra in 26 (13%) and prostate stroma in 16 (8%) male patients. Severe adhesions and difficulty cystectomy were encountered in 25 (12.5%) patients. Tumor was found at or close to the bladder neck in 13 (6.5%) female patients and 2 (1%) patients were found to have short mesentery. The mean follow up period was 90.02 -/+ 22.63 months. Fatality rate was 2%. Twenty-three (11.5%) patients had early complications, while 36 (23.7%) patients had late complications. Ileal conduit is still the best urinary diversion method in many patients who have bladder cancer with associated chronic medical disease or certain surgical factors that render other urinary diversion methods more difficult carry more postoperative morbidity and mortality or both. (author)

  9. Development and fabrication of superconducting hybrid Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) for indigenous fusion programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Hussain, M.M.; Abdulla, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Fuels Division has initiated development and fabrication of Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) of various configurations, for superconducting fusion grade magnets required for their indigenous Fusion Programme. The process involves development of high grade superconducting multifilamentary wire, multi stage cabling of superconducting as well as copper wires and, finally, jacketing of the cables in SS316LN tubes. The overview of the development and fabrication of CICC is presented in this article. (author)

  10. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Radtke

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropo...

  11. Selective reinnervation: a comparison of recovery following microsuture and conduit nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P J; Bain, J R; Mackinnon, S E; Makino, A P; Hunter, D A

    1991-09-20

    Selective reinnervation was studied by comparing the regeneration across a conventional neurorraphy versus a conduit nerve repair. Lewis rats underwent right sciatic nerve transection followed by one of four different nerve repairs (n = 8/group). In groups I and II a conventional neurorraphy was performed and in groups III and IV the proximal and distal stumps were coapted by use of a silicone conduit with an interstump gap of 5 mm. The proximal and distal stumps in groups I and III were aligned anatomically correct and the proximal stump was rotated 180 degrees in groups II and IV (i.e. proximal peroneal nerve opposite the distal tibial nerve and the proximal tibial nerve opposite the distal peroneal nerve). By 14 weeks, there was an equivalent, but incomplete return in sciatic function index (SFI) in groups I, III, and IV as measured by walking track analysis. However, the SFI became unmeasurable by 6 weeks in all group II animals. At 14 weeks, the percent innervation of the tibialis anterior and medial gastronemius muscles by the peroneal and tibial nerves respectively was estimated by selective compound muscle action potential amplitude recordings. When fascicular alignment was reversed, there was greater tibial (P = 0.02) and lesser peroneal (P = 0.005) innervation of the gastrocnemius muscle in the conduit (group IV) versus the neurorraphy (group II) group. This suggests that the gastrocnemius muscle may be selectively reinnervated by the tibial nerve. However, there was no evidence of selective reinnervation of the tibialis anterior muscle. Despite these differences, the functional recovery in both conduit repair groups (III and IV) was equivalent to a correctly aligned microsuture repair (group I) and superior to that in the incorrectly aligned microsuture repair (group II).

  12. Bronchovascular reconstruction with a bovine pericardial conduit and surgical reintervention due to thrombosis with revascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Emilio; Blanco, Montserrat; Otero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 57-year-old male with left hilar squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the pulmonary artery and in whom a sleeve bronchoplasty and angioplasty were performed using a bovine pericardial conduit. Three days post-operatively, graft thrombosis was detected; thrombectomy and graft reconstruction were performed with revascularisation of the graft. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Adult Stem Cell Based Enhancement of Nerve Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    accompanied by injuries to peripheral nerves; if not repaired, the trauma can lead to significant dysfunction and disability . While nerves have the ability to...recovery, minimized disability , and increased quality of life for our wounded warriors. 2. KEYWORDS: Stem Cell, Nerve Conduit, Peripheral Nerve...would be a paradigm shift away from ordering X-rays at 10-12 weeks and only ordering a CT scan. It has the potential to change the standard of care

  14. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm ..... establishment of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere. Microb ... Biological, and Social Sciences Research, 2nd Edition. Optimal Publ.

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Nichol: Archival tag depth and temperature data from northern rock sole

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth data from archival tags on northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were examined to assess whether fish used tidal currents to aid horizontal migration....

  16. Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material in periodontal intrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Chang

    2011-09-01

    Conclusions: From a clinical and radiologic point of view at 6 months after surgery, the use of PRF as the sole grafting material seems to be an effective modality of regenerative treatment for periodontal intrabony defects.

  17. 31 CFR 353.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEFINITIVE... of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e., without a coowner or...

  18. 31 CFR 315.36 - Payment during life of sole owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS... § 315.36 Payment during life of sole owner. A savings bond registered in single ownership form (i.e...

  19. Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst conduit network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zexuan; Bassett, Seth Willis; Hu, Bill; Dyer, Scott Barrett

    2016-08-01

    Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst conduits supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed conduit networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 11 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This paper documents the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface conduit networks in a coastal karst aquifer.

  20. Analysis of aortic root surgery with composite mechanical aortic valve conduit and valve-sparing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Mejia, Omar Asdrubal Vilca; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Dias, Altamiro Ribeiro; Mady, Charles; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of early and late results of aortic root reconstruction with aortic valve sparing operations and the composite mechanical valve conduit replacement. From November 2002 to September 2009, 164 consecutive patients with mean age 54 ± 15 years, 115 male, underwent the aortic root reconstruction (125 mechanical valve conduit replacements and 39 valve sparing operations). Sixteen percent of patients had Marfan syndrome and 4.3% had bicuspid aortic valve. One hundred and forty-four patients (88%) were followed for a mean period of 41.1 ± 20.8 months. The hospital mortality was 4.9%, 5.6% in operations with valved conduits and 2.6% in the valve sparing procedures (P valve sparing operations, respectively (95% CI = 70% - 95%, P = 0.001), (95% CI = 82% - 95% P = 0.03) and (95% CI = 81% - 95%, P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dl, Cabrol operation and renal dialysis were predictors of mortality, respectively, with occurrence chance of 6 (95% CI = 1.8 - 19.5, P = 0.003), 12 (95% CI = 3 - 49.7, P = 0.0004) and 16 (95% CI = 3.6 - 71.3, P = 0.0002). The aortic root reconstruction has a low early and late mortality, high survival free of complications and low need for reoperation. During the late follow-up, valve sparing aortic root reconstructions presented fewer incidences of bleeding, thromboembolic events and endocarditis.

  1. Analytical studies on hotspot temperature of cable-in-conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Takigami, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Hiroatsu

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical study to review the hotspot temperature design criteria of the cable-in-conduit conductors for the ITER magnet system. The ITER magnet system uses three kinds of cable-in-conduit conductors for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and the Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The amount of copper in the superconducting cable has been defined by using the classical hotspot temperature design criteria that is based on the adiabatic condition. In the current design, ITER superconducting cables include a large amount of pure copper strands to satisfy the classical criteria. However, temperature and stress in the conduit and insulations after quench can be simulated with the quench simulation program and stress analysis program using the latest analysis tools. This analysis shows that the strand temperature is dominated by the conduction along strands and the heat capacity of other conductor materials and coolant. The hotspot temperature depends strongly on the delay time for quench detection. This analysis provides an estimation of delay times for quench detection. The thermal and stress analysis can provide the maximum allowable temperature after quench by determination of a failure or a functional disorder condition of the jacket material and turn insulation. In conclusion, it is found that the current density of the cable space can be increased, by reducing the extra copper strand, thereby, allowing a reduction of the coil radial build. (author)

  2. The Norwood procedure: in favor of the RV-PA conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David J

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of the Norwood procedure has culminated in there currently being three treatment strategies available for initial management: the 'classical' Norwood (utilizing a Blalock-Taussig shunt), the Norwood with right-ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit, and the 'hybrid' Norwood procedure utilizing bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting. Each variant has its potential advantages and disadvantages, and this paper looks to examine the evidence in favor of each strategy, with emphasis on the supportive data for the RV-PA conduit. The 'classical' procedure has the benefit of the greatest accumulated surgical experience and avoids any incision into the ventricle. However, the diastolic run-off of the Blalock-Taussig shunt can cause hemodynamic instability and unpredictable coronary steal phenomenon. The RV-PA conduit has the advantage of maintaining diastolic pressure with a more stable postoperative course, but at the cost of a ventriculotomy that may have detrimental long-term sequelae. The 'hybrid' procedure has the advantage of avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, but does not always secure coronary blood flow and has a high inter-stage morbidity and reintervention rate. The evidence shows that each technique may have its place in future management, and that treatment algorithms could emerge that direct the choice of procedure for specific patient groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit implantation in experimental pulmonic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Fukushima, R.; Hoshi, K.; Hira, S.; Soda, A.; Iizuka, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Nishimura, T.; Yamane, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA) valved conduit (RPVC) implantation decreases RV systolic pressure in pulmonic stenosis (PS) by forming a bypass route between the RV and the PA. The present study evaluates valved conduits derived from canine aortae in a canine model of PS produced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB). Pulmonary stenosis was elicited using PAB in 10 conditioned beagles aged 8 months. Twelve weeks after PAB, the dogs were assigned to one group that did not undergo surgical intervention and another that underwent RPVC using denacol-treated canine aortic valved grafts (PAB+RPVC). Twelve weeks later, the rate of change in the RV-PA systolic pressure gradient was significantly decreased in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (60.5+-16.7% vs. 108.9+-22.9%; p0.01). In addition, the end-diastolic RV free wall thickness (RVFWd) was significantly reduced in the PAB+RPVC, compared with the PAB group (8.2+-0.2 vs. 9.4+-0.7 mm; p0.05). Thereafter, regurgitation was not evident beyond the conduit valve and the decrease in RV pressure overload induced by RPVC was confirmed. The present results indicate that RPVC can be performed under a beating heart without cardiopulmonary bypass and adapted to dogs with various types of PS, including 'supra valvular' PS or PS accompanied by dysplasia of the pulmonary valve. Therefore, we consider that this method is useful for treating PS in small animals

  5. Continent catheterizable conduit for urinary diversion in children: Applicability and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continent catheterizable conduit (CCC has made clean intermittent catheterization (CIC painless and easy. It is applicable in diverse clinical conditions. Nonetheless, convincing the parents for the need of conduit procedure is still difficult. Materials and Methods: A prospective study, included children who underwent CCC procedure from March 2008 to February 2013. The data were assessed for; diagnosis, type of conduit, number of preoperative counselling sessions before acceptance, role of "self-help group" in decision making, parental concern and satisfaction for the procedure. Results: Twenty-nine patients (males; 24, females; 5 underwent CCC procedure for various clinical conditions. The multiple preoperative counselling sessions and creation of "self-help groups" were helped them for decision making. The main concerns among parents were: (1 Impact of procedure on future fertility and sexual life. (2 Patency of native urethral channel. (3 Permanent urinary stoma over the abdomen. Conclusion: CCC procedures are applicable to a wide array of clinical situations with a good outcome. The acceptability of the CCC procedure improves with preoperative counselling of parent/child, initiation of preoperative per urethral CIC and creation of self-help groups.

  6. Influence of conduit flow mechanics on magma rheology and the growth style of lava domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Taha; Elsworth, Derek; Voight, Barry; Mattioli, Glen; Jansma, Pamela

    2018-06-01

    We develop a 2-D particle-mechanics model to explore different lava-dome growth styles. These range from endogenous lava dome growth comprising expansion of a ductile dome core to the exogenous extrusion of a degassed lava plug resulting in generation of a lava spine. We couple conduit flow dynamics with surface growth of the evolving lava dome, fuelled by an open-system magma chamber undergoing continuous replenishment. The conduit flow model accounts for the variation in rheology of ascending magma that results from degassing-induced crystallization. A period of reduced effusive flow rates promote enhanced degassing-induced crystallization. A degassed lava plug extrudes exogenously for magmas with crystal contents (ϕ) of 78 per cent, yield strength >1.62 MPa, and at flow rates of 3 m3 s-1) for magma with lower relative yield strengths (p = 3 MPa) at the conduit exit is forced out by the high discharge rate pulse (2 process, which has been observed at Mount St. Helens and other locations, largely reflects gravitational loading of dome with a viscous core, with retardation by yield strength and talus friction.

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Presenting Respiratory Failure as the Sole Initial Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuki Tateno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is rare that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS presents with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation. A 72-year-old man with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed exertional dyspnea for 13 months. He then progressed to limb weakness that led to the diagnosis of ALS. Although rare, ALS can present with respiratory failure as the sole initial manifestation more than 1 year prior to limb weakness.

  8. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  9. Simulating the Behavioural Effects of Welfare Reforms among Sole Parents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Duncan; Mark N. Harris

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives and estimates an econometric model of labour supply among sole parents in Australia, using modelling techniques which treat the labour supply decision as a utility maximising choice between a given number of discrete states. In estimation, we control for random preference heterogeneity as well as Þxed and search costs. Using our econometric model, we look at the e.ects of actual and hypothetical welfare policy reforms on the employment choices of sole parents in Australia. ...

  10. Application of near real-time radial semblance to locate the shallow magmatic conduit at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.; Whilldin, D.; Chouet, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radial Semblance is applied to broadband seismic network data to provide source locations of Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic energy in near real time. With an efficient algorithm and adequate network coverage, accurate source locations of VLP energy are derived to quickly locate the shallow magmatic conduit system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. During a restart in magma flow following a brief pause in the current eruption, the shallow magmatic conduit is pressurized, resulting in elastic radiation from various parts of the conduit system. A steeply dipping distribution of VLP hypocenters outlines a region extending from sea level to about 550 m elevation below and just east of the Halemaumau Pit Crater. The distinct hypocenters suggest the shallow plumbing system beneath Halemaumau consists of a complex plexus of sills and dikes. An unconstrained location for a section of the conduit is also observed beneath the region between Kilauea Caldera and Kilauea Iki Crater.

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  12. ALGORITHMS FOR THE PROGRAMMING OF FOOTWEAR SOLES MOULDS ON WORKING POSTS OF INJECTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain

  13. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  14. Polyurethane/Gelatin Nanofibrils Neural Guidance Conduit Containing Platelet-Rich Plasma and Melatonin for Transplantation of Schwann Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Majid; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Nourani, Mohammdreza; Khojasteh, Arash; Farzamfar, Saeed; Mansouri, Korosh; Ai, Jafar

    2018-04-01

    The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit as a carrier to transplant allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was prepared from polyurethane (PU) and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) using thermally induced phase separation technique and filled with melatonin (MLT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The prepared conduit had the porosity of 87.17 ± 1.89%, the contact angle of 78.17 ± 5.30° and the ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus of 5.40 ± 0.98 MPa and 3.13 ± 0.65 GPa, respectively. The conduit lost about 14% of its weight after 60 days in distilled water. The produced conduit enhanced the proliferation of SCs demonstrated by a tetrazolium salt-based assay. For functional analysis, the conduit was seeded with 1.50 × 10 4 SCs (PU/GNFs/PRP/MLT/SCs) and implanted into a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect of Wistar rat. Three control groups were used: (1) PU/GNFs/SCs, (2) PU/GNFs/PRP/SCs, and (3) Autograft. The results of sciatic functional index, hot plate latency, compound muscle action potential amplitude and latency, weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle and histopathological examination using hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining, demonstrated that using the PU/GNFs/PRP/MLT conduit to transplant SCs to the sciatic nerve defect resulted in a higher regenerative outcome than the PU/GNFs and PU/GNFs/PRP conduits.

  15. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1 H-PEO and 13 C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  16. Incorporation of cooling-induced crystallization into a 2-dimensional axisymmetric conduit heat flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptinstall, David; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Neuberg, Jurgen; Taisne, Benoit; Collinson, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Heat flow models can bring new insights into the thermal and rheological evolution of volcanic 3 systems. We shall investigate the thermal processes and timescales in a crystallizing, static 4 magma column, with a heat flow model of Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat. The latent heat of crystallization is initially computed with MELTS, as a function of pressure and temperature for an andesitic melt (SHV groundmass starting composition). Three fractional crystallization simulations are performed; two with initial pressures of 34MPa (runs 1 & 2) and one of 25MPa (run 3). Decompression rate was varied between 0.1MPa/° C (runs 1 & 3) and 0.2MPa/° C (run 2). Natural and experimental matrix glass compositions are accurately reproduced by all MELTS runs. The cumulative latent heat released for runs 1, 2 and 3 differs by less than 9% (8.69E5 J/kg*K, 9.32E5 J/kg*K, and 9.49E5 J/kg*K respectively). The 2D axisymmetric conductive cooling simulations consider a 30m-diameter conduit that extends from the surface to a depth of 1500m (34MPa). The temporal evolution of temperature is closely tracked at depths of 10m, 750m and 1400m in the centre of the conduit, at the conduit walls, and 20m from the walls into the host rock. Following initial cooling by 7-15oC at 10m depth inside the conduit, the magma temperature rebounds through latent heat release by 32-35oC over 85-123 days to a maximum temperature of 1002-1005oC. At 10m depth, it takes 4.1-9.2 years for the magma column to cool by 108-131oC and crystallize to 75wt%, at which point it cannot be easily remobilized. It takes 11-31.5 years to reach the same crystallinity at 750-1400m depth. We find a wide range in cooling timescales, particularly at depths of 750m or greater, attributed to the initial run pressure and the dominant latent heat producing crystallizing phase, Albite-rich Plagioclase Feldspar. Run 1 is shown to cool fastest and run 3 cool the slowest, with surface emissivity having the strongest cooling

  17. On magma fragmentation by conduit shear stress: Evidence from the Kos Plateau Tuff, Aegean Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Danilo M.; Simei, Silvia; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2008-12-01

    Large silicic explosive eruptions are the most catastrophic volcanic events. Yet, the intratelluric mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here we report a field and laboratory study of the Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT, 161 ka, Aegean Volcanic Arc), which provides an excellent geological example of conduit processes that control magma vesiculation and fragmentation during intermediate- to large-scale caldera-forming eruptions. A prominent feature of the KPT is the occurrence of quite unusual platy-shaped tube pumice clasts in pyroclastic fall and current deposits from the early eruption phases preceding caldera collapse. On macroscopic and SEM observations, flat clast faces are elongated parallel to tube vesicles, while transverse surfaces often occur at ~ 45° to vesicle elongation. This peculiar pumice texture provides evidence of high shear stresses related to strong velocity gradients normal to conduit walls, which induced vesiculation and fragmentation of the ascending magma. Either an increasing mass discharge rate without adequate enlargement of a narrow central feeder conduit or a developing fissure-like feeder system related to incipient caldera collapse provided suitable conditions for the generation of plate tube pumice within magma volumes under high shear during the pre-climactic KPT eruption phases. This mechanism implies that the closer to the conduit walls (where the stronger are the velocity gradients) the larger was the proportion of plate vs. conventional (lensoid) juvenile fragments in the ascending gas-pyroclast mixture. Consequently, plate pumice clasts were mainly entrained in the outer portions of the jet and convecting regions of a sustained, Plinian-type, eruption column, as well as in occasional lateral blast currents generated at the vent. As a whole, plate pumice clasts in the peripheral portions of the column were transported at lower altitudes and deposited by fallout or partial collapse closer to the vent relative to lensoid ones

  18. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologicallycontrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R.A.L.; Dennett, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest RUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar RUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher RUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture and

  19. Radiation capture and use as affected by morphologically contrasting maize/pea in sole and intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanton, R. A. L.; Dennett, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the Field Unit of the School of Plant Sciences in Reading, UK, during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons to compare the radiation capture and use efficiency of morphologically and physiologically contrasting maize/pea intercrops with sole crops. The maize cultivars comprised Nancis with erect and Sophy with floppy leaves whilst the peas consisted of Maro, a conventional leaved, and Princess, a semi-leafless cultivar. Radiation capture by the sole and intercrops was measured using a Sunflek Ceptometer (Delta T Devices), with a sensor length of 80 cm. Measurements were taken at four equidistant positions in each plot, 1 m away from the edges of the plot. Before the maize grew above the peas, measurements were taken at the top of the canopy and below. When the canopies were distinct, three measurements were taken, above the canopy, above peas and below the canopy from 9.30 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. at weekly intervals. In both seasons the intercrops and sole pea crops intercepted more radiation compared to the sole maize crops. Towards the end of the season the intercrops and sole maize had similar interception. Intercropping both maize cultivars in 2000 with the conventional pea had the greatest interception in 2001. Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was measured by taking the respective changes in above ground dry weight and dividing by the respective changes in cumulative absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). The RUE were highest at mid-season for both intercrops and sole crops in both seasons. Comparisons were also made using cumulative radiation use efficiencies (CRUE), representing the RUE from emergence to any time. Sole pea had the lowest CRUE in both seasons. The sole maize in 2000 had highest CRUE. However, in 2001 intercrops had similar CRUE to sole maize, suggesting an increase in RUE of peas in intercrops. Nancis had consistently higher CRUE in both seasons compared to Sophy. The results emphasize that radiation capture

  20. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jilei Liu; Chaohe Xu; Zhen Chen; Shibing Ni; Ze Xiang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. B...

  1. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI. Overall, our results suggest that topical antibiotics cause different levels of iris melanocyte toxicity, releasing dispersed pigments into the aqueous humor, which can be measured through TYR enzyme activity. Hence, we conclude that topical FQLs may cause subclinical toxicity to the iris melanocytes but may not be the sole cause of the development of BAIT or BADI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  3. Seasonal incidence of lameness and risk factors associated with thin soles, white line disease, ulcers, and sole punctures in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A H; Shearer, J K; De Vries, A

    2009-07-01

    Lameness is a multifactorial condition with many causes. In this study, cow lifetime records were used to quantify the incidence of specific lameness-causing lesions and investigate factors associated with those lesions. Of primary interest were the effects of seasonality and the effects of thin soles (TS). Thin sole-induced toe ulcers (TSTU) occurring adjacent to the white line in the apical portion of the weight-bearing surface were distinguished from white line disease (WLD) occurring in the region of the abaxial heel sole junction. Sole (SU), heel (HU), and toe (TU) ulcers; TS; sole punctures (SP); leg injuries (INJ); and other (OTH) lesions (e.g., infectious diseases, laminitis, unclassified hemorrhage) were also considered. Data were collected from May 2004 through October 2007 and included records for 4,915 cows of which 1,861 had at least one recorded lameness event. Of these, 20% were TSTU, 20% OTH, 16% SU, 13% TS, 10% WLD, 8% HU, 6% INJ, 4% SP, and 2% TU. Annual incidence risk for lameness was 49.1%. Overall incidence rate for lameness was 1.41/1,000 cow-days, and rates for all lesions were highest in the summer. As parity increased, so did incidence rates for TS, SU, WLD, HU, and INJ. For TS, TSTU, and WLD, incidence rates were lowest in early lactation (16 to 60 DIM), whereas for SU, HU, TU, incidence rates were highest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM). Cox proportional hazard models for TS, TSTU, WLD, SU, HU, TU, and SP included age and year of first calving and milk production capacity. Prior/concurrent lameness events, season, parity, and stage of lactation were included as time-dependent effects. Prior/concurrent TS increased the hazard for all other lesions, particularly TSTU, and HU. Having any other prior claw lesion also increased the hazard for all lesions. Hazard was highest in summer for all lesions except TU. Stage of lactation was a significant effect in hazard of TSTU, which was lowest in mid lactation (61 to 150 DIM).

  4. Tunable aqueous virtual micropore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A; Krstić, Predrag S

    2012-03-26

    A charged microparticle can be trapped in an aqueous environment by forming a narrow virtual pore--a cylindrical space region in which the particle motion in the radial direction is limited by forces emerging from dynamical interactions of the particle charge and dipole moment with an external radiofrequency quadrupole electric field. If the particle satisfies the trap stability criteria, its mean motion is reduced exponentially with time due to the viscosity of the aqueous environment; thereafter the long-time motion of particle is subject only to random, Brownian fluctuations, whose magnitude, influenced by the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic effects and added to the particle size, determines the radius of the virtual pore, which is demonstrated by comparison of computer simulations and experiment. The measured size of the virtual nanopore could be utilized to estimate the charge of a trapped micro-object. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Delineating saturated conduit patterns and dimensions in the upper Floridan aquifer through numerical groundwater flow modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, T. R.; Meyer, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    In groundwater flow modeling, aquifer permeability is typically defined through model calibration. Since the pattern and size of conduits are part of a karstic permeability framework, those parameters should be constrainable through the same process given a sufficient density of measured conditions. H2H Associates has completed a dual-permeability steady-state model of groundwater flow through the western Santa Fe River Basin, Florida from which a 380.9 km network of saturated conduits was delineated through model calibration to heads and spring discharges. Two calibration datasets were compiled describing average high-water and average low-water conditions based on heads at 145 wells and discharge from 18 springs for the high-water scenario and heads at 188 wells and discharge from 9 springs for the low-water scenario. An initial conduit network was defined by assigning paths along mapped conduits and inferring paths along potentiometric troughs between springs and swallets that had been connected by groundwater tracing. These initial conduit assignments accounted for only 13.75 and 34.1 km of the final conduit network respectively. The model was setup using FEFLOW™ where conduits were described as discrete features embedded in a porous matrix. Flow in the conduits was described by the Manning-Strickler equation where variables for conduit area and roughness were used to adjust the volume and velocity of spring flows. Matrix flow was described by Darcy’s law where hydraulic conductivity variations were limited to three geologically defined internally homogeneous zones that ranged from ~2E-6 m/s to ~4E-3 m/s. Recharge for both the high-water and low-water periods was determined through a water budget analysis where variations were restricted to nine zones defined by land-use. All remaining variations in observed head were then assumed to be due to conduits. The model was iteratively calibrated to the high-water and low-water datasets wherein the location, size

  6. Aqueous liquid redox desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicher, M.; Niemiec, B.; Katona, T.

    1999-12-01

    The LO-CAT II process is an aqueous liquid redox process which uses ferric and ferrous iron catalysts to oxidise hydrogen sulfide (from sour gas) to elemental sulfur: the relevant chemical equations are given. Chelating agents keep the iron in solution. The system is described under the headings of (i) LO-CAT chemistry, (ii) design parameters, (iii) startup challenges, (iv) present situation and (v) anticipated future conditions. Further improvements to the system are anticipated.

  7. Numerical modeling and sensitivity analysis of seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability coastal karst aquifer with conduit networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seawater intrusion has been widely observed through the subsurface conduit system in coastal karst aquifers as a source of groundwater contaminant. In this study, seawater intrusion in a dual-permeability karst aquifer with conduit networks is studied by the two-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport SEAWAT model. Local and global sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate the impacts of boundary conditions and hydrological characteristics on modeling seawater intrusion in a karst aquifer, including hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, specific storage, and dispersivity of the conduit network and of the porous medium. The local sensitivity analysis evaluates the parameters' sensitivities for modeling seawater intrusion, specifically in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP. A more comprehensive interpretation of parameter sensitivities, including the nonlinear relationship between simulations and parameters, and/or parameter interactions, is addressed in the global sensitivity analysis. The conduit parameters and boundary conditions are important to the simulations in the porous medium because of the dynamical exchanges between the two systems. The sensitivity study indicates that salinity and head simulations in the karst features, such as the conduit system and submarine springs, are critical for understanding seawater intrusion in a coastal karst aquifer. The evaluation of hydraulic conductivity sensitivity in the continuum SEAWAT model may be biased since the conduit flow velocity is not accurately calculated by Darcy's equation as a function of head difference and hydraulic conductivity. In addition, dispersivity is no longer an important parameter in an advection-dominated karst aquifer with a conduit system, compared to the sensitivity results in a porous medium aquifer. In the end, the extents of seawater intrusion are quantitatively evaluated and measured under different scenarios with the variabilities of

  8. Impact of pacing modality and biventricular pacing on cardiac output and coronary conduit flow in the post-cardiotomy patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, David G

    2012-02-03

    We have previously demonstrated the role of univentricular pacing modalities in influencing coronary conduit flow in the immediate post-operative period in the cardiac surgery patient. We wanted to determine the mechanism of this improved coronary conduit and, in addition, to explore the possible benefits with biventricular pacing. Sixteen patients undergoing first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting who required pacing following surgery were recruited. Comparison of cardiac output and coronary conduit flow was performed between VVI and DDD pacing with a single right ventricular lead and biventricular pacing lead placement. Cardiac output was measured using arterial pulse waveform analysis while conduit flow was measured using ultrasonic transit time methodology. Cardiac output was greatest with DDD pacing using right ventricular lead placement only [DDD-univentricular 5.42 l (0.7), DDD-biventricular 5.33 l (0.8), VVI-univentricular 4.71 l (0.8), VVI-biventricular 4.68 l (0.6)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.023) and VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.001) but there was no significant advantage to DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.45). In relation to coronary conduit flow, DDD pacing again had the highest flow [DDD-univentricular 55 ml\\/min (24), DDD-biventricular 52 ml\\/min (25), VVI-univentricular 47 ml\\/min (23), VVI-biventricular 50 ml\\/min (26)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.006) pacing but not significantly different to VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.109) or DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.171). Pacing with a DDD modality offers the optimal coronary conduit flow by maximising cardiac output. Biventricular lead placement offered no significant benefit to coronary conduit flow or cardiac output.

  9. NRC Information No. 90-23: Improper installation of Patel conduit seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On November 6, 1989, the staff at the H.B. Robinson plant notified the NRC that they had discovered that some of the conduit seal grommets used to seal insulated wire conductors entering environmentally qualified instrument housings were oversized for the application. The seals are used to prevent moisture from entering safety-related electrical components following loss-of-coolant accidents. The problem was attributed to inadequate installation instructions that were used when the seals were installed in 1986 and 1987. These instructions listed the grommets by wire gauge size and gave maximum wire insulation diameters for each wire size. In accordance with these instructions, the seals were selected based on wire gauge alone. However, since the insulation thickness for a given wire gauge the correct grommet size would have been the minimum wire insulation diameter for which a particular grommet will achieve an effective seal. The selection of grommet size based only on wire gauge size resulted in the installation of some grommets that were too large to provide an effective seal. As a result, some of the seals failed pressure tests that were designed to simulate post-LOCA pressures. During the investigation of the grommet leakage problem, the Robinson staff also checked the torque on the conduit seal union nuts that are used to compress the seals. EGS Corporation recommends that the union nuts be torqued to 50 ft-lb. On approximately half of the 90 seals inspected, the union nut moved about 1/4 inch when this torque was applied. EGS Corporation reports that 1/4 inch of movement does not necessarily indicate a degraded seal but recommends that the correct torque be verified on a representative sample of installed conduit seals

  10. Visualized Evaluation of Blood Flow to the Gastric Conduit and Complications in Esophageal Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kanaya, Nobuhiko; Okada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Naoaki; Ninomiya, Takayuki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of the blood supply to gastric conduits is critically important to avoid complications after esophagectomy. We began visual evaluation of blood flow using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging in July 2015, to reduce reconstructive complications. In this study, we aimed to statistically verify the efficacy of blood flow evaluation using our simplified ICG method. A total of 285 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy and gastric conduit reconstruction were reviewed and divided into 2 groups: before and after introduction of ICG evaluation. The entire cohort and 68 patient pairs after propensity score matching (PS-M) were evaluated for clinical outcomes and the effect of visualized evaluation on reducing the risk of complication. The leakage rate in the ICG group was significantly lower than in the non-ICG group for each severity grade, both in the entire cohort (285 subjects) and after PS-M; the rates of other major complications, including recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and pneumonia, were not different. The duration of postoperative ICU stay was approximately 1 day shorter in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group in the entire cohort, and approximately 2 days shorter after PS-M. Visualized evaluation of blood flow with ICG methods significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic complications of all Clavien-Dindo (CD) grades. Odds ratios for ICG evaluation decreased with CD grade (0.3419 for CD ≥ 1; 0.241 for CD ≥ 2; and 0.2153 for CD ≥ 3). Objective evaluation of blood supply to the reconstructed conduit using ICG fluorescent imaging reduces the risk and degree of anastomotic complication. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Myectomy and LA-to-LV Conduit for Severe Calcific Mitral Stenosis and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghji, Zahara; Nguyen, Anita; Geske, Jeffrey B; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2018-02-26

    Severe calcific mitral valve stenosis can rarely occur concomitantly with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In these patients, surgical decalcification of the stenotic mitral valve followed by mitral valve replacement carries significant operative risk and may result in paravalvular leakage, atrioventricular groove disruption, and excessive bleeding. We report the first 2 cases of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with severe calcific mitral valve stenosis successfully treated with concomitant transaortic septal myectomy and bypass of the stenotic mitral valve using a valved left atrium to left ventricular conduit. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical experience with an alloplastic stoma prosthesis (Biocarbon) for urinary conduits and cutaneous ureterostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, W; Harzmann, R

    1988-01-01

    An alloplastic stoma prosthesis, Biocarbon, composed of 99.9% pure carbon in vitreous form, was used in six patients with conduit urinary diversion and in seven with cutaneous ureterostomy. The patients were thereafter observed for 2-86 months. Complications were subcutaneous infection, urinary fistula and ureteral stenosis, which necessitated removal of the prosthesis in most cases. The permanent stoma, without need for adhesive collecting device, was appreciated by the patients. Problems relating to biocompatibility remain to be solved before the place of the stoma prosthesis in urinary diversion can be determined.

  13. Vulcanian explosions at Volcán de Colima, Mexico: modelling the conduit processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, N. R.; Stevenson, J.; Johnson, J.; Reyes, G.; Weber, K.; Sanderson, R.

    2006-12-01

    Activity at Volcán de Colima has increased over the past 8 years, and is possibly building towards a significant eruption. Monitoring its current activity is therefore critical, with recent expansion of the network providing new types of data which need to be understood. Recent activity has consisted of 3 effusive episodes lasting up to 22 months, separated by periods characterised by daily Vulcanian eruptions of small to moderate size; the largest producing pyroclastic flows reaching over 5 km, representing the most significant since the last Plinian event (1913). A model has been proposed to explain the mechanism of the Vulcanian explosions, derived through integrating different data including seismicity, SO2 flux and the ascent velocity and thermal emission of the eruption column. Infrasound measurements have helped to demonstrate the variability in the distribution of energy produced by the events. Swarms of low frequency seismic events were associated with the largest magnitude explosions and have been examined statistically with variations observed in the magnitude-frequency relationship of each swarm and their distribution. Seismic evidence of migration of the source has been identified, maybe explained by brittle fracturing associated with an increasing pressure differential within the conduit system. Volcán de Colima has a complex edifice structure with explosions switching between multiple vents and showing pulsing. Variation in remotely monitored fumarole temperatures has also been related to the explosive activity. It is clear that small variations of certain critical factors within the conduit system can lead to a transition between effusive and explosive activity. Frequent transitions at Volcán de Colima provide an ideal opportunity to analyse variations in the observable signals and deduce relationships with changes within the conduit that influence magma ascent and degassing, such as its volatile contents or ascent velocity. One goal of this

  14. Incorporation of cooling-induced crystallisation into a 2-dimensional axisymmetric conduit heat flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptinstall, D. A.; Neuberg, J. W.; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Collinson, A.; Taisne, B.; Morgan, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Heat flow models can bring new insights into the thermal and rheological evolution of volcanic systems. We shall investigate the thermal processes and timescales in a crystallizing, static magma column, with a heat flow model of Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat. The latent heat of crystallization is initially computed with MELTS, as a function of pressure and temperature for an andesitic melt (SHV groundmass starting composition). Three fractional crystallization simulations are performed; two with initial pressures of 34MPa (runs 1 & 2) and one of 25MPa (run 3). Decompression rate was varied between 0.1MPa/°C (runs 1 & 3) and 0.2MPa/°C (run 2). Natural and experimental matrix glass compositions are accurately reproduced by all MELTS runs. The cumulative latent heat released for runs 1, 2 and 3 differs by less than 9% (8.69e5 J/kg*K, 9.32e5 J/kg*K, and 9.49e5 J/kg*K respectively). The 2D axisymmetric conductive cooling simulations consider a 30m-diameter conduit that extends from the surface to a depth of 1500m (34MPa). The temporal evolution of temperature is closely tracked at depths of 10m, 750m and 1400m in the center of the conduit, at the conduit walls, and 20m from the walls into the host rock. Following initial cooling by 7-15oC at 10m depth inside the conduit, the magma temperature rebounds through latent heat release by 32-35oC over 85-123 days to a maximum temperature of 1002-1005oC. At 10 m depth, it takes 4.1-9.2 years for the magma column to cool over 108-130oC and crystallize to 75wt%, at which point it cannot be easily remobilized. It takes 11-31.5 years to reach the same crystallinity at 750-1400m depth. We find a wide range in cooling timescales, particularly at depths of 750m or greater, attributed to the initial run pressure and dominant latent heat producing crystallizing phases (Quartz), where run 1 cools fastest and run 3 cools slowest. Surface cooling by comparison has the strongest influence on the upper tens of meters in all

  15. Measurement of nanosize etched pits in SiO2 optical fiber conduit using AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Vazquez, C.; Fragoso, R.

    2003-01-01

    Fission fragment tracks from 252 Cf have been observed in SiO 2 optical fiber, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), after a very short chemical etching in hydrofluoric acid solution at normal temperature. The nuclear track starting and evolution process is followed by the AFM direct measurements on the material surface and beyond a fine layer of the surface material. The images of the scanned cones were determined observing the two predominant energies from 252 Cf fission fragments and the development of the tracks in the 150 μm diameter optical fiber conduit

  16. Permeability Measurements of Rock Samples from Conduit Drilling at Unzen Volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Noguchi, S.; Nakada, S.

    2006-12-01

    The last eruption of Unzen Volcano (1990-1995) was effusive to form lava domes, though magmas at depths are estimated to have contained volatile materials enough to cause explosive eruptions [e.g., Sato et al., 1995]. Most of volatile materials should have escaped from ascending magmas. The escape of gas is controlled by permeability of magmas and country rocks. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project sampled both the latest conduit and its country rock (USDP-4). In order to understand degassing processes, we have measured the permeability of these rock samples. Four cube samples with edges of 25 mm were cut from USDP-4 cores C1, C12 (country rock), C13 and C14 (conduit). Sample C1 is considered as Old Unzen Lava, and Sample C12 volcanic breccia. The transient pulse method was employed to measure the permeability. It applies a step of the fluid pressure difference across a specimen, and measures the decay rate of the fluid pressure difference. This method can be applied to samples with very low permeability, since it determines the permeability without measuring the fluid flux. Nitrogen gas was used as a pore fluid. Our permeametry system is built in a pressure vessel, and the confining pressure and the pore fluid pressure can be controlled independently. The temperature of the measurement system is kept constant within 0.1 degree. The temperature control and the background leak rate limit the measurable permeability to be higher than 10^{-20} m2. Measurements were first conducted under the atmospheric pressure. The permeability in a rock sample varies with the direction by a factor less than 5. Sample C1 has the lowest permeability (10^{-19} m2), and Sample C12 the highest value (10^{-17 m2). The permeability of C13 and C14 is of the order of 10^{- 18} m2. Though only a trace of vesicles can be seen in conduit samples, the interconnection is still maintained. The pressure dependence of the permeability is now investigated up to 50 MPa. The permeability of C13 and C14

  17. Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Hindhede, Jens; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Records of claw trimmings were analyzed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole...... stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December...

  18. Robust design in generelaised linear models for improving the quality of polyurethane soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Armando Mares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a process that manufactures polyurethane soles by casting, a number of problems lead to different types of defects on the sole, causing significant economic losses for the company. In order to improve the product quality and decrease the number of defects, this study conducts an experimental design in the context of robust design. Since the response variable is binary, the statistical analysis was performed using generalised linear models. The operational methodology reduced the percentage of defects, while combining the experimental technique and control systems to achieve superior quality and a consequent reduction in costs.

  19. A new venous conduit utilizing the recipient portal vein branches for segment V in adult partial liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, I S; Kim, D G; Lee, M D; Hong, S K; Park, S C; Oh, D Y; Ahn, S T; Lee, Y J

    2005-03-01

    Right anterior-medial lobe congestion due to temporary clamping of segment V and/or VIII is common in the operative theater during adult donor right lobe liver transplantation, the most common procedure in our institute. We have used an autogenous saphenous vein conduit to recipient portal vein tributaries in 15 cases, as a "Y-to-I venoplasty" since January 2004. The recipient portal vein is transected 5 mm proximal to its bifurcation and extended to both sides with partial hepatic dissection. The "Y-to-I venoplasty" is made by suture closure of the portal vein transversely to form a tube. The average length is 7.5 cm with a 1.3 cm width. One end of "Y-to-I venoplasty" conduit is anastomosed to the donor segment V branch on the back table. And the other end is anastomosed directly to the IVC via a new window or the middle hepatic vein stump in recipient. The phase distension of the conduit with respiration is noted in the operative field. A 6/15 (40%) patency rate, was observed by CT angiography at the second postoperative week. All-patient conduits showed good flow on serial examinations at the 60th postoperative day. This new venous graft, made of recipient portal vein is a good conduit for segment V decongestion in adult right lobe partial liver transplantation.

  20. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victoria L; Coleman, Anne L; Chang, Melinda Y; Caprioli, Joseph

    2017-07-28

    Aqueous shunts are employed to control intraocular pressure (IOP) for people with primary or secondary glaucomas who fail or are not candidates for standard surgery. To assess the effectiveness and safety of aqueous shunts for reducing IOP in glaucoma compared with standard surgery, another type of aqueous shunt, or modification to the aqueous shunt procedure. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to August 2016), Embase.com (1947 to August 2016), PubMed (1948 to August 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to August 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 15 August 2016, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 15 August 2016. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 August 2016. We also searched the reference lists of identified trial reports and the Science Citation Index to find additional trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared various types of aqueous shunts with standard surgery or to each other in eyes with glaucoma. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data from included trials. We contacted trial investigators when data were unclear or not reported. We graded the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We followed standard methods as recommended by Cochrane. We included 27 trials with a total of 2099 participants with mixed diagnoses and comparisons of interventions. Seventeen studies reported adequate methods of randomization, and seven reported adequate allocation concealment. Data collection and follow-up times varied.Four trials compared an aqueous shunt (Ahmed or Baerveldt) with trabeculectomy, of which

  1. Conduit degassing and thermal controls on eruption styles at Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrew; Rempel, Alan W.; Cashman, Katharine V.

    2012-12-01

    The explosivity of silicic eruptions depends on the interplay between magma rheology, exsolution kinetics, and degassing. Magma degassing is governed by the competing effects of vertical transport within the conduit and the lateral flux of gas out of the conduit (Diller et al., 2006; Jaupart and Allegre, 1991). We combine a simplified treatment of these degassing processes with thermodynamic modeling to examine the conditions present at Mount St. Helens during the spine extruding eruption from 2004 to 2008. We find that two parameters are primarily responsible for controlling the eruptive style: the magma chamber temperature, and a dimensionless parameter that gauges the efficiency of lateral degassing. Together, these parameters determine whether and where magma can solidify at depth to form a dense solid plug that is gradually extruded as a volcanic spine. We show that the small (50 oC) decrease in magma chamber temperature between eruptive activity in the 1980s and that of 2004-2008, combined with a modest increase in degassing efficiency associated with lower volumetric flux, can explain the observed change in erupted material from viscous lava flows to solidified spines. More generally, we suggest that similar threshold behavior may explain observed abrupt transitions in effusive eruptive styles at other intermediate composition volcanoes. Finally, we extrapolate our results to suggest that the increase in degassing efficiency accompanying decreasing magma supply rates may have caused the transition from explosive to effusive activity in late 1980.

  2. Age-related changes in biomechanical properties of transgenic porcine pulmonary and aortic conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Piotr; Malota, Zbigniew; Lesiak, Anna; Niemiec-Cyganek, Aleksandra; Kubin, Barbara; Nozynski, Jerzy; Mzyk, Aldona; Gramatyka, Michalina; Slomski, Ryszard; Wilczek, Grazyna; Opiela, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The limitations associated with conventional valve prosthesis have led to a search for alternatives. One potential approach is tissue engineering. Most tissue engineering studies have described the biomechanical properties of heart valves derived from adult pigs. However, because one of the factors affecting the function of valve prosthesis after implantation is appropriate sizing for a given patient, it is important to evaluate the usefulness of a heart valve given the donor animal’s weight and age. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the age of a pig can influence the biomechanical and hemodynamical properties of porcine heart valve prosthesis after acellularization. Acellular porcine aortic and pulmonary valve conduits were used. Hearts were harvested from animals differing in weight and age. The biomechanical properties of the valves were then characterized using a uniaxial tensile test. Moreover, computer simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) were used to study the influence of biomechanical properties on the hemodynamic conditions. Studying biomechanical and morphological changes in porcine heart valve conduits according to the weight and age of the animals can be valuable for developing age-targeted therapy using tissue engineering techniques. (paper)

  3. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipu Sultan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

  4. Experimental study on scale removal from special-shaped conduits through underwater electrical discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y; Wang, Z Q; Li, G F; Wu, Y; Zhou, J J

    2013-01-01

    Underwater electrical discharge technology is an innovative technique that can be used to enhance the stress intensity of water and improve the load addition. The technique enlarges the section area and compresses the surrounding water using a high-powered shock wave, which is induced by an underwater electrical discharge. This paper investigates the effectiveness of scale removal for special-shaped conduits employing underwater electrical discharge. Experimental results show that the pressure wave generated by underwater electrical discharge is capable of eliminating scale in special-shaped conduits. The data indicates that when the capacitance of the parallel-pulsed capacitors was 4 μF, the high pulsed power voltage was 33 kV and the primary discharge gap was 48 mm, the result of scale removal was remarkable. In laboratory tests, the scale of special equipment was removed to a great extent by this method. Because of its effectiveness and low cost, this method improves the practice and extends the lifetime of such equipment, and thus has potential application and economic value.

  5. Rapid prototyping of a double-layer polyurethane-collagen conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tongkui; Yan, Yongnian; Zhang, Renji; Liu, Li; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohong

    2009-03-01

    A new technique for preparing double-layer polyurethane (PU)-collagen nerve conduits for peripheral nerve repair via a double-nozzle, low-temperature, deposition manufacturing (DLDM) system has been developed. The DLDM system is based on a digital prototyping approach, and uses a combination of thermally induced phase separation and freeze-drying. With this system, two kinds of biomaterials with different properties can be combined to produce scaffold structures with good biocompatibility in the inner layer and with the desired mechanical strength protruded by the outer. The forming precision is high, the wall thickness can be controlled, and a tight connection between the two layers can be achieved. The effects of changing the processing parameters and the material temperature on the structure of the scaffolds have been investigated. Additionally, the effect of material concentration on the mechanical strength and hydrophilic properties of the scaffolds has also been studied. Ideal peripheral nerve repair conduits, comprising an outer microporous layer of PU and internal oriented filaments of collagen, have been manufactured through optimizing the processing parameters and the biomaterial concentrations.

  6. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  7. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  8. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruuk, H.

    1963-01-01

    1. 1. The diurnal rhythm in the trawl catch of Solea vulgaris Quensel gave rise to this investigation into the diurnal activity rhythm of the fish. 2. 2. Periodicity in the food intake of the Sole in its natural habitat was studied by analyses of the contents of the intestines. Food intake

  9. 77 FR 23369 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Business Administration (SBA) may not accept a sole- source 8(a) contract in excess of $20 million for... is no conflict with the law. Execution of the J&A prior to the SBA's initiation of contract... small number of businesses that have been awarded 8(a) contracts over the $20 million threshold may be...

  10. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover and in sole and intercropping systems of cotton and cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Garcia, Adriano G; Santos, Bárbara D B; Malaquias, José B

    2018-01-01

    Population dynamics of aphids have been studied in sole and intercropping systems. These studies have required the use of more precise analytical tools in order to better understand patterns in quantitative data. Mathematical models are among the most important tools to explain the dynamics of insect populations. This study investigated the population dynamics of aphids Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora over time, using mathematical models composed of a set of differential equations as a helpful analytical tool to understand the population dynamics of aphids in arrangements of cotton and cowpea. The treatments were sole cotton, sole cowpea, and three arrangements of cotton intercropped with cowpea (t1, t2 and t3). The plants were infested with two aphid species and were evaluated at 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days after the infestations. Mathematical models were used to fit the population dynamics of two aphid species. There were good fits for aphid dynamics by mathematical model over time. The highest population peak of both species A. gossypii and A. craccivora was found in the sole crops, and the lowest population peak was found in crop system t2. These results are important for integrated management programs of aphids in cotton and cowpea.

  12. Plantar Sole Unweighting Alters the Sensory Transmission to the Cortical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mouchnino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that somatosensory inputs to the cortex undergo an early and a later stage of processing. The later has been shown to be enhanced when the earlier transmission decreased. In this framework, mechanical factors such as the mechanical stress to which sensors are subjected when wearing a loaded vest are associated with a decrease in sensory transmission. This decrease is in turn associated with an increase in the late sensory processes originating from cortical areas. We hypothesized that unweighting the plantar sole should lead to a facilitation of the sensory transmission. To test this hypothesis, we recorded cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs of individuals following cutaneous stimulation (by mean of an electrical stimulation of the foot sole in different conditions of unweighting when standing still with eyes closed. To this end, the effective bodyweight (BW was reduced from 100% BW to 40% BW. Contrary to what was expected, we found an attenuation of sensory information when the BW was unweighted to 41% which was not compensated by an increase of the late SEP component. Overall these results suggested that the attenuation of sensory transmission observed in 40 BW condition was not solely due to the absence of forces acting on the sole of the feet but rather to the current relevance of the afferent signals related to the balance constraints of the task.

  13. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, B.C.; Vanwanseele, B.; Holtkamp, F.; van der Horst, H.E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Menz, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  14. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Horst; H.B. Menz; ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp; P. Elders; B. Vanwanseele; B. van der Zwaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  15. Effects of climate change on growth of 0-group sole and plaice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Leeuw, de J.J.; Veer, van der H.W.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of rising seawater temperature on growth of 0-group sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the southeastern North Sea was investigated for the period 1970 to 2004 using annual autumn pre-recruit survey data and frequent surveys on a nursery ground. Autumn length showed an

  16. Retrospective analysis of the treatment of psoriasis of the palms and soles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuls, P. I.; Hadi, S.; Rivera, L.; Lebwohl, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this retrospective analysis, the effect of currently used treatments in 26 patients with psoriasis of the palms and soles were analyzed. In general, patients are treated initially with topical medications including superpotent topical corticosteroids in combination with calcipotriene ointment or

  17. Craniocervical Junction Meningiomas without Hydrocephalus Presenting Solely with Syncope: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-06-01

    To our knowledge, there have not been any reported cases of a meningioma of the craniocervical region presenting solely with syncope as its initial symptom. Only 1 case of meningioma presenting with syncope has been published, but it was associated with hydrocephalus. We report 2 cases of syncope caused by a craniocervical junction meningioma, with syncope being the sole presenting symptom and without hydrocephalus. We discuss the possible pathophysiology, as well as the clinical relevance of this type of presentation. We reviewed the charts, operative details, and imagery of 2 cases of meningioma in the region of the craniocervical junction, with syncope as their sole presenting feature. We also reviewed the literature. In 1 case the syncope occurred spontaneously. In the other, it occurred during a Valsalva maneuver. Both meningiomas were surgically removed via a retromastoid approach. There was no recurrence of syncope following surgery. Following a literature review, we found 1 case of posterior fossa meningioma presenting with syncope, but hydrocephalus was also present. Syncope can be the sole manifestation of a meningioma of the craniocervical junction. Such syncopes are a consequence of transient dysfunction of the autonomous pathways in the medulla and/or of the medulla's output. In the absence of other causes of syncope, a meningioma in this region, even in the absence of hydrocephalus, should not be considered as fortuitous, but rather as the actual cause of syncope. Recognizing this possibility offers the potential for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the syncope. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shoe sole tread designs and outcomes of slipping and falling on slippery floor surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.

  19. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  20. Partial and apparent molar volumes of aqueous solutions of the 1:1 type electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klugman, I.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    Formulas for calculating partial and apparent molar volumes of MX (M=Li-Cs; X = Cl-I) electrolyte aqueous solutions in a wide range of concentrations from 0 to 4 mol/kg with error not in excess of 0.05% are suggested. It is shown that the previously employed formulas for calculating partial molar volumes of electrolytes give false indications of mutual effect of ions and actually they are fit solely for very small concentrations [ru

  1. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chauvigné

    Full Text Available Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1 of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh and luteinizing (rLh hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole's natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species.

  2. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-06-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  3. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. The second year of the MACE project has shown significant progress in two major areas. MACE Instrument concept definition is a baseline design that has been generated for the complete MACE instrument, including definition of analysis modes, mass estimates and thermal model. The design includes multiple reagent reservoirs, 10 discrete analysis cells, sample manipulation capability, and thermal control. The MACE Measurement subsystems development progress is reported regarding measurement capabilities for aqueous ion sensing, evolved gas sensing, solution conductivity measurement, reagent addition (titration) capabilities, and optical sensing of suspended particles.

  4. Pericardial tissue valves and Gore-Tex conduits as an alternative for right ventricular outflow tract replacement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradley S; El-Zein, Chawki; Cuneo, Betina; Cava, Joseph P; Barth, Mary Jane; Ilbawi, Michel N

    2002-09-01

    There is still no perfect conduit for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in children. Homografts are not always available in the appropriate size, and degenerate in a few years. This study evaluates the pericardial valve with Gore-Tex conduit as an alternative for RVOT construction. From January 1, 1993, to September 30, 1999, a pericardial tissue valve was inserted in all patients undergoing RVOT reconstruction or pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) who were large enough to accommodate a tissue valve. In patients without a native main pulmonary artery, a new technique was used to construct an RV-PA conduit out of a flat sheet of Gore-Tex, as Dacron frequently leads to stenosis. Data were collected by retrospective review, follow-up echocardiograms, and assessment by a single cardiologist. There were 48 patients, 22 undergoing a PVR alone and 26 a RV-PA valved Gore-Tex conduit. Diagnosis included tetralogy of Fallot (n = 25); truncus arteriosis (n = 9); ventricular septal defect with PA (n = 5); DORV (n = 4); D-TGA with PS (n = 2); and 1 each IAA with sub AS, VSD with PI, and PS s/p Ross procedure. Patient age ranged from 3 to 33 years and 98% were reoperations. The valve sizes ranged from 19 to 33 mm and the median hospital length of stay was 4 days. There were 2 (4.2%) perioperative and 1 (2.1%) late deaths, none related to the valve or Gore-Tex conduit. At a follow-up of 15 to 86 months (mean 43 +/- 16 months), all remaining 45 patients are New York Heart Association class I, all valves are functional, and no patient has required valve or conduit replacement or revision; more importantly, echocardiogram revealed no significant valve or conduit stenosis (mean gradient 16 +/- 8 mm Hg) and no evidence of regurgitation or structural degeneration. A pericardial tissue valve and Gore-Tex conduit provides a reliable alternative for RVOT reconstruction in pediatric patients. It is readily available, molds in the limited retrosternal space, and

  5. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  6. Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Murray, R D; Ward, W R

    1992-10-01

    In dairy cattle, histopathology of the outer hind claws with overgrown sole revealed arteriosclerosis of blood vessels at the ulcer site in the sole. The laminae did not show any hyperplasia of the epidermis and thrombi were not seen in the blood vessels. Partial or complete disappearance of onychogenic substance was observed in the sole as well as in the wall epidermis. In beef animals, typical changes suggestive of chronic laminitis were seen: these included hyperplasia of the epidermis of the laminae, thrombus formation, arteriosclerosis in the corium of the sole, the abaxial wall and the coronary corium. Morphometric analysis quantified measurements of hooves of normal, beef and dairy cattle. It may be concluded that the changes associated with overgrowth of the sole in dairy cattle are localized to the sole without involvement of the laminae and that the term laminitis is not appropriate in the condition seen in dairy cattle.

  7. Experimental sintering of ash at conduit conditions and implications for the longevity of tuffisites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Watkins, James M.; Coumans, Jason P.

    2018-03-01

    Escape of gas from magma in the conduit plays a crucial role in mitigating explosivity. Tuffisite veins—ash-filled cracks that form in and around volcanic conduits—represent important gas escape pathways. Sintering of the ash infill decreases its porosity, eventually forming dense glass that is impermeable to gas. We present an experimental investigation of surface tension-driven sintering and associated densification of rhyolitic ash under shallow conduit conditions. Suites of isothermal (700-800 °C) and isobaric H2O pressure (20 and 40 MPa) experiments were run for durations of 5-90 min. Obsidian powders with two different size distributions were used: 1-1600 μm (mean size = 89 μm), and 63-400 μm (mean size = 185 μm). All samples evolved similarly through four textural phases: phase 1—loose and cohesion-less particles; phase 2—particles sintered at contacts and surrounded by fully connected tortuous pore space of up to 40% porosity; phase 3—continuous matrix of partially coalesced particles that contain both isolated spherical vesicles and connected networks of larger, contorted vesicles; phase 4—dense glass with 2-5% fully isolated vesicles that are mainly spherical. Textures evolve faster at higher temperature and higher H2O pressure. Coarse samples sinter more slowly and contain fewer, larger vesicles when fully sintered. We quantify the sintering progress by measuring porosity as a function of experimental run-time, and find an excellent collapse of data when run-time is normalized by the sintering timescale {λ}_s=η \\overline{R}/σ , where η is melt viscosity, \\overline{R} is mean particle radius, and σ is melt-gas surface tension. Because timescales of diffusive H2O equilibration are generally fast compared to those of sintering, the relevant melt viscosity is calculated from the solubility H2O content at experimental temperature and pressure. We use our results to develop a framework for estimating ash sintering rates under shallow

  8. [Electrophysiological study on rat conduit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under normoxia and acute hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Zou, Fei; Cai, Chun-Qing; Wu, Hang-Yu; Yun, Hai-Xia; Chen, Yun-Tian; Jin, Guo-En; Ge, Ri-Li

    2006-10-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of rat conduit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and the response to acute hypoxia. PASMCs of the 1st to 2nd order branches in the conduit pulmonary arteries were obtained by enzymatic isolation. The PASMCs were divided into acute hypoxia preconditioned group and normoxia group. Hypoxia solutions were achieved by bubbling with 5% CO2 plus 95% N2 for at least 30 min before cell perfusion. Potassium currents were compared between these two groups using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The total outward current of PASMCs was measured under normoxia condition when iBTX [specific blocking agent of large conductance Ca-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel] and 4-AP [specific blocking agent of delayed rectifier K(+) (K(DR)) channel] were added consequently into bath solution. PASMCs were classified into three types according to their size, shape and electrophysiological characteristics. Type I cells are the smallest with spindle shape, smooth surface and discrete perinuclear bulge. Type II cells show the biggest size with banana-like appearance. Type III cells have the similar size with type I, and present intermediary shape between type I and type II. iBTX had little effect on the total outward current in type I cells, while 4-AP almost completely blocked it. Most of the total outward current in type II cells was inhibited by iBTX, and the remaining was sensitive to 4-AP. In type III cells, the total outward current was sensitive to both iBTX and 4-AP. Acute hypoxia reduced the current in all three types of cells: (1614.8+/-62.5) pA to (892.4+/-33.6) pA for type I cells (Ppotassium current and improves the E(m) in PASMCs. These effects may be involved in the modulation of constriction/relaxation of conduit artery under acute hypoxia. Different distribution of K(DR) and BK(Ca) channels in these three types of PASMCs might account for their different constriction

  9. Permeability and 3-D melt geometry in shear-induced high melt fraction conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Cordonnier, B.; Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium-series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. Formation of high melt fraction conduits could result from mechanical shear, pyroxene dissolution, and lithological partitioning. Deformation experiments (e.g. Holtzman et al., 2003) demonstrate that shear stress causes initially homogeneously distributed melt to segregate into an array of melt-rich bands, flanked by melt-depleted regions. At the same average melt fraction, the permeability of high melt fraction conduits could be orders of magnitude higher than that of their homogenous counterparts. However, it is difficult to determine the permeability of melt-rich bands. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we obtained high-resolution images of 3-dimensional (3-D) melt distribution in a partially molten rock containing shear-induced high melt fraction conduits. Sample CQ0705, an olivine-alkali basalt aggregate with a nominal melt fraction of 4%, was deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa to a shear strain of 13.3. A sub-volume of CQ0705 encompassing 3-4 melt-rich bands was imaged. Microtomography data were reduced to binary form so that solid olivine is distinguishable from basalt glass. At a spatial resolution of 160 nm, the 3-D images reveal the shape and connectedness of melt pockets in the melt-rich bands. Thin melt channels formed at grain edges are connected at large melt nodes at grain corners. Initial data analysis shows a clear preferred orientation of melt pockets alignment subparallel to the melt-rich band. We use the experimentally determined geometrical parameters of melt topology to create a digital rock with identical 3-D microstructures. Stokes flow simulations are conducted on the digital rock to obtain the permeability tensor. Using this digital rock physics approach, we determine how deformation

  10. NECL1 coated PLGA as favorable conduits for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Fuben; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Lu, Rongbin; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of normal neurological function of transected peripheral nerve challenged regenerative medicine and surgery. Previous studies showed that Nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1) is one of the important adhesion molecules on the axons and Schwann cells is located along the internodes in direct apposition to NECL1. In this study, we fabricated PLGA membrane pre-coated with NECL1, mimicking the natural axons to enhance the adhesion of Schwann cells. Investigation of the cellular response in vitro was performed by detecting cytotoxicity, proliferation, morphology, viability, specific markers and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of Schwann cells cultured in PLGA. Further, the NECL1-coated PLGA conduits were used for peripheral nerve repair after sciatic nerve defect was constructed. Results showed that PLGA-coated NECL1 enhanced cell proliferation compared with PLGA, as evidenced by MTT analysis, cell viability assay and histological evaluation. RT-PCR results showed that GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), CNTF (ciliary neurotrophic factor) and neurotrophic factors of axonal regeneration were highly expressed in PLGA/NECL1 group. S100, which is Schwann cell marker, was also elevated in PLGA-NCEL1 in both mRNA and protein expression as demonstrated by PCR and immunohistochemical examination. Moreover, in vivo study showed that implantation of PLGA/NCEL1 tubes in bridging the nerve defect can significantly improve Schwann cell aggregation and attachment and greatly enhance the functional recovery of nerve regeneration as compared with control and PLGA groups. Therefore, the novel blend of PLGA/NECL1 conduits proved to be promising candidate for tissue engineering scaffold. - Highlights: • A fabricated PLGA tubes pre-coated with Nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1) strategy for sciatic nerve regeneration is proposed. • The NECL1 coated PLGA can promote Schwann cells adhesion and growth meanwhile maintain the

  11. Probing of brain states in real-time: Introducing the ConSole environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHartmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen huge advancements in the methods available and used in neuroscience employing EEG or MEG. However, the standard approach is to average a large number of trials for experimentally defined conditions in order to reduce intertrial-variability, i.e. treating it as a source of "noise". Yet it is now more and more accepted that trial-to-trial fluctuations bear functional significance, reflecting fluctuations of "brain states" that predispose perception and action. Such effects are often revealed in a pre-stimulus period, when comparing response variability to an invariant stimulus. However such offline analyses are disadvantageous as they are correlational by drawing conclusions in a posthoc-manner and stimulus presentation is random with respect to the feature of interest. A more direct test is to trigger stimulus presentation when the relevant feature is present. The current paper introduces ConSole (CONstance System for OnLine Eeg, a software package capable of analyzing ongoing EEG / MEG in real-time and presenting auditory and visual stimuli via internal routines. Stimulation via external devices (e.g. TMS or third-party software (e.g. Psyscope X is possible by sending TTL-triggers. With ConSole it is thus possible to target the stimulation at specific brain-states. In contrast to many available applications, ConSole is open-source. Its modular design enhances the power of the software as it can be easily adapted to new challenges and writing new experiments is an easy task. ConSole is already pre-equipped with modules performing standard signal processing steps. The software is also independent from the EEG / MEG system, as long as a driver can be written (currently 2 EEG systems are supported. Besides a general introduction, we present benchmark data regarding performance and validity of the calculations used, as well as three example applications of ConSole in different settings. ConSole can be downloaded at: http://console-kn.sf.net.

  12. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  13. Aqueous reprocessing - some dreams!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    India has been pursuing a aqueous reprocessing based closed fuel cycle for both thermal and fast reactor fuels employing the PUREX process. Though the country has more than six decades of experience, the dreams or wish lists such as, a highly efficient process with textbook specifications of 99.9% recovery of U and Pu, a DF of more than 10 7 for both U and Pu from the fission products, operating with name plate capacity with high safety, low waste generation, recovery of useful fission products and minor actinides from high level waste are never ceasing and ever growing. The talk will cover safety precautions and actions to be taken in the steps listed below, to ensure a safe and successful process

  14. Aqueous chemical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous chemical dosimetry based on ceric and ferrous sulfate solutions and on a number of fluorescence-induced systems is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the factors affecting the response of these dosimeters to radiation and the corrections necessary for more accurate dosimetry under various irradiation conditions. The effect of cerous and ceric ion, oxygen, and sulfuric acid concentration on the ceric dosimeter is discussed together with the effects of temperature, energy of radiation, degraded energy spectra, and peroxysulfuric acids. Practical aspects of ceric/cerous dosimetry are given. Although ferrous sulfate solution is the most important and widely studied reference dosimeter, general agreement has not been reached on the ''best'' value for the molar extinction coefficient of ferric ions nor on the correction necessary to the G(Fe 3 - ) value for irradiations at temperatures significantly different from 25 0 C. New data are presented which indicate that the larger temperature coefficients given in the literature are more accurate. The ferrous sulfate system has been of great importance in establishing the primary radiolytic yields for 0.4 M sulfuric acid solution; it is shown how the failure to take into account the effect of oxygen and ferrous sulfate concentrations has led to erroneously high estimates of the zero solute concentration values in acid solutions. Some of the methods for extending the dose ranges measurable with ferrous sulfate-based solutions are reviewed. Substances which on irradiation give highly fluorescent products are among the most sensitive aqueous chemical dosimeters. These include benzoate and terephthalate solutions and the more recent coumarin and trimesate solutions. Advantages and disadvantages system are discussed. (author)

  15. Combined use of decellularized allogeneic artery conduits with autologous transdifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells for facial nerve regeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Zhou, Ke; Mi, Wen-juan; Qiu, Jian-hua

    2011-11-01

    Natural biological conduits containing seed cells have been widely used as an alternative strategy for nerve gap reconstruction to replace traditional nerve autograft techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a decellularized allogeneic artery conduit containing autologous transdifferentiated adipose-derived stem cells (dADSCs) on an 8-mm facial nerve branch lesion in a rat model. After 8 weeks, functional evaluation of vibrissae movements and electrophysiological assessment, retrograde labeling of facial motoneurons and morphological analysis of regenerated nerves were performed to assess nerve regeneration. The transected nerves reconstructed with dADSC-seeded artery conduits achieved satisfying regenerative outcomes associated with morphological and functional improvements which approached those achieved with Schwann cell (SC)-seeded artery conduits, and superior to those achieved with artery conduits alone or ADSC-seeded artery conduits, but inferior to those achieved with nerve autografts. Besides, numerous transplanted PKH26-labeled dADSCs maintained their acquired SC-phenotype and myelin sheath-forming capacity inside decellularized artery conduits and were involved in the process of axonal regeneration and remyelination. Collectively, our combined use of decellularized allogeneic artery conduits with autologous dADSCs certainly showed beneficial effects on nerve regeneration and functional restoration, and thus represents an alternative approach for the reconstruction of peripheral facial nerve defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  17. Flow-rate measurements in closed-conduits by tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund Plantat, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the precision obtained measuring flow-rates in closed-conduits by tracer techniques. The flow-rates analyzed were in the range of 10 to 20 l/s and Reynolds numbers from 10 5 to 2 x 10 5 . Tracer used were fluoresceine and In-113 m; and the measurements were performed with the dilution method (punctual and continuous injection) and the Allen method. Precisions for the method of punctual and continuous injections were 6.25% and 9.45% for fluoresceine and 9.3% and 3% for In-113, respectively. For Allen method with In-113 m a precision of 5% was obtained; probably this value was affected by the short distance between detectors. In all cases the error corresponds with the expected value except in one measurement at a 68.3% confidence level. (I.V.)

  18. Detection of the normal zone with cowound sensors in cable-in conduit conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, N.N.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Tokamaks in the future will use superconducting cable-in-conduit- conductors (CICC) in all poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. Conventional quench detection, the measurement of small resistive normal zone voltages ( 4 kV). In the quench detection design for TPX, we have considered several different locations for internal co-wound voltage sensors in the cable cross-section as the primary mechanism to cancel this inductive noise. The Noise Rejection Experiment (NRE) at LLNL has been designed to evaluate which internal locations will produce the best inductive- noise cancellation, and provide us with experimental data for comparison with previously developed theory. The details of the experiments and resulting data are presented and analyzed

  19. Quench detection by fluid dynamic means in cable-in-conduit superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The tight confinement of the helium in cable-in-conduit superconductors creates protection problems because of the pressure rise that can occur during a quench. But the same pressure rise offers the possibility of a non-electrical means of detecting incipient quenches by monitoring the outflow from the various hydraulic paths of the magnet. If the method is to work, the signal must be large enough to be detected unambiguously at an early time, and must not depend too strongly on the length, Joule power density, or rate of growth of the initial normal zone. This paper explores by calculation the degree to which these conditions can be met. The Westinghouse Large Coil Task coil is used as an example

  20. Le projet de recherche: définition, conduite et réalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Stockinger , Peter

    2013-01-01

    Master; Ce support de séminaire développe brièvement les quatre points suivants: 1) Définition d’un projet de recherche – présentation générale et recommandations. 2) La conduite d’un projet de recherche – présentation générale et recommandations. 3) La réalisation d’un projet de recherche sous forme d’un mémoire - présentation générale et recommandations. 4) Des ressources pour conduire un projet de recherche : ressources enligne et références bibliographiques.

  1. A novel approach to estimate the eruptive potential and probability in open conduit volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Sofia; Camarda, Marco

    2016-07-26

    In open conduit volcanoes, volatile-rich magma continuously enters into the feeding system nevertheless the eruptive activity occurs intermittently. From a practical perspective, the continuous steady input of magma in the feeding system is not able to produce eruptive events alone, but rather surplus of magma inputs are required to trigger the eruptive activity. The greater the amount of surplus of magma within the feeding system, the higher is the eruptive probability.Despite this observation, eruptive potential evaluations are commonly based on the regular magma supply, and in eruptive probability evaluations, generally any magma input has the same weight. Conversely, herein we present a novel approach based on the quantification of surplus of magma progressively intruded in the feeding system. To quantify the surplus of magma, we suggest to process temporal series of measurable parameters linked to the magma supply. We successfully performed a practical application on Mt Etna using the soil CO2 flux recorded over ten years.

  2. Faulting within the Mount St. Helens conduit and implications for volcanic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Moran, Seth C.; Denlinger, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    The 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens produced seven dacite spines mantled by cataclastic fault rocks, comprising an outer fault core and an inner damage zone. These fault rocks provide remarkable insights into the mechanical processes that accompany extrusion of degassed magma, insights that are useful in forecasting dome-forming eruptions. The outermost part of the fault core consists of finely comminuted fault gouge that is host to 1- to 3-mm-thick layers of extremely fine-grained slickenside-bearing ultracataclasite. Interior to the fault core, there is an ∼2-m-thick damage zone composed of cataclastic breccia and sheared dacite, and interior to the damage zone, there is massive to flow-banded dacite lava of the spine interior. Structures and microtextures indicate entirely brittle deformation, including rock breakage, tensional dilation, shearing, grain flow, and microfaulting, as well as gas and fluid migration through intergranular pores and fractures in the damage zone. Slickenside lineations and consistent orientations of Riedel shears indicate upward shear of the extruding spines against adjacent conduit wall rocks.Paleomagnetic directions, demagnetization paths, oxide mineralogy, and petrology indicate that cataclasis took place within dacite in a solidified steeply dipping volcanic conduit at temperatures above 500 °C. Low water content of matrix glass is consistent with brittle behavior at these relatively high temperatures, and the presence of tridymite indicates solidification depths of <1 km. Cataclasis was coincident with the eruption’s seismogenic zone at <1.5 km.More than a million small and low-frequency “drumbeat” earthquakes with coda magnitudes (Md) <2.0 and frequencies <5 Hz occurred during the 2004–2008 eruption. Our field data provide a means with which to estimate slip-patch dimensions for shear planes and to compare these with estimates of slip patches based on seismic moments and shear moduli for dacite rock and

  3. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  4. The effects of grading on the growth and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month study was carried out to investigate the effects of grading on the overall production, growth performance and survival of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea L.). Juvenile fish (4.0–40.4 g) were sorted into three size groups: small (4.0–15.5 g), medium (16.0–21.5 g) and large (22.0–40.5 g)...

  5. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  6. Studies in cross-linking PVC footwear soling compounds using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation cross-linking of polymeric materials has been known for some time, but it is only in recent years that it has been put to commercial advantage. Well known uses are the modification of PVC for higher temperature applications. Fundamental studies were carried out on amongst other materials, plasticised PVC compounds for use in cable applications. The results of this work, encouraged the author to investigate cross-linkable PVC in areas such as footwear soling

  7. Tiny intracranial aneurysms: Endovascular treatment by coil embolisation or sole stent deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jun; Liu Jiachun; Wang Lijun; Qi Peng; Wang Daming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Tiny intracranial aneurysms pose a significant therapeutic challenge for interventional neuroradiologists. The authors report their preliminary results of endovascular treatment of these aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2009, 52 tiny intracranial aneurysms (defined as ≤3 mm in maximum diameter) in 46 patients (22 men; mean age, 57.9 years) were treated by endosaccular coil embolisation or sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Of 52 aneurysms, 29 had ruptured and 23 remained unruptured. The initial angiographic results, procedural complications, and clinical outcomes were assessed at discharge. Imaging follow-up was performed with cerebral angiography. Results: One aneurysm coiling procedure failed because of unsuccessful micro-catheterization. Forty-three aneurysms were successfully coil embolized, of which complete occlusion was obtained in 14, subtotal occlusion in 18 and incomplete occlusion in 11. The other 8 aneurysms were treated by sole stent deployment in the parent artery. Procedural complications (2 intraprocedural ruptures and 3 thromboembolic events) occurred in 5 (9.6%) of 52 aneurysms, resulting in permanent morbidity in only 1 (2.2%, 1/46) patient. No rebleeding occurred during clinical follow-up (mean duration, 46.7 months). Of the 16 coiled aneurysms that receiving repetitive angiography, 6 initially completely and 3 subtotally occluded aneurysms remained unchanged, 4 initially subtotally and 3 incompletely occluded aneurysms progressed to total occlusion. Five sole stent deployed aneurysms received angiographic follow-up (mean duration, 10.0 months), of which 3 remained unchanged, 1 became smaller and 1 progressed to total occlusion. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of tiny intracranial aneurysms is technical feasible and relatively safe. Coil embolisation seems to be effective in preventing early recanalisation, whereas sole stenting technique needs further investigation to determine its effectiveness.

  8. Magma shearing and friction in the volcanic conduit: A crystal constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P. A.; Kendrick, J. E.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Ashworth, J. D.; Coats, R.; Miwa, T.; Mariani, E.; Lavallée, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Magma shearing and friction processes in the shallow volcanic conduit are typical manifestations of strain localisation, which in turn can have an influential role on magma ascent dynamics. The thermal consequences of such events could drive the destabilisation of magma and thus dictate the style of activity at the surface. Shear heating and fault friction are prime candidates for the generation of significant quantities of heat. Here we use a combination of field and experimental evidence to investigate how crystals can act as sensitive recorders of both physical and chemical processes occurring in the shallow volcanic conduit. Spine extrusion during the closing of the 1991-95 eruption at Unzen volcano, Japan, provided the unique opportunity to investigate marginal shear zone formation, which preserves a relic of the deformation during magma ascent. Our results show that crystals can effectively act as a deformation marker during magma ascent through the viscous-brittle transition by accommodating strain in the form of crystal plasticity before fracturing (comminution). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) reveals up to 40° lattice distortion of biotite phenocrysts in zones of high shear, with negligible plasticity further away. Plagioclase microlites display a systematic plastic response to an increase in shear intensity, as recorded by an increase in lattice distortion towards the spine margin of up to 9°. This localisation of strain within the shear zone is also accompanied by the destabilisation of hydrous mineral phases (i.e. amphibole), compaction of pores (23-13% Φ), glass devitrification and magnetic anomalies. The narrow zone of disequilibrium textures suggests the likely effect of a thermal input due to strain localisation being the contributing factor. These observations are complimented by high-temperature high-velocity rotary shear experiments which simulate the deformation evolution during shear. Hence, understanding these shallow volcanic

  9. Frictional melting dynamics in the upper conduit: A chemical answer to a complex physical question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton De Angelis, S.; Lavallee, Y.; Kendrick, J. E.; Hornby, A.; von Aulock, F. W.; Clesham, S.; Hirose, T.; Perugini, D.

    2013-12-01

    During volcanic eruptions the generation of frictional heat along the walls of the shallow conduit leads to melting of the rocks along the slip interface. Frictional melting has previously been described as a process out of thermodynamic equilibrium, but upon slip and mingling of the melt batches, homogeneity can be achieved, and may have an h important rheological control on the dynamics of slip. To test melt homogenization in the frictional melt zones of volcanic conduits we performed constant-rate slip experiments under controlled stress conditions using a high-velocity rotary shear apparatus. Volcanic dome samples from three different volcanoes (Volcán De Colima, Soufrière Hills Volcano and Santiaguito Volcano) were investigated. Each sample was subjected to a stress of 1 MPa and slip rate of 1 m/s. For each sample set 5 experiments were conducted: 1) experiment stopped at the onset of melting; 2) experiment stopped on the formation of a full melt layer; 3) experiment stopped after 5m of slip at steady state conditions; 4) experiment stopped after 10m of slip at steady state conditions; 5) experiment stopped after 15m of slip at steady state conditions. We analyzed the resulting proto-melt zones using micron sized X-ray spectroscopy in the high-brightness synchrotron beamline I18 (at Diamond Light Source UK). Particular focus was given to the concentration variance analysis of Rare Earth Elements as their mobilities can be used to precisely quantify the degree and timescale of homogenisation involved during frictional melting. This study refines our understanding of the chemical process of melting and mixing which carry important consequences for the rheological control on the physical dynamics of slip.

  10. Fabrication of nerve guidance conduit with luminal filler as scaffold for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranilla, Charito T.; Wach, Rodoslaw; Ulanski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a serious health concern for society, affecting trauma patients, many of whom acquire life-long disability. The gold standard of treatment for peripheral nerve injury is the use of nerve grafts, wherein nerve autograft or allograft is used to bridge the gap in the damaged nerve. Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) are an attractive alternative to nerve autografts for aiding in the regeneration of peripheral nerve tissue. NGCs are small cylinders or tubes composed of either natural or synthetic biomaterials that are used to axon regeneration. The ends of the damaged nerve are inserted into either end of the cylinder and the NGC acts both as a connecting bridge for the severed nerve ends as well as a protective shelter for the regenerating nerve. This study aims at fabricating nerve guidance conduits with luminal structure based on synthetic biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as poly (trimethylene carbonate ) (PTMC), poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (caprolactone) (PCL). Initial base materials for fabrication were PLA acid tubes compared to PCL tubes when prepared by spray and dip-coating methods. The morphology of the tubes where examined by SEM and results showed better porosity of PLA acid tubes compared to PCL tubes when prepared by spraying technique. Poly(lactic acid) was then blended with poly(trimethylene carbonate) at a ratio of 1:4 (5% total polymer content) for further fabrication. Electron beam radiation (25 and 50 kGy) was employed for sterilization and the changes in properties induced by irradiation in comprising polymers were evaluated. The wettability, mechanical thermal properties were not significantly changed by irradiation.In a separate experiment, synthesis of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel crosslinked by electron beam radiation was studied to create a luminal filler for PTMC-PLA tubes. Based on proper viscosity of solution before crosslinking, sufficient gel fraction and swelling, 10% w/v concentration of

  11. Pockets, conduits, channels, and plumes: links to volcanism and orogeny in the rollback dominated western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; Sun, Daoyuan; O'Driscoll, Leland; Becker, Thorsten W.; Holt, Adam; Diaz, Jordi; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Detailed mantle and lithospheric structure from the Canary Islands to Iberia have been imaged with data from recent temporary deployments and select permanent stations from over 300 broadband seismometers. The stations extended across Morocco and Spain as part of the PICASSO, IberArray, and Morocco-Münster experiments. We present results from S receiver functions (SRF), shear wave splitting, waveform modeling, and geodynamic models that help constrain the tectonic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean, including orogenesis of the Atlas Mountains and occurrence of localized alkaline volcanism. Our receiver function images, in agreement with previous geophysical modeling, show that the lithosphere is thin (~65 km) beneath the Atlas, but thickens (~100 km) over a very short length scale at the flanks of the mountains. We find that these dramatic changes in lithospheric thickness also correspond to dramatic decreases in delay times inferred from S and SKS splitting observations of seismic anisotropy. Pockets and conduits of low seismic velocity material below the lithosphere extend along much of the Atlas to Southern Spain and correlate with the locations of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism. Waveform analysis from the USC linear seismic array across the Atlas Mountains constrains the position, shape, and physical characteristics of one localized, low velocity conduit that extends from the uppermost mantle (~200 km depth) up to the volcanoes in the Middle Atlas. The shape, position and temperature of these seismically imaged low velocity anomalies, topography of the base of the lithosphere, morphology of the subducted slab beneath the Alboran Sea, position of the West African Craton and correlation with mantle flow inferred from shear wave splitting suggest that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains and isolated recent volcanics are due to active mantle support that may be from material channeled from the Canary Island plume.

  12. Radial Artery as a Coronary Artery Bypass Conduit: 20-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Mario; Tondi, Paolo; Benedetto, Umberto; Milazzo, Valentina; Flore, Roberto; Glieca, Franco; Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Luciani, Nicola; Girardi, Leonard N; Crea, Filippo; Massetti, Massimo

    2016-08-09

    There is a lack of evidence for the choice of the second conduit in coronary surgery. The radial artery (RA) is a possible option, but few data on very-long-term outcomes exist. This study describes 20-year results of RA grafts used for coronary artery bypass grafting and the effects of RA removal on forearm circulation. We report the results of the prospective 20-year follow-up of the first 100 consecutive patients who received the RA as a coronary bypass conduit at our institution. Follow-up was 100% complete. There were 64 deaths, 23 (35.9%) from cardiovascular causes. Kaplan-Meier 20-year survival was 31%. Of the 36 survivors, 33 (91.6%) underwent RA graft control at a mean of 19.0 ± 2.5 years after surgery. The RA was found to be patent in 24 cases (84.8% patency). In the overall population, probability of graft failure at 20 years was 19.0 ± 0.2% for the left internal thoracic artery (ITA), 25.0 ± 0.2% for the RA, and 55.0 ± 0.2% for the saphenous vein (p = 0.002 for RA vs. saphenous vein, 0.11 for RA vs. ITA, and p 90%, but not location of distal anastomosis, significantly influenced long-term RA graft patency. No patients reported hand or forearm symptoms. The ulnar artery diameter was increased in the operated arm (2.44 ± 0.43 mm vs. 2.01 ± 0.47 mm; p 90% stenosis. RA harvesting does not lead to hand or forearm symptoms, even at a very-long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Theory and modelling of quench in cable-in-conduit superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajii, A.

    1994-04-01

    A new simple, self consistent theoretical model is presented that describes the phenomena of quench propagation in Cable-In-Conduit superconducting magnets. The model (Quencher) circumvents many of the difficulties associated with obtaining numerical solutions in more general existing models. Specifically, a factor of 30-50 is gained in CPU time over the general, explicit time dependent codes used to study typical quench events. The corresponding numerical implementation of the new model is described and the numerical results are shown to agree very well with those of the more general models, as well as with experimental data. Further, well justified approximations lead to the MacQuench model that is shown to be very accurate and considerably more efficient than the Quencher model. The MacQuench code is suitable for performing quench studies on a personal computer, requiring only several minutes of CPU time. In order to perform parametric studies on new conductor designs it is required to utilize a model such as MacQuench because of the high computational efficiency of this model. Finally, a set of analytic solutions for the problem of quench propagation in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors is presented. These analytic solutions represent the first such results that remain valid for the long time scales of interest during a quench process. The assumptions and the resulting simplifications that lead to the analytic solutions are discussed, and the regimes of validity of the various approximations are specified. The predictions of the analytic results are shown to be in very good agreement with numerical as well as experimental results. Important analytic scaling relations are verified by such comparisons, and the consequences of some of these scalings on currently designed superconducting magnets are discussed

  14. Tissue-engineered spiral nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Shah, Munish B; Lee, Paul; Yu, Xiaojun

    2018-06-01

    Recently in peripheral nerve regeneration, preclinical studies have shown that the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) with multiple longitudinally channels and intra-luminal topography enhance the functional outcomes when bridging a nerve gap caused by traumatic injury. These features not only provide guidance cues for regenerating nerve, but also become the essential approaches for developing a novel NGC. In this study, a novel spiral NGC with aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube was first developed and investigated. Using the common rat sciatic 10-mm nerve defect model, the in vivo study showed that a novel spiral NGC (with and without inner nanofibers) increased the successful rate of nerve regeneration after 6 weeks recovery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining the spiral NGC with inner nanofibers and outer nanofibrous tube, based on the results of walking track analysis, electrophysiology, nerve histological assessment, and gastrocnemius muscle measurement. This demonstrated that the novel spiral NGC with inner aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube provided a better environment for peripheral nerve regeneration than standard tubular NGCs. Results from this study will benefit for future NGC design to optimize tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed a novel spiral nerve guidance conduit (NGC) with coated aligned nanofibers. The spiral structure increases surface area by 4.5 fold relative to a tubular NGC. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers was coated on the spiral walls, providing cues for guiding neurite extension. Finally, the outside of spiral NGC was wrapped with randomly nanofibers to enhance mechanical strength that can stabilize the spiral NGC. Our nerve histological data have shown that the spiral NGC had 50% more myelinated axons than a tubular structure for nerve regeneration across a 10 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve

  15. Prototype of haptic device for sole of foot using magnetic field sensitive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Masuda, Y.; Sugiyama, M.; Mitsumata, T.; Ohori, S.

    2013-02-01

    Walking is one of the most popular activities and a healthy aerobic exercise for the elderly. However, if they have physical and / or cognitive disabilities, sometimes it is challenging to go somewhere they don't know well. The final goal of this study is to develop a virtual reality walking system that allows users to walk in virtual worlds fabricated with computer graphics. We focus on a haptic device that can perform various plantar pressures on users' soles of feet as an additional sense in the virtual reality walking. In this study, we discuss a use of a magnetic field sensitive elastomer (MSE) as a working material for the haptic interface on the sole. The first prototype with MSE was developed and evaluated in this work. According to the measurement of planter pressures, it was found that this device can perform different pressures on the sole of a light-weight user by applying magnetic field on the MSE. The result also implied necessities of the improvement of the magnetic circuit and the basic structure of the mechanism of the device.

  16. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole ( Solea senegalensis ) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  17. Novel Thermal Analysis Model of the Foot-Shoe Sole Interface during Gait Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Shimazaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive heat at the foot-shoe sole interface negatively affects a human’s thermal comfort. An understanding of the thermal behavior at this interface is important for alleviating this discomfort. During gait motion, a human’s body weight cyclically compresses a shoe sole (commonly constructed of viscoelastic materials, generating heat during loading. To evaluate the thermal effects of this internal heat generation on foot comfort, we developed and empirically validated a thermal analysis model during gait motion. A simple, one-dimensional prediction model for heat conduction with heat generation during compressive loading was used. Heat generation was estimated as a function of the shoe sole’s material properties (e.g., elastic modulus and various gait parameters. When compared with experimental results, the proposed model proved effective in predicting thermal behavior at the foot-shoe sole interface under various conditions and shows potential for improving a human’s thermal comfort during gait motion through informed footwear design.

  18. Modelling larval dispersal dynamics of common sole (Solea solea) along the western Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Teles-Machado, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Peliz, Álvaro; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2017-08-01

    Individual-based coupled physical-biological models have become the standard tool for studying ichthyoplankton dynamics and assessing fish recruitment. Here, common sole (Solea solea L.), a flatfish of high commercial importance in Europe was used to evaluate transport of eggs and larvae and investigate the connectivity between spawning and nursery areas along the western Iberian coast as spatio-temporal variability in dispersal and recruitment patterns can result in very strong or weak year-classes causing large fluctuations in stock size. A three-dimensional particle tracking model coupled to Regional Ocean Modelling System model was used to investigate variability of sole larvae dispersal along the western Iberian coast over a five-year period (2004-2009). A sensitivity analysis evaluating: (1) the importance of diel vertical migrations of larvae and (2) the size of designated recruitment areas was performed. Results suggested that connectivity patterns of sole larvae dispersal and their spatio-temporal variability are influenced by the configuration of the coast with its topographical structures and thus the suitable recruitment area available as well as the wind-driven mesoscale circulation along the Iberian coast.

  19. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  20. [Safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangbin; Ouyang, Wenbin; Li, Shoujun; Guo, Gaili; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Fengwen; Pang, Kunjing; Fang, Nengxin; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    To avoid the radiation injuries and use of contrast agent, we assessed the safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance. From June 2013 to June 2014, thirty patients (mean age: (6.3 ± 2.5) years, mean body weight:(22.5 ± 7.3) kg) with pure patent ductus arteriosus were continuously included in this study. The mean diameter of patent ductus arteriosus was (3.8 ± 0.9) mm. Patients were all treated by percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure via right femoral artery solely under thoracic echocardiography guidance. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated by thoracic echocardiography. Follow-up was performed at one month after procedure. All 30 cases were successfully treated with percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure solely under thracic echocardiography guidance. The procedural time was (32.8 ± 5.7) minutes. The mean diameter of Amplatzer ADO II was (4.9 ± 1.0) mm. Postoperative trivial residual shunt occurred in six patients immediately after the procedure. All patients survived without peripheral vascular injury or complications such as cardiac perforation. Hospitalization time was (3.4 ± 0.7) days. At one-month follow-up, no complications such as residual shunt or pericardial effusion were observed. Echocardiography guided percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure by femoral artery approach is safe and effective, and can avoid X-ray and the use of contrast agents.

  1. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souhail, Hassane; Assoumou, Prudence; Birinda, Hilda; Mengome, Emmanuel Mve

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d’étude concernait les candidats soumis aux épreuves d'obtention du permis de conduire. Nous avons inclus dans notre travail, les candidats, ayant donné leur consentement par écrit et exclus ceux refusant d'adhérer à l'enquête. Les variables étudiées concernaient l’âge, le sexe, la population d’étude, l'activité professionnelle, l'acuité visuelle de loin et de près, la vision des couleurs, la catégorie du permis de conduire, et l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile. La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été collectées au moyen d'une fiche d'enquête standardisée; après vérification et validation, elles ont été saisies sur le logiciel Excel Windows et analysées sur le logiciel Epi Info version 3.5.1. L’âge moyen des 406 candidats était de 29 ans ± 6,65 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 17 ans à 52 ans. Les hommes représentaient 283 (69,7%) et les femmes 123 (30,3%), soit un ratio de 2,3. Les fonctionnaires étaient retrouvés dans 39,4 % des cas, suivi des élèves-étudiants dans 33,5%. Dans notre population d’étude, 71 sur 406 candidats avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de loin, soit 17,5%. Dans notre série, nous avons retrouvés 34 candidats âgés de 40 ans et plus, et seulement 14 candidats (41,2%) avaient une baisse de l'acuité visuelle de près. La quasi-totalité des patients avaient une vision de couleurs normale (99,5%), cependant 2 candidats avaient une vision de couleurs anormale, soit une prévalence de 0,5%. Dans notre échantillon, 403 (99,3%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de catégorie léger (perms A, A1, B, F) et 3 (0,7%) sollicitaient un permis de conduire de type

  2. The effect on stability and thermal hydraulic quenchback of perforating the jacket of a cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1994-01-01

    This Paper continues earlier work on the reduction of the quench pressure in a doubler cable-in-conduit conductor achieved by perforating the inner jacket. The present study examines the effect of the perforations on the stability margin and on the ononset of thermal hydraulic quenchback

  3. Terrestrial analogs to lunar sinuous rilles - Kauhako Crater and channel, Kalaupapa, Molokai, and other Hawaiian lava conduit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, C.R.; Hawke, B.R.; Wilson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Two source vents, one explosive and one effusive erupted to form a cinder cone and low lava shield that together compose the Kalaupapa peninsula of Molokai, Hawaii, A 50-100-m-wide channel/tube system extends 2.3 km northward from kauhako crater in the center of the shield. Based on modeling, a volume of up to about 0.2 cu km of lava erupted at a rate of 260 cu m/sec to flow through the Kauhako conduit system in one of the last eruptive episodes on the peninsula. Channel downcutting by thermal erosion occurred at a rate of about 10 micron/sec to help form the 30-m-deep conduit. Two smaller, secondary tube systems formed east of the main lava channel/tube. Several other lava conduit systems on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii were also compared to the Kauhako and lunar sinuous rille systems. These other lava conduits include Whittington, Kupaianaha, and Mauna Ulu lava tubes. Morphologically, the Hawaiian tube systems studied are very similar to lunar sinuous rilles in that they have deep head craters, sinuous channels, and gentle slopes. Thermal erosion is postulated to be an important factor in the formation of these terrestrial channel systems and by analogy is inferred to be an important process involved in the formation of lunar sinuous rilles. 28 refs

  4. Fast evolving conduits in clay-bonded sandstone: Characterization, erosion processes and significance for the origin of sandstone landforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Svetlik, D.; Soukup, J.; Schweigstillová, Jana; Válek, Jan; Sedláčková, M.; Mayo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 177, December (2012), s. 178-193 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : sandstone * erosion * piping * tensile strength * conduit * landform Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2012

  5. Inactive supply wells as conduits for flow and contaminant migration: conditions of occurrence and suggestions for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.

    2017-11-01

    Water supply wells can act as conduits for vertical flow and contaminant migration between water-bearing strata under common hydrogeologic and well construction conditions. While recognized by some for decades, there is little published data on the magnitude of flows and extent of resulting water quality impacts. Consequently, the issue may not be acknowledged widely enough and the need for better management persists. This is especially true for unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins that are hydrologically stressed by agricultural activities. Theoretical and practical considerations indicate that significant water volumes can migrate vertically through wells. The flow is often downward, with shallow groundwater, usually poorer in quality, migrating through conduit wells to degrade deeper water quality. Field data from locations in California, USA, are presented in combination with modeling results to illustrate both the prevalence of conditions conducive to intraborehole flow and the resulting impacts to water quality. Suggestions for management of planned wells include better enforcement of current regulations and more detailed consideration of hydrogeologic conditions during design and installation. A potentially greater management challenge is presented by the large number of existing wells. Monitoring for evidence of conduit flow and solute transport in areas of high well density is recommended to identify wells that pose greater risks to water quality. Conduit wells that are discovered may be addressed through approaches that include structural modification and changes in operations.

  6. Dual-Component Gelatinous Peptide/Reactive Oligomer Formulations as Conduit Material and Luminal Filler for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Bhatnagar, Divya; Woloszyn, Derek J; Richtmyer, Matthew; Starke, Annett; Springwald, Alexandra H; Franz, Sandra; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-05-21

    Toward the next generation of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs), novel biomaterials and functionalization concepts are required to address clinical demands in peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR). As a biological polymer with bioactive motifs, gelatinous peptides are promising building blocks. In combination with an anhydride-containing oligomer, a dual-component hydrogel system (cGEL) was established. First, hollow cGEL tubes were fabricated by a continuous dosing and templating process. Conduits were characterized concerning their mechanical strength, in vitro and in vivo degradation and biocompatibility. Second, cGEL was reformulated as injectable shear thinning filler for established NGCs, here tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-based braided conduits. Thereby, the formulation contained the small molecule LM11A-31. The biofunctionalized cGEL filler was assessed regarding building block integration, mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, and growth permissive effects on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. A positive in vitro evaluation motivated further application of the filler material in a sciatic nerve defect. Compared to the empty conduit and pristine cGEL, the functionalization performed superior, though the autologous nerve graft remains the gold standard. In conclusion, LM11A-31 functionalized cGEL filler with extracellular matrix (ECM)-like characteristics and specific biochemical cues holds great potential to support PNR.

  7. A 40 kA NbTi cable in conduit conductor for the large poloidal field coils of net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torossian, A.; Bessette, D.; Turck, B.; Kazimierzak, B.

    1990-01-01

    The main feature of this cable in conduit design is to separate the manufacture of the full length of the steel conduit (400 m) and of the cable in order to minimize the industrial risk and consequently the cost. A circular cross section for that cable seems to be the most suitable for that purpose: - axisymmetric cabling with full transposition of strands, - cable behaviour independent of the field orientation, - less deformation of subcables, - cross section remains circular when the cable is under tension and makes the slippage of the cable in the conduit easier, - butt welding of 8 m long tubes forming the conduit becomes simpler. The square external shape allows to minimize the amount of insulating material and consequently improves the overall current density of the coil. This conductor is aimed to large poloidal field coils for NET which do not require high field and in that case NbTi seems to be the best choice with regard to reliability and cost but Nb 3 Sn could be used as well. Stainless steel ribbons are inserted between subcables in order to reduce losses induced by the rapid field changes and also to improve the mechanical behaviour of the cable

  8. FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED 316LN STAINLESS STEEL AT 4 K FOR HIGH FIELD CABLE-IN-CONDUIT APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Walsh, R. P.; Han, K.

    2010-01-01

    Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC) alloys, exposed to Nb 3 Sn reaction heat-treatments, such as modified 316LN require a design specific database. A lack of fatigue life data (S-n curves) that could be applied in the design of the ITER CS and the NHMFL Series Connected Hybrid magnets is the impetus for the research presented here. The modified 316LN is distinguished by a lower carbon content and higher nitrogen content when compared to conventional 316LN. Because the interstitial alloying elements affect the mechanical properties significantly, it is necessary to characterize this alloy in a systematic way. In conjunction, to ensure magnet reliability and performance, several criteria and expectations must be met, including: high fatigue life at the operating stresses, optimal stress management at cryogenic temperatures and thin walled conduit to reduce coil mass. Tension-tension load control axial fatigue tests have good applicability to CICC solenoid magnet design, thus a series of 4 K strength versus fatigue life curves have been generated. In-situ samples of 316LN base metal, seam welded, butt welded and seam plus butt welded are removed directly from the conduit in order to address base and weld material fatigue life variability. The more than 30 fatigue tests show good grouping on the fatigue life curve and allow discretionary 4 K fatigue life predictions for conduit made with modified 316LN.

  9. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  10. Thermal preference of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea in relation to thermal acclimation and optimal growth temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Schram

    Full Text Available Dover sole (Solea solea is an obligate ectotherm with a natural thermal habitat ranging from approximately 5 to 27°C. Thermal optima for growth lie in the range of 20 to 25°C. More precise information on thermal optima for growth is needed for cost-effective Dover sole aquaculture. The main objective of this study was to determine the optimal growth temperature of juvenile Dover sole (Solea solea and in addition to test the hypothesis that the final preferendum equals the optimal growth temperature. Temperature preference was measured in a circular preference chamber for Dover sole acclimated to 18, 22 and 28°C. Optimal growth temperature was measured by rearing Dover sole at 19, 22, 25 and 28°C. The optimal growth temperature resulting from this growth experiment was 22.7°C for Dover sole with a size between 30 to 50 g. The temperature preferred by juvenile Dover sole increases with acclimation temperature and exceeds the optimal temperature for growth. A final preferendum could not be detected. Although a confounding effect of behavioural fever on temperature preference could not be entirely excluded, thermal preference and thermal optima for physiological processes seem to be unrelated in Dover sole.

  11. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  12. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  13. Aqueous chemistry of transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aqueous chemistry of the first three transactinide elements is briefly reviewed with special emphasis given to recent experimental results. Short introductory remarks are discussing the atom-at-a-time situation of transactinide chemistry as a result of low production cross-sections and short half-lives. In general, on-line experimental techniques and, more specifically, the automated rapid chemistry apparatus, ARCA, are presented. Present and future developments of experimental techniques and resulting perspectives are outlined at the end. The central part is mainly focussing on hydrolysis and complex formation aspects of the superheavy group 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with F - and Cl - anions. Experimental results are compared with the behaviour of lighter homologous elements and with relativistic calculations. It will be shown that the chemical behaviour of the first superheavy elements is already strongly influenced by relativistic effects. While it is justified to place rutherfordium, dubnium and seaborgium in the Periodic Table of the Elements into group 4, 5 and 6, respectively, it is no more possible to deduce from this position in detail the chemical properties of these transactinide or superheavy elements. (orig.)

  14. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+ batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+ batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. By critically reviewing state-of-the-art technologies and the most promising results so far, we aim to analyze the benefits of ARBs and the critical issues to be addressed, and to promote better development of ARBs.

  15. aqueous root extract on spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four groups were gavaged with the whole plant or root aqueous extract in low or high doses. The male ... motility and morphology as well as chromatin integrity were evaluated. Results: Serum ... Treatment of disease began long ago with the.

  16. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carazo, I.; Chereguini, O.; Martín, I.; Huntingford, F.; Duncan, N.

    2016-07-01

    Senegalese e sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  17. Reproductive ethogram and mate selection in captive wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, I.; Chereguini, O.; Martín, I.; Huntingford, F.; Duncan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Senegalese e sole (Solea senegalensis) have a high potential for aquaculture that is hampered by reproductive behavioural problems. These problems result in limited breeder participation in spawning. The present study provided an ethogram and described mate selection and spawning of captive wild Senegalese sole. Two tanks of breeders were studied that had 29 and 25 breeders (mean weight = 1.6 ± 0.1 kg). The behaviour was studied during 20 periods of 24 hours: 10 periods where spawning events were recorded and 10 control periods without spawning events. Periods where spawning occurred had three times more locomotor activity than periods without spawning. Two distinct behaviours, termed the “following” behaviour and the “coupled swim”, were only observed during periods with spawning. The courtship sequence (n=12) began with males predominantly involved in “following” behaviours, whilst females remained mainly stationary on the bottom of the tank. Males rested on the females and encouraged the females to begin swimming. When the female began to swim the male swam under the female and the pair made a “coupled swim” to the surface to release gametes. Gamete release was strictly in pairs of one male with one female. Failed “coupled swims” without gamete release were 5.6 times more frequent than successful “coupled swims”. Mate selection was evident as the sole engaged in: paired spawning, males displayed to females, males encouraged females to spawn and females accepted or rejected the male’s advances. The mate selection process provided the opportunity for fish to dominate the spawning and also demonstrated how fish were excluded from spawning.

  18. Simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Mi; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Oh, Ji-Hyeon; Fang, Yiqin; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Recently, several authors have shown that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using autologous platelet-rich fibrin as the sole filling material is a reliable procedure promoting bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material on bone formation in a canine sinus model. An implant was placed after sinus membrane elevation in the maxillary sinus of six adult female mongrel dogs. The resulting space between the membrane and sinus floor was filled with autologous platelet-rich fibrin retrieved from each dog. The implants were left in place for six months. Bone tissue was seen at the lower part of the implants introduced into the sinus cavity. The height of the newly formed bone around the implants ranged from 0 mm to 4.9 mm (mean; 2.6 ± 2.0 mm) on the buccal side and from 0 mm to 4.2 mm (mean; 1.3 ± 1.8 mm) on the palatal side. The findings from this study suggest that simultaneous sinus lift and implantation using platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material is not a predictable and reproducible procedure, especially with respect to the bone formation around the implants in the sinus cavity. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-Term Regeneration and Functional Recovery of a 15 mm Critical Nerve Gap Bridged by Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide-Immobilized Polylactide Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-hui Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel peripheral nerve conduits containing the negatively charged Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TF were prepared, and their efficacy in bridging a critical nerve gap was evaluated. The conduits were made of poly(D,L-lactide (PLA with asymmetric microporous structure. TF was immobilized on the lumen surface of the nerve conduits after open air plasma activation. The TF-modified surface was characterized by the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy. TF modification was found to enhance the neurotrophic gene expression of C6 glioma cells in vitro. TF-modified PLA nerve conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm gap of rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was monitored by the magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that TF immobilization promoted the nerve connection in 6 weeks. The functional recovery in animals receiving TF-immobilized conduits was greater than in those receiving the bare conduits during an 8-month period. The degree of functional recovery reached ~90% after 8 months in the group of TF-immobilized conduits.

  20. Fabrication of bioactive conduits containing the fibroblast growth factor 1 and neural stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15 mm critical gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Hsiao-Chiang; Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsu, Shan-hui; Chen, Jeng-Rung; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Nerve conduits are often used in combination with bioactive molecules and stem cells to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, the acidic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) was immobilized onto the microporous/micropatterned poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nerve conduits after open air plasma treatment. PLA substrates grafted with chitosan in the presence of a small amount of gold nanoparticles (nano Au) showed a protective effect on the activity of the immobilized FGF1 in vitro. Different conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm critical gap defect in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Axon regeneration and functional recovery were evaluated by histology, walking track analysis and electrophysiology. Among different conduits, PLA conduits grafted with chitosan–nano Au and the FGF1 after plasma activation had the greatest regeneration capacity and functional recovery in the experimental animals. When the above conduit was seeded with aligned neural stem cells, the efficacy was further enhanced and it approached that of the autograft group. This work suggested that microporous/micropatterned nerve conduits containing bioactive growth factors may be successfully fabricated by micropatterning techniques, open plasma activation, and immobilization, which, combined with aligned stem cells, may synergistically contribute to the regeneration of the severely damaged peripheral nerve. (paper)

  1. An econometric viability model for ongrowing sole (Solea senegalensis) in tanks using pumped well sea water

    OpenAIRE

    García García, J.; García García, B.

    2006-01-01

    Sole (Solea senegalensis) is of great interest to marine aquaculture in the Mediterranean because of its relatively fast growth and good commercial prospects (high price). However, the wide mean annual variation in the temperature of Mediterranean sea water (14-26 deg C) is a limiting factor for the ongrowing of this species; the optimum for this process is 19-20 deg C. One of the possible mid-term solutions for ensuring a constant year-round temperature is to ongrow these fish in tanks conta...

  2. Discriminating bot accounts based solely on temporal features of microblog behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Junshan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hanping

    2016-05-01

    As the largest microblog service in China, Sina Weibo has attracted numerous automated applications (known as bots) due to its popularity and open architecture. We classify the active users from Sina Weibo into human, bot-based and hybrid groups based solely on the study of temporal features of their posting behavior. The anomalous burstiness parameter and time-interval entropy value are exploited to characterize automation. We also reveal different behavior patterns among the three types of users regarding their reposting ratio, daily rhythm and active days. Our findings may help Sina Weibo manage a better community and should be considered for dynamic models of microblog behaviors.

  3. Sole stenting treatment for small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms:a clinical therapeutic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jiyong; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Huang Qinghai; Yang Pengfei; Zhao Wenyuan; Liu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility, safety and efficacy of sole stenting technique for the treatment of small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between February 2001 and November 2009, 36 consecutive patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms (18 males and 18 females, aged 19-75 years,with a mean age of 52.3 years) were treated with stenting technique only. Of 36 patients, the Grade 0 of Hunt and Hess classification was seen in 22,Grade I in 8, Grade II in 5 and Grade III in 1. The aneurysmal diameter ranged from 1.8 mm to 5.0 mm,with a mean diameter of 3.6 mm. The aneurysms were located at the anterior communicating artery (n=1), posterior communicating artery (n=11), intradural paraclinoid internal carotid artery (n=18), basilar artery (n=1), anterior choroidal artery (n=4) or middle cerebral artery (n=1). The clinical manifestations, the angiographic findings and the follow-up observations were analyzed and the results were evaluated by means of the Modified Rankin Scale, magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. Results: Sole stenting treatment was performed in 36 patients with small wide-necked saccular intracranial aneurysms. A total of 37 stents were successfully delivered and deployed at the targeted location. Immediate post-procedural angiography showed that complete occlusion was obtained in one aneurysm, a sluggish intra-aneurysmal vortex motion in 3 aneurysms and a correction of the angle of the parent vessel in two cases, whereas no change was seen in the remaining 30 aneurysms. Angiographic follow-up was carried out in 22 of the 36 patients (61%) during a mean following-up period of 16 months (ranged from 3 to 59 months). The follow-up angiography showed that the complete occlusion was seen in 11 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck with shrinkage of the aneurysm in 9 cases, narrowed aneurysmal neck only in 1 case, and shrinkage of the aneurysm only in 1 case.All the patients remained

  4. Pixel Statistical Analysis of Diabetic vs. Non-diabetic Foot-Sole Spectral Terahertz Reflection Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Salas-Gutierrez, I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we present a series of hydration mapping images of the foot soles of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects measured by terahertz reflectance. In addition to the hydration images, we present a series of RYG-color-coded (red yellow green) images where pixels are assigned one of the three colors in order to easily identify areas in risk of ulceration. We also present the statistics of the number of pixels with each color as a potential quantitative indicator for diabetic foot-syndrome deterioration.

  5. Experimental composite guidance conduits for peripheral nerve repair: An evaluation of ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.F. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Coughlan, A. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); O' Shea, H. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); Kehoe, S., E-mail: sharonkehoe@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Boyd, D., E-mail: d.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - Pluronic F127 - glass composites have demonstrated excellent potential, from the perspective of controlled mechanical properties and cytocompatibility, for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to controlling the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity for such composite devices, the glass component may mediate specific responses upon implantation via degradation in the physiological environment and release of constituent elements. However, research focused on quantifying the release levels of such therapeutic ions from these experimental medical devices has been limited. To redress the balance, this paper explores the ion release profiles for Si{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ce{sup 4+} from experimental composite nerve guidance conduits (CNGC) comprising PLGA (at 12.5, and 20 wt.%), F127 (at 0, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) and various loadings of Si-Ca-Na-Zn-Ce glass (at 20 and 40 wt.%) for incubation periods of up to 28 days. The concentration of each ion, at various time points, was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 3000). It was observed that the Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} release from CNGCs in this study ranged from 0.22 to 6.477 ppm, 2.307 to 3.277 ppm, 40 to 119 ppm, and 45 to 51 ppm, respectively. The Ce{sup 4+} concentrations were under the minimum detection limits for the ICP instrument utilized. The results indicate that the ion release levels may be appropriate to mediate therapeutic effects with respect to peripheral nerve regeneration. The data generated in this paper provides requisite evidence to optimize composition for pre-clinical evaluation of the experimental composite. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-dependent degradation studies of PLGA/glass composite nerve guidance conduits (NGCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} release levels for the

  6. Successful Treatment of Plantar Hyperkeratosis in the Form of Recurrent Corns With Split-Thickness Sole Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Chang, Chun-Kai; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Chiao, Hao-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tim-Mo; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Plantar hyperkeratosis, such as corns and calluses, is common in older people and associated with pain, mobility impairment, and functional limitations. It usually develops on the palms, knees, or soles of feet, especially under the heels or balls. There are several treatment methods for plantar hyperkeratosis, such as salicylic acid plaster and scalpel debridement, and conservative modalities, such as using a shoe insert and properly fitting shoes. We present an effective method of reconstructing the wound after corn excision using a split-thickness sole skin graft (STSSG). We harvested the skin graft from the arch of the sole using the dermatome with a skin thickness of 14/1000th inches. Because the split-thickness skin graft, harvested from the sole arch near the distal sole, is much thicker than the split-thickness skin graft from the thigh, it is more resistant to weight and friction. The healed wound with STSSG coverage over the distal sole was intact, and the donor site over the sole arch had healed without complication during the outpatient follow-up, 3 months after surgery. The recovery time of STSSG for corn excision is shorter than that with traditional treatment. Therefore, STSSG can be a reliable alternative treatment for recurrent palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.

  7. Use of Powder PEG-3350 as a Sole Bowel Preparation: Clinical Case Series of 245 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Okolo, Patrick I

    2008-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of low-volume powder polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 as a sole bowel preparation for colonoscopy. This case series examined 245 consecutive patients (a mixture of inpatients and outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy) at a hospital endoscopy center over a 2-year period. The patients received powder PEG-3350 in the amount of 204 g dissolved in 32 oz of water and taken in 3 divided doses 1 hour apart with 8 oz of water in between each dose. Colon preparation scores (CPS) were used to assess the quality of colon cleansing. The results obtained from the 245 patients were collated and compared to those of patients receiving sodium phosphate, the historical control. The mean CPS was calculated to be 3.43, with a standard deviation of 1.12. Of the 245 patients, 92 were scored with a grade of 4, and 5 patients had incomplete colonoscopies secondary to failure of bowel preparation (CPS=0). Among the remaining patients, 22 and 26 were graded as poor (CPS=1) or fair (CPS=2) bowel preparations, respectively. The low-volume powder PEG-3350 formula used in our case series showed effective colon cleansing and may be considered for use as a sole bowel preparation.

  8. In defence of Kant's moral prohibition on suicide solely to avoid suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, G

    2008-09-01

    In Ian Brassington's article in a previous issue of this journal, he argues that suicide for the purpose of avoiding suffering is not, as Kant has contended, contrary to the moral law. Brassington's objections are not cogent because they rely upon the exegetically incorrect premise that according to Kant the priceless value of personhood is in the noumenal world that we have no perception of. On the basis of Kant's normative, metaphysical and epistemological theory, I argue, contrary to Brassington, that according to Kant personhood's moral value is explicitly in the sensible, phenomenal realm. While I argue that suicide solely to avoid suffering is immoral, I show that Kant's normative system allows some acts of suicide to be morally permissible. In the course of the discussion of the value of humanity's rationality and the immorality of suicide, I will discuss the broader modern medical ethical implications of Kant's arguments, such as the moral impermissibility of using rationality depriving drugs, such as ketamine, solely to avoid pain.

  9. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deli, Martin; Fritz, Jan; Mateiescu, Serban; Busch, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Becker, Jan; Garmer, Marietta; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  10. Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Rocker-Sole Footwear for First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis: Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. The dynamics of slug trains in volcanic conduits: Evidence for expansion driven slug coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pering, T. D.; McGonigle, A. J. S.; James, M. R.; Capponi, A.; Lane, S. J.; Tamburello, G.; Aiuppa, A.

    2017-12-01

    Strombolian volcanism is a ubiquitous form of activity, driven by the ascent and bursting of bubbles of slug morphology. Whilst considerable attention has been devoted to understanding the behaviour of individual slugs in this regime, relatively little is known about how inter-slug interactions modify flow conditions. Recently, we reported on high temporal frequency strombolian activity on Etna, in which the larger erupted slug masses were followed by longer intervals before the following explosion than the smaller bursts (Pering et al., 2015). We hypothesised that this behaviour arose from the coalescence of ascending slugs causing a prolonged lag before arrival of the next distinct bubble. Here we consider the potential importance of inter-slug interactions for the dynamics of strombolian volcanism, by reporting on the first study into the behaviour of trains of ascending gas slugs, scaled to the expansion rates in volcanic conduits. This laboratory analogue study illustrates that slugs in trains rise faster than individual slugs, and can be associated with aspects of co-current flow. The work also highlights that coalescence and inter-slug interactions play an important role in modulating slug train behaviour. We also report, for the first time, on slug coalescence driven by vertical expansion of the trailing slug, a process which can occur, even where the leading slug base ascent velocity is greater than that of the trailing slug.

  12. Effect of Surface Pore Structure of Nerve Guide Conduit on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Jin Rae; Kwon, Gu Birm; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with different surface pore structures (nano-porous inner surface vs. micro-porous inner surface) but similar physical and chemical properties were fabricated by rolling the opposite side of asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 membranes. The effect of the pore structure on peripheral nerve regeneration through the NGCs was investigated using a sciatic nerve defect model of rats. The nerve fibers and tissues were shown to have regenerated along the longitudinal direction through the NGC with a nano-porous inner surface (Nanopore NGC), while they grew toward the porous wall of the NGC with a micro-porous inner surface (Micropore NGC) and, thus, their growth was restricted when compared with the Nanopore NGC, as investigated by immunohistochemical evaluations (by fluorescence microscopy with anti-neurofilament staining and Hoechst staining for growth pattern of nerve fibers), histological evaluations (by light microscopy with Meyer's modified trichrome staining and Toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy for the regeneration of axon and myelin sheath), and FluoroGold retrograde tracing (for reconnection between proximal and distal stumps). The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) immobilized on the pore surfaces of the NGCs on nerve regeneration was not so significant when compared with NGCs not containing immobilized NGF. The NGC system with different surface pore structures but the same chemical/physical properties seems to be a good tool that is used for elucidating the surface pore effect of NGCs on nerve regeneration. PMID:22871377

  13. Thermo-Hydraulic behaviour of dual-channel superconducting Cable-In-Conduit Conductors for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, B.

    2006-09-01

    In an effort to optimise the cryogenics of large superconducting coils for fusion applications (ITER), dual channel Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) are designed with a central channel spiral to provide low hydraulic resistance and faster helium circulation. The qualitative and economic rationale of the conductor central channel is here justified to limit the superconductor temperature increase, but brings more complexity to the conductor cooling characteristics. The pressure drop of spirals is experimentally evaluated in nitrogen and water and an explicit hydraulic friction model is proposed. Temperatures in the cable must be quantified to guarantee superconductor margin during coil operation under heat disturbance and set adequate inlet temperature. Analytical one-dimensional thermal models, in steady state and in transient, allow to better understand the thermal coupling of CICC central and annular channels. The measurement of a heat transfer characteristic space and time constants provides cross-checking experimental estimations of the internal thermal homogenization. A simple explicit model of global inter-channel heat exchange coefficient is proposed. The risk of thermosyphon between the two channels is considered since vertical portions of fusion coils are subject to gravity. The new hydraulic model, heat exchange model and gravitational risk ratio allow the thermohydraulic improvement of CICC central spirals. (author)

  14. The Medial Temporal Lobe – Conduit of Parallel Connectivity: A model for Attention, Memory, and Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B. Mozaffari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the notion that the brain is equipped with a hierarchical organization, which embodies environmental contingencies across many time scales, this paper suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL – located deep in the hierarchy – serves as a bridge connecting supra to infra – MTL levels. Bridging the upper and lower regions of the hierarchy provides a parallel architecture that optimizes information flow between upper and lower regions to aid attention, encoding, and processing of quick complex visual phenomenon. Bypassing intermediate hierarchy levels, information conveyed through the MTL ‘bridge’ allows upper levels to make educated predictions about the prevailing context and accordingly select lower representations to increase the efficiency of predictive coding throughout the hierarchy. This selection or activation/deactivation is associated with endogenous attention. In the event that these ‘bridge’ predictions are inaccurate, this architecture enables the rapid encoding of novel contingencies. A review of hierarchical models in relation to memory is provided along with a new theory, Medial-temporal-lobe Conduit for Parallel Connectivity (MCPC. In this scheme, consolidation is considered as a secondary process, occurring after a MTL-bridged connection, which eventually allows upper and lower levels to access each other directly. With repeated reactivations, as contingencies become consolidated, less MTL activity is predicted. Finally, MTL bridging may aid processing transient but structured perceptual events, by allowing communication between upper and lower levels without calling on intermediate levels of representation.

  15. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit with nerve growth factor gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Tae Ho; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation. From the in vivo animal experiment using a long gap (20 mm) sciatic nerve defect model of rats, the NGC with NGF concentration gradient allowed more rapid nerve regeneration through the NGC than the NGC itself and NGC immobilized with uniformly distributed NGF. The NGC with NGF concentration gradient seems to be a promising strategy for the peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 52-64, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A new cable-in-conduit conductor magnet with insulated strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satarou; Yamamoto, Junya; Motojima, Osamu.

    1995-09-01

    Many studies have used cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) coils in trying to develop an AC superconducting magnet because of its enormous potential if AC losses were low and insulation voltage was high. The strands in the most recent CICC magnets are coated with chromium or another metal with high electrical resistance to order to induce current re-distribution among the strands and to avoid a quench caused by a current imbalance. Current re-distribution is highly complex and very difficult to analyze because the conditions of the strand surfaces and the contact areas vary greatly with the operation of the conductor. If, however, the cable currents were well-balanced, insulating the strands would be the best way to reduce AC losses. We propose a new CICC magnet structure featuring a current lead that balances the strand currents via its resistance. Having calculated current balances, we find that strand currents are well within the present parameters for nuclear fusion experiments and superconducting magnet energy storages. (author)

  17. A Decaheme Cytochrome as a Molecular Electron Conduit in Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ee Taek; Sheikh, Khizar; Orchard, Katherine L; Hojo, Daisuke; Radu, Valentin; Lee, Chong-Yong; Ainsworth, Emma; Lockwood, Colin; Gross, Manuela A; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Reisner, Erwin; Butt, Julea N; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2015-01-01

    In nature, charge recombination in light-harvesting reaction centers is minimized by efficient charge separation. Here, it is aimed to mimic this by coupling dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals to a decaheme protein, MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, where the 10 hemes of MtrC form a ≈7-nm-long molecular wire between the TiO2 and the underlying electrode. The system is assembled by forming a densely packed MtrC film on an ultra-flat gold electrode, followed by the adsorption of approximately 7 nm TiO2 nanocrystals that are modified with a phosphonated bipyridine Ru(II) dye (RuP). The step-by-step construction of the MtrC/TiO2 system is monitored with (photo)electrochemistry, quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Photocurrents are dependent on the redox state of the MtrC, confirming that electrons are transferred from the TiO2 nanocrystals to the surface via the MtrC conduit. In other words, in these TiO2/MtrC hybrid photodiodes, MtrC traps the conduction-band electrons from TiO2 before transferring them to the electrode, creating a photobioelectrochemical system in which a redox protein is used to mimic the efficient charge separation found in biological photosystems. PMID:26180522

  18. Reverse saphenous conduit flap in small animals: Clinical applications and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross C. Elliott

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of skin elasticity defects of the distal hind limb can be a challenge to close. This article assesses a well-described, but completely under-used technique for closure of wounds on the distal tarsus. The technique was used with good success in six cases presenting to the Bryanston Veterinary Hospital with a wide range of underlying pathology ranging from trauma to neoplastic disease of the tarsus. All six cases were treated with a reverse saphenous conduit flap and two of them underwent radiation therapy with no adverse side effects. All cases showed excellent results with a very low degree of flap necrosis that never exceeded 15% of the total flap area. This skin flap provides an excellent treatment method that is reliable in closure of defects of the distal tarsus with few adverse effects. To the author’s knowledge there has been only one previously published report on the clinical use of this type of skin flap,even though the flap is well described in most texts.

  19. Normal zone propagation and Thermal Hydraulic Quenchback in a cable-in-conduit superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.

    1993-01-01

    When a local normal zone appears in a cable-in-conduit superconductor, a slug of hot helium is produced. The pressure rises and the hot helium expands. Thus the normal zone propagation in such a conductor can be governed by the hot helium expansion, rather than the heat conduction along the conductor. The expansion of the hot helium compresses the cold helium outside of the normal zone. This raises th at sign temperature of the cold helium. When the temperature rise reaches the current sharing limit, the superconductor in contact goes normal. Thus a rapid increase in normal zone propagation occur. This phenomenon is termed Thermal Hydraulic Quenchback (THQ). An experiment was performed to investigate this process. The existence of THQ was verified. Thresholds of THQ were also observed by varying the conductor current, the magnetic field, the temperature, and the initial normal zone length. When THQ occurred, normal zone propagation approaching the velocity of sound was observed. A better picture of THQ is obtained by a careful comparison of the data with analytical studies

  20. Solid-cryogen-stabilized, cable-in-conduit (CIC) superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, J. P.; Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; Hahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the use of a solid cryogen as a means to stabilize, both mechanically and thermally, magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting strands within a dual-channel cable-in-conduit (CIC) cable for use in AC applications, such as a generator stator winding. The cable consists of two separate channels; the outer channel contains the superconducting strands and is filled with a fluid (liquid or gas) that becomes solid at the device operating temperature. Several options for fluid will be presented, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrocarbons and other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that have a range of melting temperatures and volumetric expansions (from solid at operating temperature to fixed volume at room temperature). Implications for quench protection and conductor stability, enhanced through direct contact with the solid cryogen, which has high heat capacity and thermal conductivity (compared with helium gas), will be presented. Depending on the cryogen, the conductor will be filled initially either with liquid at atmospheric conditions or a gas at high pressure (∼100 atm). After cooldown, the cryogen in the stranded-channel will be solid, essentially locking the strands in place, preventing strand motion and degradation due to mechanical deformation while providing enhanced thermal capacity for stability and protection. The effect of cryogen porosity is also considered. The relatively high heat capacity of solid cryogens at these lower temperatures (compared to gaseous helium) enhances the thermal stability of the winding. During operation, coolant flow through the open inner channel will minimize pressure drop.

  1. Literature Review: Double-Barrelled Wet Colostomy (One Stoma) versus Ileal Conduit with Colostomy (Two Stomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jason; Hamid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of a traditional ileal conduit (IC) with separate colostomy technique compared to the outcomes of a double-barrelled wet colostomy (DBWC) technique. The former technique results in the formation of two stomas, and the latter results in the formation of one stoma. PubMed was searched electronically for articles on DBWC. Fifteen articles were retrieved and of them 13 were included in the literature review (350 patients). Of the articles, 3 directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy. Review of 13 DBWC articles demonstrated perioperative mortality ranging between 0 and 11.1% and postoperative complications ranging from 0 to 100%. Three of the studies directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy; median operating times and length of stay were shorter in DBWC patients (p colostomy technique, as it requires only one stoma. This literature review supports the use of the technically less challenging DBWC technique as a viable alternative to the traditional IC with colostomy technique. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The effects of fenoldopam on coronary conduit blood flow after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effects of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, on left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and saphenous vein blood flow after coronary anastomosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: University teaching hospital, single institution. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one American Society of Anesthesiologists III patients undergoing elective coronary revascularization. INTERVENTIONS: A perivascular ultrasonic flow probe (Linton Instrumentation, Norfolk, UK) was placed around the LIMA and saphenous vein graft after coronary anastomosis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Immediately before and at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes after starting the infusion, blood flow was measured in the LIMA and one saphenous vein graft using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe. Heart rate, blood pressure, and central venous pressure were documented at these time points. Administration of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, did not alter heart rate or blood pressure. A small, nonsignificant increase in LIMA blood flow occurred during the 15-minute study period (30 +\\/- 12 to 35 +\\/- 10 mL\\/min) in patients who received fenoldopam. No significant changes occurred in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, did not influence coronary conduit blood flow to a clinically significant extent. The small increase in LIMA blood flow may be of greater importance in high-risk patients or in the prevention of coronary arterial spasm.

  3. Exploring the role of lipids in intercellular conduits: breakthroughs in the pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eDelage

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for more than a century that most of the plant cells are connected to their neighbors through membranous pores perforating the cell wall, namely plasmodesmata (PDs. The recent discovery of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs, thin membrane bridges established between distant mammalian cells, suggests that intercellular communication mediated through cytoplasmic continuity could be a conserved feature of eukaryotic organisms. Although TNTs differ from PDs in their formation and architecture, both are characterized by a continuity of the plasma membrane between two cells, delimiting a nanotubular channel supported by actin-based cytoskeleton. Due to this unusual membrane organization, lipids are likely to play critical roles in the formation and stability of intercellular conduits like TNTs and PDs, but also in regulating the transfer through these structures. While it is crucial for a better understanding of those fascinating communication highways, the study of TNT lipid composition and dynamics turned out to be extremely challenging. The present review aims to give an overview of the recent findings in this context. We will also discuss some of the promising imaging approaches, which might be the key for future breakthroughs in the field and could also benefit the research on PDs.

  4. Contention between supply of hydrothermal fluid and conduit obstruction: inferences from numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Matsushima, Nobuo; Ishido, Tsuneo

    2018-05-01

    We investigate a volcanic hydrothermal system using numerical simulations, focusing on change in crater temperature. Both increases and decreases in crater temperature have been observed before phreatic eruptions. We follow the system's response for up to a decade after hydrothermal fluid flux from the deep part of the system is increased and permeability is reduced at a certain depth in a conduit. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that: (1) changes in crater temperature are controlled by the magnitude of the increase in hydrothermal fluid flux and the degree of permeability reduction; (2) significant increases in hydrothermal flux with decreases in permeability induce substantial pressure changes in shallow depths in the edifice and decreases in crater temperature; (3) the location of maximum pressure change differs between the mechanisms. The results of this study imply that it is difficult to predict eruptions by crater temperature change alone. One should be as wary of large eruptions when crater temperature decreases as when crater temperature increases. It is possible to clarify the implications of changes in crater temperature with simultaneous observation of ground deformation.

  5. Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamb, Barclay

    1987-08-01

    Based on observations of the 1982-1983 surge of Variegated Glacier, Alaska, a model of the surge mechanism is developed in terms of a transition from the normal tunnel configuration of the basal water conduit system to a linked cavity configuration that tends to restrict the flow of water, resulting in increased basal water pressures that cause rapid basal sliding. The linked cavity system consists of basal cavities formed by ice-bedrock separation (cavitation), ˜1 m high and ˜10 m in horizontal dimensions, widely scattered over the glacier bed, and hydraulically linked by narrow connections where separation is minimal (separation gap ≲ 0.1 m). The narrow connections, called orifices, control the water flow through the conduit system; by throttling the flow through the large cavities, the orifices keep the water flux transmitted by the basal water system at normal levels even though the total cavity cross-sectional area (˜200 m2) is much larger than that of a tunnel system (˜10 m2). A physical model of the linked cavity system is formulated in terms of the dimensions of the "typical" cavity and orifice and the numbers of these across the glacier width. The model concentrates on the detailed configuration of the typical orifice and its response to basal water pressure and basal sliding, which determines the water flux carried by the system under given conditions. Configurations are worked out for two idealized orifice types, step orifices that form in the lee of downglacier-facing bedrock steps, and wave orifices that form on the lee slopes of quasisinusoidal bedrock waves and are similar to transverse "N channels." The orifice configurations are obtained from the results of solutions of the basal-sliding-with-separation problem for an ice mass constituting of linear half-space of linear rheology, with nonlinearity introduced by making the viscosity stress-dependent on an intuitive basis. Modification of the orifice shapes by melting of the ice roof due to

  6. The side-to-side fashion for individual distal coronary anastomosis using venous conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takayoshi; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Motoji, Yusuke; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Okawa, Yasuhide; Tomita, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    Regarding to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the end-to-side anastomosis (ESA) has been performed as a gold standard. Recently, the effectiveness of the distal side-to-side anastomosis (SSA) in CABG using internal mammary artery has been reported. The benefit of SSA comparing to ESA also has been disclosed by computing simulation. However, use of SSA by venous conduit for individual CABG has not been reported. In this study, we investigated feasibility of SSA. From January 2013 to October 2014, we conducted 114 CABGs. There were 92 venous distal anastomoses without sequential anastomotic site (61 SSA and 31 ESA). The anastomosis was evaluated before discharge and at 1 year after the procedure by angiography or multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography. The median values for time to anastomosis were 13 min in the two group (p = 0.89). There was no revision of anastomosis in both groups. Additional stitches for hemostasis were required significantly less in SSA than ESA (18.0 vs 45.2 %, respectively, p fashion is easy to perform and maybe beneficial in blood flow pattern.

  7. The increased use of computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography as the sole imaging modalities prior to infrainguinal bypass has had no effect on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Bing; Damle, Rachelle N; Flahive, Julie; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Stone, David H; Patel, Virendra I; Schanzer, Andres; Baril, Donald T

    2015-08-01

    Angiography remains the gold standard imaging modality before infrainguinal bypass. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have emerged as noninvasive alternatives for preoperative imaging. We sought to examine contemporary trends in the utilization of CTA and MRA as isolated imaging modalities before infrainguinal bypass and to compare outcomes following infrainguinal bypass in patients who underwent CTA or MRA versus those who underwent conventional arteriography. Patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass within the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified (2003-2012). Patients were stratified by preoperative imaging modality: CTA/MRA alone or conventional angiography. Trends in utilization of these modalities were examined and demographics of these groups were compared. Primary end points included primary patency, secondary patency, and major adverse limb events (MALE) at 1 year as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate the effect of imaging modality on primary patency, secondary patency, and MALE after adjusting for confounders. In 3123 infrainguinal bypasses, CTA/MRA alone was used in 462 cases (15%) and angiography was used in 2661 cases (85%). Use of CTA/MRA alone increased over time, with 52 (11%) bypasses performed between 2003 and 2005, 189 (41%) bypasses performed between 2006 and 2009, and 221 (48%) bypasses performed between 2010 and 2012 (P < 0.001). Patients with CTA/MRA alone, compared with patients with angiography, more frequently underwent bypass for claudication (33% vs. 26%, P = 0.001) or acute limb ischemia (13% vs. 5%, P < 0.0001), more frequently had prosthetic conduits (39% vs. 30%, P = 0.001), and less frequently had tibial/pedal targets (32% vs. 40%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for these and other confounders, multivariable analysis demonstrated that the use of CTA/MRA alone was not associated with a significant

  8. Neural network based inspection of voids and karst conduits in hydro-electric power station tunnels using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gokhan; Eren, Levent

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on the fundamental role played by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), alongside advanced processing and presentation methods, during the tunnel boring project at a Dam and Hydro-Electric Power Station. It identifies from collected GPR data such issues as incomplete grouting and the presence of karst conduits and voids and provides full details of the procedures adopted. In particular, the application of collected GPR data to the Neural Network (NN) method is discussed.

  9. Brachial artery repair using the basilic vein as a reliable conduit in a 3-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunyoung G. Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A supracondylar fracture of the humerus is the most common upper extremity fracture in children with concurrent neurovascular complications. However, bypass grafting in the management of a pediatric open elbow dislocation with an arterial injury has rarely been reported in the literature. Hence, an adequate conduit for a vessel graft interposition remains questionable when a primary anastomosis is limited in an arterial reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to present a brachial artery reconstruction in a 3-year-old patient with an open supracondylar fracture of the humerus. In the clinical and surgical examination of the patient, an open wound in the left antecubital fossa presented with accompanying brachial artery injury. To repair the artery, a reverse end-to-end anastomosis was conducted using basilic vein graft from the ipsilateral arm under general anesthesia. The patient had palpable radial pulses in the postoperative clinical examination and was discharged without complications. The great saphenous vein (GSV has proven to be the most common and the best conduit for arterial reconstruction of the upper extremity in the adult patients. However, the GSV graft is known to have the propensity for becoming aneurysmal in pediatric patients. Some studies have demonstrated the basilic vein as a suitable conduit in pediatric patients, in that it has durable patency, fewer branches, size compatibility for anastomosis, and proximity to the brachial artery. Our case confirms the safety of using this autogenous vein from within the zone of injury for arterial reconstruction, after a supracondylar humeral fracture. The management of pediatric elbow fractures accompanying vascular injuries can be technically demanding due to relatively small, delicate structures and concurrent neurovascular network. Nonetheless, a vascular injury should be treated with high level of suspicion and immediate intervention to avoid any limb ischemia or loss. In

  10. Field observations of extended seawater intrusion through subsurface karst conduit networks at Wakulla Spring in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Bassett, S.; Hu, B. X.; Dyer, S.

    2016-12-01

    Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst conduits supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed conduit networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electric conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 14 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This abstract documented the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface conduit networks in a coastal karst aquifer.

  11. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Contractile Fontan-Conduit: The Fate of Cardiac Myocytes in the Subpulmonary Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Biermann

    Full Text Available The long-term outcome of patients with single ventricles improved over time, but remains poor compared to other congenital heart lesions with biventricular circulation. Main cause for this unfavourable outcome is the unphysiological hemodynamic of the Fontan circulation, such as subnormal systemic cardiac output and increased systemic-venous pressure. To overcome this limitation, we are developing the concept of a contractile extracardiac Fontan-tunnel. In this study, we evaluated the survival and structural development of a tissue-engineered conduit under in vivo conditions. Engineered heart tissue was generated from ventricular heart cells of neonatal Wistar rats, fibrinogen and thrombin. Engineered heart tissues started beating around day 8 in vitro and remained contractile in vivo throughout the experiment. After culture for 14 days constructs were implanted around the right superior vena cava of Wistar rats (n = 12. Animals were euthanized after 7, 14, 28 and 56 days postoperatively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed cardiomyocytes arranged in thick bundles within the engineered heart tissue-conduit. Immunostaining of sarcomeric actin, alpha-actin and connexin 43 revealed a well -developed cardiac myocyte structure. Magnetic resonance imaging (d14, n = 3 revealed no constriction or stenosis of the superior vena cava by the constructs. Engineered heart tissues survive and contract for extended periods after implantation around the superior vena cava of rats. Generation of larger constructs is warranted to evaluate functional benefits of a contractile Fontan-conduit.

  12. Hydraulic analysis of harmonic pumping tests in frequency and time domains for identifying the conduits networks in a karstic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Cardiff, M.; Lecoq, N.; Jourde, H.

    2018-04-01

    In a karstic field, the flow paths are very complex as they globally follow the conduit network. The responses generated from an investigation in this type of aquifer can be spatially highly variable. Therefore, the aim of the investigation in this case is to define a degree of connectivity between points of the field, in order to understand these flow paths. Harmonic pumping tests represent a possible investigation method for characterizing the subsurface flow of groundwater. They have several advantages compared to a constant-rate pumping (more signal possibilities, ease of extracting the signal in the responses and possibility of closed loop investigation). We show in this work that interpreting the responses from a harmonic pumping test is very useful for delineating a degree of connectivity between measurement points. We have firstly studied the amplitude and phase offset of responses from a harmonic pumping test in a theoretical synthetic modeling case in order to define a qualitative interpretation method in the time and frequency domains. Three different type of responses have been separated: a conduit connectivity response, a matrix connectivity, and a dual connectivity (response of a point in the matrix, but close to a conduit). We have then applied this method to measured responses at a field research site. Our interpretation method permits a quick and easy reconstruction of the main flow paths, and the whole set of field responses appear to give a similar range of responses to those seen in the theoretical synthetic case.

  13. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  14. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Ryer: Polychaete worm tubes modify juvenile northern rock sole Lepidopsetta polyxystra depth distribution in Kodiak nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that evaluates whether inter-annual variability in the depth distribution of juvenile northern rock sole on their nursery grounds around...

  15. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Substrate preference and delayed settlement in northern rock sole larvae Lepidopsetta polyxystra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from laboratory experiments testing the onset and ontogenetic changes in habitat selection of pre- and post-settling northern rock sole (NRS) larvae,...

  16. Clinopyroxenite dikes crosscutting banded peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in the Oman ophiolite: early cumulates from the primary V3 lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro

    2013-04-01

    Oman ophiolite is one of the well-known ophiolites for excellent exposures not only of the mantle section but also of the crustal section including effusive rocks and the underlying metamorphic rocks. In the Oman ophiolite, three types of effusive rocks (V1, V2 and V3 from the lower sequences) are recognized: i.e., V1, MORB-like magma, V2, island-arc type lava, and V3, intra-plate lava (Godard et al., 2003 and references there in). V1 and V2 lavas are dominant (> 95 %) as effusive rocks and have been observed in almost all the blocks of northern part of the Oman ophiolite (Godard et al., 2003), but V3 lava has been reported only from Salahi area (Alabaster et al., 1982). It is clear that there was a time gap of lava eruption between V1-2 and V3 based on the presence of pelagic sediments in between (Godard et al., 2003). In addition, V3 lavas are fed by a series of doleritic dikes crosscutting V2 lava (Alley unit) (Alabaster et al., 1982). We found clinopyroxenite (CPXITE) dikes crosscutting deformation structure of basal peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in Wadi Ash Shiyah. The sole metamorphic rock is garnet amphibolite, which overlies the banded and deformed harzburgite and dunite. The CPXITE is composed of coarse clinopyroxene (CPX) with minor amount of chlorite, garnet (hydrous/anhydrous grossular-andradite) with inclusions of titanite, and serpentine formed at a later low-temperature stage. The width of the CPXITE dikes is 2-5 cm (10 cm at maximum) and the dikes contain small blocks of wall harzburgite. Almost all the silicates are serpentinized in the harzburgite blocks except for some CPX. The Mg# (= Mg/(Mg + Fe) atomic ratio) of the CPX is almost constant (= 0.94-0.95) in the serpentinite blocks but varies within the dikes, highest at the contact with the block (0.94) and decreasing with the distance from the contact to 0.81 (0.85 on average). The contents of Al2O3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 in the CPX of the dikes are 0.5-2.0, 0.2-0.6, and 0

  17. Water exchange and pressure transfer between conduits and matrix and their influence on hydrodynamics of two karst aquifers with sinking streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Martin, Jonathan B.; Jourde, Hervé; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Pistre, Séverin; Langston, Abigail

    2010-05-01

    SummaryKarst aquifers are heterogeneous media where conduits usually drain water from lower permeability volumes (matrix and fractures). For more than a century, various approaches have used flood recession curves, which integrate all hydrodynamic processes in a karst aquifer, to infer physical properties of the movement and storage of groundwater. These investigations typically only consider flow to the conduits and thus have lacked quantitative observations of how pressure transfer and water exchange between matrix and conduit during flooding could influence recession curves. We present analyses of simultaneous discharge and water level time series of two distinctly different karst systems, one with low porosity and permeability matrix rocks in southern France, and one with high porosity and permeability matrix rocks in north-central Florida (USA). We apply simple mathematical models of flood recession using time series representations of recharge, storage, and discharge processes in the karst aquifer. We show that karst spring hydrographs can be interpreted according to pressure transfer between two distinct components of the aquifer, conduit and matrix porosity, which induce two distinct responses at the spring. Water exchange between conduits and matrix porosity successively control the flow regime at the spring. This exchange is governed by hydraulic head differences between conduits and matrix, head gradients within conduits, and the contrast of permeability between conduits and matrix. These observations have consequences for physical interpretations of recession curves and modeling of karst spring flows, particularly for the relative magnitudes of base flow and quick flow from karst springs. Finally, these results suggest that similar analyses of recession curves can be applied to karst aquifers with distinct physical characteristics utilizing well and spring hydrograph data, but information must be known about the hydrodynamics and physical properties of

  18. A simple melatonin treatment protocol attenuates the response to acute stress in the sole Solea senegalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Conde-Sieira, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds have been tested in fish in order to attenuate the effects of different stressors, most often following previous observations in mammals. The hormone melatonin (MEL) and the amino acid L-tryptophan have been tested for this purpose with different degree of success. In Senegalese...... sole (Solea senegalensis) we have previously observed that during prolonged exposure to relatively mild stressors, the presence of MEL in the water helped to reduce the stress response. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-stress effects of a short melatonin exposure that could be easily...... performed in fish farms before an intended manipulative event with the animals. Our results demonstrate that adding MEL to the tanks 30. min before an acute chasing stress is effective in reducing the intensity of the stress response in fish from its beginning, as evidenced by the attenuated and delayed...

  19. Changes in Liver Proteome Expression of Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis) in Response to Repeated Handling Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordeiro, O. D.; Silva, Tomé Santos; Alves, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Senegalese sole, a high-value flatfish, is a good candidate for aquaculture production. Nevertheless, there are still issues regarding this species’ sensitivity to stress in captivity. We aimed to characterize the hepatic proteome expression for this species in response to repeated handling...... and identify potential molecular markers that indicate a physiological response to chronic stress. Two groups of fish were reared in duplicate for 28 days, one of them weekly exposed to handling stress (including hypoxia) for 3 min, and the other left undisturbed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis enabled...... the detection of 287 spots significantly affected by repeated handling stress (Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U test, p stress seems to have affected protein synthesis, folding and turnover (40S ribosomal protein S12...

  20. Asymptomatic hyper-creatine-kinase-emia as sole manifestation of inclusion body myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM usually manifests with painless weakness of the hand, finger and hip flexors. Absence of symptoms or signs, but mild hyper-CK-emia as the sole manifestation of IBM, has not been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old male who presented with asymptomatic recurrent hyper-CK-emia ranging from 200 to 1324 U/L (n<171 U/L, since 10 years. Clinical neurologic investigation, nerve conduction studies and EMG were non-informative. Muscle biopsy surprisingly revealed sIBM. sIBM may be asymptomatic and may manifest with hyper-CK-emia exclusively. So, it has to be included in the differential diagnoses of asymptomatic hyper-CK-emia.

  1. Pitted keratolysis – a frequently misdiagnosed, mild, infectious disorder of soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Lewicka-Potocka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Pitted keratolysis (PK is a mild infectious skin disorder caused by Corynebacterium spp., Kytococcus sedentarius or Dermatophilus congolensis . These bacteria produce enzymes that digest keratin, causing superficial lesions in the plantar surface. The disease is predominantly observed in young men. Objective . Pitted keratolysis despite the characteristic presentation of skin lesions is often misdiagnosed. In this article we aimed to remind readers of its clinical aspects and treatment by presenting a typical PK case. Case report. A 35-year-old man was admitted to the dermatological clinic due to skin lesions on both soles. In the physical examination we found multiple crateriform pits, associated with hyperhidrosis and malodour diagnosed as PK. Remission of lesions was observed after treatment with oral erythromycin. Conclusions . The differential diagnosis of plantar skin lesions should include PK. Due to typical clinical manifestation the diagnosis is based on physical examination.

  2. Isolated Tenosynovitis as a Sole Manifestation: The Great Mimicker Still Continues to Surprise Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhishek; Surana, Trupti V; Biswas, Saugato; Reja, Abu Hena Hasanoor; Chatterjee, Gobinda

    2015-01-01

    A middle aged male presented with non-tender cystic swelling over left distal forearm since 1 year. No other cutaneous abnormality could be found except mild paresthesia of the overlying skin and equivocal thickening of the ipsilateral ulnar nerve. Routine investigation was within normal limits. Detailed workup of the patient including MRI of the lesion suggested the diagnosis as tenosynovitis with a soft tissue mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the cyst showed foamy macrophages and acid fast bacilli; while PCR of the aspirate confirmed the etiological agent as M. leprae. We, thus, report a unique case of isolated tenosynovitis as a sole manifestation of pure neural leprosy which is extremely rare in world literature. PMID:25814736

  3. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  4. Bony Calvarium as the Sole Site ofMetastases in Squamous Cell Carcinomaof the Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated skeletal metastasis to the bony calvarium is extremely rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We describe the clinical and imaging findings in a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases tothe bony calvarium as the sole site of metastasis. The patient was a 65-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stage IIIb, whose initial treatement was chemoradiation therapy. After 22 sessions of external-beam radiation,she developed headaches. On physical examination she had skull bone tenderness. On plain skull X-ray, there were osteolytic bony lesions. Brain MRI showed multiple enhancing skull bone metatstses. Eventually, a whole body bone scintigraphy revealed isolated diffuse increased activity in the bony calvarium. In the literature review, wefound only three similar cases of cervical cancer with scalp metastases and involvement of the bony calvarium.

  5. De novo acute leukemia with a sole 5q-: morphological, immunological, and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchayne, E; Dastugue, N; Kuhlein, E; Huguet, F; Pris, J

    1993-11-01

    The 5 q deletion is frequently found in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute non lymphoid leukemia, but this anomaly is usually found in secondary diseases and associated with many other chromosomal aberrations. This report describes four cases of "de novo" acute leukemia with a sole 5q- anomaly. They had no cytological, genetic or clinical characteristics of secondary disorders. It is important to note that of the four patients studied, three had proliferation of immature blast cells. One case was classified as a MO AML and two as "undifferentiated" acute leukemia. Furthermore, these four cases of acute leukemia showed a deletion of the same portion of the long arm of chromosome 5: q22q33. On the same part of this chromosome many hematopoietic growth factor genes have been located, like IL3 and GM-CSF which have early undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells as a their target.

  6. Ultrasound-guided greater auricular nerve block as sole anesthetic for ear surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Ritchie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater auricular nerve (GAN block was used as the sole anesthetic for facial surgery in an 80-year-old male patient with multiple comorbidities which would have made general anesthesia challenging. The GAN provides sensation to the ear, mastoid process, parotid gland, and angle of the mandible. In addition to anesthesia for operating room surgery, the GAN block can be used for outpatient or emergency department procedures without the need for a separate anesthesia team. Although this nerve block has been performed using landmark-based techniques, the ultrasoundguided version offers several potential advantages. These advantages include increased reliability of the nerve block, as well as prevention of inadvertent vascular puncture or blockade of the phrenic nerve, brachial plexus, or deep cervical plexus. The increasing access to ultrasound technology for medical care providers outside the operating room makes this ultrasound guided block an increasingly viable alternative.

  7. Ahistological and histochemical study of the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Arellano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A histological and histochemical study was performed in the buccal cavity and papillae, which were around the teeth, as well as in the oesophagus and oesogaster of the Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis adult specimens. The oesophagus and oesogaster were made up of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscular and serous. Two morphological types of epithelial cells were distinguishable in the oesophageal mucosa: the more numerous type cells possessed an electron-dense cytoplasm, whereas the cytoplasm was electron-clear in the other cells. Mucussecreting cells were the dominant feature of the epithelium throughout the oesophagus. These goblet cells were filled with numerous mucous droplets of low electron-density. The oesophagus was devoid of taste buds.

  8. Effects of shoe sole geometry on toe clearance and walking stability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, S B; Price, C; Kenney, L P J; Baker, R

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-five percent of people above age 65 fall each year, and half of their falls are associated with tripping: tripping, an apparently 'mundane' everyday problem, therefore, significantly impacts on older people's health and associated medical costs. To avoid tripping and subsequent falling, sufficient toe clearance during the swing phase is crucial. We previously found that a rocker-shaped shoe sole enhances toe clearance in young adults, thereby decreasing their trip-risk. This study investigates whether such sole design also enhances older adults' toe clearance, without inadvertently affecting their walking stability. Toe clearance and its variability are reported together with measures of walking stability for twelve older adults, walking in shoes with rocker angles of 10°, 15°, and 20°. Surface inclinations (flat, incline, decline) were chosen to reflect a potential real-world environment. Toe clearance increased substantially from the 10° to the 15° rocker angle (p=0.003) without compromising measures of walking stability (p>0.05). A further increase in rocker angle to 20° resulted in less substantial enhancement of toe clearance and came at the cost of a decrease in gait speed on the decline. The novelty of this investigation lies in the exploration of the trade-off between reduction of trip-risk through footwear design and adverse effects on walking stability on real-life relevant surfaces. Our two studies suggest that the current focus on slip-resistance in footwear design may need to be generalised to include other factors that affect trip-risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of acetogenic bacteria that induce biocorrosion by utilizing metallic iron as the sole electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion of iron occurring under anoxic conditions, which is termed microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion, is mostly caused by microbial activities. Microbial activity that enhances corrosion via uptake of electrons from metallic iron [Fe(0)] has been regarded as one of the major causative factors. In addition to sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in marine environments, acetogenic bacteria in freshwater environments have recently been suggested to cause MIC under anoxic conditions. However, no microorganisms that perform acetogenesis-dependent MIC have been isolated or had their MIC-inducing mechanisms characterized. Here, we enriched and isolated acetogenic bacteria that induce iron corrosion by utilizing Fe(0) as the sole electron donor under freshwater, sulfate-free, and anoxic conditions. The enriched communities produced significantly larger amounts of Fe(II) than the abiotic controls and produced acetate coupled with Fe(0) oxidation prior to CH4 production. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sporomusa sp. and Desulfovibrio sp. dominated in the enrichments. Strain GT1, which is closely related to the acetogen Sporomusa sphaeroides, was eventually isolated from the enrichment. Strain GT1 grew acetogenetically with Fe(0) as the sole electron donor and enhanced iron corrosion, which is the first demonstration of MIC mediated by a pure culture of an acetogen. Other well-known acetogenic bacteria, including Sporomusa ovata and Acetobacterium spp., did not grow well on Fe(0). These results indicate that very few species of acetogens have specific mechanisms to efficiently utilize cathodic electrons derived from Fe(0) oxidation and induce iron corrosion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  11. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a sequencing batch reactor using propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, M; Saunders, A M; Guisasola, A; Baeza, J A; Casas, C; Blackall, L L

    2004-01-05

    An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using propionate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community was followed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques and Candidatus 'Accumulibacter phosphatis' were quantified from the start up of the reactor until steady state. A series of SBR cycle studies was performed when 55% of the SBR biomass was Accumulibacter, a confirmed polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) and when Candidatus 'Competibacter phosphatis', a confirmed glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO), was essentially undetectable. These experiments evaluated two different carbon sources (propionate and acetate), and in every case, two different P-release rates were detected. The highest rate took place while there was volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the mixed liquor, and after the VFA was depleted a second P-release rate was observed. This second rate was very similar to the one detected in experiments performed without added VFA.A kinetic and stoichiometric model developed as a modification of Activated Sludge Model 2 (ASM2) including glycogen economy, was fitted to the experimental profiles. The validation and calibration of this model was carried out with the cycle study experiments performed using both VFAs. The effect of pH from 6.5 to 8.0 on anaerobic P-release and VFA-uptake and aerobic P-uptake was also studied using propionate. The optimal overall working pH was around 7.5. This is the first study of the microbial community involved in EBPR developed with propionate as a sole carbon source along with detailed process performance investigations of the propionate-utilizing PAOs. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modified conduit preparation creates a pseudosinus in an aortic valve-sparing procedure for aneurysm of the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, R P; Kunzelman, K S; Eddy, A C; Hofer, B O; Verrier, E D

    1995-06-01

    Mechanical valved conduit replacement of the aortic root is a durable and appropriate procedure for many diseases of the ascending aorta, but may sacrifice an anatomically salvageable aortic valve. For young active patients and for patients with "systemic" arterial disease (atherosclerosis, Marfan's syndrome) who may require future operations, life-long anticoagulation with its attendant thromboembolic versus hemorrhagic risks is not ideal. Several techniques have been suggested as aortic valve-sparing options. Recently, a procedure was described that combines the freehand homograft techniques with the standard Bentall techniques (David procedure). This innovative technique replaces the ascending aorta with a Dacron cylinder, spares the aortic valve, and restores competence and thus offers an excellent alternative. The durability of this procedure that places the aortic valve inside a cylindrical conduit without sinuses of Valsalva is unknown. In selected patients, we have used this technique to spare the aortic valve. On the basis of experimental data and preliminary computer modeling, with the hope of improving the durability, we have modified the conduit to create a "pseudosinus" in our most recent nine patients. We have done the David procedure in 10 patients. The pseudosinus modification was done in the most recent nine patients. Patients' ages ranged from 37 to 71 years (mean 49.9 years). There were five female and five male patients. Five patients had Marfan's syndrome and five patients had annuloaortic ectasia. There has been no mortality and all patients have had both early and late follow-up echocardiography. Five patients have zero to trace aortic insufficiency, four patients have trace to mild aortic insufficiency, and one patient has mild or "1+" aortic insufficiency. Aortic insufficiency has not progressed in any patient during the 18 months of follow-up. The patient with 1+ aortic insufficiency has no activity limits, good ventricular function, and

  13. Comparative analysis of the pressure profilometry of vesicocutaneous continent catheterizable conduits between patients with and without rectus abdominis neosphincter (Yachia principle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Atila; Leslie, Bruno; Arcuri, Leonardo Javier; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether crossing rectus abdominis muscle strips, as proposed by Yachia, would change urinary catheterizable conduit's pressure profilometry, in static and dynamic conditions. Non-randomized selection of 20 continent patients that underwent Macedo's ileum-based reservoir, 10 including Yachia's technique (Study Group) and 10 without this mechanism of continence (Control Group). Demographics and cystometric data were assessed. Conduit's pressure profilometry was obtained by infusing saline through a multichannel catheter, at rest and during Valsalva maneuver. We assessed the pressure: (a) in the bladder; (b) in conduit's proximal segment; and (c) in conduit's distal segment, which is presumably the abdominal wall and crossed muscle strips site. Mean age at surgery was 6.1 years in the Control Group and 7.7 years in the Study Group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding maximum cystometric bladder capacity and leakage point pressure. At rest, the pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in all segments analyzed. During Valsalva maneuver, pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in bladder and conduit's proximal segment pressure. In this condition, conduit's distal segment pressure in the Study Group (Mean = 72.9 and Peak = 128.7 cmH2 O) was significantly greater (P continence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Magmas in motion: Degassing in volcanic conduits and fabrics of pyroclastic density current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgisser, Alain

    Volcanoes are caused by the transport of magma batches from the Earth's crust to the surface. These magmas in motion undergo drastic changes of rheologic properties during their journey to the surface and this work explores how these changes affect volcanic eruptions. The first part of this study is devoted to the dynamic aspects of degassing and permeability in magmas with high pressure, high temperature experiments on natural volcanic rocks. Degassing is measured by the influence of decompression rate on the growth of the bubbles present in the magma while permeability is deduced from the temporal evolution of these bubbles. The parameterization of our results in a numerical model of volcanic conduit flow show that previous models based on equilibrium degassing overestimate the acceleration and the decompression rate of the magma. Assessing permeability effects derived form our results show that the transition between explosive and effusive eruptions is a strong function of the magma initial ascent rate. The second part of this work is a unification of two end-members of pyroclastic currents (highly concentrated pyroclastic flows and dilute, turbulent pyroclastic surges) using theoretical scaling arguments based on multiphase physics. Starting from the dynamics of the particle interactions with a fundamental eddy, we consider the full spectrum of eddies generated within a turbulent current. We demonstrate that the presence of particles with various sizes induces a density stratification of the current, leading to its segregation into a basal concentrated part overlain by a dilute cloud. To verify our predictions on the interactions of such a segregated pyroclastic current with its surroundings (hills and sea), we studied the products of the 2050 BP caldera-forming eruption of Okmok Volcano (Alaska). This field study allowed us to reconstruct the eruptive sequence and to validate the main aspects of our theoretical model, such as the superposition of a dense and

  15. Speleogenesis, geometry, and topology of caves: A quantitative study of 3D karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Arfib, Bruno; Baudement, Cécile; Camus, Hubert; Collon, Pauline; Guglielmi, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Karst systems are hierarchically spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) networks of conduits behaving as drains for groundwater flow. Recently, geostatistical approaches proposed to generate karst networks from data and parameters stemming from analogous observed karst features. Other studies have qualitatively highlighted relationships between speleogenetic processes and cave patterns. However, few studies have been performed to quantitatively define these relationships. This paper reports a quantitative study of cave geometries and topologies that takes the underlying speleogenetic processes into account. In order to study the spatial organization of caves, a 3D numerical database was built from 26 caves, corresponding to 621 km of cumulative cave passages representative of the variety of karst network patterns. The database includes 3D speleological surveys for which the speleogenetic context is known, allowing the polygenic karst networks to be divided into 48 monogenic cave samples and classified into four cave patterns: vadose branchwork (VB), water-table cave (WTC), looping cave (LC), and angular maze (AM). Eight morphometric cave descriptors were calculated, four geometrical parameters (width-height ratio, tortuosity, curvature, and vertical index) and four topological ones (degree of node connectivity, α and γ graph indices, and ramification index) respectively. The results were validated by statistical analyses (Kruskal-Wallis test and PCA). The VB patterns are clearly distinct from AM ones and from a third group including WTC and LC. A quantitative database of cave morphology characteristics is provided, depending on their speleogenetic processes. These characteristics can be used to constrain and/or validate 3D geostatistical simulations. This study shows how important it is to relate the geometry and connectivity of cave networks to recharge and flow processes. Conversely, the approach developed here provides proxies to estimate the evolution of

  16. The role of external drains and peritoneal conduits in the treatment of recurrent chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarius, Thomas; Qureshi, Hammad U; Sivakumaran, Ram; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Kirollos, Ramez W; Hutchinson, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    A considerable body of evidence supporting the use of external drainage after evacuation of primary chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) exists in the literature. However, no systematic study of the value of postoperative drainage in the treatment of recurrent CSDH has been published. The aim of the study was to investigate external drains and subdural-to-peritoneal conduit in the treatment of recurrent CSDH. A retrospective review of cases of CSDH treated in our institution between October 2002 and October 2006 was conducted. During the study period, 408 patients had burr hole evacuation. Sixty-four patients (15.9%) had treatment for recurrence. One patient had craniotomy, and the remaining 63 had another burr hole evacuation: 36 without placement of a drain (BHO), 14 with external drainage (SED), and 13 with placement of subdural-peritoneal catheter (SPC). Fifteen patients (24%) developed a secondary recurrence requiring a third drainage procedure. Postoperative drainage (SED or SPC) was associated with a significantly lower secondary recurrence rate when compared to BHO: 3/27 (11%) versus 12/36 (33%) (χ(2), P=.040). There was no significant difference in recurrence rates between SED and SPC. Postoperative complications included acute subdural hematoma (2), subdural empyema (2), brain edema (2), pneumonia (3), and in-hospital death (2). None of the complications was associated with the use of a specific technique. The results indicate that, as in the treatment of primary CSDHs, the use of drain (SED or SPC) with burr hole evacuation is safe and is associated with lower recurrence rate. Further investigation is needed to clarify the indications of currently available surgical techniques in the treatment of recurrent CSDH. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Karst Conduit Structure Parameters and Hydraulic Parameters Based on Tracer Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Z.; Zhiqiang, Z.; Xu, M.; Jinyu, S.; Jihong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Old Town of Lijiang is famous as the world cultural heritage since 1997, while characterized by its ancient buildings and natural scenery, water is the soul of the town. Around Heilongtan Springs, there are a large quantity of springs at the Old Town of Lijiang , which is an important part of the World Cultural Heritage. Heilongtan Springs is 2420m above the sea level, the annual variation of the flow rate varies greatly (0 8042 x 104 m3 / year). Recharge area Jiuzihai depressions is 6km long, 3km wide and 2800m above sea level, as main karst water recharge area karst funnel and the sink hole are developing on this planation surface, in the research area medium to thick layers of limestone made up Beiya formation (T2b) of Triassic system distributed widely, karst is strongly developed and the fissure caves water occurrence. In order to exploring the application of tracer test in karst hydrogeology, a tracer test was conducted from Jiuzihai depressions to Ganze Spring. Based on the hydrogeological conditions in the study area, tracer test was used for analysis of groundwater connectivity and flow field characteristics, quantitative analysis of Tracer Breakthrough Curves (BTC) with code Qtracer2. The results demonstated that there are hydraulic connection between Jiuzihai depressions with Ganze Spring, and there are other karst conduits in this area. The longitudinal dispersivity coefficient is 0.24 m2/s, longitudinal dispersivity is 12.06m, flow-channel volume is 3.08×104 m3, flow-channel surface area is 3.27×107m2, mean diameter is 1.42m, Reynolds number is 25187, Froude number is 0.0061, respectively. The groundwater in this area is in a slow turbulent state. The results are of great significance to understand the law of groundwater migration, establish groundwater quality prediction model and exploit karst water resources effectively.

  18. Dependence of the ac loss on the aspect ratio in a cable in conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, F; Bruzzone, P

    2010-01-01

    The coupling current loss in rectangular superconducting cables is strictly dependent on their aspect ratio, which has an impact on the area linked by the field variation and consequently on the currents induced between strands. The relation between the ac loss and aspect ratio is studied with reference to the testing of three short cable in conduit conductor (CICC) samples at the SULTAN test facility. The first conductor is a 25 kA NbTi cable for the JT60-SA tokamak; the second is a 20 kA Nb 3 Sn cable for the HZB hybrid magnet. The last CICC is a 68 kA Nb 3 Sn cable with layout similar to that of the ITER toroidal field (TF) conductor (called the 'European toroidal field (EUTF) alternate'). All the samples are assembled with two conductor sections differing only in their orientation with respect to the external variable field. In the first and third samples, the cable of one leg is rotated by 90 0 , while in the HZB sample it is rotated by 45 0 with respect to the other leg. The ac loss is measured at the SULTAN test facility using a gas flow calorimetric method. A sample length of 39 cm is exposed to a sinusoidal field with an amplitude of ± 0.3 or ± 0.2 T (depending on the superconductor) and frequency variable in the range 0.1-0.8 Hz. A background field of 2 T perpendicular both to the sinusoidal field and to the sample axis is also applied. The ac loss is assessed by measuring the variation of the He enthalpy, assuming the metal enthalpy to be negligible. The loss curve for both legs is discussed in terms of the respective aspect ratios and the results, including data from former test campaigns, are compared with the aim of finding an analytical relation between the loss and the conductor dimensions.

  19. Nanopatterned acellular valve conduits drive the commitment of blood-derived multipotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liddo R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Di Liddo,1,2 Paola Aguiari,3 Silvia Barbon,1,2 Thomas Bertalot,1 Amit Mandoli,1 Alessia Tasso,1 Sandra Schrenk,1 Laura Iop,3 Alessandro Gandaglia,3 Pier Paolo Parnigotto,2 Maria Teresa Conconi,1,2 Gino Gerosa31Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, 2Foundation for Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Signaling ONLUS, 3Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC on acellular aortic (AVL and pulmonary (PVL valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition. Isolated by our group from Vietnamese pigs before heart valve prosthetic implantation, porcine CMC revealed high proliferative abilities, three-lineage differentiative potential, and distinct hematopoietic/endothelial and mesenchymal properties. Their interaction with valve extracellular matrix nanostructures boosted differential messenger RNA expression pattern and morphologic features on AVL compared to PVL, while promoting on both matrices the commitment to valvular and endothelial cell-like phenotypes. Based on their origin from peripheral blood, porcine CMC are hypothesized in vivo to exert a pivotal role to homeostatically replenish valve cells and contribute to hetero- or allograft colonization. Furthermore, due to their high responsivity to extracellular matrix nanostructure signaling, porcine CMC could be useful for a preliminary

  20. Spatial resolution of transport parameters in a subtropical karst conduit system during dry and wet seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Anna; Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2018-04-01

    Karst aquifers are characterized by a high degree of hydrologic variability and spatial heterogeneity of transport parameters. Tracer tests allow the quantification of these parameters, but conventional point-to-point experiments fail to capture spatiotemporal variations of flow and transport. The goal of this study was to elucidate the spatial distribution of transport parameters in a karst conduit system at different flow conditions. Therefore, six tracer tests were conducted in an active and accessible cave system in Vietnam during dry and wet seasons. Injections and monitoring were done at five sites along the flow system: a swallow hole, two sites inside the cave, and two springs draining the system. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) were modeled with CXTFIT software using the one-dimensional advection-dispersion model and the two-region nonequilibrium model. In order to obtain transport parameters in the individual sections of the system, a multi-pulse injection approach was used, which was realized by using the BTCs from one section as input functions for the next section. Major findings include: (1) In the entire system, mean flow velocities increase from 183 to 1,043 m/h with increasing discharge, while (2) the proportion of immobile fluid regions decrease; (3) the lowest dispersivity was found at intermediate discharge; (4) in the individual cave sections, flow velocities decrease along the flow direction, related to decreasing gradients, while (5) dispersivity is highest in the middle section of the cave. The obtained results provide a valuable basis for the development of an adapted water management strategy for a projected water-supply system.

  1. Fibulin-4 is essential for maintaining arterial wall integrity in conduit but not muscular arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Carmen M; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Lin, Michelle; Lee, Vivian S; Chu, Mon-Li; Mecham, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in fibulin-4 ( FBLN4 ) lead to autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1B (ARCL1B), a multisystem disorder characterized by significant cardiovascular abnormalities, including abnormal elastin assembly, arterial tortuosity, and aortic aneurysms. We sought to determine the consequences of a human disease-causing mutation in FBLN4 (E57K) on the cardiovascular system and vascular elastic fibers in a mouse model of ARCL1B. Fbln4 E57K/E57K mice were hypertensive and developed arterial elongation, tortuosity, and ascending aortic aneurysms. Smooth muscle cell organization within the arterial wall of large conducting vessels was abnormal, and elastic fibers were fragmented and had a moth-eaten appearance. In contrast, vessel wall structure and elastic fiber integrity were normal in resistance/muscular arteries (renal, mesenteric, and saphenous). Elastin cross-linking and total elastin content were unchanged in large or small arteries, whereas elastic fiber architecture was abnormal in large vessels. While the E57K mutation did not affect Fbln4 mRNA levels, FBLN4 protein was lower in the ascending aorta of mutant animals compared to wild-type arteries but equivalent in mesenteric arteries. We found a differential role of FBLN4 in elastic fiber assembly, where it functions mainly in large conduit arteries. These results suggest that elastin assembly has different requirements depending on vessel type. Normal levels of elastin cross-links in mutant tissue call into question FBLN4's suggested role in mediating lysyl oxidase-elastin interactions. Future studies investigating tissue-specific elastic fiber assembly may lead to novel therapeutic interventions for ARCL1B and other disorders of elastic fiber assembly.

  2. Experimental and theoretical fracture mechanics applied to volcanic conduits and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, P.; Matthews, C.; Kilburn, C.; Smith, R.; Tuffen, H.; Meredith, P.

    2008-12-01

    We present an integrated modelling and experimental approach to magma deformation and fracture, which we attempt to validate against field observations of seismicity. The importance of fracture processes in magma ascent dynamics and lava dome growth and collapse are apparent from the associated seismicity. Our laboratory experiments have shown that brittle fracture of magma can occur at high temperature and stress conditions prevalent in the shallow volcanic system. Here, we use a fracture mechanics approach to model seismicity preceding volcanic eruptions. Starting with the fracture mechanics concept of a crack in an elastic body, we model crack growth around the volcanic conduit through the processes of crack interactions, leading either to the propagation and linkage of cracks, or crack avoidance and the inhibition of crack propagation. The nature of that interaction is governed by the temperature and plasticity of the magma. We find that fracture mechanics rules can account for the style of seismicity preceding eruptions. We have derived the changes in seismic b-value predicted by the model and interpret these in terms of the style of fracturing, fluid flow and heat transport. We compare our model with results from our laboratory experiments where we have deformed lava at high temperatures under triaxial stresses. These experiments were conducted in dry and water saturated conditions at effective pressures up to 10 MPa, temperatures up to 1000°C and strain rates from 10-4 s-1 to 10-6 s-1. The behaviour of these magmas was largely brittle under these conditions. We monitored the acoustic emission emitted and calculate the change in micro-seismic b-value with deformation. These we find are in accord with volcano seismicity and our fracture mechanics model.

  3. Time scales of foam stability in shallow conduits: Insights from analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Cimarelli, C.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-10-01

    Volcanic systems can exhibit periodical trends in degassing activity, characterized by a wide range of time scales. Understanding the dynamics that control such periodic behavior can provide a picture of the processes occurring in the feeding system. Toward this end, we analyzed the periodicity of outgassing in a series of decompression experiments performed on analogue material (argon-saturated silicone oil plus glass beads/fibers) scaled to serve as models of basaltic magma. To define the effects of liquid viscosity and crystal content on the time scale of outgassing, we investigated both: (1) pure liquid systems, at differing viscosities (100 and 1000 Pa s), and (2) particle-bearing suspensions (diluted and semidiluted). The results indicate that under dynamic conditions (e.g., decompressive bubble growth and fluid ascent within the conduit), the periodicity of foam disruption may be up to several orders of magnitude less than estimates based on the analysis of static conditions. This difference in foam disruption time scale is inferred to result from the contribution of bubble shear and bubble growth to inter-bubble film thinning. The presence of particles in the semidiluted regime is further linked to shorter bubble bursting times, likely resulting from contributions of the presence of a solid network and coalescence processes to the relative increase in bubble breakup rates. Finally, it is argued that these experiments represent a good analogue of gas-piston activity (i.e., the periodical rise-and-fall of a basaltic lava lake surface), implying a dominant role for shallow foam accumulation as a source process for these phenomena.

  4. Biomechanical Effects of Prefabricated Foot Orthoses and Rocker‐Sole Footwear in Individuals With First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M.; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker‐sole footwear on spatiotemporal parameters, hip and knee kinematics, and plantar pressures in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. A total of 102 people with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker‐sole footwear. The immediate biomechanical effects of the interventions (compared to usual footwear) were examined using a wearable sensor motion analysis system and an in‐shoe plantar pressure measurement system. Results Spatiotemporal/kinematic and plantar pressure data were available from 88 and 87 participants, respectively. The orthoses had minimal effect on spatiotemporal or kinematic parameters, while the rocker‐sole footwear resulted in reduced cadence, percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance phase, and sagittal plane hip range of motion. The orthoses increased peak pressure under the midfoot and lesser toes. Both interventions significantly reduced peak pressure under the first MTP joint, and the rocker‐sole shoes also reduced peak pressure under the second through fifth MTP joints and heel. When the effects of the orthoses and rocker‐sole shoes were directly compared, there was no difference in peak pressure under the hallux, first MTP joint, or heel; however, the rocker‐sole shoes exhibited lower peak pressure under the lesser toes, second through fifth MTP joints, and midfoot. Conclusion Prefabricated foot orthoses and rocker‐sole footwear are effective at reducing peak pressure under the first MTP joint in people with first MTP joint OA, but achieve this through different mechanisms. Further research is required to determine whether these biomechanical changes result in improvements in symptoms. PMID:26640157

  5. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed

  6. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. The Malnutrition-Related Increase in Early Visceralization of Leishmania donovani Is Associated with a Reduced Number of Lymph Node Phagocytes and Altered Conduit System Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Jimenez, Fabio; Travi, Bruno L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Osorio, E. Yaneth; Ahuja, Seema S.; Melby, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    In a murine model of moderate childhood malnutrition we found that polynutrient deficiency led to a 4–5-fold increase in early visceralization of L. donovani (3 days post-infection) following cutaneous infection and a 16-fold decrease in lymph node barrier function (pmalnutrition-related parasite dissemination we analyzed the cellularity, architecture, and function of the skin-draining lymph node. There was no difference in the localization of multiple cell populations in the lymph node of polynutrient deficient (PND) mice, but there was reduced cellularity with fewer CD11c+dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2+ macrophages, and CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice. The parasites were equally co-localized with DCs associated with the lymph node conduit network in the WN and PND mice, and were found in the high endothelial venule into which the conduits drain. When a fluorescent low molecular weight (10 kD) dextran was delivered in the skin, there was greater efflux of the marker from the lymph node conduit system to the spleens of PND mice (p<0.04), indicating that flow through the conduit system was altered. There was no evidence of disruption of the conduit or subcapsular sinus architecture, indicating that the movement of parasites into the subcortical conduit region was due to an active process and not from passive movement through a leaking barrier. These results indicate that the impaired capacity of the lymph node to act as a barrier to dissemination of L. donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system. PMID:23967356

  8. Characterization and Schwann Cell Seeding of up to 15.0 cm Long Spider Silk Nerve Conduits for Reconstruction of Peripheral Nerve Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kornfeld

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nerve reconstruction of extended nerve defect injuries still remains challenging with respect to therapeutic options. The gold standard in nerve surgery is the autologous nerve graft. Due to the limitation of adequate donor nerves, surgical alternatives are needed. Nerve grafts made out of either natural or artificial materials represent this alternative. Several biomaterials are being explored and preclinical and clinical applications are ongoing. Unfortunately, nerve conduits with successful enhancement of axonal regeneration for nerve defects measuring over 4.0 cm are sparse and no conduits are available for nerve defects extending to 10.0 cm. In this study, spider silk nerve conduits seeded with Schwann cells were investigated for in vitro regeneration on defects measuring 4.0 cm, 10.0 cm and 15.0 cm in length. Schwann cells (SCs were isolated, cultured and purified. Cell purity was determined by immunofluorescence. Nerve grafts were constructed out of spider silk from Nephila edulis and decellularized ovine vessels. Finally, spider silk implants were seeded with purified Schwann cells. Cell attachment was observed within the first hour. After 7 and 21 days of culture, immunofluorescence for viability and determination of Schwann cell proliferation and migration throughout the conduits was performed. Analyses revealed that SCs maintained viable (>95% throughout the conduits independent of construct length. SC proliferation on the spider silk was determined from day 7 to day 21 with a proliferation index of 49.42% arithmetically averaged over all conduits. This indicates that spider silk nerve conduits represent a favorable environment for SC attachment, proliferation and distribution over a distance of least 15.0 cm in vitro. Thus spider silk nerve implants are a highly adequate biomaterial for nerve reconstruction.

  9. Sciatic nerve regeneration by transplantation of Schwann cells via erythropoietin controlled-releasing polylactic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/gelatin nanofibrils neural guidance conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Majid; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Nourani, Mohammdreza; Khojasteh, Arash; Hamidieh, Amir-Ali; Amani, Amir; Farzamfar, Saeed; Ai, Jafar

    2018-05-01

    The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using an electrically conductive biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit for transplantation of allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was produced from polylactic acid (PLA), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) coated with the recombinant human erythropoietin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (rhEpo-CNPs). The PLA/MWCNTs/GNFs/rhEpo-CNPs conduit had the porosity of 85.78 ± 0.70%, the contact angle of 77.65 ± 1.91° and the ultimate tensile strength and compressive modulus of 5.51 ± 0.13 MPa and 2.66 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively. The conduit showed the electrical conductivity of 0.32 S cm -1 and lost about 11% of its weight after 60 days in normal saline. The produced conduit was able to release the rhEpo for at least 2 weeks and exhibited favorable cytocompatibility towards SCs. For functional analysis, the conduit was seeded with 1.5 × 10 4 SCs and implanted into a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect of Wistar rat. After 14 weeks, the results of sciatic functional index, hot plate latency, compound muscle action potential amplitude, weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle and Histopathological examination using hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated that the produced conduit had comparable nerve regeneration to the autograft, as the gold standard to bridge the nerve gaps. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1463-1476, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit instead of modified Blalock-Taussig shunt improves postoperative hemodynamics in newborns after the Norwood operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Rudolf; Tulzer, Gerald; Sames, Eva; Gitter, Roland; Lechner, Evelyn; Steiner, Jürgen; Hofer, Anna; Geiselseder, Gertraud; Gross, Christoph

    2003-11-01

    Perioperative mortality, prolonged postoperative recovery after the Norwood procedure, and mortality between stage I and stage II might be related to shunt physiology. A right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit offers a banded physiology in contrast to a Blalock-Taussig shunt. The purpose of this study was to assess the hemodynamic differences and their consequences in the postoperative course between Norwood patients with a Blalock-Taussig shunt and those with a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit. From October 1999 until May 2002, 32 unselected consecutive patients underwent a Norwood procedure at the General Hospital Linz. The first 18 patients received a Blalock-Taussig shunt. In the remaining 14 patients we performed a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit. Both groups were compared. The diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit group (P <.001). Despite a higher FIO(2), PO(2) levels tended to be lower in the first 5 postoperative days. At the age of 3 months, catheterization laboratory data showed a lower Qp/Qs ratio in the same group (0.86 [0.78; 1] versus 1.55 [1.15; 1.6]; P =.005) and a higher dp/dt (955 [773; 1110] vs 776 [615; 907]; P =.018). (Descriptive data reflect medians and quartiles [in brackets].) Hospital survival was 72% in the Blalock-Taussig shunt group versus 93% in the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit group. Mortality between stage I and stage II was 23% in the Blalock-Taussig shunt group versus 0% in the right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit group. A higher diastolic blood pressure and a lower Qp/Qs ratio were associated with a more stable and efficient circulation in patients with a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit. More intensive ventilatory support was necessary during the first postoperative days. We did not note any adverse effects of the ventriculotomy on ventricular performance.

  11. Formation of obsidian pyroclasts by sintering of ash particles in the volcanic conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E.; Llewellin, Edward W.; Watkins, James M.; Befus, Kenneth S.

    2017-02-01

    The ranges in intensity and style of volcanic eruptions, from highly explosive Plinian eruptions to quiescent lava extrusions, depend on the style and efficiency of gas loss from ascending magma. Obsidian pyroclasts - small, glassy pieces of quenched magma found in some volcanic tephra beds - may preserve valuable information about magma degassing in their vesicle textures and volatile contents. Accurate interpretation of their textures and volatiles, however, requires understanding the mechanism of formation of the pyroclasts. Obsidian pyroclasts from the ca. 1325-1350 C.E. North Mono eruption of Mono Craters (CA, USA) were analyzed and found to have H2O and CO2 contents indicating that they were formed at pressures in the approximate range of 3-40 MPa. Many also contain domains with differing vesicle textures, separated by boundaries containing xenocrystic material, indicating that they are composed of smaller fragments that have sutured together. More than half of the pyroclasts analyzed contained small (∼10 μm), highly distorted vesicles, with multi-cuspate morphology, interpreted as the remnants of interstitial gas trapped amongst sintered fragments of melt/glass. Rounded vesicles are also common and are interpreted to result from surface tension-driven relaxation of the distorted vesicles. Calculated timescales of sintering and relaxation are consistent with timescales for pyroclast formation indicated by H2O re-equilibration within the heterogeneous pyroclasts. This sintering model for the origin of obsidian pyroclasts is further supported by the observation that spherical vesicles are found mainly in H2O-rich pyroclasts, and distorted vesicles mainly in H2O-poor pyroclasts. We conclude that obsidian pyroclasts generated during the North Mono eruption were formed by cycles of fragmentation, sintering/suturing, and relaxation, over a very wide range of depths within the conduit; we find no evidence to support pumice (foam) collapse as the formation

  12. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  13. The QBO as potential amplifier and conduit to lower altitudes of solar cycle influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Mayr

    2007-06-01

    tapping the momentum from the upward propagating gravity waves. Influenced and amplified by wave processes, the QBO thus acts as conduit to transfer to lower altitudes the larger SC variations in the UV absorbed in the mesosphere. Our model produces in the temperature variations of the QBO and EAO measurable SC modulations at polar latitudes near the tropopause. The effects are apparently generated by the meridional circulation, and planetary waves presumably, which redistribute the energy from the equatorial region where the waves are very effective in amplifying the SC influence.

  14. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    results of its deployment at Blood Falls. In contrast to conventional melting-probe applications, which can only melt vertically, the IceMole realized an oblique melting path to penetrate the englacial conduit. Experimental and numerical results on melting at oblique angles are rare. Besides reporting on the IceMole technology and the field deployment itself, we will compare and discuss the observed melting behavior with re-analysis results in the context of a recently developed numerical model. Finally, we will present our first steps in utilizing the model to infer on the ambient cryo-environment.

  15. Assessment of self-organizing maps to analyze sole-carbon source utilization profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflaive, Joséphine; Céréghino, Régis; Danger, Michaël; Lacroix, Gérard; Ten-Hage, Loïc

    2005-07-01

    The use of community-level physiological profiles obtained with Biolog microplates is widely employed to consider the functional diversity of bacterial communities. Biolog produces a great amount of data which analysis has been the subject of many studies. In most cases, after some transformations, these data were investigated with classical multivariate analyses. Here we provided an alternative to this method, that is the use of an artificial intelligence technique, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM, unsupervised neural network). We used data from a microcosm study of algae-associated bacterial communities placed in various nutritive conditions. Analyses were carried out on the net absorbances at two incubation times for each substrates and on the chemical guild categorization of the total bacterial activity. Compared to Principal Components Analysis and cluster analysis, SOM appeared as a valuable tool for community classification, and to establish clear relationships between clusters of bacterial communities and sole-carbon sources utilization. Specifically, SOM offered a clear bidimensional projection of a relatively large volume of data and were easier to interpret than plots commonly obtained with multivariate analyses. They would be recommended to pattern the temporal evolution of communities' functional diversity.

  16. Proximal weakness of lower limbs as the sole presentation of hyperthyroidism: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chin; Chiu, Pao-Chin; Shih, Chen-Houng; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Most children with acute or chronic flaccid limb weakness have a disorder of motor unit. However, it is very important to exclude cerebral or other upper motor neuron disorders before we approach such patients as pure muscle disorders. In general, neuropathy results in distal limb weakness, myopathy manifests with proximal weakness. There are exceptions, however. Accurate diagnosis in this wide array of disorders is dependent on a careful clinical assessment followed by the appropriate investigations. Here we report a 14-year-old girl who presented with progressive difficulty in rising up from the floor for one month. Neurological examination revealed an obese, clumsy but clear girl with stable vital signs. The muscle power of neck and upper limbs was normal. There was positive Gower sign, but the toe and heel gaits were acceptable. The initial blood work and motor/sensory nerve conduction velocity were unremarkable. Further study for thyroid function showed a hyperthyroid state. The proximal myopathy recovered soon after medical treatment. There were no other symptoms, and signs indicating hyperthyroidism and proximal myopathy of lower limbs was the isolated clinical feature. Hyperthyroid myopathy is common in hyperthyroidism, but is unusual as the sole presenting symptom.

  17. Extended adjuvant intermittent letrozole versus continuous letrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer (SOLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Marco; Luo, Weixiu; Karlsson, Per

    2018-01-01

    of letrozole in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We did the multicentre, open-label, randomised, parallel, phase 3 SOLE trial in 240 centres (academic, primary, secondary, and tertiary care centres) in 22 countries. We enrolled postmenopausal women of any age with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node......-positive, and operable breast cancer for which they had undergone local treatment (surgery with or without radiotherapy) and had completed 4-6 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. They had to be clinically free of breast cancer at enrolment and without evidence of recurrent disease at any time before randomisation. We...... randomly assigned women (1:1) to treatment groups of either continuous use of letrozole (2·5 mg/day orally for 5 years) or intermittent use of letrozole (2·5 mg/day orally for 9 months followed by a 3-month break in years 1-4 and then 2·5 mg/day during all 12 months of year 5). Randomisation was done...

  18. Reduced plantar sole sensitivity facilitates early adaptation to a visual rotation pointing task when standing upright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Billot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans are capable of pointing to a target with accuracy. However, when vision is distorted through a visual rotation or mirror-reversed vision, the performance is initially degraded and thereafter improves with practice. There are suggestions this gradual improvement results from a sensorimotor recalibration involving initial gating of the somatosensory information from the pointing hand. In the present experiment, we examined if this process interfered with balance control by asking participants to point to targets with a visual rotation from a standing posture. This duality in processing sensory information (i.e., gating sensory signals from the hand while processing those arising from the control of balance could generate initial interference leading to a degraded pointing performance. We hypothesized that if this is the case, the attenuation of plantar sole somatosensory information through cooling could reduce the sensorimotor interference, and facilitate the early adaptation (i.e. improvement in the pointing task. Results supported this hypothesis. These observations suggest that processing sensory information for balance control interferes with the sensorimotor recalibration process imposed by a pointing task when vision is rotated.

  19. Pancreatic Tail Cancer with Sole Manifestation of Left Flank Pain: A Very Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Lin Lin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a “silent disease” because it often causes no symptoms in the early stage. The symptoms can be quite vague and various depending on the location of cancer in the pancreas. The anatomic site distribution is 78% in the head of the pancreas, 11% in the body, and 11% in the tail. Pancreatic cancer is rarely detected in the early stage, and it is very uncommon to diagnose pancreatic tail cancer during an emergency department visit. The manifestation of pancreatic tail cancer as left flank pain is very rare and has seldom been identified in the literature. We present a case of pancreatic tail cancer with the sole manifestation of dull left flank pain. Having negative findings on an ultrasound study initially, this female patient was misdiagnosed as having possible acute gastritis, urolithiasis or muscle strain after she received gastroendoscopy and colonofiberscopy. Her symptoms persisted for several months and she visited our emergency department due to an acute exacerbation of a persistent dull pain in the left flank area. Radiographic evaluation with computed tomography was performed, and pancreatic tail tumor with multiple metastases was found unexpectedly. We review the literature and discuss this rare presentation of pancreatic tail cancer.

  20. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, Olivier; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  1. The individual tolerance concept is not the sole explanation for the probit dose-effect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.C.; McCloskey, J.T.

    2000-02-01

    Predominant methods for analyzing dose- or concentration-effect data (i.e., probit analysis) are based on the concept of individual tolerance or individual effective dose (IED, the smallest characteristic dose needed to kill an individual). An alternative explanation (stochasticity hypothesis) is that individuals do not have unique tolerances: death results from stochastic processes occurring similarly in all individuals. These opposing hypotheses were tested with two types of experiments. First, time to stupefaction (TTS) was measured for zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) exposed to benzocaine. The same 40 fish were exposed during five trials to test if the same order for TTS was maintained among trials. The IED hypothesis was supported with a minor stochastic component being present. Second, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to sublethal or lethal NaCl concentrations until a large portion of the lethally exposed fish died. After sufficient time for recovery, fish sublethally exposed and fish surviving lethal exposure were exposed simultaneously to lethal NaCl concentrations. No statistically significant effect was found of previous exposure on survival time but a large stochastic component to the survival dynamics was obvious. Repetition of this second type of test with pentachlorophenol also provided no support for the IED hypothesis. The authors conclude that neither hypothesis alone was the sole or dominant explanation for the lognormal (probit) model. Determination of the correct explanation (IED or stochastic) or the relative contributions of each is crucial to predicting consequences to populations after repeated or chronic exposures to any particular toxicant.

  2. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers: Is rationalization the sole objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MASSOL, Olivier; TCHUNG-MING, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between 12 countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and belonging to the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study is more specifically focused on a scenario often raised: that of the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. As this is a standard transportation problem, we first assess the gains that may result from this cooperative approach using a simple static model calibrated on the year 2007. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - the per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements: core belonging and mono-tonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, coordination costs are considered and we determine the maximum amount that can be tolerated by such a cooperation. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (authors)

  3. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  4. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  5. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as a Sole Agent Is Not Immunosuppressant in a Highly Immunogenic Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gassas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy, which is used for many conditions, may also have immunosuppressive effects and could be used for prevention or treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. If HBO is immunosuppressant, then we hypothesize that HBO therapy will delay the T-cell mediated skin graft rejection. Methods. C57/BL6 black-coated (H2B mice received skin graft from CBA (H2D white-coated mice. Mice were treated with either 19 session of 240 kpa oxygen or 29 session of 300 kpa oxygen, for 90 minutes. Mice were housed either 4 per cage or separately, to prevent friction and mechanical factors that may affect graft survival. Skin grafts were assessed daily. Results. There was no difference in length of graft survival between mice that received either regimens of HBO therapy and mice that did not receive HBO therapy. Conclusions. HBO therapy, as a sole agent, did not delay skin graft rejection in a highly immunogenic mouse model.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen as sole treatment for severe radiation - induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios, E-mail: aedellis@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieion Academic Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papatsoris, Athanasios; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Department of Urology, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios [Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary and sole treatment for severe radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as primary treatment in 38 patients with severe radiation cystitis. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment, while the secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications with a mean follow-up of 29.33 months. Median number of sessions needed was 33. Complete and partial response rate was 86.8% and 13.2%, respectively. All 33 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset. One patient needed cystectomy, while 33 patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Our study suggests the early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen for radiation-induced severe cystitis as an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  7. Cooperation among liquefied natural gas suppliers. Is rationalization the sole objective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, Olivier [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, F-92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Tchung-Ming, Stephane [Economic Studies Division, IFP, 1-4 av. de Bois-Preau, F-92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); CREDEN, Universite Montpellier I, Av. de la mer, BP 9606, F-34054, Montpellier (France)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines the development of cooperative strategies between countries exporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). This economic study focuses specifically on an often-raised scenario: the emergence of a cooperative approach designed with the sole aim of logistic rationalization, and which would not have any effect on LNG prices. We first assess the annual gains that may result from this market-power-free cooperative approach using a simple static transportation model. The numerical results obtained suggest that, in the absence of a gain redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy will probably not be adopted because cooperation would not be a rational move for some exporters. The problem of gain sharing is then formulated using cooperative game theory concepts. Several gain-sharing methods have been studied, including the Shapley value and various nucleolus-inspired concepts. Our results suggest that the choice of a redistribution policy appears relatively restricted. Out of the methods studied, only one - per capita nucleolus - satisfies two key requirements. core belonging and monotonicity (in the aggregate). Lastly, we look at how cooperation may give rise to a coordination cost and try to determine the maximum amount of this cost. In view of the low level of this amount and the relative complexity of the sharing method implemented, we consider that the credibility of a logistic cooperation scenario exempt from market power should be reappraised. (author)

  8. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Anderson, J. P.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C.; Bolt, L.; Burns, C. R.; Folatelli, G.; Freedman, W. L.; Krisciunas, K.; Krzeminski, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data

  9. Continuous operation of an ultra-low-power microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inyoung; Sode, Takashi; Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Lowe, Christopher Robin; Sode, Koji

    2017-07-15

    An ultimate goal for those engaged in research to develop implantable medical devices is to develop mechatronic implantable artificial organs such as artificial pancreas. Such devices would comprise at least a sensor module, an actuator module, and a controller module. For the development of optimal mechatronic implantable artificial organs, these modules should be self-powered and autonomously operated. In this study, we aimed to develop a microcontroller using the BioCapacitor principle. A direct electron transfer type glucose dehydrogenase was immobilized onto mesoporous carbon, and then deposited on the surface of a miniaturized Au electrode (7mm 2 ) to prepare a miniaturized enzyme anode. The enzyme fuel cell was connected with a 100 μF capacitor and a power boost converter as a charge pump. The voltage of the enzyme fuel cell was increased in a stepwise manner by the charge pump from 330mV to 3.1V, and the generated electricity was charged into a 100μF capacitor. The charge pump circuit was connected to an ultra-low-power microcontroller. Thus prepared BioCapacitor based circuit was able to operate an ultra-low-power microcontroller continuously, by running a program for 17h that turned on an LED every 60s. Our success in operating a microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source indicated the probability of realizing implantable self-powered autonomously operated artificial organs, such as artificial pancreas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore not solely due to micropapillary subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulin, J H; Aizhen, J; Kuo, S M; Tan, W B; Ngiam, K Y; Parameswaran, R

    2018-04-01

    Introduction The annual incidence of thyroid cancer is known to vary with geographic area, age and gender. The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been attributed to increase in detection of micropapillary subtype, among other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore, an iodine-sufficient area. Materials and methods Data retrieved from the Singapore National Cancer Registry on all thyroid cancers that were diagnosed from 1974 to 2013 were reviewed. We studied the time trends of thyroid cancer based on gender, race, pathology and treatment modalities where available. Results The age-standardised incidence rate of thyroid cancer increased to 5.6/100,000 in 2013 from 2.5/100,000 in 1974. Thyroid cancer appeared to be more common in women, with a higher incidence in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians. Papillary carcinoma is the most common subtype. The percentage of papillary microcarcinoma has remained relatively stable at around 38% of all papillary cancers between 2007 and 2013. Although the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased since 1974, the mortality rate has remained stable. Conclusion This trend of increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in Singapore compares with other published series; however, the rise seen was not solely due to micropapillary type. Thyroid cancer was also more common in Chinese and Malays compared with Indians for reasons that needs to be studied further.

  11. Power flow control based solely on slow feedback loop for heart pump applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bob; Hu, Aiguo Patrick; Budgett, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for regulating power flow via transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) for implantable heart pumps. Previous work on power flow controller requires a fast feedback loop that needs additional switching devices and resonant capacitors to be added to the primary converter. The proposed power flow controller eliminates these additional components, and it relies solely on a slow feedback loop to directly drive the primary converter to meet the heart pump power demand and ensure zero voltage switching. A controlled change in switching frequency varies the resonant tank shorting period of a current-fed push-pull resonant converter, thus changing the magnitude of the primary resonant voltage, as well as the tuning between primary and secondary resonant tanks. The proposed controller has been implemented successfully using an analogue circuit and has reached an end-to-end power efficiency of 79.6% at 10 W with a switching frequency regulation range of 149.3 kHz to 182.2 kHz.

  12. A HUBBLE DIAGRAM FROM TYPE II SUPERNOVAE BASED SOLELY ON PHOTOMETRY: THE PHOTOMETRIC COLOR METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jaeger, T.; González-Gaitán, S.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kuncarayakti, H. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, J. P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, A.; Castellón, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D.; Contreras, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bolt, L. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Burns, C. R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Folatelli, G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Freedman, W. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Krisciunas, K. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, W., E-mail: dthomas@das.uchile.cl [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present a Hubble diagram of SNe II using corrected magnitudes derived only from photometry, with no input of spectral information. We use a data set from the Carnegie Supernovae Project I for which optical and near-infrared light curves were obtained. The apparent magnitude is corrected by two observables, one corresponding to the slope of the plateau in the V band and the second a color term. We obtain a dispersion of 0.44 mag using a combination of the (V − i) color and the r band and we are able to reduce the dispersion to 0.39 mag using our golden sample. A comparison of our photometric color method (PCM) with the standardized candle method (SCM) is also performed. The dispersion obtained for the SCM (which uses both photometric and spectroscopic information) is 0.29 mag, which compares with 0.43 mag from the PCM for the same SN sample. The construction of a photometric Hubble diagram is of high importance in the coming era of large photometric wide-field surveys, which will increase the detection rate of supernovae by orders of magnitude. Such numbers will prohibit spectroscopic follow up in the vast majority of cases, and hence methods must be deployed which can proceed using solely photometric data.

  13. Ultrasound Examination Through The Sole Horn On A Weight‐Bearing Claw: Pilot In‐Vitro Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    of a 700 kg heavy Holstein cow The correlation between the thickness of the soft tissue measured with the two different methods was 0.91 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Figure 1). Discussion The bottom of the tub could carry the weight of a 700 kg cow. It was possible to scan through the sole horn......Introduction A decrease of the soft tissue thickness in the claw increases the pressure on the corium from the pedal bone and may lead to injuries and claw horn lesions (Ossent & Lischer 1998, Tarlton, et al. 2002). Ultrasonography has been described as a useful method to exam the soft tissue...... the sole horn and through the polyethylene plate respectively had an acceptable correlation. Acknowledgements Thanks to Mogens Nielsen Kreaturslagteri A/S for providing slaughter house legs. References Kofler J, Kubber P, and Henninger W 1999 Ultrasonographic imaging and thickness measurement of the sole...

  14. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  15. A pilot muon radiography to image the shallow conduit of the Stromboli volcano: results and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Seigo; Tioukov, Valeri; Sirignano, Chiara; Bozza, Cristiano; Morishima, Kunihiro

    2017-04-01

    The test result of imaging the shallow part of the Stromboli crater zone by using cosmic-ray muons in 2012 and possible performance of the future muon observation will be presented. It is well known that the behavior of volcanic eruptions strongly depends on the shape of the conduit. Stromboli is one of the most known and studied active volcanoes in the world, nevertheless the details of its internal structure are not well defined yet. Geophysical exploration method which use high energy cosmic-ray muons and makes the density image of the object like X-ray radiography for the human body is called "muon radiography " or "muography". A pilot muography was done for the shallow part of Stromboli in 2012. We succeeded to clarify that there is a less density part at the North-East cone in the crater zone. It is considered that the stack of volcanic ashes. On the other hand, we also confirmed that the contamination of the physical background particles and they makes the noisy density image especially about 50 meter below from the top of the crater. In another observation, Nishiyama et al (2014) revealed the contents of background particles and the way to remove them were presented. They showed that the main contents of the background particles is low kinetic energy charged particles and also showed that it is possible to remove them by using multi-layerd muon film detector. We can plan the future muography observation to see the deeper part of the conduit( at least until 100 meter from the top of crater) by their backgroundless method. Therefore we estimated possible performance of the future observation by multi-layer muon films. The result suggests that we might get the image of shallow conduit from the surface to the depth of e.g. 55 meter with 20 meter spatial resolution or 100 meter with 27 meter resolution in case the density in the conduit is 0.0 g/cm3 and with 71 percent statistical confidence level.

  16. A genetic linkage map of sole (Solea solea: a tool for evolutionary and comparative analyses of exploited (flatfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Diopere

    Full Text Available Linkage maps based on markers derived from genes are essential evolutionary tools for commercial marine fish to help identify genomic regions associated with complex traits and subject to selective forces at play during exploitation or selective breeding. Additionally, they allow the use of genomic information from other related species for which more detailed information is available. Sole (solea solea L. is a commercially important flatfish species in the North Sea, subject to overexploitation and showing evidence of fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in growth- and maturation-related traits. Sole would definitely benefit from a linkage map to better understand how evolution has shaped its genome structure. This study presents a linkage map of sole based on 423 single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from expressed sequence tags and 8 neutral microsatellite markers. The total map length is 1233.8 cM and consists of 38 linkage groups with a size varying between 0 to 92.1 cM. Being derived from expressed sequence tags allowed us to align the map with the genome of four model fish species, namely medaka (Oryzias latipes, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and green spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis. This comparison revealed multiple conserved syntenic regions with all four species, and suggested that the linkage groups represent 21 putative sole chromosomes. The map was also compared to the linkage map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, another commercially important flatfish species and closely related to sole. For all putative sole chromosomes (except one a turbot homolog was detected, confirming the even higher degree of synteny between these two flatfish species.

  17. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Onuma, F; Kimpara, N; Nakahara, T

    1995-06-01

    Various soil samples were screened for the presence of microorganisms which have the ability to degrade polyurethane compounds. Two strains with good polyurethane degrading activity were isolated. The more active strain was tentatively identified as Comamonas acidovorans. This strain could utilize polyester-type polyurethanes but not the polyether-type polyurethanes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Adipic acid and diethylene glycol were probably the main degradation products when polyurethane was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. When ammonium nitrate was used as nitrogen source, only diethylene glycol was detected after growth on polyurethane.

  19. Mechanisms of friction and assessment of slip resistance of new and used footwear soles on contaminated floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Raoul

    1995-02-01

    The great number of slipping accidents indicates that footwear providing good slip resistance must be rare. Slip resistance seems to be a purely physical phenomenon, however, more knowledge of the mechanisms of friction is needed to develop slip-resistant footwear and to ensure safer walking in slippery conditions. In the present study the influence of the normal wear of shoe heels and soles on their frictional properties was clarified. The slip resistance of three types of new and used safety shoes on four relatively slippery floor-contaminant combinations, was assessed with a prototype apparatus, which simulates the movements of a human foot and the forces applied to the underfoot surface during an actual slip. The used shoes were collected from 27 workers in a shipbuilding company and classified by sight into four wear classes: Good, satisfactory, poor, and worn-out. The assessed shoe heels and soles were in general more slippery when new compared to used heels and soles. However, footwear must be discarded before the tread pattern is worn-out. Used microcellular polyurethane (PU) heels and soles gave a considerably higher coefficient of kinetic friction (μ k ) on contaminated floors than used heels and soles made of compact nitrile (NR) and compact styrene rubber (SR). The heel-slide coefficient of kinetic friction (μ kl ) for used versus new shoes was on average 66% higher for PU (0·216 versus 0·130), 27% higher for SR (0·143 versus 0·113), and 7% lower for NR (0·098 versus 0·105). The fundamental mechanisms of friction between shoe soles and contaminated floors were also discussed, and experiments with seven slabs of sole materials were carried out to assess contact pressure effects from the viewpoint of slipping. Slip resistance particularly seemed to depend on the squeeze film and the contact pressure effects between the soling materials and the floor. An increasing contact pressure dramatically reduced the μ k , thus indicating that the slip

  20. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 201 0 C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl 2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO 3 solutions at 100 to 300 0 C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  1. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lihua [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Hubei University of Arts and Sciences, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine [Ingénierie Moléculaire et Physiopathologie Articulaire (IMoPA), UMR 7365 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, Biopôle, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Yun, E-mail: yunchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  2. Aqueous shunt implantation in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous shunts or glaucoma drainage devices are increasingly utilized in the management of refractory glaucoma. The general design of the most commonly-used shunts is based on the principles of the Molteno implant: ie. a permanent sclerostomy (tube, a predetermined bleb area (plate and diversion of aqueous humour to the equatorial region and away from the limbal subconjunctival space. These three factors make aqueous shunts more resistant to scarring as compared to trabeculectomy. The two most commonly used shunts are the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, which contains a flow-restrictor, and the non-valved Baervedlt Glaucoma Implant. While the valved implants have a lower tendency to hypotony and related complications, the non-valved implants with larger, more-biocompatible end plate design, achieve lower intraocular pressures with less encapsulation. Non-valved implants require additional suturing techniques to prevent early hypotony and a number of these methods will be described. Although serious shunt-related infection is rare, corneal decompensation and diplopia are small but significant risks.

  3. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiro eKakinoki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG30 that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73 was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 inner layer.

  4. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Nakayama, Midori; Moritan, Toshiyuki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-07-01

    We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG)30) that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol) was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG)30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG)30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73) was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG)30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 inner layer.

  5. Opportunities for Energy Development in Water Conduits: A Report Prepared in Response to Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Reiser, Sonya L. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy LLC, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bailey, Andrea C. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Frank, Anthony [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2014-09-01

    In Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act (HREA) of 2013 (P.L. 113-23), Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an analysis of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States and to present case studies that describe the potential energy generation from these types of hydropower projects. Those analyses have been included in a new DOE report to Congress, and this ORNL/TM provides additional technical details supporting that report. Conduit hydropower offers important new ways to enhance renewable energy portfolios in the United States, as well as to increase the energy efficiency of water delivery systems. Conduit hydropower projects are constructed on existing water-conveyance structures, such as irrigation canals or pressurized pipelines that deliver water to municipalities, industry, or agricultural water users. Although water conveyance infrastructures are usually designed for non-power purposes, new renewable energy can often be harvested from them without affecting their original purpose and without the need to construct new dams or diversions. Conduit hydropower differs from more conventional hydropower development in that it is generally not located on natural rivers or waterways and therefore does not involve the types of environmental impacts that are associated with hydropower. The addition of hydropower to existing water conduits can provide valuable new revenue sources from clean, renewable energy. The new energy can be used within the existing water distribution systems to offset other energy demands, or it can be sold into regional transmission systems.

  6. Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes J Bolle

    Full Text Available In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

  7. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  8. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  9. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year and 2012 (the 4th year the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully

  10. Efficacy of Tramadol as a Sole Analgesic for Postoperative Pain in Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A Marissa; Kennedy, Lucy H; Na, Jane J; Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A

    2015-07-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ opioid agonist that has few of the adverse side effects common to other opioids. Little work has been done to establish an effective analgesic dose of tramadol specific for surgical laparotomy and visceral manipulation in mice. We used general appearance parameters to score positive indicators of pain including posture, coat condition, activity, breathing, and interactions with other mice, activity events (that is, the number of times each mouse stretched up in a 3-min period) used as an indicator of decreased pain, von Frey fibers, and plasma levels of corticosterone to determine whether tramadol at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg prevented postoperative pain in male and female C57BL/6 mice. A ventral midline laparotomy with typhlectomy was used as a model of postoperative pain. In male mice, none of the markers differed between groups that received tramadol (regardless of dose) and the saline-treated controls. However, general appearance scores and plasma corticosterone levels were lower in female mice that received 80 mg/kg tramadol compared with saline. In summary, for severe postoperative pain after laparotomy and aseptic typhlectomy, tramadol was ineffective in male C57BL/6 mice at all doses tested. Although 80 mg/kg ameliorated postoperative pain in female C57BL/6 mice, this dose is very close to the threshold reported to cause toxic side effects, such as tremors and seizures. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of tramadol as a sole analgesic in this mouse model of postoperative pain.

  11. Glyphosate Shapes a Dinoflagellate-Associated Bacterial Community While Supporting Algal Growth as Sole Phosphorus Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that can potentially be a phosphorus (P source for phytoplankton and microbes when discharged into the coastal ocean. In contrast to bacteria, few eukaryotic phytoplankton species appear capable of directly utilizing glyphosate. In this study, we observed, after a long delay (>60 days, Prorocentrum donghaiense, a dinoflagellate known to cause major harmful algal blooms in the East China Sea, could grow in a medium with glyphosate as the sole P source; suggesting that P. donghaiense growth was through bacterial mediation. To understand how the bacteria community might respond to glyphosate, we analyzed the 16S rRNA genes of the microbial community present in P. donghaiense cultures when grown under lower (36 μM and higher (360 μM glyphosate concentrations. Based on both Sanger and Illumina high throughput sequencing, we obtained more than 55,323 good-quality sequences, which were classified into six phyla. As the concentration of glyphosate rose, our results showed a significant increase in the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and a decrease in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Further qPCR (Quantitative PCR analysis showed higher abundances of two specific phylotypes in the higher-glyphosate P. donghaiense cultures when compared to the lower-glyphosate and no-glyphosate cultures. Correspondingly, qPCR displayed the same trend for the abundance of a gammaproteobacterial type of phnJ, a gene encoding Alpha-D-ribose 1-methylphosphonate 5-phosphate C-P lyase, which is responsible for phosphonate degradation. In addition, Tax4Fun analysis based on our 16S rRNA gene sequences results in higher predicted abundances of phosphonate metabolizing genes in glyphosate-treated cultures. This study demonstrates that glyphosate could selectively promote the growth of particular groups of bacteria within an algal culture and in glyphosate enriched coastal waters, this interaction may potentially further facilitate the growth of

  12. Complex exon-intron marking by histone modifications is not determined solely by nucleosome distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawandeep Dhami

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that nucleosome distribution, histone modifications and RNA polymerase II (Pol II occupancy show preferential association with exons ("exon-intron marking", linking chromatin structure and function to co-transcriptional splicing in a variety of eukaryotes. Previous ChIP-sequencing studies suggested that these marking patterns reflect the nucleosomal landscape. By analyzing ChIP-chip datasets across the human genome in three cell types, we have found that this marking system is far more complex than previously observed. We show here that a range of histone modifications and Pol II are preferentially associated with exons. However, there is noticeable cell-type specificity in the degree of exon marking by histone modifications and, surprisingly, this is also reflected in some histone modifications patterns showing biases towards introns. Exon-intron marking is laid down in the absence of transcription on silent genes, with some marking biases changing or becoming reversed for genes expressed at different levels. Furthermore, the relationship of this marking system with splicing is not simple, with only some histone modifications reflecting exon usage/inclusion, while others mirror patterns of exon exclusion. By examining nucleosomal distributions in all three cell types, we demonstrate that these histone modification patterns cannot solely be accounted for by differences in nucleosome levels between exons and introns. In addition, because of inherent differences between ChIP-chip array and ChIP-sequencing approaches, these platforms report different nucleosome distribution patterns across the human genome. Our findings confound existing views and point to active cellular mechanisms which dynamically regulate histone modification levels and account for exon-intron marking. We believe that these histone modification patterns provide links between chromatin accessibility, Pol II movement and co-transcriptional splicing.

  13. Depth Filters Containing Diatomite Achieve More Efficient Particle Retention than Filters Solely Containing Cellulose Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes F; Gruchow, Hannah M; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g., when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m(-2) when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU) when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre-coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m(-2) with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  14. Depth filters containing diatomite achieve more efficient particle retention than filters solely containing cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Buyel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of biological feed stocks during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins is challenging when large quantities of particles must be removed, e.g. when processing crude plant extracts. Single-use depth filters are often preferred for clarification because they are simple to integrate and have a good safety profile. However, the combination of filter layers must be optimized in terms of nominal retention ratings to account for the unique particle size distribution in each feed stock. We have recently shown that predictive models can facilitate filter screening and the selection of appropriate filter layers. Here we expand our previous study by testing several filters with different retention ratings. The filters typically contain diatomite to facilitate the removal of fine particles. However, diatomite can interfere with the recovery of large biopharmaceutical molecules such as virus-like particles and aggregated proteins. Therefore, we also tested filtration devices composed solely of cellulose fibers and cohesive resin. The capacities of both filter types varied from 10 to 50 L m-2 when challenged with tobacco leaf extracts, but the filtrate turbidity was ~500-fold lower (~3.5 NTU when diatomite filters were used. We also tested pre coat filtration with dispersed diatomite, which achieved capacities of up to 120 L m-2 with turbidities of ~100 NTU using bulk plant extracts, and in contrast to the other depth filters did not require an upstream bag filter. Single pre-coat filtration devices can thus replace combinations of bag and depth filters to simplify the processing of plant extracts, potentially saving on time, labor and consumables. The protein concentrations of TSP, DsRed and antibody 2G12 were not affected by pre-coat filtration, indicating its general applicability during the manufacture of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.

  15. Neural-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells incorporated into muscle stuffed vein scaffold forms a stable living nerve conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nur Hidayah; Sulong, Ahmad Fadzli; Ng, Min-Hwei; Htwe, Ohnmar; Idrus, Ruszymah B H; Roohi, Sharifah; Naicker, Amaramalar S; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2012-10-01

    Autologous nerve grafts to bridge nerve gaps have donor site morbidity and possible neuroma formation resulting in development of various methods of bridging nerve gaps without using autologous nerve grafts. We have fabricated an acellular muscle stuffed vein seeded with differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a substitute for nerve autografts. Human vein and muscle were both decellularized by liquid nitrogen immersion with subsequent hydrolysis in hydrochloric acid. Human MSCs were subjected to a series of treatments with a reducing agent, retinoic acid, and a combination of trophic factors. The differentiated MSCs were seeded on the surface of acellular muscle tissue and then stuffed into the vein. Our study showed that 35-75% of the cells expressed neural markers such as S100b, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), p75 NGF receptor, and Nestin after differentiation. Histological and ultra structural analyses of muscle stuffed veins showed attachment of cells onto the surface of the acellular muscle and penetration of the cells into the hydrolyzed fraction of muscle fibers. We implanted these muscle stuffed veins into athymic mice and at 8 weeks post-implantation, the acellular muscle tissue had fully degraded and replaced with new matrix produced by the seeded cells. The vein was still intact and no inflammatory reactions were observed proving the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the conduit. In conclusion, we have successfully formed a stable living nerve conduit which may serve as a substitute for autologous nerves. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. Hydraulic tomography of discrete networks of conduits and fractures in a karstic aquifer by using a deterministic inversion algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Lecoq, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel inverse modeling method called Discrete Network Deterministic Inversion (DNDI) for mapping the geometry and property of the discrete network of conduits and fractures in the karstified aquifers. The DNDI algorithm is based on a coupled discrete-continuum concept to simulate numerically water flows in a model and a deterministic optimization algorithm to invert a set of observed piezometric data recorded during multiple pumping tests. In this method, the model is partioned in subspaces piloted by a set of parameters (matrix transmissivity, and geometry and equivalent transmissivity of the conduits) that are considered as unknown. In this way, the deterministic optimization process can iteratively correct the geometry of the network and the values of the properties, until it converges to a global network geometry in a solution model able to reproduce the set of data. An uncertainty analysis of this result can be performed from the maps of posterior uncertainties on the network geometry or on the property values. This method has been successfully tested for three different theoretical and simplified study cases with hydraulic responses data generated from hypothetical karstic models with an increasing complexity of the network geometry, and of the matrix heterogeneity.

  17. Functional collagen conduits combined with human mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Yao, Yao; Zhao, Yannan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Cao, Zongfu; Han, Sufang; Li, Xing; Huan, Yong; Pan, Juli; Dai, Jianwu

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the development of novel and innovative approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury using artificial nerve guide conduits. In this study, we attempted to bridge 3.5-cm defects of the sciatic nerve with a longitudinally oriented collagen conduit (LOCC) loaded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). The LOCC contains a bundle of longitudinally aligned collagenous fibres enclosed in a hollow collagen tube. Our previous studies showed that an LOCC combined with neurotrophic factors enhances peripheral nerve regeneration. However, it remained unknown whether an LOCC seeded with hUC-MSCs could also promote regeneration. In this study, using various histological and electrophysiological analyses, we found that an LOCC provides mechanical support to newly growing nerves and functions as a structural scaffold for cells, thereby stimulating sciatic nerve regeneration. The LOCC and hUC-MSCs synergistically promoted regeneration and improved the functional recovery in a dog model of sciatic nerve injury. Therefore, the combined use of an LOCC and hUC-MSCs might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  19. Laparoscopic ischemic conditioning of the stomach increases neovascularization of the gastric conduit in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thai H; Melton, Shelby D; McLaren, Patrick J; Mokdad, Ali A; Huerta, Sergio; Wang, David H; Perry, Kyle A; Hardaker, Hope L; Dolan, James P

    2017-09-01

    Gastric ischemic preconditioning has been proposed to improve blood flow and reduce the incidence of anastomotic complications following esophagectomy with gastric pull-up. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of prolonged ischemic preconditioning on the degree of neovascularization in the distal gastric conduit at the time of esophagectomy. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database identified 30 patients who underwent esophagectomy. The patients were divided into three groups: control (no preconditioning, n = 9), partial (short gastric vessel ligation only, n = 8), and complete ischemic preconditioning (left and short gastric vessel ligation, n = 13). Microvessel counts were assessed, using immunohistologic analysis to determine the degree of neovascularization at the distal gastric margin. The groups did not differ in age, gender, BMI, pathologic stage, or cancer subtype. Ischemic preconditioning durations were 163 ± 156 days for partial ischemic preconditioning, compared to 95 ± 50 days for complete ischemic preconditioning (P = 0.2). Immunohistologic analysis demonstrated an increase in microvessel counts of 29% following partial ischemic preconditioning (P = 0.3) and 67% after complete ischemic preconditioning (P gastric conduit. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Histological study of right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit implantation (RPVC) in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Yuuto; Tanaka, Ryou; Fukushima, Ryuji; Hira, Satoshi; Hoshi, Katsuichiro; Soda, Aiko; Iizuka, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Nishimura, Taiki; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2009-04-01

    We examined whether right ventricle-pulmonary artery valved conduit (RPVC) implantation can overcome the disadvantages of current procedures for pulmonic stenosis (PS). We histologically evaluated the feasibility of RPVC using a homograft in PS model dogs. Eight dogs underwent pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and then 12 weeks later were assigned to PAB (n=4) or PAB+RPVC (n=4) groups. Dogs in the PAB group received no treatment throughout the experimental period, whereas the PAB+RPVC group underwent RPVC. At 1 year after PAB, hearts and conduits were explanted from euthanized dogs and histologically evaluated. The ratios (%) of myocardial fibrosis on right ventricle (RV) epicardial, median and endocardial layers were significantly lower in the PAB+RPVC, than in the PAB group. The ratio of myocardial fibrosis on left ventricular (LV) epicardial and endocardial layers were significantly lower in the PAB+RPVC, than in the PAB group. Neo-intimal thickness in the anastomosis areas of the Denacol and PAB+RPVC groups was 42.77 +/- 30.19 and 88.30 +/- 27.24 microm, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups. Calcification and neo- intima hypertrophy were not obvious in the valve area. Immunohistological staining showed that the internal surface of the anastomosis and intermediate areas were positive for endothelial cells. We concluded that RPVC using a bioprosthetic graft can apparently overcome the disadvantages of current procedures for pulmonic stenosis.

  1. Controls on magma permeability in the volcanic conduit during the climactic phase of the Kos Plateau Tuff eruption (Aegean Arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degruyter, W.; Bachmann, O.; Burgisser, A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) was applied to pumices from the largest Quaternary explosive eruption of the active South Aegean Arc (the Kos Plateau Tuff; KPT) in order to better understand magma permeability within volcanic conduits. Two different types of pumices (one with highly elongated bubbles, tube pumice; and the other with near spherical bubbles, frothy pumice) produced synchronously and with identical chemical composition were selected for µCT imaging to obtain porosity, tortuosity, bubble size and throat size distributions. Tortuosity drops on average from 2.2 in frothy pumice to 1.5 in tube pumice. Bubble size and throat size distributions provide estimates for mean bubble size (~93-98 μm) and mean throat size (~23-29 μm). Using a modified Kozeny-Carman equation, variations in porosity, tortuosity, and throat size observed in KPT pumices explain the spread found in laboratory measurements of the Darcian permeability. Measured difference in inertial permeability between tube and frothy pumices can also be partly explained by the same variables but require an additional parameter related to the internal roughness of the porous medium (friction factor f 0 ). Constitutive equations for both types of permeability allow the quantification of laminar and turbulent gas escape during ascent of rhyolitic magma in volcanic conduits.

  2. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kosaki, Keisei; Sawano, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tagawa, Kaname; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age. Additionally, brachial artery shear rate patterns were associated with brachial artery IMT in 102 middle-aged and older individuals. In an interventional study, 39 middle-aged and older subjects were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the antegrade shear rate and decreased the retrograde shear rate and brachial artery IMT. Moreover, changes in the brachial artery antegrade shear rate and the retrograde shear rate correlated with the change in brachial artery IMT. The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Structural analysis of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 solely by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saewen, Elin; Huttunen, Eine; Zhang Xue; Yang Zhennai; Widmalm, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of milk results in favorable physical and rheological properties due to in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The EPS from S. thermophilus ST1 produces highly viscous aqueous solutions and its structure has been investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, all aspects of the elucidation of its primary structure including component analysis and absolute configuration of the constituent monosaccharides were carried out by NMR spectroscopy. An array of techniques was utilized including, inter alia, PANSY and NOESY-HSQC TILT experiments. The EPS is composed of hexasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: → 3)[α-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)]-β-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-β-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)[β-d-Galf-(1 → 6)]-β-d-Glcp-(1 → 6)-β-d-Glcp-(1 → , in which the residues in square brackets are terminal groups substituting backbone sugar residues that consequently are branch-points in the repeating unit of the polymer. Thus, the EPS consists of a backbone of four sugar residues with two terminal sugar residues making up two side-chains of the repeating unit. The molecular mass of the polymer was determined using translational diffusion experiments which resulted in M w = 62 kDa, corresponding to 64 repeating units in the EPS.

  4. Structural analysis of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 solely by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saewen, Elin [Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Department of Organic Chemistry (Sweden); Huttunen, Eine; Zhang Xue [University of Helsinki, Department of Food Technology (Finland); Yang Zhennai [Northeast Agricultural Research Center of China, Center of Agro-food Technology (China); Widmalm, Goeran, E-mail: gw@organ.su.s [Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Department of Organic Chemistry (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The use of lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of milk results in favorable physical and rheological properties due to in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The EPS from S. thermophilus ST1 produces highly viscous aqueous solutions and its structure has been investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, all aspects of the elucidation of its primary structure including component analysis and absolute configuration of the constituent monosaccharides were carried out by NMR spectroscopy. An array of techniques was utilized including, inter alia, PANSY and NOESY-HSQC TILT experiments. The EPS is composed of hexasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: {yields} 3)[{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1 {yields} 4)]-{beta}-d-Galp-(1 {yields} 4)-{beta}-d-Glcp-(1 {yields} 4)[{beta}-d-Galf-(1 {yields} 6)]-{beta}-d-Glcp-(1 {yields} 6)-{beta}-d-Glcp-(1 {sup {yields}}, in which the residues in square brackets are terminal groups substituting backbone sugar residues that consequently are branch-points in the repeating unit of the polymer. Thus, the EPS consists of a backbone of four sugar residues with two terminal sugar residues making up two side-chains of the repeating unit. The molecular mass of the polymer was determined using translational diffusion experiments which resulted in M{sub w} = 62 kDa, corresponding to 64 repeating units in the EPS.

  5. Clinical assessment of dynamic coefficient of friction effects in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Jamshidi; Firooz, Salami

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was examining the effect of human factors such as plantar friction, contact period time, and impulse on shoe-sole trituration of drop foot patients. Twenty-five patients with drop foot and twenty normal subjects were recruited in the study. The force plate and its related software's recorded human factor (coefficient of friction, ground reaction force, time of stance phase) as time dependent parameters. Dynamic coefficient of friction patterns were categorized based on their magnitude versus time when the longitudinal axis of the sole was plotted as the Y-axis and the transverse axis of the sole as X-axis during stance phase. The result of this research indicated that the average coefficient of friction among drop foot patients is 77.53 % (p value <0.05) lower than the normal subjects. Also the time of stance phase among drop foot patients is 7.56 % (p value <0.05) greater than normal subjects. There is no difference in the peaks, of vertical ground reaction force between normal and control group. The findings of this research revealed that the time of stance phase has a key role in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

  6. 75 FR 55689 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Yellowfin Sole in the Bering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of yellowfin sole from the BSAI trawl... is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification... industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet as well as...

  7. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Wahles (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, L.; Leopold, M.F.; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa; Deaville, R.; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, J.; Jepson, P.D.; Gröne, A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a

  8. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; Deaville, Rob; Haelters, Jan; IJzer, Jooske; Jepson, Paul D; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a

  9. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Social security numbers of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors and...

  10. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  11. 49 CFR 372.103 - Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... school children and teachers to or from school. 372.103 Section 372.103 Transportation Other Regulations... Exemptions § 372.103 Motor vehicles employed solely in transporting school children and teachers to or from school. The exemption set forth in 49 U.S.C. 13506(a)(1) shall not be construed as being inapplicable to...

  12. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mec...

  13. Translocation (16;20)(p11.2;q13). sole cytogenetic abnormality in a unicameral bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richkind, Kathleen E; Mortimer, Errol; Mowery-Rushton, Patricia; Fraire, Armando

    2002-09-01

    We report the results of cytogenetic analysis of a case of unicameral bone cyst with a t(16;20(p11.2;q13) present as the sole abnormality. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a cytogenetically characterized tumor of this type.

  14. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Listonella anguillarum of diseased half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Li; Zhan, Wenbin

    2008-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther juveniles in a fish farm in Jimo, Shandong Province, China, in June 2006. Gross signs of the diseased tongue sole included several petechiae and ecchymoses on the body and fin necrosis and hemorrhagic lesion at the base of the fin. Bacteria were isolated from kidney, liver and hemorrhagic lesions of the diseased tongue sole. Among14 strains, SJ060621 was proved to be highly virulent to juvenile tongue sole with LD50 value of antibiotics tested, SJ060621 was sensitive to gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. It was identified as Listonella anguillarum with conventional plate and tube tests in combination with API 20E analysis. 16S rRNA gene and partial HSP60 gene sequenceing analysis revealed that the strain was highly homologous with L. anguillarum. Examination of the infected musculature by electron microscopy indicated numerous bacteria and lots of macrophages containing phagocytosed bacteria. Histopathological investigations revealed severe necrotic degenerative changes in the infected organs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was employed to detect the location of occurrence of bacteria, and bacteria were found in aggregations in the inflammatory areas in musculature.

  15. Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of N-pentafluoroaryl benzamides using air as the sole oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Huai-Wei; Spangler, Jillian E; Chen, Kai; Cui, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Wei-Yin; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2015-03-01

    The oxidative olefination of a broad array of arenes and heteroarenes with a variety of activated and unactivated olefins has be achieved via a rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation reaction. The use of an N -pentafluorophenyl benzamide directing group is crucial for achieving catalytic turnovers in the presence of air as the sole oxidant without using a co-oxidant.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed C-H olefination of uracils and caffeines using molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Su, Lv; Qiu, Lin; Fan, Zhenwei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Shen; Huang, Qiufeng

    2017-04-18

    The palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-H olefination of uracils or caffeines with alkenes using an atmospheric pressure of molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant has been disclosed. This novel strategy offers an efficient and environmentally friendly method to biologically important C5-alkene uracil derivatives or C8-alkene caffeine derivatives.

  17. Assessing effectiveness of electrical stunning and chillingin ice water of farmed yellowtail kingfish, common sole and pike-perch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llonch, P.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Animals should be rendered unconscious before slaughter in order to avoid suffering or pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate an electrical stunning after dewatering to induce instantaneous unconsciousness and insensibility in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), common sole (Solea

  18. Functional and regenerative effects of local administration of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells combined with silicone conduit on transected femoral nerve of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Anelise Bonilla; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vítor Félix; Gomes, Cristiano; Gianotti, Giordano Cabral; Paz, Ana Helena da Rosa; Terraciano, Paula Barros; Marques, Janete Maria Volpato; Guimarães, Karina Magano; Graça, Dominguita Lühers; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth Obino; Contesini, Emerson Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The inoculation of cells into injury sites can accelerate and improve the quality of nerve regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the functional and regenerative effects of mononuclear autologous bone marrow cells (MABMC) combined with silicon conduit grafting in rabbit femoral nerves. Twenty-eight animals were allocated to one of two groups: treatment group (TG) or control group (CG), divided according to the time of evaluation, at either 50 or 75 days. After neurotmesis of the femoral nerve, surgical repair was performed with nerve autografts in silicon conduits, leaving a 5mm gap in both groups. The TG received MABMC in silicon conduits, and CG received a sham saline inoculum. Histological, clinical and electrophysiological analyses detected no differences between groups, but analysis of leg diameter showed that TG diameters were larger. This cell therapy did not improve regeneration of the femoral nerve, but there was a tendency for better functional recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury.

  20. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-jun; Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  1. Predictors of response to prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-05-12

    Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ OA) is a common and disabling condition commonly managed with footwear and orthotic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a successful treatment response in people with 1st MTPJ OA provided with prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear as part of a randomised clinical trial. People with 1st MTPJ OA (n = 88) who participated in a randomised trial were allocated to receive prefabricated foot orthoses (n = 47) or rocker-sole footwear (n = 41) and completed a baseline questionnaire including information on demographics, anthropometrics, general health, pain characteristics (including the Foot Health Status Questionnaire [FHSQ] and Foot Function Index [FFI]) and perceptions of the interventions, and a clinical assessment of foot posture, range of motion, radiographic severity and in-shoe plantar pressures. Adherence was documented using diaries. At 12 weeks, participants documented their perception of improvement on a 15-point scale. Those reporting at least moderate improvement on this scale were classified as 'responders'. There were 29 responders (62%) in the orthoses group and 16 responders (39%) in the rocker-sole group. In the orthoses group, responders had greater baseline pain severity while walking, a higher FFI difficulty score, and wore their orthoses more frequently. In the rocker-sole group, responders had a higher FFI stiffness score and greater radiographic severity. However, the accuracy of these variables in identifying responders in each group was modest (62 and 53%, respectively). The response to prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in people with 1st MTPJ OA is related to measures of increased pain and disease severity. However, the overall classification accuracy associated with these factors is not sufficient for identifying individuals who are most likely to benefit from these interventions. Australian New

  2. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  3. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Serrano Manuel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  4. A Case of Myasthenia Gravis Presenting Solely With Bulbar Palsy Not Associated With Easy Fatigability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinank R. Mer

    2015-12-01

    present case shows that it is important to consider MG even in cases presenting solely with progressive bulbar palsy without easy fatigability.

  5. H-index is important for postural control for people with impaired foot sole sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Zhang

    Full Text Available People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN, especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers reflex loop (SAF, might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers reflex loop (LAF for postural control.To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation.Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP and passive (PAP ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS, average sway velocity (VAVG and area (A95 during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and timed up-and-go duration (TUG.Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05 and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05, greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .05 and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5 cm2, P < .05, shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2 m, P < .05, and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3 s, P < .05. Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05. Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05 and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05 performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed.VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering

  6. Crime scene reconstruction-Sex prediction from blood stained foot sole impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    2017-09-01

    in sex prediction from incomplete bloodstained foot sole impressions. In comparison to a system for sex prediction from complete footprint impressions (82.2%), the automated system developed on incomplete foot impressions recorded an accuracy level of 83.47%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  8. Conduit dynamics in transitional rhyolitic activity recorded by tuffisite vein textures from the 2008-2009 Chaitén eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eSaubin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of hazardous silicic eruptions are controlled by complex, poorly-understood conduit processes. Observations of recent Chilean rhyolite eruptions have revealed the importance of hybrid activity, involving simultaneous explosive and effusive emissions from a common vent. Such behaviour hinges upon the ability of gas to decouple from magma in the shallow conduit. Tuffisite veins are increasingly suspected to be a key facilitator of outgassing, as they repeatedly provide a transient permeable escape route for volcanic gases. Intersection of foam domains by tuffisite veins appears critical to efficient outgassing. However, knowledge is currently lacking into textural heterogeneities within shallow conduits, their relationship with tuffisite vein propagation, and the implications for fragmentation and degassing processes. Similarly, the magmatic vesiculation response to upper conduit pressure perturbations, such as those related to the slip of dense magma plugs, remains largely undefined. Here we provide a detailed characterization of an exceptionally large tuffisite vein within a rhyolitic obsidian bomb ejected during transitional explosive-effusive activity at Chaitén, Chile in May 2008. Vein textures and chemistry provide a time-integrated record of the invasion of a dense upper conduit plug by deeper fragmented magma. Quantitative textural analysis reveals diverse vesiculation histories of various juvenile clast types.Using vesicle size distributions, bubble number densities, zones of diffusive water depletion, and glass H2O concentrations, we propose a multi-step degassing/fragmentation history, spanning deep degassing to explosive bomb ejection. Rapid decompression events of ~3-4 MPa are associated with fragmentation of foam and dense magma at ~200-350 metres depth in the conduit, permitting vertical gas and pyroclast mobility over hundreds of metres. Permeable pathway occlusion in the dense conduit plug by pyroclast accumulation

  9. Simulation of Microdamage and Evaluation of Remaining Life of Steam Conduit Components from New-Generation Refractory Steel 10Kh9MF-Sh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of microdamage on the remaining life of high-temperature components of steam conduits from high-chromium steel 10Kh9MF-Sh and low-alloy steel 12Kh1M1F are compared. To simulate the microdamage, specimens with a circular notch and different relative diameters are fabricated. Specimens with a notch simulating the highest degree of microdamage and smooth specimens are tested for long-term strength. The coefficient of the remaining life of a conduit is computed for the range of relative damage presenting practical interest.

  10. Interfacial forces in aqueous media

    CERN Document Server

    van Oss, Carel J

    2006-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. New in this Edition: Four previously unpublished chapters comprising a new section on interfacial propertie

  11. Lanthanide complexation in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The lanthanide elements form an extended series of cations with the same charge, slightly varying radii and useful magnetic and spectroscopic properties. Their use in technology is growing rapidly as their properties are more fully explored. The lanthanides also offer scientists valuable and often unique probes for investigating a variety of chemical and physical phenomena. This review has attempted to call attention to these latter uses without trying to provide a thorough discussion of all the relevant literature. Hopefully, awareness of the more interesting facets of present studies of lanthanide complexes in aqueous solution will spur even more advances in the use of these elements. (Auth.)

  12. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  13. Study on the dynamic behavior of a current in cable-in-conduit conductors by using self magnetic field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: obana.tetsuhiro@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    In order to understand the current behavior inside a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC), self magnetic field measurements on the CICC were conducted. A prototype NbTi CICC, the configuration of which is a racket shape, for JT-60SA EF coil was used as a short conductor sample. By using Hall sensors arranged around the short conductor sample, the variation in the self magnetic field was measured. Taking into account the measurements, the current behavior inside the CICC was analyzed by using analytical models consisting of line currents. The analytical results indicate that the current distribution in the cross-section of the CICC would be non-uniform before a normal propagation, and the current distribution would be improved after the normal propagation.

  14. Helium flow dynamics and heat transfer in a cable in conduit conductor of superconducting magnets: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaghela, Hitensinh; Sarkar, Biswanath; Lakhera, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) magnets with Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) winding, cooled by helium at 4 K temperature are employed for many applications which require high magnetic field and high current densities. The construction of CICC aims to maintain superconductivity state by optimization of various parameters, i.e., thermal stability, ratio of normal conductor to superconductor material, mechanical strength, low hydraulic impedance, current density, magnetic field, etc. The cryogenic thermal stability of the CICC is of prime importance for the safe, stable and reliable operation of SC magnets. The prediction of thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CICC in large SC magnets is difficult due to the complex geometry, variation of fluid properties, various heat in-flux incidences over the long length of CICC and a complex heat transport phenomenon. A systematic review of the thermal and hydraulic studies of CICC has been presented in the paper highlighting the challenges and opportunities for further improvement in its design and performance. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional fluid mechanics of particulate two-phase flows in U-bend and helical conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prashant; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.

    2006-04-01

    The results of numerous studies performed to date have shown that the performance of various hydraulic systems can be significantly improved by using curved conduit geometries instead of straight tubes. In particular, the formation of Dean vortices, which enhance the development of centrifugal instabilities, has been identified as a factor behind reducing the near-wall concentration buildup in particulate flow devices (e.g., in membrane filtration modules). Still, several issues regarding the effect of conduit curvature on local multidimensional phenomena governing fluid flow still remain open. A related issue is concerned with the impact that conduit geometry makes on the concentration distribution of a dispersed phase in two-phase flows in general, and in particulate flows (solid/liquid or solid/gas suspensions) in particular. It turns out that only very limited efforts have been made in the past to understand the fluid mechanics of such flows via advanced computer simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of full three-dimensional (3D) theoretical and numerical analyses of single- and two-phase dilute particle/liquid flows in U-bend and helical curved conduits. The numerical analysis is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed using a state-of-the-art multiphase flow computer code, NPHASE. The major issues discussed in the first part of the paper are concerned with the effect of curved/coiled geometry on the evolution of flow field and the associated wall shear. It has been demonstrated that the primary curvature (a common factor for both the U-bend and helix geometries) may cause a substantial asymmetry in the radial distribution of the main flow velocity. This, in turn, leads to a significant, albeit highly nonuniform, increase in the wall shear stress. Specifically, the wall shear around the outer half of tube circumference may become twice the corresponding value for a straight tube, and gradually decrease to

  16. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  17. Essential fatty acids influence metabolic rate and tolerance of hypoxia in Dover sole ( Solea solea ) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David; Lund, Ivar; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    Dover sole (Solea solea, Linneaus 1758) were raised from first feeding on brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with different contents and compositions of the essential fatty acids (EFA) arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n - 6); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3......), and their metabolic rate and tolerance to hypoxia measured prior to and following metamorphosis and settlement. Four dietary Artemia preparations were compared: (1) un-enriched; (2) enriched with a commercial EFA mixture (Easy DHA SELCO Emulsion); (3) enriched with a marine fish oil combination (VEVODAR and Incromega...... DHA) to provide a high ratio of ARA to DHA, and (4) enriched with these fish oils to provide a low ratio of ARA to DHA. Sole fed un-enriched Artemia were significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than the other dietary groups. Larvae from this group had significantly higher routine metabolic rate (RMR...

  18. The Influence of Outdoor Shoe Sole Stiffness on the Metatarsophalangeal Joint Kinematics When Walking and Running in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mistretta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the action of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP is fundamental to improving the design process of a new outdoor shoe. Coming from the stated consideration, the aim of this research is to study the influence of shoe sole stiffness and terrain slope on the MTP joint angle of subjects walking in different conditions. To pursue this intent, different data collection sessions have been carried out in-vitro and in-vivo, indoor and outdoor. Two different approaches have been used to collect gait kinematics: an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit based system for the first campaign of tests, and a 2D video analysis for the second. Major findings showed a linear correlation between shoe sole stiffness and peak MTP joint angle during gait, as well as consistency in the value of the slope of the linear regression curves corresponding to the different conditions examined.

  19. Design and synthesis of elastin-like polypeptides for an ideal nerve conduit in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Yu-Sheng [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Savitha, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai (India); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Sadhasivam, S. [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Division of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Ming-Jium [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    The study involves design and synthesis of three different elastin like polypeptide (ELP) gene monomers namely ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 that encode for ELP proteins. The formed ELPs were assessed as an ideal nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration. ELP1 was constructed with a small elongated pentapeptide carrying VPGVG sequence to mimic the natural polypeptide ELP. The ELP2 was designed by the incorporation of 4-penta peptide chains to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Thus, the third position in unique VPGVG was replaced with alanine to VPAVG and in a similar way modified to VPGKG, VPGEG and VPGIG with the substitution of lysine, glutamic acid and isoleucine. In ELP3, fibronectin C5 domain endowed with REDV sequence was introduced to improve the cell attachment. The ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 proteins expressed by Escherichia coli were purified by inverse transition cycling (ITC). The purified ELPs were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. The Schwann cell (SC) morphology and cell adhesion were assessed by fabrication of ELP membrane cross-linked with glutaraledhyde. The Schwann cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 assay. Immunofluorostaining of Schwann cells was accomplished with SC specific phenotypic marker, S100. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of three gene monomers of elastin like polypeptides (ELP1, 2 and 3) were reported. • Molecular weight of ITC purified ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 was in the range of 37–38 kDa. • Schwann cell adhesion was found to be prominent in ELP3 and could be used as nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  20. An international multicenter study comparing arrhythmia prevalence between the intracardiac lateral tunnel and the extracardiac conduit type of Fontan operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Seshadri; Daga, Ankana; Bradley, David J; Etheridge, Susan P; Law, Ian H; Batra, Anjan S; Sanatani, Shubayan; Singh, Anoop K; Gajewski, Kelly K; Tsao, Sabrina; Singh, Harinder R; Tisma-Dupanovic, Svjetlana; Tateno, Shigeru; Takamuro, Motoki; Nakajima, Hiromichi; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Shah, Maully

    2014-08-01

    The study objective was to determine whether the extracardiac conduit Fontan confers an arrhythmia advantage over the intracardiac lateral tunnel Fontan. This multicenter study of 1271 patients compared bradyarrhythmia (defined as need for pacing) and tachyarrhythmia (defined as needing antiarrhythmic therapy) between 602 patients undergoing the intracardiac Fontan and 669 patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan. The median age at the time of the Fontan procedure was 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-3.2 years) for the intracardiac group and 3.0 years (interquartile range, 2.4-3.9) for the extracardiac group (P 30 days) bradyarrhythmia occurred in 105 patients (18%) in the intracardiac group and 63 patients (9%) in the extracardiac group (P 30 days) tachyarrhythmia occurred in 58 patients (10%) in the intracardiac group and 23 patients (3%) in the extracardiac group (P factoring time since surgery, more patients in the extracardiac group had early bradycardia (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.6), with no difference in early tachycardia, late bradycardia, or late tachycardia. Overall arrhythmia burden is similar between the 2 groups, but the extracardiac Fontan group had a higher incidence of early bradyarrhythmias. There was no difference in the incidence of late tachyarrhythmias over time between the 2 operations. Therefore, the type of Fontan performed should be based on factors other than an anticipated reduction in arrhythmia burden from the extracardiac conduit. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and synthesis of elastin-like polypeptides for an ideal nerve conduit in peripheral nerve regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, Yu-Sheng; Savitha, S.; Sadhasivam, S.; Lin, Feng-Huei; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2014-01-01

    The study involves design and synthesis of three different elastin like polypeptide (ELP) gene monomers namely ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 that encode for ELP proteins. The formed ELPs were assessed as an ideal nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration. ELP1 was constructed with a small elongated pentapeptide carrying VPGVG sequence to mimic the natural polypeptide ELP. The ELP2 was designed by the incorporation of 4-penta peptide chains to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Thus, the third position in unique VPGVG was replaced with alanine to VPAVG and in a similar way modified to VPGKG, VPGEG and VPGIG with the substitution of lysine, glutamic acid and isoleucine. In ELP3, fibronectin C5 domain endowed with REDV sequence was introduced to improve the cell attachment. The ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 proteins expressed by Escherichia coli were purified by inverse transition cycling (ITC). The purified ELPs were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. The Schwann cell (SC) morphology and cell adhesion were assessed by fabrication of ELP membrane cross-linked with glutaraledhyde. The Schwann cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 assay. Immunofluorostaining of Schwann cells was accomplished with SC specific phenotypic marker, S100. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of three gene monomers of elastin like polypeptides (ELP1, 2 and 3) were reported. • Molecular weight of ITC purified ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 was in the range of 37–38 kDa. • Schwann cell adhesion was found to be prominent in ELP3 and could be used as nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration

  2. [Laparoscopic cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion for neurogenic bladders and related conditions. Morbidity and better quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhri, R; Seigle-Murandi, F; Jacqmin, D; Lang, H; Saussine, C

    2015-05-01

    To assess morbidity and functional consequences of laparoscopic cystectomy with ileal conduit urinary diversion: in neurologic patients. We reviewed the records of forty-two patients (ten men and thirty-two women) who underwent surgery between August 2007 and October 2013. The median age of the patient was 54 years old (range between 21-79 years). A laparoscopic cystectomy was performed followed by a short laparotomy to perform the ileal conduit urinary diversion. Records were reviewed to retrieve the indications and describe the postoperative and functional course. Patients and GPs were interviewed during phone calls to appreciate the quality of life by the PGII scale in order to assess the functional outcome. The operation was performed on 42 patients, of whom 18 had multiple sclerosis, nine a post-traumatic neurogenic bladder. Among the total population, 10 patients (23.81%) required a transfusion of at least one packed red blood cells (1-7). The overall rate of early complications was 35.71%. Belated complications were seen in 52.38% of the population. The median duration of hospital stay was 16 days (range between 9-70 days). The median follow up was 34 months (range between 1-76 months). For patients, the PGII scale rating had a median value of 6 (2-7). All referring physicians described a better functional status. The laparoscopic cystectomy can make postoperative course smoother for the neurological patients. However, the surgeon must weigh individually the benefit of performing the operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecoulements intermittents de gaz et de liquide en conduite verticale Intermittent Gas and Liquid Flows in a Vertical Pipe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle présenté ici permet la pré-détermination du gradient de pression, du taux global de gaz, et de grandeurs caractéristiques de l'intermittence, dans un écoulement à poches et bouchons en conduite verticale. L'écriture des lois de conservation en moyenne phasique conditionnelle conduit à la définition d'une cellule moyenne équivalente. La fermeture du modèle est assurée par des lois de contrainte de cisaillement film-paroi, film-poche, bouchon-paroi, par une loi d'arrachage du gaz au culot de la poche, une loi de glissement du gaz dans les bouchons et par une loi de la vitesse moyenne de propagation des fronts de poches. Le calibrage et la qualification du modèle s'appuient sur deux banques de données, dont l'une a été obtenue avec des fluides pétroliers dans des conditions proches des situations industrielles (boucle diphasique de Boussens. The model described here can be used to predetermine the pressure gradient, the overall gas rate and the characteristic intermittence magnitudes in pocket and slug flow in a vertical pipe. The way governing equations in the conditional phase average are written defines an equivalent average cell. The model is closed by film/wall, film/pocket and slug/wall shear-stress laws, by a pulloff law for the gas at the bottom of the pocket, a slippage law for the gas in the slugs, and a mean propagation velocity law for the pocket fronts. The calibration and qualification of the model are based on two data banks, one of which contains data on petroleum fluids under conditions close to industrial situations (two-phase loop at Boussens.

  4. Pulmonary artery reconstruction with a tailor-made bovine pericardial conduit following sleeve resection of a long segmental pulmonary artery for the treatment of lung cancer: technical details of the dog-ear method for adjusting diameter during vascular anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimihiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toru; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Sleeve resection of the pulmonary artery (PA) is always required for lung-sparing operations in which half or more of the vessel circumference is infiltrated by the primary tumor or metastatic hilar nodes. Following sleeve resection, conduit reconstruction may be indicated if there is excessive distance between the two vascular stumps, because there is a high degree of tension when repaired by direct anastomosis. We herein present a case of PA reconstruction using a tailor-made bovine pericardial conduit after sleeve resection of PA during lung cancer surgery. The length of resection was longer than 3 cm, and the difference in diameter between the conduit and peripheral PA stump was larger than 0.5 cm. We describe the surgical and oncological merits of a bovine pericardial conduit, and provide details of our reconstruction technique, focusing on adjustment of diameter between the conduit and peripheral PA (dog-ear method).

  5. Predictors of response to prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Menz, HB; Auhl, M; Tan, JM; Levinger, P; Roddy, E; Munteanu, SE

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTPJ OA) is a common and disabling condition commonly managed with footwear and orthotic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a successful treatment response in people with 1st MTPJ OA provided with prefabricated orthoses or rocker-sole footwear as part of a randomised clinical trial. METHODS: People with 1st MTPJ OA (n = 88) who participated in a randomised trial were allocate...

  6. Testing the potential effects of shellfish farming on swimming activity and spatial distribution of sole (Solea solea) in a mesocosm

    OpenAIRE

    Laffargue, Pascal; Begout, Marie-laure; Lagardere, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    Restructuring coastal fish nursery habitats by extensive shellfish fanning in the French part of the Bay of Biscay could influence fish physiology and behaviour and affect the ecological performance of the species. The influence of oyster-trestle cultivation installations on sole (Solea solea) swimming behaviour was investigated using an experimental pond mesocosm. A pen was constructed with three interconnected zones (two with bags of live oysters or oyster shells on trestles, and one free z...

  7. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  8. Rh(III) -Catalyzed C-H Olefination of Benzoic Acids under Mild Conditions using Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quandi; Zhu, Changlei; Zhao, Huaiqing; Su, Weiping

    2016-02-04

    Phthalide skeletons have been synthesized for the first time through a Rh(III) -catalyzed C-H olefination of benzoic acids under mild conditions using oxygen as the sole oxidant. Aromatic acids bearing a variety of functional groups could react with diverse alkenes to afford the desired cyclized lactones or uncyclized alkenylarenes in moderate-to-excellent yields. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Aerodynamic improvement of the assembly through which gas conduits are taken into a smoke stack by simulating gas flow on a computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Grigor'ev, I. V.

    2012-06-01

    Results from computer simulation of gas flow motion for gas conduits taken on one and two sides into the gas-removal shaft of a smoke stack with a constant cross section carried out using the SolidWorks and FlowVision application software packages are presented.

  10. Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke L IJsseldijk

    Full Text Available Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a rare cause of death in cetaceans. Whilst asphyxiation has been reported in smaller odontocetes, there are no recent records of this occurring in Globicephala species. Here we report the stranding, necropsy and diet study results as well as discuss the unusual nature of this phenomenon. Flatfish are not a primary prey species for pilot whales and are rarely eaten by other cetaceans, such as harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena, in which there are several reports of asphyxiation due to airway obstruction by soles. This risk may be due to the fish's flexible bodies which can enter small cavities either actively in an attempt to escape or passively due to the whale 'coughing' or 'sneezing' to rid itself of the blockage of the trachea. It is also possible that the fish enter the airways whilst the whale is re-articulating the larynx after trying to ingest large, oddly shaped prey. It is unlikely that the soles entered the airways after the death of the whales and we believe therefore that they are responsible for the death of these animals.

  11. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  12. THE TRIAL OF FOUNDING THE DEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE SIZE OF HOOF SOLE AND BIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF HUCUL HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ŁUSZCZYŃSKI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hoofs are an important part of horse body and significantly influence its usability.According to irregular weight of horse limbs, fore-hoofs and hind-hoofs differ withthe shape, the angle of fore-wall inclination and size but they should be proportionalto horse body size. The objective of this study was the trial of founding the dependencebetween the size sole surface of fore- and hind-hoofs and biometric measurementsof Hucul horses. Contours of left fore- and hind-hoof were collected from 50Hucul horses from Gładyszów Stud (7 stallions and 43 mares. The contours werescanned in 1:1 scale and using the AutoCad computer program the surface and circumferenceof hoof sole were evaluated. At the same time the biometrical measurementswere taken from mentioned horses – height at withers, girth and cannon circumferences.In studied population the surface and circumference of fore-hoofs weresignificantly higher than of hind-hoofs. Biometrical measurements and indexescounted highly significantly and significantly affected the surface and circumferenceof Hucul horse hoofs. Horses with higher height at withers and higher girth capacitywere characterized by significantly higher surface and circumference of hind-hoofsthan in horses with lower height. Highly significantly higher sole surface and circumferenceof fore-hoofs was shown in horses with higher cannon circumference.

  13. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent by...

  14. Desalination of aqueous media using ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for extracting metal and/or metalloid ions from an aqueous medium, comprising the steps of: a) mixing the aqueous medium with an ionic liquid comprising an aliphatic carboxylate anion having at least one unsaturated carbon-carbon bond, or and/or with a

  15. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2009-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents theA non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to

  16. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Numerical simulation of freshwater/seawater interaction in a dual-permeability karst system with conduits: the development of discrete-continuum VDFST-CFP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Dual-permeability karst aquifers of porous media and conduit networks with significant different hydrological characteristics are widely distributed in the world. Discrete-continuum numerical models, such as MODFLOW-CFP and CFPv2, have been verified as appropriate approaches to simulate groundwater flow and solute transport in numerical modeling of karst hydrogeology. On the other hand, seawater intrusion associated with fresh groundwater resources contamination has been observed and investigated in numbers of coastal aquifers, especially under conditions of sea level rise. Density-dependent numerical models including SEAWAT are able to quantitatively evaluate the seawater/freshwater interaction processes. A numerical model of variable-density flow and solute transport - conduit flow process (VDFST-CFP) is developed to provide a better description of seawater intrusion and submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal karst aquifer with conduits. The coupling discrete-continuum VDFST-CFP model applies Darcy-Weisbach equation to simulate non-laminar groundwater flow in the conduit system in which is conceptualized and discretized as pipes, while Darcy equation is still used in continuum porous media. Density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport equations with appropriate density terms in both conduit and porous media systems are derived and numerically solved using standard finite difference method with an implicit iteration procedure. Synthetic horizontal and vertical benchmarks are created to validate the newly developed VDFST-CFP model by comparing with other numerical models such as variable density SEAWAT, couplings of constant density groundwater flow and solute transport MODFLOW/MT3DMS and discrete-continuum CFPv2/UMT3D models. VDFST-CFP model improves the simulation of density dependent seawater/freshwater mixing processes and exchanges between conduit and matrix. Continuum numerical models greatly overestimated the flow rate under turbulent flow

  18. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the results obtained in the measurement of magnetic losses in metallic conduits in electric installations. The losses for parasitic currents and by hysteresis were obtained in different conditions of magnetic density, caused by the net current resulting from the sum of all the currents of all the conductors that travel along the conduit. These currents are named differential currents, and the conditions in which they appear in the electric installations are described. The magnetic induction phenomenon that occurs in metallic conduit is briefly described and the basic concepts that describe it. A theoretical-experimental methodology is offered to quantify the energy losses by parasitic currents and by the metal magnetization in these metallic conduits. At the same time, the impact of these differential currents impact in the reactance of the electric installation is quantified. The obtained results for twelve conduits of different diameters and different wall thickness are shown. A comparison analysis is made with the reported results in a previous article, where the losses were estimated by means of the temperature rise measurement of the metallic wall. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la medicion de perdidas magneticas en tuberias conduit (metalicas) en instalaciones electricas. Las perdidas por corrientes parasitas y por histeresis se obtuvieron para diferentes condiciones de densidad magnetica, provocada por la corriente neta resultante de la suma de las corrientes de todos los conductores que viajan por la tuberia. A estas corrientes se les designa corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se explica brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que se presenta en las tuberias metalicas y los conceptos basicos que la describen. Se plantea una metodologia teorico-experiemental para cuantificar las perdidas de energia, por

  19. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented the results obtained in the measurement of magnetic losses in metallic conduits in electric installations. The losses for parasitic currents and by hysteresis were obtained in different conditions of magnetic density, caused by the net current resulting from the sum of all the currents of all the conductors that travel along the conduit. These currents are named differential currents, and the conditions in which they appear in the electric installations are described. The magnetic induction phenomenon that occurs in metallic conduit is briefly described and the basic concepts that describe it. A theoretical-experimental methodology is offered to quantify the energy losses by parasitic currents and by the metal magnetization in these metallic conduits. At the same time, the impact of these differential currents impact in the reactance of the electric installation is quantified. The obtained results for twelve conduits of different diameters and different wall thickness are shown. A comparison analysis is made with the reported results in a previous article, where the losses were estimated by means of the temperature rise measurement of the metallic wall. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la medicion de perdidas magneticas en tuberias conduit (metalicas) en instalaciones electricas. Las perdidas por corrientes parasitas y por histeresis se obtuvieron para diferentes condiciones de densidad magnetica, provocada por la corriente neta resultante de la suma de las corrientes de todos los conductores que viajan por la tuberia. A estas corrientes se les designa corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se explica brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que se presenta en las tuberias metalicas y los conceptos basicos que la describen. Se plantea una metodologia teorico-experiemental para cuantificar las perdidas de energia, por

  20. Soft matter at aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.