Sample records for soldiers completing military

  1. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zimmermann


    Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  2. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas


    After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  3. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier (United States)


    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  4. Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? (United States)


    killing child soldiers. Additional attention should also be invested into identifying interventions that would decrease the negative stigma of mental...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CHILD SOLDIERS: ARE U.S. MILITARY MEMBERS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT? by Judith Hughes, LtCol, USAF A...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? 5a. CONTRACT


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein


    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the process of soldier's mental development in Iskandar Muda Military Command, both seen from the selection process to be soldier in educational institutions as well as in the unit assignment. This research is expected to find the development pattern in accordance with the challenging tasks for the National Military (TNI ahead. By using a qualitative approach, this research has achieved several findings: 1 in the selection process, a soldier was just demanded to fundamentally have religious understanding without a standard point for depth understanding of religion, 2 in the first stage of education, the subject matter of religion only a broad outline of religious teachings, 3 religious activities is not part of military trainings curriculum, but it is merely education administrators’ policy, 4 the soldiers in unit deemed to have knowledge of the religion and an unwavering faith. Despite the fact that soldiers’ religious knowledge is still very low, while the faith is generally used as the symbolic emphasis that is less discussed. As a result, it is feared that mentality weakness when facing a tough task, both faced with the sophistication of tools, strategies and mental demands in modern warfare in the future.

  6. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W


    This study of civil-military relations addresses the parallel development of the professional soldier and the Prussian-German Army from 1806 until 1945, as well as the rise of nationalism in central...

  7. Warrior Heroes and Little Green Men: Soldiers, Military Training, and the Construction of Rural Masculinities. (United States)

    Woodward, Rachel


    Examines military training in the United Kingdom; the construction of military masculinities, particularly the ideal type of the warrior hero; and the role of the countryside (as the training location) and rurality (as a social construction) in that process. Argues that becoming an infantry soldier means being molded to this hegemonic model of…

  8. Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard


    War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old...... comedy, the independent mercenary becomes a central character of New Comedy. Thus the comic view on soldiers reflects the martial attitudes and ideologies of contemporary society....

  9. Psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between insomnia and cognitive problems in military soldiers. (United States)

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R


    There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells (United States)


    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  11. Public-academic partnerships: working together to meet the needs of Army National Guard soldiers: an academic-military partnership. (United States)

    Dalack, Gregory W; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia; Gorman, Lisa; Spinner, Jane; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle; McDonough, Susan; Greden, John F; Ames, Barbara; Francisco, Burton; Anderson, James R; Bartolacci, James; Lagrou, Robert


    The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have greatly increased the number of veterans returning home with combat exposure, reintegration issues, and psychiatric symptoms. National Guard soldiers face additional challenges. Unlike active duty soldiers, they do not return to military installations with access to military health services or peers. The authors describe the formation and activities of a partnership among two large state universities in Michigan and the Michigan Army National Guard, established to assess and develop programming to meet the needs of returning soldiers. The process of forming the partnership and the challenges, opportunities, and benefits arising from it are described.

  12. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014 (United States)


    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  13. Dynamics of moral judgments in young soldiers during the period of military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevskiy D.S.


    Full Text Available We have conducted an empirical study of the dynamics of the level of moral judgments in the military. Two groups of Missile Defense Force soldiers present the sample: preparing for demobilization (n=30 and new recruits (n=25. As the methods we used specially developed semi-structured interview modeling the situation of moral choice, and the questionnaire in order to assess the socio-psychological characteristics of the military and their attitude to service. The young soldiers have a positive trend in the development of moral judgments and a greater differentiation in the estimates. It is shown that the old-timers in comparison with newcomers have intensive development of group-oriented and prosocial moral reasoning. It presumably connected with successful adaptation to military service, following the manual, the ability to cope with aggressive impulses, flexibility and value assessments in decision-making. It is noted that educational work with young recruits should include measures to increase group cohesion in the army.

  14. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service. (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan


    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  15. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil. (United States)

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro


    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Investigation of army soldiers readiness about health actions in critical circumstances. Case study: Malek Ashtar Military Garrison’s

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    abdollah vosoughi niri


    Full Text Available Introduction: Health related measures in emergencies are of the issues that, if taken properly, can reduce damages of a disaster effectively. To have this situation happened knowledge of health personnel, crisis staff, and military and other related groups has to improve. This study aimed to determine military staffs’ attitude and knowledge about health measures in emergencies. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted through a self-administrated questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was previously proven. The questionnaire included items on personal information and knowledge and attitude about health measures in emergencies. Using a multi-stage sampling, 190 soldiers of Malek Ashtar Military Garrison in Arak were selected. ANOVA, Kruskal- Wallis, Chi Square, Spearman rho’s coefficient correlation and T-test were used to analyze that data. Results: Findings showed that 43 percent of soldiers had good knowledge of health measures in emergencies. About 11 percent of staff had poor knowledge. Half of staff had an average attitude toward emergency health measures. Concerning the degree of knowledge, no significant difference was observed between soldiers with different levels of education. Regarding knowledge and attitude, there was no statistically significant difference between different age groups. Conclusion: Having a basic knowledge of health measures in emergencies is of salient importance. Considering lack of such basic knowledge among some military staff, provision of training on health related measures for those staff is recommended. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, health measures, military staff, crisis

  17. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers. (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G


    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  18. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W


    .... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...

  19. Recruitment, soldiers and the experience of army life: compulsory military service in Peru and Colombia (1919-1933

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    Carlos Camacho Arango


    Full Text Available The article studies different aspects of mandatory military service in Peru and Colombia from 1919 to 1933 including recruitment; the social, “racial”, and geographical origins of soldiers; and army life in both countries. Documents from military archives in the U.S. and France, as well as writings from Peruvian and Colombian commissioned and non-commissioned officers were the main sources used. The method is comparative and it shows clear features in common, including the scarcity of resources that affected all aspects of service.

  20. Benign joint hypermobility syndrome in soldiers; what is the effect of military training courses on associated joint instabilities?

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    Kamran Azma


    Full Text Available Background: Hypermobile joints are joints with beyond normal range of motion and may be associated with joint derangements. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS among soldiers and effect of training courses on related joint instabilities. Materials and Methods: In a prospective cohort study on 721 soldiers of Iran Army in Isfahan in 2013 the prevalence of joint hypermobility was obtained by using Beighton criteria. Soldiers divided in two groups of healthy and suffered based on their scores. The prevalence of ankle sprain, shoulder and temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocations identified before beginning service by history-taking and reviewing paraclinical documents. After 3 months of military training, a recent occurrence of mentioned diseases was revaluated in two groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-20 software using Independent-T and Chi-square tests. Results: The frequency of BJHS before military training was 29.4%. After passing military training period, the incidence of ankle sprain was significantly higher in suffered group achieving the minimum Beighton score (BS of 4 (4.3%, P = 0.03, 5 (5.5%, P = 0.005 and also 6 out of 9 (6.5%, P = 0.01. The incidence of TMJ dislocation was not significantly different based on a minimum score of 4, while it was higher in suffered group when considering the score of 5 (2.1% and 6 (2.6% for discrimination of two groups (P = 0.03. There was no significant difference between two groups in case of shoulder dislocation anyway. Conclusion: Military training can increase the incidence of ankle sprains and TMJ dislocations in hypermobility persons with higher BS in comparison with healthy people. Therefore, screening of joint hypermobility may be useful in identifying individuals at increased risk for joint instabilities.

  1. Military Nutrition Research: Eight Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna H


    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  2. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    To assess, maintain or improve a soldier's physical/ physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and emotional stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  3. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  4. Effect of Schisandrae on stress system of soldiers undergone high-intensity military training

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    Nan XIA


    Full Text Available Objective To explore the changes in basic serum levels of hypothalamus-pituitrin-adrenal (HPA axis, hypothalamus-pituitrin-gonad (HPG axis and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in repeated acute stress caused by one-week intensive training, and study the effects of oral administration of Schisandrae, salidroside and Schisandrae compound on the contents of those stress hormones and cytokines mentioned above. Methods One hundred and twenty healthy soldiers chosen from junior infantry combat troops who had never received long-term amphibious training were randomly divided into four groups (30 each: group A (Schisandrae compound group, group B (Schisandrae group, group C (salidroside group and group D (control group. Each and every soldier of all the groups underwent high-intensity composite military training, 8 hours per day, for a week. Venous blood sampling was collected at 7:00-8:00 a.m. before and after the training, respectively. Levels of cortisol (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, testosterone (T, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in different groups were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The changes in the levels of all the above mentioned hormones and cytokines in every group were observed and compared. Results In group D, as compared with the pre-stress levels, no marked difference was found in the levels of serum CORT and ACTH (P>0.05, but the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group C, the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group A, the serum levels of CORT, ACTH, T, IL-1 and IL-6 significantly decreased, while that of IL-2 significantly increased (P<0.01. As compared with group D, the level of ACTH in group A and group B, the level of IL-2 in group C significantly decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions  Schisandrae and Schisandrae compound have a marked and lasting inhibitory effect on the activation of HPA axis and the elevation of serum CORT levels induced by stress, while the similar

  5. Long-term military work outcomes in soldiers who become mental health casualties when deployed on operations. (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Fear, Nicola T; Jones, Margaret; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil


    little is known about longer term military work outcomes in UK military personnel who develop mental health problems when operationally deployed. Deployed Field Mental Health Teams (FMHTs) who support them follow the principles of "Forward Psychiatry," aiming to treat psychiatric casualties close to the front line to maximize operational effectiveness and occupational retention. to examine the short- and long-term military work outcomes in soldiers deployed to Iraq between 2003 and 2007 who were referred to the FMHT. FMHT clinical records were linked to occupational records with 825 resulting matches. 71.6% of the referred soldiers with a documented short-term military work outcome returned to their operational unit, and 73.5% of those who had a documented long-term military work outcome served on for a period in excess of two years. Adjusting for potential confounders, a shorter service length and removal from the operational theatre were both strongly associated with premature discharge; however, it was not possible to determine the severity of the presenting mental health problem and assess whether this impacted outcome. the results of this study support the use of the Forward Psychiatry principles in achieving good short-term military work outcomes. Utilizing these principles, three-quarters of those referred to the FMHT were returned to their deployed unit and approximately three-quarters of those assessed by the FMHT remained in service two years after referral. We suggest that these are positive work outcomes; however, being evacuated out of the operational environment and having a short service length were both associated with premature discharge, though we were unable to examine the role of illness severity.

  6. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). (2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performs analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. (3...

  7. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna


    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). 2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performed analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. 3...

  8. Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction (United States)


    a mother with depression may be less sensitive to her child’s cues, and may feel less efficacious as a parent, decreasing her application of...functioning, spouse depression , spouse anxiety, child mental health symptoms and service use, and Soldier job satisfaction. Spouse depression was Soldiers with PTSD and their spouses, and also to describe rates of spouse depression and anxiety, as well as child mental health problems. The

  9. Body mass index predicts selected physical fitness attributes but is not associated with performance on military relevant tasks in U.S. Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Pierce, Joseph R; DeGroot, David W; Grier, Tyson L; Hauret, Keith G; Nindl, Bradley C; East, Whitfield B; McGurk, Michael S; Jones, Bruce H


    Army body composition standards are based upon validated criteria; however, certain field-expedient methodologies (e.g., weight-for-height, body mass index [BMI]) may disqualify individuals from service who may otherwise excel on physical performance and military-relevant tasks. The purpose was to assess soldier physical performance and military-specific task/fitness performance stratified by BMI. Cross-sectional observational study. Male (n=275) and female (n=46) soldiers performed a wide-array of physical fitness tests and military-specific tasks, including the Army physical fitness test (APFT). Within-sex performance data were analyzed by BMI tertile stratification or by Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) weight-for-height (calculated BMI) screening standards using ANOVA/Tukey post-hoc or independent t-tests, respectively. BMI stratification (higher vs. lower BMI) was associated with significant improvements in muscular strength and power, but also with decrements in speed/agility in male and female soldiers. Within the military specific tasks, a higher BMI was associated with an increased APFT 2-Mile Run time; however, performance on a 1600-m Loaded March or a Warrior Task and Battle Drill obstacle course was not related to BMI in either sex. Male and Female soldiers who did not meet ABCP screening standards demonstrated a slower 2-Mile Run time; however, not meeting the ABCP BMI standard only affected a minimal number (∼6%) of soldiers' ability to pass the APFT. Military body composition standards require a careful balance between physical performance, health, and military readiness. Allowances should be considered where tradeoffs exist between body composition classifications and performance on physical tasks with high military relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Das unterschätzte Potenzial: Soldatinnen in den russischen Streitkräften [The Underestimate Potential: Female Soldiers in the Russian Military

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    Christine Eifler


    Full Text Available Since the military plays a vital role in Russian society, it is also of central importance in the process of social transformation in Russia and thus in the re-construction of gender that is going on in Russian society. So what does mean that the number of female soldiers has increased enormously since 1992? It will be argued that while on the one hand this could be read as a head-start of women in a male-dominated organization, on the other this is not to be mistaken as a one way advancement. The official military discourse and the perspectives of female soldiers are very different. While in the hegemonial military discourse women are a temporal phenomenon, female soldiers themselves take great efforts to gain a sustained and accepted position in the military. Further questions pursued in this paper are: Why do Russian women want to serve in the military? What are male-female relations in the army? And: What are the professional experiences of female soldiers in Russia?

  11. Perceived job demands during military deployment : What soldiers say in Afghanistan (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Euwema, M.


    Military deployment is inherently demanding and military organizations have to prepare their personnel for a broad range of operational demands. So far, it remains unclear how perceptions of operational demands differ between distinct military units. Using a cross-sectional design, this study

  12. Vitamin D status, dietary intake, and bone turnover in female Soldiers during military training: a longitudinal study

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    Lutz Laura J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91 during US Army basic combat training (BCT. Methods Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions. Results White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OHD levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OHD levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction  Conclusions These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training.

  13. Soldiers of the State: An Alternative View of Civil-Military Relations in America Today

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hooker, Richard D


    .... Far from overstepping its bounds, America's military operates comfortably within constitutional notions of separated powers, participating appropriately in defense and national security policymaking...

  14. How Soldiers Perceive the Drinking Environment in Communities near Military Installations (United States)

    Besse, Kelsey; Toomey, Traci L.; Hunt, Shanda; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Widome, Rachel; Nelson, Toben F.


    Excessive alcohol use among military personnel is a significant concern. A potential contributor to this problem may be alcohol-serving environments around military installations; however, limited information is available about these environments. We conducted focus groups and interviews with Army personnel from two installations regarding soldier…

  15. Armed to farm: Soldiering the success of military veterans in new poultry, livestock and agroforestry enterprises (United States)

    Farming offers a viable avenue for returning veterans to transition into society and capitalizes on skills that made them successful in the military. The goal of this project is to develop and expand on a personalized comprehensive/integrated educational program that provides military veterans and b...

  16. Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation (United States)

    Keats, Patrice A.


    This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish soldiers 2.5 years after military deployment in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerup, Janne; Andersen, Søren Bo; Høgh (Hogh), Annie


    Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N...... = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U...

  18. Danish Soldiers Narrate Civil-Military Interaction: Experience, Critique and "Identifying Best Practices"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    In the aftermath of military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, Western militaries have been grabbling not only with these – for many – ‘failed missions’, but also with how to deal with a contemporary moment of hybrid wars and ‘chronic crisis’ (Vigh 2008). While numerous political commissions...... missions. Based on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork and extensive interviews as part of a larger research initiative ‘Perception and Legitimacy in CivilMilitary Interaction’, the paper excavates and discusses two selected cases on the basis of soldiers’ own experience and memory of what constitutes...... theory? By triangulating with other sources (field reports, media sources and others), the paper demonstrates how the discussion of these cases serves theoretically as a window into the tensions of critique in the military as part of a world where critique has – in the words of Bruno Latour (2004) – ‘run...

  19. Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey


    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing anti-oxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating...

  20. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness (United States)


    presented a poster on his method for the analysis of vitamin C at the national meeting of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) in...probably contribute to the cognitive dysfunction which is evident even with short-term sleep deprivation. Since serotonergic mechanisms in the brain completed during the fourth quarter. He has added the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR (SCID) to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

  1. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience]. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas


    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment: Application of machine learning methods to a prospective study of Danish soldiers. (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B; Madsen, Trine; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R


    Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers by application of machine learning (ML) methods. ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. Robust pre- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross-validation. Together, these indicators forecasted long term posttraumatic stress responses with high accuracy (pre-deployment: AUC = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.81-0.87), post-deployment: AUC = 0.88 (95% CI = 0.85-0.91)). This study utilized a previously collected data set and was therefore not designed to exhaust the potential of ML methods. Further, the study relied solely on self-reported measures. Pre-deployment and early post-deployment identification of risk for long-term posttraumatic psychopathology are feasible and could greatly reduce the public health costs of war. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Armed to farm: Veteran labeled marketing, education and research strategies to soldier success for military veteran farmers (United States)

    Farming opportunities for veterans are a natural fit and capitalize on skills that made them successful in the military. The project is specifically designed to develop comprehensive training and technical assistance programs and enhance market profitability for military veteran farmers. The project...

  4. "Vojnik i Narod" The Soldier and the People Civil-Military Relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Civil-Military Relations in Slovenia (United States)


    province.57 Slaven Letica calls the JNA’s status a "state within a state.ං The Constitution of 1974, Yugoslavia’s sixth (and last), was an attempt by...defense units were led by the ’"Remington, 66. 57 Dean, 45-46. ’° Slaven Letica , Obecana Zemlja [The Promised Land] (Zagreb: Globus International, 1992...Soldiers, Peasants and Bureaucrats. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1982. Letica , Slaven. Obecana Zemlja. [The Promised Land]. Zagreb: Globus

  5. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel


    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  6. Headache triggers in the US military. (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C


    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  7. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  8. "Vojnik i Narod" The Soldier and the People Civil-Military Relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Civil-Military Relations in Slovenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derdzinski, Joseph


    .... Slovenia, seven years after independence, provides a relevant model of study. I argue that Slovenia is an example of a healthy civil- military relationship. Other South Slav states must consider Slovenia's example when analyzing and adopting their own political structures.

  9. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages. (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.


    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  10. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...

  11. Finding solid ground for soldiers' payment: 'military soliciting' as brokerage practice in the Dutch Republic (c.1600-1795)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandon, P.; Conway, S.; Torres Sánchez, R.


    Troops’ payment was one of the largest items on the war budgets of early modern states. Private financiers played a crucial role in ensuring the steady flow of funds necessary to maintain the armed forces. This paper investigates the role of ‘military solicitors’ in the Dutch Republic, who acted as

  12. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines. (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Military Ethics: Reflections on Principles - the Profession of Arms, Military Leadership, Ethical Practices, War and Morality, Educating the Citizen-Soldier, (United States)


    lyric outcry: "Vietnam horrors, moral bankruptcy." Surely, the principal strength of the essay is to be found in that compressed passion, for Gabriel...and societal acts, revealing deepest-held principles through conduct. As the essays in this book attest, when we ques- tion personal, community, or... essays to that continuing examination of ethical issues which is so crucial to military life. Bradley C. Hosmer Lieutenant General, US Air Force


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Possamai


    Full Text Available The North of the State of Brazil contributed to the creation and defense of Colonia do Sacramento. This article will address the military conscription in the Northern provinces, especially in Bahia and Pernambuco during the Eighteenth Century. We will give emphasis to the period of the siege from 1735 to 1737, when a large conscription was enforced in Portugal and in many Brazilian provinces in order to avoid the conquest of Sacramento by the Spaniards, as well as to strengthen Rio Grande de São Pedro, from which few men could return home.

  15. Effects of a Nutrient-Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey


    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing antioxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating in the U.S...

  16. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton


    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  17. US Army Soldiers With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon


    US Army soldiers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were previously considered unfit for duty. For highly motivated soldiers, current advanced technologies allow the possibility of not only retention on active duty, but military deployment. We present our experience at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, taking care of soldiers newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Through intensive diabetes education, extensive military and physical training, optimization of diabetes technology, and remote real-time monitoring, soldiers are able to continue to serve their country in the most specialized roles.

  18. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard...

  19. Defense Health Care: Oversight of Military Services' Post-Deployment Health Reassessment Completion Rates Is Limited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Randall B


    .... DOD oversees the military services compliance with PDHRA requirements through its deployment health assessment quality assurance program and is required to report on the quality assurance program...

  20. Witnessman: The software tool to design, analyse and assess a witness pack with respect to military and medical effects on an (UN)protected (DIS)mounted soldier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Th.L.A.; Kemper, R.; Huisjes, H.; Knijnenburg, S.G.; Pronk, A.; Klink, M.H. van


    Witness packs are widely used to enable the characterization of fragments generated during ballistic experiments. To assess the effect of fragment impact on an exposed (dis)mounted soldier a follow-up Vulnerability/ Lethality (V/L) simulation is essential. The overall process is elaborative and time

  1. Hold Your Fire!: Preventing Fratricide in the Dismounted Soldier Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Jong, J.L. de; Hiemstra, H.; Schutte, K.; Marvelde, A. te; Norden, W. van; Spaans, M.


    Since WWI, an estimated 15% of all soldiers killed in combat are attributed to fratricide, and recent military operations show no decline. A substantial amount concerns fratricide incidents between dismounted soldiers. However, most techniques introduced to prevent fratricide focus on inter-vehicle

  2. Technological evaluation of gesture and speech interfaces for enabling dismounted soldier-robot dialogue (United States)

    Kattoju, Ravi Kiran; Barber, Daniel J.; Abich, Julian; Harris, Jonathan


    With increasing necessity for intuitive Soldier-robot communication in military operations and advancements in interactive technologies, autonomous robots have transitioned from assistance tools to functional and operational teammates able to service an array of military operations. Despite improvements in gesture and speech recognition technologies, their effectiveness in supporting Soldier-robot communication is still uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of gesture and speech interface technologies to facilitate Soldier-robot communication during a spatial-navigation task with an autonomous robot. Gesture and speech semantically based spatial-navigation commands leveraged existing lexicons for visual and verbal communication from the U.S Army field manual for visual signaling and a previously established Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV). Speech commands were recorded by a Lapel microphone and Microsoft Kinect, and classified by commercial off-the-shelf automatic speech recognition (ASR) software. Visual signals were captured and classified using a custom wireless gesture glove and software. Participants in the experiment commanded a robot to complete a simulated ISR mission in a scaled down urban scenario by delivering a sequence of gesture and speech commands, both individually and simultaneously, to the robot. Performance and reliability of gesture and speech hardware interfaces and recognition tools were analyzed and reported. Analysis of experimental results demonstrated the employed gesture technology has significant potential for enabling bidirectional Soldier-robot team dialogue based on the high classification accuracy and minimal training required to perform gesture commands.

  3. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers. (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A


    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  4. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment. (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E


    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  5. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B


    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Conference on soldiers, civilians and environment protection against contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The military and civil aspects of radiation protection have been discussed. The special emphasize has been done on contamination monitoring of environment, soldier radiological protection during hypothetical warfare, radiological health hazard assessment, post Chernobyl contamination control of environment and food products in Poland, dose equivalent estimation and radiometric control equipment used in military and civil service

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen


    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  8. Characterization of Foot-Strike Patterns: Lack of an Association With Injuries or Performance in Soldiers. (United States)

    Warr, Bradley J; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Goss, Donald L; Frykman, Peter N; Seay, Joseph F


    Characterize the distribution of foot-strike (FS) patterns in U.S. Army Soldiers and determine if FS patterns are related to self-reported running injuries and performance. 341 male Soldiers from a U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion ran at their training pace for 100 meters, and FSs were recorded in the sagittal plane. Participants also completed a survey related to training habits, injury history, and run times. Two researchers classified FS patterns as heel strike (HS) or nonheel strike (NHS, combination of midfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns). Two clinicians classified the musculoskeletal injuries as acute or overuse. The relationship of FS type with two-mile run time and running-related injury was analyzed (p ≤ 0.05). The Soldiers predominately landed with an HS (87%) and only 13% were characterized as NHS. Running-related injury was similar between HS (50.3%) and NHS (55.6%) patterns (p = 0.51). There was no difference (p = 0.14) between overuse injury rates between an HS pattern (31.8%) and an NHS pattern (31.0%). Two-mile run times were also similar, with both groups averaging 14:48 minutes. Soldiers were mostly heel strikers (87%) in this U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion. Neither FS pattern was advantageous for increased performance or decreased incidence of running-related injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Resilience training with soldiers during basic combat training: randomisation by platoon. (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Williams, Jason; McGurk, Dennis; Moss, Andrew; Bliese, Paul D


    Resilience Training has the potential to mitigate mental health symptoms when provided during initial military training. The present study examined the impact of Resilience Training on US soldier well-being and attitudes during Basic Combat Training. Platoons were randomly assigned to Resilience Training or Military History provided during the first few days of Basic Combat Training. Surveys were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The sample resulted in a total of 1,939 soldiers who completed at least the baseline and one follow-up survey. There were no significant differences between conditions in terms of depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or sleep problems. However, while anxiety decreased in both conditions, the rate of decrease was faster in the Resilience Training condition. In contrast, Resilience Training had a slower rate of increase in group cohesion over time than the Military History condition. In addition, Resilience Training was associated with greater confidence in helping others and received more positive ratings than Military History. Findings demonstrate that the brief Resilience Training studied here may have some utility in supporting mental health and peer support but may not benefit unit climate. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  10. [A historical medical study of post-traumatic stress disorders in World War I soldiers]. (United States)

    Lemke, S


    The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was to be verified considering World War I soldiers suffering from psychiatric and neurologic diseases. According to hypotheses, relevant circumstances of the case history and significance of the direct military action had to be examined. In 2002, medical histories dating from 1914 to 1921 of male soldiers in Jena, Germany, were analyzed. Statistical examination carried out by means of the chi2 test revealed mental illness more frequently in soldiers with relevant family anamnesis, previous psychiatric treatment, or degree of voluntariness than in soldiers not so characterized. The accumulation of mental illnesses was lower in soldiers involved in military actions or directly with firing weapons than in soldiers never involved in battles. These results are in accord with historical but not current literature on PTSD. The author is of the opinion that psychiatric anamnesis is not given enough consideration in the concept of PTSD.

  11. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development (United States)

    Berghaus, Paul T.


    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  12. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.


    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  13. Soldiers suicides risk factors in the Serbian Army Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analyses of suicide risk factors enable to undertake appropriate preventive measures within the Suicide Prevention Program in Military Environment, which was fully applied in 2003 in the Serbian Army Forces. The aim of our study was to identify the most important suicide risk factors in soldiers within the period from 1998 to 2007. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The control group was matched with adapted soldiers by socio-demographic factors. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Comparison of groups of soldiers was done by the t-test and Pearson's χ2-test. Results. A total of 35 soldiers aged 22-49 years (21.76 ± 1.76 years on average committed suicide within the period 1999-2007, the 2/3 within, and 1/3 out of a military compound. More than one half soldiers committed suicide after transferring to a different post. Soldiers who committed suicide had come from uncompleted, dysfunctional families (p < 0.05. In comparison with the adapted soldiers, in premilitary period they had more interpersonal problems with their comrades (p < 0.001 and problems with law (p < 0.05. During military service, alcohol consumption was less presented; they used to have fewer separation problems (p < 0.05 and to be rarely awarded (p < 0.001 in comparison with the adapted soldiers. A soldier who committed suicide was emotionally and socially immature persons. The commonest motives for suicide were: decreased capacity of adaptation to military service, actual psychic disturbance, emotional interruption, fear of environment judgment, actual family problems, but in the one fifth, motive stayed unrecognized. Conclusion. Suicide risk factors in soldiers are primary in their immature personality organization, its relation with family and military environment factors which, in coexistence with actual life accidents, result in suicide as a consequence. A

  14. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn


    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  15. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument (United States)


    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  16. Soldiers Magazine | Telling the Soldier's story (United States)

    Soldier, fight in the Korean War and serve as a intelligence agent during the Cold War. 14 April 2016 professionals vying for Best Medic bragging rights. 14 October 2016 The U.S. Army's Hispanic-American Medal of possible On Women's Equality Day, learn about 19 ways U.S. Army women helped make the 19th Amendment

  17. Patents for Soldiers (United States)


    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  18. Health promotion research in active duty army soldiers: The road to a fit and ready force. (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Elshaw, Evelyn B; Szekely, Barbara M; Pflugeisen, Bethann

    In the last decade the Military Health System has changed its paradigm to focus on health promotion and disease prevention. This paper reviews a decade of research exploring the effects of military life on nutritional status and bone health of Army soldiers. Descriptive and experimental approaches have assessed occupational demands on soldiers in variable environments that require optimal nutrition status and physical health. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military has risen dramatically and the implications for health, readiness, productivity, and cost demands attention. The related nutritional deficits such as suboptimal vitamin D status likely contribute to musculoskeletal injuries which have a greater impact on the performance and readiness of soldiers than any other medical condition in peacetime or conflict. The greatest challenge in our system for health is optimizing the performance of all soldiers while minimizing health risks and long-term disability resulting from occupational hazards, particularly those inherent to war. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Backache amongst soldiers: a prospective analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Janjua, S.H.; Tarrar, A.M.


    Objective: To investigate the occupational predispositions of low back pain in soldiers Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, from June 2009 to Jan 2010. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed to investigate the occupation-related issues in soldiers reporting with low backache in surgical OPD at CMH Bahawalpur. It included personal and occupational factors. The body mass index was also calculated. Of the 107 male soldiers assessed, 90 were enrolled into the study. The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis of the data using SPSS 17.0. Results: Of all the soldiers evaluated (n=90), 32 (35.6%) were clerks/computer operators, 21 (23.1%) were drivers and 14(15.6%) were signal men. All were males (100%) and the average BMI was 24.8 kg/m2. The 69 (76.7%) patients who had backache had prolonged working hours (average 10.8 hours per day), 68 (75.6%) patients used to sleep over tape/nawar bed and only 12 (13.3%) had been sleeping on mattresses. The onset of pain was sudden in 58 (64.4%) patients. 27 (23.3%) had developed acute backache after prolonged sitting, 21 (30%) after lifting heavy objects. The pain was exaggerated by doing morning physical training 82 (91.1%), prolonged sitting 61 (67.8%) and standing with rifle 24 (26.7%). Conclusion: The prevalence of low back pain in sedentary occupation or soldiers on sitting jobs was higher 69 (76%). The number of working hours on these occupations was associated with occurrence as well as aggravation of low back pain. (author)

  20. Chronic daily headache in U.S. soldiers after concussion. (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Flynn, Frederick G; Erickson, Jay C


    -one percent of soldiers with CDH screened positive for PTSD compared to only 18% of soldiers with episodic headache. The prevalence of CDH in returning U.S. soldiers after a deployment-related concussion is 20%, or 4- to 5-fold higher than that seen in the general U.S. population. CDH following a concussion usually resembles chronic migraine and is associated with onset of headaches within the first week after concussion. The mechanism and number of concussions are not specifically associated with CDH as compared to episodic headache. In contrast, PTSD symptoms are strongly associated with CDH, suggesting that traumatic stress may be an important mediator of headache chronification. These findings justify future studies examining strategies to prevent and treat CDH in military service members following a concussive injury. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  1. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  2. Relationship between general nutrition knowledge and diet quality in Australian military personnel. (United States)

    Kullen, Charina J; Farrugia, Jamie-Lee; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T


    A balanced diet informed by sound nutrition knowledge is key for operational readiness and the health of military personnel. Unfortunately, research suggests that military personnel have inadequate dietary intakes. This study assessed general nutrition knowledge, diet quality and their association in Australian military personnel. A convenience sample of male military personnel (n 211) including Army soldiers and officers completed a validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) and FFQ. The GNKQ assessed knowledge of dietary guidelines (Section A), sources of nutrients (Section B), choosing everyday foods (Section C) and diet-disease relationships (Section D). The Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) was used to assess diet quality from FFQ data. Statistical analyses included the χ 2 test, Spearman's correlation test, t test, median test, ANCOVA and ordinal logistic regression. The mean total GNKQ score was 52·7 %. Participants performed best on Section A (58·5 %) followed by Sections B (57·3 %) and C (57·0 %) and worst on Section D (31·0 %). Overall, officers scored significantly higher than soldiers (58·7 v. 51·9 %, P=0·001). Age was weakly but positively correlated with GNKQ total scores (r 0·307; Pdiet quality are recommended in this population, especially in soldiers.

  3. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers. (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf


    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  4. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau


    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  5. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.


    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  6. Characterizing spouse/partner depression and alcohol problems over the course of military deployment. (United States)

    Erbes, Christopher R; Kramer, Mark; Arbisi, Paul A; DeGarmo, David; Polusny, Melissa A


    Spouse/partners of military personnel demonstrate elevated levels of distress during military deployments, yet there is insufficient information about courses of adjustment over time. The current study identified trajectories of depression and alcohol use problems and predictors of those trajectories across the deployment cycle. National Guard soldiers (N = 1973) and spouses/intimate partners (N = 1020) completed assessments of risk/protective factors and baseline measures of mental health functioning 2 to 5 months prior to soldiers' 1-year deployments (Time 1) to Kuwait/Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn or Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Partners' mental health was reassessed at 4 months (Time 2) and 8 months (Time 3) after soldiers deployed, and both spouses/partners and soldiers were reassessed 2-3 months postdeployment (Time 4). Latent class growth modeling of partner depression symptoms over time revealed 4 groups: Resilience (79.9%), Deployment Distress (8.9%), Anticipatory Distress (8.4%), and Post-Deployment Distress (2.7%). Three alcohol misuse trajectories were identified: Resilience (91.3%), Deployment Onset (5.4%), and Deployment Desistance (3.3%). Predeployment predictors of partners' depression symptom trajectories varied by group and included soldier reports of stressors and social support and partner levels of neuroticism, introversion, disconstraint, and reported stressors. Predeployment predictors of alcohol misuse trajectories varied by group, and included soldier levels of alcohol misuse as well as partner neuroticism, disconstraint, and family readiness. Delineating and predicting trajectories of partner adjustment can allow for better targeted interventions toward those most at risk for heightened distress or alcohol problems over the deployment cycle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Health of Military Personnel Before Southwest Asia Deployment. (United States)

    Skabelund, Andrew J; Rawlins, Frederic A; McCann, Edward T; Lospinoso, Joshua A; Burroughs, Lorraine; Gallup, Roger A; Morris, Michael J


    Significant concern exists regarding the respiratory health of military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia, given their exposures to numerous environmental hazards. Although the deployed military force is generally assumed to be fit, the pre-deployment respiratory health of these individuals is largely unknown. Soldiers deploying to Southwest Asia were recruited from the pre-deployment processing center at Fort Hood, Texas. Participants completed a general and respiratory health questionnaire and performed baseline spirometry. One thousand six hundred ninety-three pre-deployment evaluations were completed. The average age of the participants was 32.2 y, and 83.1% were male. More than one third of surveyed solders had a smoking history, 73% were overweight or obese, and 6.2% reported a history of asthma. Abnormal spirometry was found in 22.3% of participants. Soldiers with abnormal spirometry reported more asthma (10.1% vs 5.1%, P military personnel that delineates factors potentially associated with the development of pulmonary symptoms and/or disease. This study suggests that deploying soldiers are older, heavier, frequently smoke, and may have undiagnosed pre-deployment lung disease. Abnormal spirometry is common but may not represent underlying disease. Self-reported asthma, wheezing, and slower 2-mile run times were predictive of abnormal spirometry. Pre-deployment evaluation of military personnel identified numerous soldiers with active pulmonary symptoms and abnormal spirometry. When combined with questions regarding asthma history, wheezing and exercise intolerance, spirometry may identify individuals at risk for deployment-related respiratory complaints. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment (United States)


    ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design Sebastian Karwaczynski Lead Restraint Development Engineer...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design 14...has to date not accounted for the Soldier gear burden. •Actual loads imparted onto the occupant in a representative military vehicle crash test

  9. Military Personnel: DOD Needs More Complete Data on Active-Duty Servicemembers Use of Food Assistance Programs (United States)


    four installations that were selected based on size, cost of living, and presence of food assistance programs. What GAO Recommends GAO... criteria . In an April 2010 report, GAO identified 18 government programs that provide food assistance to low-income households. Servicemembers may apply...Vary 7 DOD Does Not Know the Extent to Which Servicemembers Use Food Assistance Programs 13 Military Officials at Selected Installations Cited

  10. Nutritional Status and Physical and Mental Performance of Special Operations Soldiers Consuming the Ration, Lightweight, or the Meal, Ready-to-Eat Military Field Ration during a 30-Day Field Training Exercise (United States)


    in long foot patrols in West Malaysia subsisting on 1770 or 3080 kcal/day for 12 days. He concluded that 12 days of energy restriction did not impair...loss observed in this study was moderate and similar to that strived for in the treatment of moderate obesity in young males (19). These soldiers...however, were not obese , but lean active athletes. In individuals such as these, any loss of lean body mass (muscular tissue) is highly undesirable. This


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions .... includes a rights-based culture, a rise in individualism, a change in the acceptance of ... military leadership with the military unions that poses the greatest threat to civil– ... 10 European Organisation of Military Associations, available at ...

  12. Non-Deployable Soldiers: Understanding the Army’s Challenge (United States)


    Effects ( MFE ) specialties. As reflected in table 3, most Soldiers opted for DEIP within 90 days of LAD or after deployment.86 Unit Type from LAD...Eligible Takers Take % BCTs ៊ / Dep 14935 5163 34.6% 91-180 6663 1246 18.7% 181+ 841 89 10.6% Total 22439 6498 29.0% MFE ៊ / Dep 8352 2232 26.7% 91...MEDPROS Medical Protection System MFE Maneuver, Fires, and Effects MILPER Military Personnel [message] MMC Medical Management

  13. Understanding and Managing the Career Continuance of Enlisted Soldiers (United States)


    presented. Although this presentation would be informative, it would use comedy and action movie clips to maintain the interest of the recruits...a history of Family members serving in the military. Additionally, Soldiers may join the Army due to a lack of alternative job options, as a way to...joining, pre-existing behavioral or emotional difficulties, physical injuries or problems, family history of service, and ability to adjust to Army

  14. Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers: Exploring multiple mediation model. (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui


    The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility. (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A


    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  16. Military Occupational Stressors in Garrison, Training, and Deployed Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy


    As part of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) program to model soldier stress, health, and performance, stressors are analyzed across a variety of environments in terms of their impact on military personnel...

  17. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics during Irregular War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, John W


    ... is?" or "Justice according to whom?" The relative nature of the term "justice" creates a problem for military ethics, particularly when soldiers try to determine what actions are morally acceptable when they are engaged in irregular warfare...

  18. Moral autonomy in Australian legislation and military doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams


    Full Text Available Australian legislation and military doctrine stipulate that soldiers ‘subjugate their will’ to government, and fight in any war the government declares. Neither legislation nor doctrine enables the conscience of soldiers. Together, provisions of legislation and doctrine seem to take soldiers for granted. And, rather than strengthening the military instrument, the convention of legislation and doctrine seems to weaken the democratic foundations upon which the military may be shaped as a force for justice. Denied liberty of their conscience, soldiers are denied the foundational right of democratic citizenship and construed as utensils of the State. This article critiques the idea of moral agency in Australian legislation and military doctrine and is concerned with the obligation of the State to safeguard the moral integrity of individual soldiers, so soldiers might serve with a fully formed moral assurance to advance justice in the world. Beyond its explicit focus on the convention of Australian thought, this article raises questions of far-reaching relevance. The provisos of Australian legislation and doctrine are an analogue of western thinking. Thus, this discussion challenges many assumptions concerning military duty and effectiveness. Discussion will additionally provoke some reassessment of the expectations democratic societies hold of their soldiers.

  19. Military Family Coping Project - Phase II (United States)


    Anxiety, Life Satisfaction , Addiction, Trauma 4 The Military Family Coping Project reflects two phases. The first consisted of a series of focus...need for and guided the work of the Military Family Coping Project Phase II funded by TATRC. The Military Family Coping Project Phase II was...solidarity. For the purposes of family functioning analyses, married and unmarried soldiers were analyzed separately because marital status affects

  20. Arms and the University: Military Presence and the Civic Education of Non-Military Students (United States)

    Downs, Donald Alexander; Murtazashvili, Ilia


    Alienation between the U.S. military and society has grown in recent decades. Such alienation is unhealthy, as it threatens both sufficient civilian control of the military and the long-standing ideal of the "citizen soldier." Nowhere is this issue more predominant than at many major universities, which began turning their backs on the…

  1. The Influence of Combat Experience on Psychologically Healthy Soldiers' Attentiveness to Environmental Threats. (United States)

    Ranes, Bethany; Long, Chris P; Traynham, Stephanie; Hayes, Amanda


    In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain. We predict that the intensity of one's combat experience positively influences Soldiers' attention to environmental threats. Participants included U. S. Army Soldiers with a score of 50 or below on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Participants completed the Combat Exposure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental prediction task we employed assesses the expectation of an intrusively loud white noise sound that occurred on three variable patterns in a pseudorandomized order. Each tone pattern was used 20 times over a total of 60 trials. The experimental prediction task included two neutral tones (700 and 1,300 Hz) that were presented in a repeated pattern along with a 100-dB burst of white noise (0.5-second duration). In each trial, one of three possible tone combinations was presented. To assess their attentiveness to threats, participants were asked to continuously rate their expectancy of the burst of white noise using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. VAS ratings were collected at controlled points throughout the task. None of the participants reported scores on any of the diagnostic surveys that met standards for clinical significance. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the overall effect of the three prediction conditions on participants' VAS ratings. There was a significant

  2. Stereotypes of women solders about army and military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalahin


    Analysis of the results of the study showed that among women soldiers are not common stereotypes of patriarchal views on the presence of women in the military. The results showed dissemination of gender­determined stereotypes that structure the military activity in male and female. Stereotypes denying the allocation of military activity differences for men and women, are also common among women soldiers. Analysis of the results of the study revealed a new group of respondents who share the dominant stereotypes about the role of women in the military.

  3. The reality of war: wounded and fallen Norwegian soldiers in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Bjerkan, Geir; Iversen, Petter; Asak, Håkon; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Rolandsen, Bent-Åge


    Norway has been contributing military forces to Afghanistan since 2001. The following is an overview of all combat-related injuries and deaths among Norwegian soldiers in the period from 2002 to 2010. All medical records for Norwegian military personnel in Afghanistan in the period to January 2011 were reviewed and those who fell or were injured during combat were identified. The mechanism and anatomical region of the injury were registered and an injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS) and probability of survival score were calculated. Deaths were classified according to military trauma terminology and were additionally assessed as either "non-survivable" or "potentially survivable". There were 45 injury incidents with nine deaths among 42 soldiers. The injury mechanism behind seven of the deaths was an improvised explosive device (IED). All injuries resulting in deaths were "non-survivable". Seven soldiers were severely injured. The mechanisms were bullet wounds, IED, splinters from grenades and landmine explosions. Twenty nine incidents involving 28 soldiers resulted in minor injuries. The most frequent mechanism was ricochet or splinter injury from shooting or an exploding grenade. The majority of conflict-related injuries in Afghanistan were due to explosions. The mechanism and anatomical distribution of the injuries was the same among Norwegian soldiers as among allies. The deaths were due to extensive injuries that were non-survivable.

  4. [French military nurses during the First World War (1914-1918)]. (United States)

    Garcia, Julien; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tabbagh, Xavier; Olier, François


    In 1914, beingthe heirs of the ambulance soldiers who had been created during the time of the Empire, the military males-nurses were overwhelmed by the armies huge needs in paramedics. Facing both the callings of commandment which demanded the recruitment of soldiers and the necessity--which had been set up as a duty by the health service--to attend the doctors, the military male-nurse gave way, in 1918 to a new comer: the female military nurse.

  5. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers. (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas


    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  6. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M


    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  7. Suicide in the military environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko M.


    Full Text Available Suicide of soldiers has its own specifics, because not only it represents the tragedy for the individuals and their family, but also has great psychological effect on social environment and military unit in which it occurs. Suicide can be caused by variety of factors, as reported in the literature. The case reviewed in this article presents multilateral determination of suicide, with particular stress on the character of each individual and social interaction of soldiers. Psychological complex of basic inferiority, low educational level, family problems, and poor integration into military unit could be considered the leading determinants of this suicide. This emphasizes the importance of certain preventive measures such as more rigorous psychological selection for specific military duty, and the education of non-commissioned officers for better recognition and understanding of pre-suicidal syndrome.

  8. Soldier Survey Data Book (United States)


    programs and policies and to increase the knowledge base needed for informed decisionmaking. Data for the soldier survey were collected in on-site...Subsequent analyses will be prepared in the form of reports and other materials designed to meet the needs of Army program and policy staff and other...743 * -C Mm C mm l W G gi’ 4.18L. 1 mmI 2In m -P 6- C-4 , 4. C14 u Cc 3 4.1 41 4.1 - C I-D 6. 1 +5 4.1 4-- C-4 RO C4 r ’ C-4, CD 0 f33 Es *i C5 W CNCD


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  10. Reasons for medical evacuations of soldiers serving in International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan. (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gregulski, Robert


    The article presents the results of a research study into the reasons for medical evacuations of Polish military personnel taking part in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2013. The authors have analysed medical records of 485 soldiers who were medically evacuated out of a combat zone in Afghanistan for battle injuries, non-battle injuries and diseases. Each medically evacuated Polish soldier was subjected to statistical analysis. The study population comprised 25,974 soldiers assigned to the Polish Military Contingent Afghanistan in the given period. From 2007 to 2013, 1.9% of the Polish military personnel (n = 485) participating in the ISAF operation in Afghanistan were evacuated for medical reasons before the scheduled termination of their contract. 40.6% of all medical evacuations were due to battle injuries, 32.4% due to non-battle injuries, and 27.0% due to diseases. ISAF is an example of a combat operation, in which battle injuries remain the leading health problem in mission participants. 3 of 4 Polish soldiers who were medically evacuated from Afghanistan were no longer fit for military service in the area of operations due to the traumas they had suffered.

  11. The Military Health Care System May Have the Potential to Prevent Health Care Disparities. (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Bosny J; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B


    The existence of health disparities in military populations has become an important topic of research. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to examine health disparities, as related to access to care and health status, among active duty soldiers and their families. Specifically, the purpose of this analysis was to evaluate whether health disparities exist in access to care and health outcomes of patient satisfaction, physical health status, and mental health status according to race, gender, and sponsor rank in the population of active duty soldiers and their family members. In this cross-sectional study, active duty army soldiers and family members were recruited from either one particular army health clinic where they received their health care or from an adjacent shopping center frequented by eligible participants. Data were collected using validated measures to assess concepts of access to care and health status. Statistical analysis, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate differences in study outcome measures across four key demographic subgroups: race, gender, sponsor rank, and component (active soldier or family member). A total of 200 participants completed the study questionnaires. The sample consisted of 45.5 % soldiers and 54.5 % family members, with 88.5 % reporting a sponsor rank in the category of junior or senior enlisted rank. Mean scores for access to care did not differ significantly for the groups race/ethnicity (p = 0.53), gender (p = 0.14), and sponsor rank (p = 0.10). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed whether respondents were active soldiers or their family members (p = 0.36). Similarly, there were no statistically significant subgroup (race/ethnicity, gender, sponsor rank, or component) differences in mean patient satisfaction, physical health, and mental health scores. In a health equity system of care such as the military health care system, active duty

  12. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations. (United States)

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam


    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems.

  13. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim. (United States)

    Penslar, Derek


    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  14. Bringing the Military Back in: Military Expenditures and Economic Growth 1990 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor


    Full Text Available After the “peace bonus” era, global military expenditures have escalated sharply despite some worldwide declines in military personnel. Theories on the economic impacts of the military institution and escalated military spending greatly differ and include arguments that they either improve domestic economic performance or crowd out growth-inducing processes. Empirical findings on this matter are inconclusive, in part due to a failure to disentangle the various dimensions of military expenditures. We further suggest that modern sociology's relative inattention to such issues has contributed to these shortcomings. We explore a new dimension of military spending that clarifies this issue—military expenditures per soldier —which captures the capital intensiveness of a country’s military organization. Our cross-national panel regression and causal analyses of developed and less developed countries from 1990 to 2003 show that military expenditures per soldier inhibit the growth of per capita GDP, net of control variables, with the most pronounced effects in least developed countries. These expenditures inhibit national development in part by slowing the expansion of the labor force. Labor-intensive militaries may provide a pathway for upward mobility, but comparatively capital-intensive military organizations limit entry opportunities for unskilled and under- or unemployed people. Deep investments in military hardware also reduce the investment capital available for more economically productive opportunities. We also find that arms imports have a positive effect on economic growth, but only in less developed countries.

  15. Demystifying the Citizen Soldier (United States)


    limitations. Indeed, as historian John Shy notes, General George Washington “never ceased complaining about his militia—about their undependability, their...Despite his misgiving about their military utility, George Washington declared in 1791 that “the militia is certainly an object of primary importance...century. The Guard was still 22 Louis Cantor , “Elihu Root and the National Guard: Friend or Foe

  16. Optical correction and quality of vision of the French soldiers stationed in the Republic of Djibouti in 2009. (United States)

    Vignal, Rodolphe; Ollivier, Lénaïck


    To ensure vision readiness on the battlefield, the French military has been providing its soldiers with eyewear since World War I. A military refractive surgery program was initiated in 2008. A prospective questionnaire-based investigation on optical correction and quality of vision among active duty members with visual deficiencies stationed in Djibouti, Africa, was conducted in 2009. It revealed that 59.3% of the soldiers were wearing spectacles, 21.2% were wearing contact lenses--despite official recommendations--and 8.5% had undergone refractive surgery. Satisfaction rates were high with refractive surgery and contact lenses; 33.6% of eyeglass wearers were planning to have surgery. Eye dryness and night vision disturbances were the most reported symptoms following surgery. Military optical devices were under-prescribed before deployment. This suggests that additional and more effective studies on the use of military optical devices should be performed and policy supporting refractive surgery in military populations should be strengthened.

  17. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter


    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  18. Drug Use in Soldiers: Family and Peer Contextual Associations. (United States)

    Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili


    Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.

  19. The Army’s Military Decision Making: Adequate or Update and Expand (United States)


    requires creative efforts by every Soldier and Marine.”63 Expanding the soldier base would allow for greater creativity in order to better deal with...military can overcome these deficiencies? I believe that to achieve the initial stage of success would be to create a segment of soldier telecommuters ...problems. By expanding the thinking base, the Army can expand the breadth and depth into areas currently unreachable. Telecommuting allows for several


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This lack of bullying literature stemming from military environments ... Of parallel importance, which is not facilitated in any military bullying ... In their study involving Norwegian Army soldiers, Østvik and Rudmin20 .... post-traumatic stress.52 Moreover, the negative effects of workplace bullying also .... Devalue and critical of.

  1. Race and masculinities in the South African military | Mankayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the themes that emerged in the interviews. The findings suggest that the military encompasses masculine characteristics and defines soldiering as an embodiment of traditional male sex practices. This article concludes that military context and culture exaggerate and emphasise hegemonic masculinity and heterosexuality ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential as soldiers in a modern army than. Western Jews. ... economic, diplomatic and military', as one definition of 'total war' puts it,6 it would seem logical that the military authorities who have been entrusted with the task of defending a country should try to ..... contributed, agriculture seems to be the field where armed ...

  3. Research on deployed Danish soldiers: why is knowledge derived from a small, Nordic country relevant for other countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Soren Bo


    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Danish military has deployed more than 40,000 soldiers to war zones, especially to the Balkans, Iraq, and Afghanistan. To the war in Afghanistan alone, the Danish Defense has to date deployed 9,918 unique soldiers with a total of 18,015 deployments. The total...... focusing on the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in this sample will be presented, and the relevance and generalizability of these findings to military populations from other countries will be discussed....

  4. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert


    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  5. Stem cell applications in military medicine


    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J


    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military m...

  6. Prevalence of Pain Diagnoses and Burden of Pain Among Active Duty Soldiers, FY2012. (United States)

    Reif, Sharon; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Ritter, Grant A; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo


    Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations. Data are from the MHS Data Repository including outpatient MHS direct care encounters, claims for outpatient purchased care from civilian providers, and vital records, for all soldiers continuously enrolled in TRICARE and not deployed in FY 2012. Ten pain-related diagnostic categories were conceptually derived for this analysis and identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We report the FY 2012 prevalence at the soldier-level (N = 297,120) for each pain category as a primary diagnosis, as well as in any diagnostic position, and at the soldier-level for reported pain level, duration, and military duty limitations. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to analyses. Overall, 63% of soldiers had at least one pain diagnosis and 59% had a primary pain diagnosis during FY 2012. Back and neck pain (22%), non-traumatic joint disorders (28%), and other musculoskeletal pain (30%) were the most frequent categories for primary diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of soldiers had a primary pain diagnosis in more than one category, and 23% in four or more categories. Moderate or severe pain levels were reported at least once during the year by 55% of soldiers who had a primary pain diagnosis. In the subsample of soldiers with primary pain in the first quarter, duration and chronicity of pain diagnoses varied by pain category: the back and neck pain category was the most common for both persistent

  7. Effects of Combat Deployment on Anthropometrics and Physiological Status of U.S. Army Special Operations Forces Soldiers. (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Taylor, Jonathan C; Means, Gary E; Williams, Kelly W; Murphy, Nancy E; Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McClung, James P


    U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally characterized whether combat deployment alters anthropometrics or biochemical markers of physiological status in a SOF population of frequent deployers. Effects of modern combat deployment on longitudinal changes in anthropometrics and physiological status of elite U.S. Army SOF soldiers (n = 50) were assessed. Changes in measures of body composition, grip strength, physiological status, and health behaviors from baseline to postdeployment were determined with paired t test and McNemar's statistic. Baseline measures were obtained between 4 and 8 weeks before deployment. Deployment length was a uniform duration of time between 3 and 6 months (all soldiers completed the same length of deployment). Post hoc analyses determined change in body mass within quartiles of baseline body mass with paired t test and associations between change in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and change in body mass with correlation coefficient. The study was approved by the Human Use Review Committee at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. In response to deployment, increases in lean mass (77.1 ± 7.6 to 77.8 ± 7.5 kg), maximum grip strength (57.9 ± 7.2 to 61.6 ± 8.8 kg), and conduct of aerobic (156 ± 106 to 250 ± 182 minutes/week) and strength training (190 ± 101 to 336 ± 251 minutes/week) exercise were observed (p < 0.05). Increases in serum SHBG (35.42 ± 10.68 to 38.77 ± 12.26 nmol/L) and decreases in serum cortisol (443.2 ± 79.3 to 381.9 ± 111.6 nmol/L) were also observed (p < 0.05). Body mass changes were dependent on baseline body mass. Soldiers in the lowest quartile of baseline body

  8. Soldier Health Habits and the Metabolically Optimized Brain. (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion


    Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance. (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E


    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  10. Virtual realities: The use of violent video games in U.S. military recruitment and treatment of mental disability caused by war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Derby


    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes the U.S. military's contradictory use of violent video gaming technologies for recruiting young gamers to the military, training soldiers for combat, and clinically treating soldiers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD caused by military service. Using a Disability Studies lens, I discuss the commercial video game Full Spectrum Leader/Warrior, the U.S. Army's free video game America's Army, and the virtual reality exposure therapy application Virtual Iraq. I also discuss missions and omissions from the literature on these gaming technologies, which bolsters the underlying ableism of military culture that inhibits soldiers from recovering from PTSD.

  11. Declarative terrain modeling for military training games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, J.K.. de; Bidarra, R.


    Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain

  12. Soldiering Shaky Grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya


    lives’. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing demand for military labour not just locally, but also regionally and globally. Based on long-term fieldwork in Sierra Leone, this presentation addresses how ex-militias come to operate as providers of global security as a consequence......In Sierra Leone, the large population of militarily skilled young men that became available in the aftermath of the civil war is considered a major threat to security. As a result, the internationally-steered peace process targeted the demobilisation and reintegration of ex-militias into ‘civilian...... of this demand. With point of departure in the recruitment of Sierra Leonean ex-militias for mercenary missions in Guinea and for private security contracting in Iraq, the paper discusses the linkages and discrepancies between local and global security provision, and the ambiguities that characterises...

  13. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One. (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo


    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  14. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter


    Public concern about soldiers’ mental health has increased over the last decade. Yet the large literature on the mental health problems of returning soldiers relies primarily on self-reported measures that may suffer from non-response bias, usually refers to older conflicts, and focuses mainly...... on specific diagnoses such as PTSD. Another challenge is that the differences between soldiers and non-soldiers are not necessarily causal, instead possibly reflecting an underlying propensity towards active military service. Using the objective measures of hospitalizations and the purchase of mental health...... medication, this paper is the first to investigate the effect of recent military deployments on a broader measure of mental health, for a full population of Danish soldiers and a comparison group of eligible men. We exploit a panel of Danish health administrative records and use propensity score matching...

  15. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale


    Unal Demirtas; Gultekin Ozturk; Aslan Ozden


    During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health co...

  16. Masculinity and sexual practices in the military: a South African study. (United States)

    Mankayi, Nyameka; Vernon Naidoo, Anthony


    The military's organisational culture tends to condone or encourage risk-taking behaviour. Willingness to accept and engage in risk-taking behaviour is central to good soldiering and is strongly associated with readiness for combat. This core attribute of military culture might predispose soldiers to engage in other higher-risk behaviours, such as unprotected sex. Soldiers' working and living conditions, such as the high level of work-related stress in combat and deployment situations, and being away from home and particularly from partners for long periods, are reported as contributing to high levels of HIV in military groups. This article explores the underlying value system in the military context as a strong enabler of higher-risk sexual practices among male soldiers. This not only obstructs gender equality in the military organisation but also impacts on the prevalence of HIV. The article derives from a qualitative study of a diverse sample of 23-33-year-old male South African soldiers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 fulltime soldiers and the interview transcripts were analysed through interpretive discourse analysis. The findings highlight that when soldiers are on deployment or attending military courses they are often tempted to engage in higher-risk sexual behaviours. Underlying this narrative are patriarchal notions that men 'need' sex and cannot endure being without it, and that they have the right therefore to demand it from their partner or to seek it from multiple partners. Male soldiers' sexual practices appear to be rationalised predominantly on the basis of the 'male sexual drive' discourse. The research found an association between work in the military and higher-risk sexual activity. Therefore, we argue that tackling HIV in the military demands critical examination of the constructions of masculinity.

  17. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers. (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit


    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  18. Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infections in critically injured Canadian forces soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisebois Ronald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military members, injured in Afghanistan or Iraq, have returned home with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The source of these infections is unknown. Methods Retrospective study of all Canadian soldiers who were injured in Afghanistan and who required mechanical ventilation from January 1 2006 to September 1 2006. Patients who developed A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP were identified. All A. baumannii isolates were retrieved for study patients and compared with A. baumannii isolates from environmental sources from the Kandahar military hospital using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results During the study period, six Canadian Forces (CF soldiers were injured in Afghanistan, required mechanical ventilation and were repatriated to Canadian hospitals. Four of these patients developed A. baumannii VAP. A. baumannii was also isolated from one environmental source in Kandahar – a ventilator air intake filter. Patient isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other and from the isolates cultured from the ventilator filter. These isolates were resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials including the carbapenems. Conclusion These results suggest that the source of A. baumannii infection for these four patients was an environmental source in the military field hospital in Kandahar. A causal linkage, however, was not established with the ventilator. This study suggests that infection control efforts and further research should be focused on the military field hospital environment to prevent further multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections in injured soldiers.

  19. Supporting Military Families with Young Children throughout the Deployment Lifecycle (United States)


    Group, Family Advocacy, Child and Family Behavioral Health, Soldier Readiness Program (SRP), Family Life Chaplain Training Center, Fort Hood Housing ...resilience and child well-being, Soldier and non-deploying parents must successfully meet the challenges of caregiving throughout the deployment cycle ...reintegration program to reduce parenting stress and promote family resilience in Active Duty military families through all phases of the deployment cycle

  20. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging (United States)


    WP-200816) Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging June 2016 This document has been cleared for public release...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/06/2016 Cost and Performance Report 04/01/2008 - 01/01/2015 Nanotechnology for...Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center Robin Altmeyer - AmeriQual U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering

  1. Declarative Terrain Modeling for Military Training Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M. Smelik


    Full Text Available Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain models. Terrain plays a key role in many military training games, as for example, in our case game Tactical Air Defense. However, current manual terrain editors are both too complex and too time-consuming to be useful for instructors; automatic terrain generation methods show a lot of potential, but still lack user control and intuitive editing capabilities. We present a novel way for instructors to model terrain for their training games: instead of constructing a terrain model using complex modeling tools, instructors can declare the required properties of their terrain using an advanced sketching interface. Our framework integrates terrain generation methods and manages dependencies between terrain features in order to automatically create a complete 3D terrain model that matches the sketch. With our framework, instructors can easily design a large variety of terrain models that meet their training requirements.

  2. Risk factors for disability discharge in enlisted active duty Army soldiers. (United States)

    Piccirillo, Amanda L; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R


    The rate of permanent disability retirement in U.S. Army soldiers and the prevalence of combat-related disabilities have significantly increased over time. Prior research on risk factors associated with disability retirement included soldiers retired prior to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To identify risk factors for disability discharge among soldiers enlisted in the U.S. Army during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this case-control study, cases included active duty soldiers evaluated for disability discharge. Controls, randomly selected from soldiers with no history of disability evaluation, were matched to cases based on enlistment year and sex. Conditional logistic regression models calculated odds of disability discharge. Attributable fractions estimated burden of disability for specific pre-existing condition categories. Poisson regression models compared risk of disability discharge related to common disability types by deployment and combat status. Characteristics at military enlistment with increased odds of disability discharge included a pre-existing condition, increased age or body mass index, white race, and being divorced. Musculoskeletal conditions and overweight contributed the largest proportion of disabilities. Deployment was protective against disability discharge or receiving a musculoskeletal-related disability, but significantly increased the risk of disability related to a psychiatric or neurological condition. Soldiers with a pre-existing condition at enlistment, particularly a musculoskeletal condition, had increased odds of disability discharge. Risk of disability was dependent on condition category when stratified by deployment and combat status. Additional research examining conditions during pre-disability hospitalizations could provide insight on specific conditions that commonly lead to disability discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual realities: The use of violent video games in U.S. military recruitment and treatment of mental disability caused by war


    John Derby


    This article critically analyzes the U.S. military's contradictory use of violent video gaming technologies for recruiting young gamers to the military, training soldiers for combat, and clinically treating soldiers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by military service. Using a Disability Studies lens, I discuss the commercial video game Full Spectrum Leader/Warrior, the U.S. Army's free video game America's Army, and the virtual reality exposure therapy application Virtual Iraq...

  4. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test for Combat Arms soldiers. (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Sharp, Marilyn A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Baker, Todd A; Canino, Maria C; Zambraski, Edward J


    The United States Army sought to create a legally defensible, scientifically validated physical pre-employment screening test. The purpose of this study was to identify a single combination of predictor tests that would predict physical performance on all of the criterion measure task simulations relevant to the Combat Arms military occupational specialties. Concurrent validation. Data from 838 (608 males, 230 females) soldiers who completed both the criterion measure task simulations of a military occupational specialty and up to 14 predictor tests were used in the development of the test batteries. Stepwise regressions were used to identify test batteries that significantly predicted performance on the criterion measure task simulations of the military occupational specialties. Three test batteries were developed based on different subsets of the predictor tests: Test Battery 1 consisted of the medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump, and arm ergometer (adjusted R 2 =0.80-0.85, pTest Battery 2 consisted of the medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, and standing long jump (adjusted R 2 =0.79-0.80, pTest Battery 3 consisted of the standing long jump, 1-minute push-ups, 1-minute sit-ups, 300m sprint, and Illinois agility test (adjusted R 2 =0.55-0.71, pTest Battery 2 was selected as the Army's Occupational Physical Assessment Test. It was highly predictive of performance of the Combat Arms military occupational specialties, required no complex equipment, and covered a range of physical fitness domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Military Landscape: Why US Military Installations Are Located Where They Are (United States)


    why military installations were created and placed on the landscape. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising ... mobi - lization training locations in the United States Instead of recruiting thou- sands of soldiers, the Army had to prepare for the millions of

  6. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States. (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E


    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  7. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War (United States)


    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  8. Effect of Mandatory Unit and Individual Physical Training on Fitness in Military Men and Women. (United States)

    Anderson, Morgan K; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Bushman, Timothy T; Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H


    The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of additional individual physical training (PT) in addition to mandatory unit PT as well as other risk factors on physical fitness. A cross-sectional design. This study was conducted on a US military installation. Participants were 6290 male and 558 female active duty US Army soldiers in 3 light infantry brigades. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires asking about individual characteristics, PT, and physical fitness. Cut points were established for soldiers scoring within the top 33% for each of the 3 Army Physical Fitness Test events (2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups) and top 50% in each of the tests combined for overall performance. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate analyses were calculated. Variables impacting physical fitness performance of men and women included increased body mass index, leading unit PT sessions, and individual distance running mileage. Other variables impacting physical performance for men included increased age, smoking, and individual resistance training. Soldiers performing additional individual PT demonstrated a positive influence on fitness compared to unit PT participation alone. Increased age and being overweight/obese negatively influenced physical fitness. To enhance fitness performance through unit PT, running by ability groups and resistance training should be encouraged by leadership.

  9. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Enhancing Configuration Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witmer, Bob


    ...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...

  10. Improving Military Change Detection Skills in a Virtual Environment: The Effects of Time, Threat Level, and Tutorials (United States)


    Computation, 2(4), 355–372. Orvis, K. A., Horn, D. B., & Belanich, J. (2009). An examination of the role individual differences play in videogame -based...2010). Are soldiers gamers? videogame usage among soldiers and implications for the effective use of serious videogames for military training

  11. Homicidal violence during foreign military missions - prevention and legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G T Okulate


    Full Text Available Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks. Design and setting. Nigeria was actively involved in peacekeeping missions in Liberia between 1990 and 1996. During this period, intentional homicidal attacks occurred among the Nigerian military personnel. Post- homicidal interviews conducted among the perpetrators were combined with evidence obtained at military courts to produce the case studies. Subjects. Six Nigerian military personnel who attacked other Nigerians or soldiers from allied forces, with homicidal intent. Results. Possible predisposing and precipitating factors for these attacks were highlighted. The possibility of recognising these factors before embarking on overseas missions was discussed, so that preventive measures could be instituted as far as possible. Finally, medico-legal implications of homicide in the military were discussed. Conclusions. A certain degree of pre-combat selection is essential to exclude soldiers with definite severe psychopathology. A clearly defined length of duty in the mission areas and adequate communication with home could reduce maladjustment. Health personnel deployed to mission areas should be very conversant with mental health issues so that early recognition of psychological maladjustment is possible.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja GARB


    Full Text Available Before employment in the Slovenian Armed Forces, all candidates have to finish basic military training. The empirical survey, done in 2011 on a group of military candidates in a Slovenian Training Center, checked the motivation, level of skills and education, attitudes of leaders, military identity, prestige and social support of these candidates. The results confirmed the skills’ and fighters’ orientation of Slovenian soldiers, but surprised with the paleomodern motivators for military job.

  13. Fighting for peace: Veterans and military families in the anti-Iraq War movement [Book Review (United States)

    David Flores


    A young man or woman joins the military. He or she goes to war. Soldiers are trained and expected to follow orders and support the war effort. Likewise, military families are expected to support the military and, therefore, also support the war. As C. Wright Mills put it, “In the military world, debate is no more at a premium than persuasion: one obeys and one...

  14. Computer-Based Training at a Military Medical Center: Understanding Decreased Participation in Training among Staff and Ways to Improve Completion Rates (United States)

    Lavender, Julie


    Military health care facilities make extensive use of computer-based training (CBT) for both clinical and non-clinical staff. Despite evidence identifying various factors that may impact CBT, the problem is unclear as to what factors specifically influence employee participation in computer-based training. The purpose of this mixed method case…

  15. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability (United States)


    the advantages and disadvantages of using the different assignment approaches. In order to better understand how initial military training policies...account. We did not evaluate the advantages or disadvantages of either accounting practice. Page 31 GAO-15-626 Army Reserve Components...coordinate on a mutually agreeable time. The Army Reserve and Army National Guard provided us individual soldier availability data from the five main

  16. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War


    Maguire, Anna


    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  17. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq (United States)


    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  18. Incidence and risk factors for backpack palsy in young Korean soldiers. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, E-J


    Backpack palsy (BPP) is a common aetiology of brachial plexopathy in military hospitals. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of BPP in young Korean soldiers. We identified enlisted patients who were diagnosed with BPP from a review of the medical records of all the Korean military hospitals in 2011 and 2012 and investigated their clinical findings and medical study results. To identify risk factors of BPP, we also surveyed, by questionnaire, healthy recruits of a company in a training centre who had just finished night marches. We divided them according to whether they had paresthaesia and/or weakness in their arm(s) during marching and compared their characteristics. The incidence of BPP in Korean soldiers was 29.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 17.2 to 24.3). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with BPP than it was in healthy recruits. Among healthy recruits, those who had experienced paresthaesia and/or weakness during marching had a significantly lower BMI than did those who had not. We report the incidence of BPP in young Korean soldiers. A low BMI was a risk factor for BPP. These results may be helpful in establishing a strategy for the prevention of BPP in the setting of military training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers. (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B


    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  20. Sleep as a component of the performance triad: the importance of sleep in a military population. (United States)

    Lentino, Cynthia V; Purvis, Dianna L; Murphy, Kaitlin J; Deuster, Patricia A


    Sleep habits among military populations are problematic. Poor sleep hygiene occurs in parallel with the global increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome and contributes to a decrease in performance. The extent of sleep issues needs to be quantified to provide feedback for optimizing warfighter performance and readiness. This study assessed various health behaviors and habits of US Army Soldiers and their relationship with poor sleep quality by introducing a set of new questions into the Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness (CSF2) Global Assessment Tool (GAT). Subjects included 14,148 US Army Active, Reserve, and National Guard members (83.4% male) who completed the GAT, a self-report questionnaire that measures 4 fitness dimensions: social, family, emotional, and spiritual. Approximately 60 new questions, including ones on sleep quality, within the fifth CSF2 dimension (physical) were also answered. A sleep score was calculated from 2 questions validated in the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale (0 to 6). Poor sleepers (5-6) were significantly (Psleep quality in a group of military personnel and indicated significant associations between quality of sleep and physical performance, nutritional habits, measures of obesity, lifestyle behaviors and measures of psychosocial status. Targeted educational interventions and resources are needed to improve sleep patterns based on behaviors that can be most easily modified.

  1. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness. (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda


    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers. (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent


    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  3. Examination of soldier target recognition with direct view optics (United States)

    Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.


    Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C


    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  5. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 (United States)


    ... Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military... Publication and Rules Manager, Strategic Business Directorate, Business Services, 1 Soldier Way, Building...: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background: The MFTURP No. 1 governs...

  6. Teaching Mental Skills for Self-Esteem Enhancement in a Military Healthcare Setting (United States)


    Soldiers, and 915 Army Civilians (Sheftick & Holzer, 2007). Self - Esteem Rosenberg (1965) provided a broad and frequently cited description of self ...Teaching Mental Skills for Self - Esteem Enhancement in a Military Healthcare Setting Jon Hammermeister, Michael A. Pickering and LTC Carl J. Ohlson...The need exists for educational methods which can positively influence self - esteem , especially in demanding military healthcare settings. Warrior

  7. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment. (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard


    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. A Structural Equation Modeling of the Relationships between Depression, Drug Abuse and Social Support with Suicidal Ideation among Soldiers in Iran in 2015. (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh


    Military service is a crucial period in the lives of young people and during this period soldier facing with multiple psychosocial problems. The present study aimed to explore structural analysis of the relationships between depression, drug abuse, social support and the risk of suicidal ideation among Military Medical University soldiers in Iran. In the present correlational research, a sample of 176 soldiers, from three units, was selected using randomly stratified sampling. Data were collected through the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and the Possibility of Drug Abuse Scale (LDAS). Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model, identify direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial correlates. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software (Verson22). out of the whole subjects, 28.4% had suicidal ideation and 65.3% had degrees of depression (mild to severe). A significant reverse relationship was observed between social support and suicidal ideation (pdrug abuse and suicidal ideation. The final structural model indicated that 74% of the variance in suicidal ideation was explained by the three examined variables of depression, social support and drug abuse. The overall results showed that the risk of suicidal ideation, depression and drug abuse are relatively significant in Military Medical University soldiers requiring taking serious actions by the authorities and other relevant organizations in order to improve the psychosocial health status of these soldiers.

  9. On self-identity: the process of inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the military. (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael


    Identity development among individuals with disabilities may depend on their being included in central institutions in society. The centrality of the military in Israeli society makes it a highly important setting for inclusion and identity development. We examined the self-identity of young adults with intellectual disabilities who serve in the "Equal in Uniform" project. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with intellectual disabilities. Findings showed that military service helped develop the identity of soldiers, which enhanced their self-efficacy. Participants described their participation in the military as an opportunity to take an active part in socially valued roles. Findings are discussed with reference to the effect of the project on the self-identity of individuals with intellectual disabilities. The meaning of successfully serving in socially valued roles for self-efficacy is discussed. Implications for rehabilitation Completing socially valued roles leads to greater self-efficacy, enhanced self-esteem and greater psychological well-being among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities within a central community setting (specifically the military) allows them to deal with issues of identity development, as it does for other young people without intellectual disabilities. Receiving ongoing positive input from others for one's abilities and success is a conducive factor in positive identity formation.

  10. Comradery, community, and care in military medical ethics. (United States)

    Gross, Michael L


    Medical ethics prohibits caregivers from discriminating and providing preferential care to their compatriots and comrades. In military medicine, particularly during war and when resources may be scarce, ethical principles may dictate priority care for compatriot soldiers. The principle of nondiscrimination is central to utilitarian and deontological theories of justice, but communitarianism and the ethics of care and friendship stipulate a different set of duties for community members, friends, and family. Similar duties exist among the small cohesive groups that typify many military units. When members of these groups require medical care, there are sometimes moral grounds to treat compatriot soldiers ahead of enemy or allied soldiers regardless of the severity of their respective wounds.

  11. The stigma of mental health problems in the military. (United States)

    Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M; Britt, Thomas W; Castro, Carl Andrew


    The present review addresses the perceived stigma associated with admitting a mental health problem and seeking help for that problem in the military. Evidence regarding the public stigma associated with mental disorders is reviewed, indicating that the public generally holds negative stereotypes toward individuals with psychological problems, leading to potential discrimination toward these individuals. The internalization of these negative beliefs results in self-stigma, leading to reduced self-esteem and motivation to seek help. Even if soldiers form an intention to seek help for their psychological difficulty, barriers to mental health care may prevent the soldier from receiving the help they need. An overall model is proposed to illustrate how the stigma associated with psychological problems can prevent soldiers getting needed help for psychological difficulties and proposed interventions for reducing stigma in a civilian context are considered for military personnel.

  12. Vitamin D status in female military personnel during combat training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health. Recent data suggest that vitamin D and calcium supplementation might affect stress fracture incidence in military personnel. Although stress fracture is a health risk for military personnel during training, no study has investigated changes in vitamin D status in Soldiers during United States (US Army basic combat training (BCT. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the effects of BCT on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels in female Soldiers. Serum 25(OHD and PTH were assessed in 74 fasted Soldier volunteers before and after an 8-week BCT course conducted between August and October in Columbia, South Carolina. In the total study population, 25(OHD levels decreased (mean ± SD from 72.9 ± 30.0 to 63.3 ± 19.8 nmol/L (P P P P

  13. The Tatmadaw and Human Rights: Changing a Military Mindset (United States)


    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES A paper submitted to the Naval War College faculty in partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Joint Military...partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Department of Joint Military Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views...soldiers continued to conduct “large-scale abuses such as land confiscation, informal taxation, and forced labour .” 26 However, in the current

  14. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David


    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  15. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers. (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J


    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications (United States)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin


    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  17. A comparison between two methods of measuring total fat in the Iranian soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rahmani


    Full Text Available Background: Constant checkup and control of body fat mass is an important parameter for the health and efficiency of individuals in any society. This parameter is especially crucial in army soldiers since physical fitness is a key role in reaching high physical performance, health, and survival in war. Objective: This study was designed to compare two methods of measuring fat, the method of circumference-based military equations (CBEs to estimate body fat mass compared to the method of skinfold thickness-based equation (SBE in Iranian soldiers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 Iranian soldiers were recruited in Tehran (2016. Height, waist, and neck circumference were measured and the total body fat mass was calculated using CBEs. Then, the results of using Pierson’s correlation and Bland-Altman methods were compared with Jackson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness measurement. Findings: The total body fat mass of the soldiers using CBEs was 18.94±6.30% and using Jakson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness formula was 17.43±4.45%. The correlation between the two methods was r=0.984 and SEE was 1.1% (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more body fat makes the error waist circumference greater. The error is so much that don’t use this method to measure fat.

  18. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R


    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P hand sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes towards disclosing a mental illness among German soldiers and their comrades. (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Rose, Carolyn; Holzhausen, Fabian; Mulfinger, Nadine; Krumm, Silvia; Corrigan, Patrick W; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Zimmermann, Peter


    Many soldiers with mental illness (SWMIs) struggle with the decision whether to disclose their condition in or outside the military. This study therefore explored views on (self-)labeling as 'mentally ill', experiences of discrimination and coping, risks and benefits of (non-)disclosure, service use, disclosure decisions and consequences of disclosing. Active-duty SWMIs as well as soldiers without mental illness (commanding officers; enlisted ranks) and military social workers participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. SWMIs perceived negative stereotypes about their group (weakness, incompetence, blame, malingering) and saw stigma as a barrier to help-seeking. Being labeled 'mentally ill' was seen as harmful for one's career. Self-labeling led to poor self-esteem, greater need for help and feelings of weakness. Many SWMIs had experienced discrimination, such as gossip or inappropriate comments. Social isolation was a disadvantage of secrecy. Most SWMIs preferred selective disclosure and many did not disclose to their family. Military staff without mental illness expressed partly different views and described organizational challenges posed by SWMIs. Our findings suggest that disclosure decisions are personal and difficult and that stigma remains a barrier to re-integration and recovery of SWMIs in the military. Implications for interventions to support SWMIs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rehabilitation and restoration: orthopaedics and disabled soldiers in Germany and Britain in the First World War. (United States)

    Anderson, Julie; Perry, Heather R


    This article offers a comparative analysis of the evolution of orthopaedics and rehabilitation within German and British military medicine during the Great War. In it, we reveal how the field of orthopaedics became integral to military medicine by tracing the evolution of the discipline and its practitioners in each nation during the war. In doing so, however, we document not only when and why both medical specialists and military officials realized that maintaining their respective national fighting forces depended upon the efficient rehabilitation of wounded soldiers, but also how these rehabilitative practices and goals reflected the particularities of the military context, civilian society and social structure of each nation. Thus, while our comparison reveals a number of similarities in the orthopaedic developments within each nation as a response to the Great War, we also reveal significant national differences in war-time medical goals, rehabilitation treatments and soldierly 'medical experiences'. Moreover, as we demonstrate, a social and cultural re-conceptualization of the disabled body accompanied the medical advancements developed for him; however, this re-conceptualization was not the same in each nation. Thus, what our article reveals is that although the guns of August fell silent in 1918, the war's medical experiences lingered long thereafter shaping the future of disability medicine in both nations.

  1. Prevention of low back pain in the military cluster randomized trial: effects of brief psychosocial education on total and low back pain-related health care costs. (United States)

    Childs, John D; Wu, Samuel S; Teyhen, Deydre S; Robinson, Michael E; George, Steven Z


    Effective strategies for preventing low back pain (LBP) have remained elusive, despite annual direct health care costs exceeding $85 billion dollars annually. In our recently completed Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) trial, a brief psychosocial education program (PSEP) that reduced fear and threat of LBP reduced the incidence of health care-seeking for LBP. The purpose of this cost analysis was to determine if soldiers who received psychosocial education experienced lower health care costs compared with soldiers who did not receive psychosocial education. The POLM trial was a cluster randomized trial with four intervention arms and a 2-year follow-up. Consecutive subjects (n=4,295) entering a 16-week training program at Fort Sam Houston, TX, to become a combat medic in the U.S. Army were considered for participation. In addition to an assigned exercise program, soldiers were cluster randomized to receive or not receive a brief psychosocial education program delivered in a group setting. The Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool was used to extract total and LBP-related health care costs associated with LBP incidence over a 2-year follow-up period. After adjusting for postrandomization differences between the groups, the median total LBP-related health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred LBP-related costs during the 2-year follow-up period were $26 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($60 vs. $86, respectively, p=.034). The adjusted median total health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred at least some health care costs during the 2-year follow-up period were estimated at $2 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($2,439 vs. $2,441, respectively, p=.242). The results from this analysis demonstrate that a brief psychosocial education program was only marginally effective in reducing LBP-related health care costs and was not effective in reducing

  2. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel. (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir


    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  3. Military involvement in post-conflict transformation in African peace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict transformation is a difficult task, since renewed violence frequently flares up after peace treaties have been signed. Failure to end conflict often results from misinterpretations of the roots or an inability of the conflict to create suitable exit strategies for military forces. Reintegration of soldiers and non-state armed ...

  4. Private Military Companies: Analyzing the Use of Armed Contractors (United States)


    school of thought further argues that it is immoral and unethical for private, non-state actors to control force or engage in military functions...was able to defeat a rebel force on behalf of a legitimate government. It was also able to rescue thousands of child soldiers from slavery as well

  5. Military Innovation in the New Normal (United States)


    fundamentally flawed. Having Soldiers with regional affiliation, cultural appreciation, and language proficiency makes sense . The concept simply fails in...36 Recognizing the urgency of this training deficiency, both First and Second Marine Divisions published their respective...Witch Hunt,” sen -barbara- boxer/the-gops-benghazi-witch-h_b_5315857.html (accessed 28 Jan 2015). Military Innovation in

  6. Personality and Adaptation to Military Trauma


    Rademaker, A.R.


    The goal of this dissertation is to increase understanding of individual differences in vulnerability for and resilience to trauma in military personnel. Specifically, the studies in this dissertation examined clinical symptoms and personality profiles of Dutch peacekeepers and sought to elucidate how personality may moderate risk and resilience to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers and veterans. Personality affects the development of trauma-related psychopathology at different ...

  7. Nanowarriors: Military Nanotechnology and Comic Books


    Milburn, Colin


    (Colin Milburn, "Nanowarriors: Military Nanotechnology and Comic Books," Intertexts 9.1 (2005): 77-103. This article is posted at the University of California eScholarship Repository by permission of Texas Tech University Press.) In 2002, MIT's Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN) appropriated copyrighted images from the comic book Radix in a grant proposal to the U.S. Army—a proposal that succeeded in securing $50 million for foundation of the Institute. While this case d...

  8. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.


    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  9. Whatever happened to the soldiers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Refshauge, Anne Dahl


    Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main...... the systematic analysis of the qualitative case studies. This review found that a large amount of projects offering NAT to veterans suffering from PTSD exist in many parts of the world and they present no adverse negative results. Recommendations for future practice and research are posed....... and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited...

  10. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II


    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas


    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  11. Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Mark; Woytowich, Jason; Carlson, Marc


    The main goal of the Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program was to develop prototypes of a novel flexible display technology device for demonstration in a laboratory setting and use in Future Force Warrior (FFW) demonstrations...

  12. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W


    ... R&D organizations during the period 1997 - 2005. The major findings are organized around the topics of training effectiveness, Soldier task performance, and advantages and disadvantages of immersive...

  13. Support of USARIEM Postpartum Soldier Research Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dettori, Joseph


    It is estimated approximately 9% of Army women are pregnant at any one time. Shortly after delivery, postpartum soldiers are expected to return to full duty, meet body fat standards and pass the APFT...

  14. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers. (United States)


    Micronesian), Operations Sergeant; SSG Willie Maxwell, Field First Sergeant; SGT Tipo Toomalatai (Western Samoan), Platoon Sergeant, and SSG Alfredo Taitague...Rican), ESL Instructor and Ms. Norma Garrett (Puerto Rican), ESL Instructor, BSEP Program, Ft Jackson, SC, 16 Jun 81. NARRATIVE Ms. Padilla and Ms...psychiatric disor- de .’s in the Puerto Rican population at large and among Puerto Rican soldiers. Compare these with the US population and Anglo soldiers. 9. Mr

  15. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?


    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias


    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  16. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews (United States)


    domains interact and influence performance. From January to May 2016, the research team conducted three qualitative studies with Soldiers including... Research Questions UNCLASSIFIED 9 • From January to May 2016, the research team conducted a series of qualitative studies with Soldiers from the 82nd...that the Army’s current approach for providing these types of training is not always ideal. Specifically, the train-the-trainer method or use of

  17. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures. (United States)

    Gunderson, C H


    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  18. The Bright Face of Dark Tourism - Military Conflicts and World Travel in the Modern Era


    Mihály Miklós Nagy


    In the history of modern culture, besides its primary task of imposing political will, the military has also served as a major travel institution. The geographical dimensions of wars and the increasingly greater military forces involved have resulted in millions of people being compelled to get to know foreign lands and cultures as soldiers. Thus, military forces have become agents of developing societies’ geographical culture. This phenomenon is the bright face of dark tourism. Still, dark t...

  19. Forces for Good?:Narratives of Military Masculinity in Peacekeeping Operations


    Duncanson, C.


    Evidence of military involvement in sexual exploitation and aggression against civilians on peacekeeping operations has led many feminists to question the appropriateness of using soldiers to create peace. They argue that the problems stem from a particular form of military masculinity, hegemonic within western militaries, associated with practices of strength, toughness and aggressive heterosexuality. Masculinities, however, are multiple, dynamic and contradictory. As they are constructed in...

  20. Psychological characteristics of Swedish mandatory enlisted soldiers volunteering and not volunteering for international missions: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan


    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  1. Myositis ossificans around shoulder following military training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa C Kir


    Full Text Available The myositis ossificans around shoulder in military recruits are not reported yet. Three young male soldiers presented with complaints of palpable mass at the anterior aspect of shoulder; tenderness around the superior part of deltopectoral groove close to acromioclavicular joint; and restriction of shoulder motion. They also noticed ecchymosis and pain around the coracoid process and anterior shoulder region during regular firing exercises. Plain X-rays and computerized tomography showed extra-capsular, dense, irregular structure in the space between pectoralis and deltoid muscles which correlated with heterotopic bone. One patient refused surgical intervention because of the completion of his military serving period. Surgical excision was performed for the other two patients. During surgical exploration, both ossified masses were found in deltopectoral region and mostly in fibers of clavicular and acromial parts of deltoid muscle. Pathological reports confirmed the structure of masses as mature trabecular bone. Postoperatively indomethacin treatment and active shoulder exercises were started until the full range of motion was regained. Mini soft bag was used on the rifle contact area of the shoulder. No complications or recurrences were observed during the 24 months of followup period.

  2. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry


    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  3. Problems of Military Cemeteries Greenery - Case Study of the Military Cemetery in Zvolen (United States)

    Halajová, Denisa; Petreková, Denisa; Bihuňová, Mária


    The intention of this work is to highlight the importance of understanding military cemeteries as objects of cultural and historical heritage and as a part of garden design history. The design and maintenance of cemeteries and graves is a manifestation of the national culture. This is even more evident in military cemeteries, the maintenance of which is regulated by international agreements. Objects of military cemeteries are important places not only from the historical and architectural point of view, but also as green space. Most military cemeteries in Slovakia originated from World War I and II. In Slovakia, 160,000 soldiers were buried, 75,206 of them lost their lives in World War I and 93,000 in World War II. 32,495 war graves are registered by The Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic - 23,316 war graves from World War I and 9,179 from World War II. From the period of World War II, there are 22 cemeteries and graveyards in Slovakia, established for soldiers of the Soviet, German, Romanian and Czechoslovak army. Military cemeteries and memorials are mostly high quality works of architecture and art. This paper focuses on the current situation and restoration issues of military cemeteries by examining the Military Cemetery in Zvolen. In the context of its planned reconstruction, a comprehensive tree assessment has been started in 2016. The Military Cemetery in Zvolen, being one of the largest military cemeteries in Slovakia, consists of The Cemetery of the Soviet Army with 17,628 buried soldiers and The Romanian Cemetery with 11,000 buried soldiers. The Romanian Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries of the Romanian Army in Europe. Both cemeteries were declared national cultural monuments in 1963. In the cemetery, dendrometrical parameters and the health condition of trees were evaluated. In total, there are 825 woody plants. In both cemeteries, coniferous trees prevail, mainly individuals of the genus Thuja (49.4 %). Moreover, the maintenance of

  4. The Adjustment of New Recruits to Military Life in the Chinese Army: The Longitudinal Predictive Power of MMPI-2 (United States)

    Xiao, Lijun; Han, Jing; Han, Jian


    In this article, the authors present the findings of two studies analyzing new recruits' adjustment to army life in the Chinese military. In the first exploratory study, we developed a scale to measure new recruits' adjustment to military life, and found that new soldiers' adaptation could be divided into two distinct types: interpersonal…

  5. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Clarissa ML


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  6. Analysis of Volunteer Soldiers‘ Attitudes to Service in the Lithuanian Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vileikienė Eglė


    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of volunteer soldiers as a link between the Lithuanian military and society, their attitudes towards military service and their motivation to serve in the Lithuanian army. The authors looked at soldiers’ dedication to defend their Homeland and motives for serving in the Lithuanian army, presenting an assessment of the situation in the ranks and their overall satisfaction with military service. Volunteer soldiers’ expectations are also discussed, as well as their motives to remain in service, plus there are also recommendations for attracting new soldier recruits. The article concludes with the statement that Lithuanian volunteer soldiers are an important unifying link between the Lithuanian army and society, and can significantly contribute to the formation of the image of the soldier’s profession in society. Besides the social status that comes with military service and the satisfaction of financial needs, volunteer soldiers are exclusively characterised by strong patriotic feelings which determine their motivation to serve and defend their Homeland. The article’s findings rest on data from the complex sociological research study “Motivation to serve in the Ministry of Defence Volunteer Forces of the Lithuanian Military” which was conducted in April–November, 2014 by the Strategic Research Centre at the Institute of Military Science of the General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania.

  7. The changes of β-endorphin, thyroid hormone and cortisol in military stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Cuihua; Liu Qing; Qi Bing; Zhang Jing; Zhao Junwu


    The change of irritable hormones was studied when new soldiers were in military stress. The stressor was the test of real shooting. Forty and two new soldiers were selected, and their vein blood were extracted when they were in stress and in rest. The content of blood β-endorphin (β-EP), thyroid hormone and cortisol was analysed by RIA. Results showed that the content of β-EP and cortisol was greater in stress than in rest (P 3 was significantly lesser in stress than in rest (P 4 was raised in stress, but it was not significant (P>0.05). Military stress led to the changes of the soldiers stress. Detection of stress hormone will be very worthy in the matter of raising military stress's ability and insuring fighter's health of body and mind

  8. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers. (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Wiemer, Dorothea F; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M


    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

  9. [The disease and treatment of the frontline soldiers in Han dynasty]. (United States)

    Min, Hookie


    This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest

  10. The Sexual Harassment-Suicide Connection in the U.S. Military: Contextual Effects of Hostile Work Environment and Trusted Unit Leaders. (United States)

    Griffith, James


    Sexual harassment has been associated with suicidal behaviors, and with the rise in suicides in the U.S. military, sexual harassment's role in suicide has been of growing interest. Lacking are studies that examine group- or unit-level variables in the relationship of sexual harassment to suicidal behaviors (thoughts, plans, and attempts). In this study, survey data from soldiers (12,567 soldiers in 180 company-sized units) who completed the Unit Risk Inventory administered during calendar year 2010 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. At the individual level, sexual harassment was associated with a fivefold increase for risk of suicide. Reporting that leaders could be trusted was associated with a decreased suicide risk by about one-third. There was no statistically significant interaction between sexual harassment and trusted leaders in predicting the suicidal behaviors. At the group level, units or companies having higher levels of sexual harassment also had soldiers three times more at risk for suicide. A cross-leveling effect was also observed: Among units having higher levels of sexual harassment, the negative correlation (buffering effect of unit leaders on suicidal behaviors) was diminished. Implications of findings for preventing sexual harassment and suicide risk are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  11. User Evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James B; Boynton, Angela C; Mitchell, K. B; Magnifico, Dennis S; DuPont, Frederick J


    The U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate conducted an evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant...

  12. The effects of military body armour on trunk and hip kinematics during performance of manual handling tasks (.). (United States)

    Lenton, Gavin; Aisbett, Brad; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Carvajal, Alvaro; Netto, Kevin


    Musculoskeletal injuries are reported as burdening the military. An identified risk factor for injury is carrying heavy loads; however, soldiers are also required to wear their load as body armour. To investigate the effects of body armour on trunk and hip kinematics during military-specific manual handling tasks, 16 males completed 3 tasks while wearing each of 4 body armour conditions plus a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis captured and quantified all kinematic data. Average trunk flexion for the weightiest armour type was higher compared with control during the carry component of the ammunition box lift (p armour types compared with control during the ammunition box place component (p armour occurred independent of armour design. In order to optimise armour design, manufacturers need to work with end-users to explore how armour configurations interact with range of personal and situational factors in operationally relevant environments. Practitioner Summary: Musculoskeletal injuries are reported as burdening the military and may relate to body armour wear. Body armour increased trunk flexion and reduced trunk rotation during military-specific lifting and carrying tasks. The altered kinematics may contribute to injury risk, but more research is required.

  13. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier (United States)


    claims of the encumbered dismounted Soldier. Soldiers are required to wear multiple layers of clothing and protective equipment in addition to mission...depth (i.e., bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements...bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements. The

  14. Childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use in National Guard and reserve soldiers. (United States)

    Vest, Bonnie M; Hoopsick, Rachel A; Homish, D Lynn; Daws, Rachel C; Homish, Gregory G


    The goal of this work was to examine associations among childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use (alcohol problems, frequent heavy drinking [FHD], current cigarette smoking, and current/lifetime drug use) and the interaction effects of childhood trauma and combat exposure on those associations among National Guard/reserve soldiers. Participants (N = 248) completed an electronic survey asking questions about their military experiences, physical and mental health, and substance use. Childhood trauma and combat exposure were examined jointly in regression models, controlling for age, marital satisfaction, and number of deployments. Childhood trauma was associated with current drug use (trend level, odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 2.14; P = .072) in the main effect model; however, there was not a significant interaction with combat. Combat exposure had a significant interaction with childhood trauma on alcohol problems (b = -0.56, 95% CI: -1.12, -0.01; P = .048), FHD (b = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.47, -0.08; P = .007), and lifetime drug use (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.04; P = .035). There were no associations with either of the trauma measures and current cigarette smoking. These results demonstrate that childhood and combat trauma have differential effects on alcohol use, such that combat trauma may not add to the effect on alcohol use in those with greater child maltreatment but may contribute to greater alcohol use among those with low child maltreatment. As expected, childhood and combat trauma had synergistic effects on lifetime drug use. Screening for multiple types of trauma prior to enlistment and/or deployment may help to identify at-risk individuals and allow time for early intervention to prevent future adverse outcomes.

  15. Where Do Soldiers Really Come From? A Faculty Development Workshop on Veteran-Centered Care. (United States)

    Lypson, Monica L; Ross, Paula T; Zimmerman, Natalie; Goldrath, Kathryn E; Ravindranath, Divy


    Addressing the medical concerns of veterans in both civilian health care systems and the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system, where staff are familiar with issues of military reintegration, remains difficult but is increasingly important. In 2013, the authors developed and implemented a faculty development workshop for practicing clinicians using the documentary Where Soldiers Come From. The workshop included topics on unconscious bias, the service member trajectory, health care disparities, and strategies for overcoming barriers to treating veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. The workshop engaged faculty in the following active-learning techniques: images in education; trigger video; critical thinking and reflective writing; think-pair-share; and large-group discussion. The workshop has been conducted at three locations with 46 health care professionals. Thirty-one of 37 (84%) participants who completed the workshop evaluation were VA employees. The evaluation results show 25/32 (78.1%) participants indicated the workshop activities changed their knowledge, attitudes, and/or skills; 22/34 (64.7%) stated they had a better understanding of how to develop a care plan for veterans; and 27/34 (79.4%) stated they gained a better understanding of how to prepare for issues around returning veterans. To address the issue of veteran-centered care education more broadly, the authors have developed a massive open online course for health professionals, using most of the content from this workshop, which will be offered in spring 2016. Another important next step will be to deliver this workshop to and collect evaluation data from non-VA providers.

  16. Stem cell applications in military medicine. (United States)

    Christopherson, Gregory T; Nesti, Leon J


    There are many similarities between health issues affecting military and civilian patient populations, with the exception of the relatively small but vital segment of active soldiers who experience high-energy blast injuries during combat. A rising incidence of major injuries from explosive devices in recent campaigns has further complicated treatment and recovery, highlighting the need for tissue regenerative options and intensifying interest in the possible role of stem cells for military medicine. In this review we outline the array of tissue-specific injuries typically seen in modern combat - as well as address a few complications unique to soldiers--and discuss the state of current stem cell research in addressing each area. Embryonic, induced-pluripotent and adult stem cell sources are defined, along with advantages and disadvantages unique to each cell type. More detailed stem cell sources are described in the context of each tissue of interest, including neural, cardiopulmonary, musculoskeletal and sensory tissues, with brief discussion of their potential role in regenerative medicine moving forward. Additional commentary is given to military stem cell applications aside from regenerative medicine, such as blood pharming, immunomodulation and drug screening, with an overview of stem cell banking and the unique opportunity provided by the military and civilian overlap of stem cell research.

  17. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  18. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Muscle Dysmorphia Among Entry-Level Military Personnel. (United States)

    Campagna, John D A; Bowsher, Barbara


    To determine the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and muscle dysmorphia (MD) in enlisted U.S. military personnel; and secondarily, to determine supplement use and relationship with BDD and MD. A survey of advanced individual training of tri-service personnel at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, was performed combining the dysmorphia concern questionnaire, the MD symptom questionnaire, a supplement questionnaire, and demographic factors. Of the 1,320 service members approached, 1,150 (87.1%) completed the survey. The majority of participants were male, 62.8% (n = 722) and Army soldiers 59.0% (n = 679). The prevalence rate of BDD was 13.0% in males and 21.7% in females. The prevalence of MD was 12.7% in males and 4.2% in females. There was a strong correlation between having BDD and using supplements to get thinner (odds ratio 5.1; 95% confidence interval 3.4-7.8; p dysmorphias in mental health providers, primary care providers, and commanders and justifies further military specific BDD and MD research. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. A Serious Game for Massive Training and Assessment of French Soldiers Involved in Forward Combat Casualty Care (3D-SC1): Development and Deployment. (United States)

    Pasquier, Pierre; Mérat, Stéphane; Malgras, Brice; Petit, Ludovic; Queran, Xavier; Bay, Christian; Boutonnet, Mathieu; Jault, Patrick; Ausset, Sylvain; Auroy, Yves; Perez, Jean Paul; Tesnière, Antoine; Pons, François; Mignon, Alexandre


    The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ''Sauvetage au Combat'' (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment. A group of 10 experts and the Paris Descartes University Medical Simulation Department spin-off, Medusims, coproduced 3D-SC1. Medusims are virtual medical experiences using 3D real-time videogame technology (creation of an environment and avatars in different scenarios) designed for educational purposes (training and assessment) to simulate medical situations. These virtual situations have been created based on real cases and tested on mannequins by experts. Trainees are asked to manage specific situations according to best practices recommended by SC, and receive a score and a personalized feedback regarding their performance. The scenario simulated in the SG is an attack on a patrol of 3 soldiers with an improvised explosive device explosion as a result of which one soldier dies, one soldier is slightly stunned, and the third soldier experiences a leg amputation and other injuries. This scenario was first tested with mannequins in military simulation centers, before being transformed into a virtual 3D real-time scenario using a multi-support, multi-operating system platform, Unity. Processes of gamification and scoring were applied, with 2 levels of difficulty. A personalized debriefing was integrated at the end of the simulations. The design and production of the SG took 9 months. The deployment, performed in 3 months, has reached 84 of 96 (88%) French Army units, with a total of 818

  20. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in Sobi barracks, Ilorin, Nigeria. (United States)

    Hussain, N A; Akande, T M; Osagbemi, G K; Olasupo, S T; Salawu, K Y; Adebayo, E T


    There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements female-targetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the dominant fertility determinants. To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi Cantonment, Ilorin, Nigeria, with a view to instituting male-targeted contraceptive/family planning strategies. A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling technique and pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The respondents' approval of contraception (73.6%) and willingness to discuss it with their spouses/partners (71.6%) were high. Fear of wives/partner's sexual promiscuity (55.7%), cultural and religious beliefs (43.2%), fear of the side effects of contraceptives (29.5%) and the desire for more children (21.6%) were reported reasons for the non-approval of contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the respondents was low (12.3%). There was a significant relationship between the respondents' educational level and contraceptive use (pcontraception with their spouses/partners but low contraceptive use.

  1. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan: a longitudinal investigation of Danish soldiers. (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B; Bertelsen, Mette; Madsen, Trine


    In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. In a prospective, longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. Between 3.6 and 18.0% reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. Reintegration difficulties after deployment are present in less than 20% of Danish soldiers who return from Afghanistan. Difficulties are greater in individuals who follow symptomatic PTSD trajectories in the first years following deployment than in those who follow a low-stable trajectory with no or few symptoms.

  2. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial. (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl


    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Public commemorations of Danish soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund


    , recent experiences in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere have implied renegotiations and reconstructions of the national ‘we’. In this article, I examine how this is reflected in the emergent memorial landscape by focusing on one national monument, two grassroots memorials, and 20 individual tombstones...... generation’ inevitably implies. Assembling different kinds of memorials that represent different positions of authority and power in the same analysis, I argue, provides a unique insight into how Denmark’s recent military adventures are ascribed meaning, contested, and negotiated.......This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish...

  4. Leadership and post-traumatic stress disorder: are soldiers' perceptions of organizational justice during deployment protective? (United States)

    Elrond, Andreas F; Høgh, Annie; Andersen, Søren B


    Background : Soldiers' perception of leadership during military deployment has gained research attention as a potentially modifiable factor to buffer against the development of postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within nonmilitary research, the organizational justice (OJ) framework, i.e. distributive justice, procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ), has been found to relate to mental health outcomes. Aspects of OJ may, therefore, be protective against PTSD. Objectives : We examined the prospective relationship between aspects of OJ, namely the perceptions of PJ and IJ by subordinate soldiers without leadership obligations in relationship to immediate superiors and PTSD. Method : Participants were soldiers ( n =  245) deployed to Helmand Province in Afghanistan in 2009. Logistic regression procedures were used. The primary analysis measured PTSD cases using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis-I Disorder (SCID) 2½ years after homecoming. PJ/IJ was measured during deployment with a 6-item composite measure ranging from 0 to 12. Supplementary primary analyses were performed with PJ/IJ measured before and immediately after deployment. A secondary PJ/IJ analysis also tested against four postdeployment measures with the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian (PCL-C) dichotomized at screening symptom levels. Results : Higher levels of perceived PJ/IJ for soldiers without leadership obligations during deployment had a prospective relation (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.98) with PTSD on the SCID 2½ years after homecoming after adjustment for factors including predeployment PTSD symptoms, trauma and combat exposure, and state affectivity. Similar results were found by measuring PJ/IJ before (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.95) but not immediately after homecoming (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.85-1.11). A relationship with PTSD symptoms at the screening level at the four measurements of PCL-C was found, but only

  5. The Factors of Soldier’s Load (United States)


    turtles . My ruck weighed 120 pounds. American Airborne Soldier Grenada, 1983 One of the tenets of Army doctrine in Field Manual 100-5 QIp.r.aition•. is...from a lack of the appropriate physical conditioning in some units; and the more nebulous problem of insufficient logistical challenges built into

  6. Rhabdomyolysis in a Sickle Cell Trait Positive Active Duty Male Soldier. (United States)

    Saxena, Pulkit; Chavarria, Christopher; Thurlow, John


    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a complication of sickle cell trait (SCT) likely first reported in the military population over 40 years ago. Although commonly a benign condition, numerous studies and case reports have identified SCT positive patients to be at increased risk for rhabdomyolysis, compartment syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report a recent case of an SCT positive African American active duty male Soldier who suffered exertional rhabdomyolysis following an Army Physical Fitness Test. His course was complicated by acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and he eventually recovered renal function. The diagnosis was significantly delayed despite a typical clinical presentation and available SCT screening results. The case highlights the importance of the recognition of SCT as a risk factor for severe rhabdomyolysis, and suggests more must be done for an effective SCT screening program for the active duty military population.

  7. Silhouettes of War: Technologies of U.S. Soldiering and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Behm


    Full Text Available This paper forwards a theory of silhouetting in relation to technological augmenta-tion in U.S. Military uniforms and suggests that the increasing utilization of metamaterials, nanotechnology, and surveillance technologies operates under a rhetoric of invisibility that complicates the technologies' visible destruction. Methodologically, the paper attends to three general technological developments in the evolution of the U.S. Army uniform: the design of the new Army Combat Uniform (ACU; the technological advances in the uniform, including embedded wearables, biometric identification devices, and 3D combat enhancement systems; and the bio-networking, GPS, and digital communication arrays that physically link digital uniforms to a larger geopolitical network of U.S. military strategy and surveillance. Throughout, the work traces the aforementioned theory of silhouet-ting in relation to select sociopolitical consequences of linking digitally enhanced soldiers into a transnational grid of surveillance.

  8. “Real Men Die Wrapped in Horsehide” and Other Tales of Modern Military Heroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Frühstück


    Full Text Available D. Colin Jaundrill. Samurai to Soldier: Remaking Military Service in Nineteenth-Century Japan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2016. Nicolas Schillinger. The Body and Military Masculinity in Late Qing and Early Republican China: The Art of Governing Soldiers. New York: Lexington Books, 2016. Historians D. Colin Jaundrill and Nicolas Schillinger have given us two books full of excellent reasons for historians to take the militarism of modernity most seriously. Despite the similarities across modernizing nation-states, as well as of notions of the modern man across national boundaries—on the surface at least—Jaundrill and Schillinger have two rather different puzzles to solve. In Japan, the modern soldier emerged from a long-standing warrior tradition. In China, the modern military emerged from the previous social and cultural neglect of the military; it was instead shaped to overcome the “sick man of East Asia” (dongya bingfu notion that was omnipresent around the turn of the twentieth century.... These scholars have turned the next corner of the historical analysis of military establishments in modern East Asia. They apply different critical methodologies to show the enormity of resources that have been invested in establishing and maintaining the military. They show how militaries as institutions shape and transform societies and how they have aggressively—and sometimes subtly—shaped and reshaped social processes and identities. Now, the rest of us just need to listen—or, rather, read.

  9. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L


    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  10. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto


    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  11. Hydration Status in US Military Officer Students. (United States)

    Rogers, Reva; Cole, Renee


    Relocation from a cool to a hot climate is a frequent occurrence in military service. Acclimatization requires time and exposure to heat. Nonacclimatized individuals frequently consume inadequate fluid leading to hypohydration, which can quickly result in dehydration with increased risk of heat illness/injury. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the hydration status of 196 officers attending the US Army Medical Department's Officer Basic Course (67%) or Captain's Career Course (33%) in San Antonio, Texas, prior to taking the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). Consenting Soldiers provided a first morning void urine sample and demographic survey (age, rank, sex, previous geographic location, etc) prior to the APFT. Height, weight, and APFT event scores were collected from a subject-coded, APFT scorecard without personal information data. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify variables that contribute to predicting hypohydration status. The sample population was 54% male, a mean age of 30 years, 5.2 years of military service, and a mean body mass index of 25 kg/m². Nearly one-third met the criteria for hypohydration (≥1.02 urine specific gravity). Soldiers who relocated from a cool environment within 9 days of taking the APFT had 2.1 higher odds of being hypohydrated compared with individuals who had resided in a hot environment for more than 9 days. Women had a 0.5 lower odds of being hypohydrated as compared to males. Significantly more Soldiers were hypohydrated on Monday compared to those tested on Tuesday (33% vs 16%, P=.004). Given these findings, the authors provided 5 recommendations to reduce the number of Soldiers exercising in a hypohydrated state.

  12. Genetics and Other Risk Factors for Past Concussions in Active-Duty Soldiers. (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L


    Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.

  13. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa


    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  14. The impact of an educational film on promoting knowledge and attitudes toward HIV in soldiers of the Serbian armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranin Željko


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Millions of soldiers around the world represent one of the most vulnerable populations regarding exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The programs for HIV prevention remain the most viable approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection. Very few studies have tested the effectiveness of HIV preventive interventions undertaken in military population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational film to transfer knowledge about HIV infection to soldiers. Methods. We performed a quasi-experimental study among 102 soldiers of the Serbian Armed Forces. The experimental intervention consisted of the HIV knowledge pre-questionnaire, watching a film on HIV knowledge, then the post-HIV knowledge questionnaire. The results of pre-and post-HIV knowledge questionnaires were compared. Results. There were 23 questions in the test. The average total score on the questionnaire before watching the film was 18.23 and after watching it was 20.14, which was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusions. The results of the study show that viewing a film on HIV infection is an effective method of transferring knowledge about HIV to the Serbian military population.

  15. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers. (United States)

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle


    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob


    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  17. Gastrointestinal Illnesses among French Forces Deployed to Djibouti: French Military Health Surveillance, 2005–2009 (United States)

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; de Santi, Vincent Pommier; Darar, Houssein Y.; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L.; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul


    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005–2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness. PMID:20889897

  18. Gastrointestinal illnesses among French forces deployed to Djibouti: French military health surveillance, 2005-2009. (United States)

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Darar, Houssein Y; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul


    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005-2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness.

  19. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid. (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A


    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  20. Educating for Professionalism: a new military for a new South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the SANDF over the last decade. Specific emphasis is placed on the lack of suitably qualified academic staff, the difficulty of educating soldiers in a second or third language, the lack of research and the presence of an institutional climate of anti-intellectualism. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, ...

  1. Smart Questions : Context-dependent mobile information exchange for military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Heuvelink, A.


    During military mISSIOns, mobile devices allow information exchange between distributed groups of soldiers. As the context of use changes frequently and more (unstructured) information becomes available during missions, the challenge is to ensure that the right information reaches the right

  2. Are We Winning? A Brief History of Military Operations Assessment (United States)


    battle damage assessment ( BDA ). Labeled effects-based assessment (EBA), this framework would comprise most of the guidance on assessments as the U.S...assessments during the invasion were focused on the location and conditions of various fighting units as well as collating and analyzing BDA ...The media are counting U.S. casualties. The military counts Iraqi soldiers. Both are measures of convenience, reflecting the ease with which data

  3. Hearing Loss Associated with US Military Combat Deployment (United States)


    Jason M. Jones Tomoko I. Hooper Isabel G. Jacobson Edward J. Boyko Report No. 13-59 The views expressed in this article are those of A study of US Army soldiers who visited audiology clinics noted that hearing loss was identifi ed in 68.6% of post-deployment diagnoses and...disorders, hearing loss, military personnel Access this article online Quick Response Code: Website: DOI: 10.4103/1463

  4. Military Ethics and Professionalism: A Collection of Essays (United States)


    was also affected by other elements of the Viet - nam era: military scandals; instances of junior officers and NCOs lying on reports; shootings and...soldiers in Viet - nam were reluctant to fight for "ticket-punching" officers who rotated every six months and for a system that treated them as training strengths and weaknesses, but junior commanders state that it is used to write their OERs. For them, the cosmetic effect of

  5. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers from 1990 to 2009. (United States)

    Ejdesgaard, Bo Andersen; Zøllner, Lilian; Jensen, Børge Frank; Jørgensen, Hans-Ole; Kähler, Henrik


    The study was undertaken to identify risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers. Research on suicide among Danish veterans has only been conducted to a limited degree. The method applied was a questionnaire survey administered to a population of 1,264 Danish soldiers deployed from 1990 to 2009. The data were analyzed using backward logistic regression modeling in SAS 9.2. In the logistic regression analysis, the following were significant risk factors for suicidal ideation: drug abuse, a poor financial situation before deployment, a heavy workload and/or repatriation during deployment, and attending a poor athletic and recreation program after deployment. Significant protective factors against suicidal ideation were support from friends at home during deployment and appreciation by the general population after deployment. Significant risk factors for suicide attempts were an unhappy childhood and pointless tasks during deployment. No significant protective factors against suicide attempts were identified. On the basis of the results presented in this study, intervention against suicidal behavior would benefit from screening for certain childhood issues, drug abuse, and poor financial situation before deployment. During deployment, measures should be taken to minimize the amount of meaningless tasks and heavy workloads. At the same time, efficient ways of communicating with home should be ensured. After deployment, good athletic and recreation programs should be warranted for all military personnel-including repatriated soldiers. Finally, priority should be given to ensure public appreciation of what deployed soldiers accomplish. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. The "new" military and income inequality: A cross national analysis. (United States)

    Kentor, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Andrew K; Kick, Edward


    Military expenditures have escalated over the last three decades in both developed and less developed countries, without a corresponding expansion of military personnel. Spending has instead been directed towards hi-tech weaponry, what we refer to as the "new" military. We hypothesize that this new, increasingly capital-intensive military is no longer a pathway of upward mobility or employer of last resort for many uneducated, unskilled, or unemployed people, with significant consequences for those individuals and society as a whole. One such consequence, we argue, is an increase in income inequality. We test this hypothesis with cross-national panel models, estimated for 82 developed and less developed countries from 1970 to 2000. Findings indicate that military capital-intensiveness, as measured by military expenditures per soldier, exacerbates income inequality net of control variables. Neither total military expenditures/GDP nor military participation has a significant effect. It appears from these findings that today's "new" military establishment is abrogating its historical role as an equalizing force in society, with important policy implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochon, Christiane


    Full Text Available Despite the increase in and evolving nature of armed conflicts, the ethical issues faced by military physicians working in such contexts are still rarely examined in the bioethics literature. Military physicians are members of the military, even if they are non-combatants; and their role is one of healer but also sometimes humanitarian. Some scholars wonder about the moral compatibility of being both a physician and soldier. The ethical conflicts raised in the literature regarding military physicians can be organized into three main perspectives: 1 moral problems in military medicine are particular because of the difficulty of meeting the requirements of traditional bioethical principles; 2 medical codes of ethics and international laws are not well adapted to or are too restrictive for a military context; and 3 physicians are social actors who should either be pacifists, defenders of human rights, politically neutral or promoters of peace. A review of the diverse dilemmas faced by military physicians shows that these differ substantially by level (micro, meso, macro, context and the actors involved, and that they go beyond issues of patient interests. Like medicine in general, military medicine is complex and touches on potentially contested views of the roles and obligations of the physician. Greater conceptual clarity is thus needed in discussions about military medical ethics.

  8. “We’re Never Off Duty”: Empire and the Economies of Race and Gender in the U.S. Military Camptowns of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Je L. Gage


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationships between the U.S. military, race, masculinity, and power in South Korea. I argue that notions of empire are played out in off-base interactions among U.S. soldiers themselves, but also between U.S. soldiers and non-U.S. military others, particularly in the post-9/11 “war on terror” era. In these strategic interplays, soldiers often carry stereotypes held in the United States, but also reinforced by their identities and training as U.S. soldiers. Globalization trends and international relations also influence modes of communication and relations within this hierarchically ranked system and structure. This article discusses how power, gender, race, and racisms play out in the camptowns of South Korea by using an ethnographic lens to link the human face with empire.

  9. Energy cost and mechanical work of walking during load carriage in soldiers. (United States)

    Grenier, Jordane G; Peyrot, Nicolas; Castells, Josiane; Oullion, Roger; Messonnier, Laurent; Morin, Jean-Benoit


    In the military context, soldiers carry equipments of total mass often exceeding 30%-40% of their body mass (BM) and complexly distributed around their body (backpack, weapons, electronics, protections, etc.), which represents severe load carrying conditions. This study aimed to better understand the effects of load carriage on walking energetics and mechanics during military-type walking. Ten male infantrymen recently retired from the French Foreign Legion performed 3-min walking trials at a constant speed of 4 km·h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill, during which walking pattern spatiotemporal parameters, energy cost (C(W)), external mechanical work (W(ext)), and the work done by one leg against the other during the double-contact period (W(int,dc)) were specifically assessed. Three conditions were tested: (i) light sportswear (SP, reference condition considered as unloaded), (ii) battle equipment (BT, ∼22 kg, ∼27% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military intermediate load), and (iii) road march equipment (RM, ∼38 kg, ∼46% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military high load). Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that military equipment carriage significantly (i) altered the spatiotemporal pattern of walking (all P < 0.01), (ii) increased absolute gross and net CW (P < 0.0001), and (iii) increased both absolute and mass-relative W(ext) (P < 0.01) and W(int,dc) (P < 0.0001) but did not alter the inverted pendulum recovery or locomotor efficiency. Military equipments carriage induced significant changes in walking mechanics and energetics, but these effects appeared not greater than those reported with loads carried around the waist and close to the center of mass. This result was not expected because the latter has been hypothesized to be the optimal method of load carriage from a metabolic standpoint.

  10. Enlisting in the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver


    Full Text Available Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors. In light of a number of limitations, replication studies are needed to determine the robustness of these findings and whether they are generalizable to other samples and populations.

  11. Atomic soldiers: American victims of nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.L.


    The author has tried to recreate the exposure scenario for military personnel who were involved in the 1957 nuclear testing exercises at Nevada Test Site. Through one man's health saga he builds a case for veteran's compensation for delayed radiation effects. The book is heavily documented with references to Atomic Energy Commission meetings, military correspondence and comments from reputable scientists

  12. Importance of external cause coding for injury surveillance: lessons from assessment of overexertion injuries among U.S. Army soldiers in 2014. (United States)

    Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Steelman, Ryan A; Schuh, Anna; Jones, Bruce H


    Injuries are a barrier to military medical readiness, and overexertion has historically been a leading mechanism of injury among active duty U.S. Army soldiers. Details are needed to inform prevention planning. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was queried for unique medical encounters among active duty Army soldiers consistent with the military injury definition and assigned an overexertion external cause code (ICD-9: E927.0-E927.9) in 2014 (n=21,891). Most (99.7%) were outpatient visits and 60% were attributed specifically to sudden strenuous movement. Among the 41% (n=9,061) of visits with an activity code (ICD-9: E001-E030), running was the most common activity (n=2,891, 32%); among the 19% (n=4,190) with a place of occurrence code (ICD-9: E849.0-E849.9), the leading location was recreation/sports facilities (n=1,332, 32%). External cause codes provide essential details, but the data represented less than 4% of all injury-related medical encounters among U.S. Army soldiers in 2014. Efforts to improve external cause coding are needed, and could be aligned with training on and enforcement of ICD-10 coding guidelines throughout the Military Health System.

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period. (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav


    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  14. Military Classics (United States)


    the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history. Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art...Beginning with the reign of King Henry VIII, Barnett’s work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume...native clans led by Shaka , to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent


    Dubodelov, D V; Rybin, V V; Rikhter, V V; Yaroslavtsev, V V; Gritsik, A A; Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Semenenko, T A; Kuzin, S N


    Study the effectiveness of preventive vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox in military collectives. In the focus of chicken pox, 200 servicemen of the new addition by conscription were immunized once against chicken pox; 97 servicemen by conscription of the new addition (comparison group) were not vaccinated. Epidemiologic and immunologic effectiveness of conduction of preventive vaccine prophylaxis in chicken pox focus were studied. In the group of 200 soldiers, that were present in the focus of infection and were immunized once against chicken pox, only 2 cases of this disease were registered (10 per thousand). In the comparison group, that consisted of 97 unvaccinated servicemen, chicken pox disease was registered in 7 individuals (72 per thousand). Epidemiologic effectiveness of preventive vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox amounted to 86%. Immunologic effectiveness of vaccination 2-3 weeks after the immunization was 42%, and 2 months after--44%. Local reactions in the form of hyperemia (up to 1.5 cm) and edema were noted in 10% of the vaccinated at the location of preparation administration; in 1.7%--general reaction in the form of temperature increase to 37.8°C was observed. Post-vaccinal complications in the immunized group were not detected. Preventive vaccination of servicemen allows to minimize the spread of chicken pox, however can not serve as means of complete elimination of the infection from military collectives.

  16. Occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in military unit stationed in the combat zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Slaviša


    Full Text Available Since it has been recognized as a separate disease during the Korean war hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS has often been discovered among the members of different armies in various countries, military personnel being the highest risk group for the disease. In the period from March to May 1999 we treated 6 soldiers coming from the military formation stationed at Kosovo and Metohia. The reaction of indirect hemagglutination test proved the presence of antibodies against Hantavira in each of them. They were infected during the stay in a dugout in the area with great population of field rodents. Only one patient was slightly ill, on the admission to the hospitalall. The others had severe clinical and laboratory findings: several days lasting fever, strong abdominal pain, as well as the pain in the loins dyspeptical discomfort, manifold increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine values, thrombocytopenia, etc. Oliguria occurred in 4 patients. Hemorrhagic manifestations were slight (epistaxis, petechial rash conjunctival injection, or absent. Because of the aggravation of the acute renal failure, hemodialysis was performed in 3 patients, while other 3 underwent conservative treatment. Two of the patients had severe anemia because of which transfusions of erythrocytes and plasma were performed. Complications occurred in 2 patients (convulsive crises and lung infections. All patients recovered completely.

  17. [Manifestations of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in a military unit stationed in a combat zone]. (United States)

    Cirić, Slavisa; Denić, Vesna; Mitrović, Vekoslav; Mitrović-Perisić, Natasa; Denić, Nebojsa; Cirić, Slobodan


    Since it has been recognized as a separate disease during the Korean war, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has often been discovered among the members of different armies in various countries, military personnel being the highest risk group for the disease. In the period from March to May 1999 we treated 6 soldiers coming from the military formation stationed at Kosovo and Metohia. The reaction of indirect hemagglutination test proved the presence of antibodies against Hantavira in each of them. They were infected during the stay in a dugout in the area with great population of field rodents. Only one patient was slightly ill, on the admission to the hospital. The others had severe clinical and laboratory findings: several days lasting fever, strong abdominal pain, as well as the pain in the loins, dyspeptical discomfort, manifold increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine values, thrombocytopenia, etc. Oliguria occurred in 4 patients. Hemorrhagic manifestations were slight (epistaxis, petechial rash, conjunctival injection), or absent. Because of the aggravation of the acute renal failure, hemodialysis was performed in 3 patients, while other 3 underwent conservative treatment. Two of the patients had severe anemia because of which transfusions of erythrocytes and plasma were performed. Complications occurred in 2 patients (convulsive crises and lung infections). All patients recovered completely.

  18. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfrová Jana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR and to emphasize the markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. Methods. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Results. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2. Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p < 0.001 was observed. All monitored anthropometric parameters in female professional soldiers were within normal limits. During the monitored period the proportion of overweight men gradually increased from 52% to 57.1% (p < 0.001. There were no

  19. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi ... Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling ..... gender equality and involvement of religious leaders ... unusual in Nigeria for women to use contraceptives .... United Arab Emirates.

  20. General practitioners' approach to malingering in basic military training centres. (United States)

    Kokcu, Alper Tunga; Kurt, E


    Malingering can be defined as the abuse of the right to benefit from the health services. In this study, the frequency of the malingering cases in Basic Military Training Centres (BMTCs) and the behaviours and the attitudes of the military physicians towards the recruits who are suspected malingerers were described. A total of 17 general practitioners in nine different BMTCs in different regions of Turkey constitute the universe of this descriptive study. In the questionnaire, there were a total of 30 questions about the descriptive characteristics of the participants and their attitudes and behaviours towards malingering. Informed consent form and a questionnaire were applied through the intranet via participants' emails. In the study, 15 physicians were reached with a response rate of 88.2%. All of the physicians suspected malingering in some of the soldiers who were examined. A total of 80% of the physicians (n=12) suspected malingering in at least 10% of the patients they examined. Only 13.3% of the physicians (n=2) had officially diagnosed a case of malingering in the last training period. All of the participants stated that they did not report the official decision for every soldier suspected of malingering. Instead of reporting official decision for malingering, the military physicians apply alternative procedures for suspected malingerers. In countries where the military service is compulsory, prevalence of malingering is estimated to be higher (approximately 5-25%). The problem of malingering is often underestimated due to the fact it is usually overlooked. Malingering remains a problem for the entire military healthcare system, due to the difficulties in exact diagnosis. Therefore, it can be useful to take some practical administrative measures for the soldiers who are prone to malingering, in order to discourage the behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France. (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin


    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  2. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

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    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  3. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.


    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  4. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, K O.A.; Somer, K; Lamminen, A


    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild.

  5. Sickle Cell Trait, Rhabdomyolysis, and Mortality among U.S. Army Soldiers (United States)

    Nelson, D. Alan; Deuster, Patricia A.; Carter, Robert; Hill, Owen T.; Wolcott, Vickee L.; Kurina, Lianne M.


    Background Studies have suggested that sickle cell trait elevates the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death. We conducted a study of sickle cell trait in relation to these outcomes, controlling for known risk factors for exertional rhabdomyolysis, in a large population of active persons who had undergone laboratory tests for hemoglobin AS (HbAS) and who were subject to exertional-injury precautions. Methods We used Cox proportional-hazards models to test whether the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death varied according to sickle cell trait status among 47,944 black soldiers who had undergone testing for HbAS and who were on active duty in the U.S. Army between January 2011 and December 2014. We used the Stanford Military Data Repository, which contains comprehensive medical and administrative data on all active-duty soldiers. Results There was no significant difference in the risk of death among soldiers with sickle cell trait, as compared with those without the trait (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 2.13; P = 0.97), but the trait was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.12; P = 0.008). This effect was similar in magnitude to that associated with tobacco use, as compared with no use (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.94; Prhabdomyolysis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.) PMID:27518662

  6. A multimodal interface for real-time soldier-robot teaming (United States)

    Barber, Daniel J.; Howard, Thomas M.; Walter, Matthew R.


    Recent research and advances in robotics have led to the development of novel platforms leveraging new sensing capabilities for semantic navigation. As these systems becoming increasingly more robust, they support highly complex commands beyond direct teleoperation and waypoint finding facilitating a transition away from robots as tools to robots as teammates. Supporting future Soldier-Robot teaming requires communication capabilities on par with human-human teams for successful integration of robots. Therefore, as robots increase in functionality, it is equally important that the interface between the Soldier and robot advances as well. Multimodal communication (MMC) enables human-robot teaming through redundancy and levels of communications more robust than single mode interaction. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies released in recent years for smart-phones and gaming provide tools for the creation of portable interfaces incorporating MMC through the use of speech, gestures, and visual displays. However, for multimodal interfaces to be successfully used in the military domain, they must be able to classify speech, gestures, and process natural language in real-time with high accuracy. For the present study, a prototype multimodal interface supporting real-time interactions with an autonomous robot was developed. This device integrated COTS Automated Speech Recognition (ASR), a custom gesture recognition glove, and natural language understanding on a tablet. This paper presents performance results (e.g. response times, accuracy) of the integrated device when commanding an autonomous robot to perform reconnaissance and surveillance activities in an unknown outdoor environment.

  7. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Veysey


    Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.

  8. Early Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Mortuary Affairs Soldiers Postdeployment. (United States)

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J


    U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. A Survey of Blast Injury across the Full Landscape of Military Science (Etude d’ensemble des blessures dues aux explosions a travers le panorama complet de la science militaire) (United States)


    Military Science (RTO-MP-HFM-207) Executive Summary Blast injury is a significant source of casualties in current NATO operations. The term “blast...toxicologique du souffle incluant les mécanismes de dose (par exemple, normes d’exposition à un tube à choc ), la description des points limites dose

  10. Virtual Reality Applications for Stress Management Training in the Military. (United States)

    Pallavicini, Federica; Argenton, Luca; Toniazzi, Nicola; Aceti, Luciana; Mantovani, Fabrizia


    Stress Management Training programs are increasingly being adopted in the military field for resilience empowerment and primary stress prevention. In the last several years, advanced technologies (virtual reality in particular) have been integrated in order to develop more innovative and effective stress training programs for military personnel, including soldiers, pilots, and other aircrew professionals. This systematic review describes experimental studies that have been conducted in recent years to test the effectiveness of virtual reality-based Stress Management Training programs developed for military personnel. This promising state-of-the-art technology has the potential to be a successful new approach in empowering soldiers and increasing their resilience to stress. To provide an overview from 2001 to 2016 of the application of virtual reality for Stress Management Training programs developed for the military, a computer-based search for relevant publications was performed in several databases. Databases used in the search were PsycINFO, Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), PubMed, and Medline. The search string was: ("Virtual Reality") AND ("Military") AND ["Stress Training" OR ("Stress Management")]. There were 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The main observation to be drawn from this review is that virtual reality can provide interactive Stress Management Training to decrease levels of perceived stress and negative affect in military personnel. This technology appears to be a promising tool for assessing individuals' resilience to stress and for identifying the impact that stress can have on physiological reactivity and performance.Pallavicini F, Argenton L, Toniazzi N, Aceti L, Mantovani F. Virtual realtiy applications for stress management training in the military. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1021-1030.

  11. Moral Emotions during Military Deployments of Dutch Forces: A Qualitative Study on Moral Emotions in Intercultural Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M; de Graaff, Miriam; Verweij, D.E.M.


    Which emotions are generated by the behavior of “the other” in intercultural interactions that Dutch soldiers perceive as conflicting with their own values? How are these emotions related to types of behavioral reactions of Dutch military personnel? This preliminary study explores the emotional and

  12. Updated Death and Injury Rates of U.S. Military Personnel During the Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (United States)


    35 were related to pregnancy . Amputations A number of studies have estimated the frequency with which soldiers lost a limb either directly on the...vehicle accidents—as well as training and occupational accidents at the workplace . The average mortality rate (including all causes of death) for military

  13. Effective Civil-Military Relations: A Necessary Ingredient for Success in America’s Future Strategic Environment (United States)


    Institutional Theory .......................................................... 4 Morris Janowitz – Convergence Theory...THEORISTS Samuel Huntington – Institutional Theory Published in 1957, Samuel Huntington‟s The Soldier and the State was the first notable attempt to...theoretical framework that has been widely accepted as the foundation for the discussion of U.S. civil-military relations. Huntington‟s “ Institutional

  14. Balancing Dialogue: Understanding Influences on U.S. Civil Military Relations Within a Whole-of-Government Approach (United States)


    the only hope is for Congress to do it. The services are so parochial and powerful, there’s no way the executive branch will ever get it done.”32...Professional Military Ethic and Political Dissent: Has the Line Moved?” The Land Warfare Papers no. 83 (August 2011). Huntington, Samuel P. The Soldier

  15. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War. (United States)

    Matsumura, Janice


    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  16. Military necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, N.


    It is often said that international humanitarian law (IHL) “accounts for” military necessity, but its meaning and normative consequences have remained obscure. This thesis develops a theory that offers a coherent explanation of the process through which IHL generates its rules. To

  17. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  18. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson


    Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation

  19. Technological Areas to Improve Soldier Decisiveness: Insights From the Soldier-System Design Perspective (United States)


    input several sets of words or concepts and return novel concepts or ideas. While being driven largely by the advertising industry , these base...Soldiers fitted with ballistic and laser-protective eyewear that contains or is itself a screen on which images and information can be projected. Images...visible through the eyewear would be augmented by imagery created by the UAV surveillance platforms described previously. In addition to augmenting

  20. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres


    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  1. Association between baseline psychological attributes and mental health outcomes after soldiers returned from deployment. (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Arkes, Jeremy; Lester, Paul B


    Psychological health is vital for effective employees, especially in stressful occupations like military and public safety sectors. Yet, until recently little empirical work has made the link between requisite psychological resources and important mental health outcomes across time in those sectors. In this study we explore the association between 14 baseline psychological health attributes (such as adaptability, coping ability, optimism) and mental health outcomes following exposure to combat deployment. Retrospective analysis of all U.S. Army soldiers who enlisted between 2009 and 2012 and took the Global Assessment Tools (GAT) before their first deployment (n = 63,186). We analyze whether a soldier screened positive for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after returning from deployment using logistic regressions. Our key independent variables are 14 psychological attributes based on GAT, and we control for relevant demographic and service characteristics. In addition, we generate a composite risk score for each soldier based on the predicted probabilities from the above multivariate model using just baseline psychological attributes and demographic information. Comparing those who scored in the bottom 5 percentile of each attribute to those in the top 95 percentile, the odds ratio of post-deployment depression symptoms ranges from 1.21 (95% CI 1.06, 1.40) for organizational trust to 1.73 (CI 1.52, 1.97) for baseline depression. The odds ratio of positive screening of PTSD symptoms ranges from 1.22 for family support (CI 1.08, 1.38) to 1.51 for baseline depression (CI 1.32, 1.73). The risk profile analysis shows that 31% of those who screened positive for depression and 27% of those who screened positive for PTSD were concentrated among the top 5% high risk population. A set of validated, self-reported questions administered early in a soldier's career can predict future mental health problems, and can be used to improve workforce fit and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Ю Безугольный


    Full Text Available Under combat conditions, it is mutual understanding between a commander and a soldier by means of a simple language communication which becomes the cornerstone. The absence or lack of such communication may lead to excessive losses and hinder the execution of combat missions. The author for the fi rst time addresses the problem of mass conscription of soldiers from the Union and Autonomous republics of the USSR, who understood the spoken Russian speech very little or didn’t understand it at all. The author aims to fi nd out the degree of effi ciency of solving the problem of the Russian language in the ranks of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA, undertaken by the Soviet leadership in the prewar years.The author has found that in order to overcome this problem, there were taken actions in two directions. On the one hand, there was training of youth of pre-military age due to the introduction in 1938 of the mandatory teaching of the Russian language in national schools. On the other hand, there was training of recruits due to the introduction in 1939 of a three-month course for the soldiers of non-Russian nationalities. The work in these two directions failed to give the desired result in a short time due to the lack of teachers, unifi ed curricula, textbooks and books in dozens of languages of the USSR peoples. The author comes to the conclusion that the emergency measures taken by the government and the military command in the prewar years proved to be ineffective due to the complexity and large scale of the problem. In turn, the unresolved language issue lowered the level of com-bat readiness of the RKKA in the war.

  3. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany]. (United States)

    Zito, Dima


    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  4. A Healthy Eating Identity is Associated with Healthier Food Choice Behaviors Among U.S. Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E


    Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.

  5. Integrating occupational therapy in treating combat stress reaction within a military unit: An intervention model. (United States)

    Gindi, Shahar; Galili, Giora; Volovic-Shushan, Shani; Adir-Pavis, Shirly


    Combat stress reaction (CR) is a syndrome with a wide range of symptoms including changes in soldiers' behaviors, emotional and physiological responses, avoidance and a decrease in both personal and military functioning. The short-term goal in treating CR is a speedy return to healthy functioning, whereas the long-term goal is to prevent the development of PTSD. Previous research has indicated that the achievement of this short-term goal affects the achievement of the long-term goal and vice versa. Effective treatment requires intervention by trained professionals proficient in reinforcing personal and functional identity without psychiatric labelling. The present paper presents a therapeutic model integrating OT in treating CR within a military setting. The model emphasizes the importance of preventing fixation to the role of 'patient' and a rapid return to maximal functioning. Based on Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation, which aims to promote adaptive and efficient functioning by engaging soldiers in tasks supporting their military identity, empowering functionality, and increasing their perceived competency. The model emphasizes the therapeutic milieu within a military environment. Practical application of this model focuses on interdisciplinary aspects and client-focused application. The paper describes an assessment process for each soldier entering the CR unit and a treatment model integrating OT.

  6. Influence of carrying heavy loads on soldiers' posture, movements and gait. (United States)

    Attwells, Renee L; Birrell, Stewart A; Hooper, Robin H; Mansfield, Neil J


    Military personnel are required to carry heavy loads whilst marching; this load carriage represents a substantial component of training and combat. Studies in the literature mainly concentrate on physiological effects, with few biomechanical studies of military load carriage systems (LCS). This study examines changes in gait and posture caused by increasing load carriage in military LCS. The four conditions used during this study were control (including rifle, boots and helmet carriage, totalling 8 kg), webbing (weighing 8 kg), backpack (24 kg) and a light antitank weapon (LAW; 10 kg), resulting in an incremental increase in load carried from 8, 16, 40 to 50 kg. A total of 20 male soldiers were evaluated in the sagittal plane using a 3-D motion analysis system. Measurements of ankle, knee, femur, trunk and craniovertebral angles and spatiotemporal parameters were made during self-paced walking. Results showed spatiotemporal changes were unrelated to angular changes, perhaps a consequence of military training. Knee and femur ranges of motion (control, 21.1 degrees +/- 3.0 and 33.9 degrees +/- 7.1 respectively) increased (p < 0.05) with load (LAW, 25.5 degrees +/- 2.3 and 37.8 degrees +/- 1.5 respectively). The trunk flexed significantly further forward, confirming results from previous studies. In addition, the craniovertebral angle decreased (p < 0.001) indicating a more forward position of the head with load. It is concluded that the head functions in concert with the trunk to counterbalance load. The higher muscular tensions necessary to sustain these changes have been associated with injury, muscle strain and joint problems.

  7. Unreliability and error in the military's "gold standard" measure of sexual harassment by education and gender. (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Pryor, John B; Griffin, Joan M; Ripley, Diane Cowper; Gackstetter, Gary D; Polusny, Melissa A; Hodges, James S


    The Department of Defense's "gold standard" sexual harassment measure, the Sexual Harassment Core Measure (SHCore), is based on an earlier measure that was developed primarily in college women. Furthermore, the SHCore requires a reading grade level of 9.1. This may be higher than some troops' reading abilities and could generate unreliable estimates of their sexual harassment experiences. Results from 108 male and 96 female soldiers showed that the SHCore's temporal stability and alternate-forms reliability was significantly worse (a) in soldiers without college experience compared to soldiers with college experience and (b) in men compared to women. For men without college experience, almost 80% of the temporal variance in SHCore scores was attributable to error. A plain language version of the SHCore had mixed effects on temporal stability depending on education and gender. The SHCore may be particularly ill suited for evaluating population trends of sexual harassment in military men without college experience.

  8. Soldier's Expectancies, Implications for Recruitment and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelooven, Renier


    .... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.

  9. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fregoso, Luis A


    .... These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war environment, they must learn how to harness this ability in support of their nation's war strategy...

  10. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  11. Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fober, Gene


    .... Soldiers from four Army installations were given a survey that examined their experiences with computers, self-perceptions of their skill, and an objective test of their ability to identify Windows-based icons...

  12. The Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY01

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Harnam


    A multi-year research effort was instituted in FY99 to examine soldiers' experiences with computers, self- perceptions of their computer skill, and their ability to identify frequently used, Windows-based icons...

  13. Military suicide: factors that need to be taken into consideration to understand the phenomena. (United States)

    Rodríguez, José R; Quiñones-Maldonado, Randy; Alvarado-Pomales, Awilda


    Soldier suicide rates, unfortunately, continue to rise in our military services. It is well known that military personnel are highly vulnerable to multiple psychopathologies due to a lack of social support system, traumatizing life events and deprived sense of control. Serious psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorders, other anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder) and depression may increase the risk of suicide. In addition, malingering may be a serious problem that can affect valid treatment due to an intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentive such as avoiding military duty or obtaining financial compensation. Moreover, Hispanic soldiers may be at a higher risk for such psychopathologies due to extreme marginalization conditions by military peers, lack of bilingual language management and discrimination that can severely affect their quality of life. Thus, it is important to recognize those problems in order to prevent them. Literature demonstrate that Primary Preventive Interventions (PPI) can help to reduce the incidence of psychiatric disorders due to an early identification of the mental conditions associate to serious outcome, such as suicide. Taking the previous factors into consideration, the relevant literature pertaining suicidality in service members and the mental disorders associated with it is reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is made in the importance to develop and validate a battery of screening instruments that address the previous conditions in the military personnel, especially in the Hispanic/Latino soldier and/or veteran as future plans of interventions. This implies the creation, adaptation and administration of a Psychological Battery that will be culturally sensitive for Hispanic/Latino soldiers in which the screening of the previously mentioned pathologies and conditions can be identified. This may help to prevent serious

  14. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance


    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.


    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  15. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army (United States)


    difficulties in the civilian job market . Furthermore, since 2012, the Army has been reducing its active component end strength; this has increased the number... online versions of the surveys to collect data on civilian occupations. Making the surveys available to soldiers online and integrating them into the...civilian occupation matches by MOS and pay grade. An online format could even help gen- erate job recommendations for individual soldiers based on

  16. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System (United States)


    Virtual Squad Training System ( VSTS ). Like some of its predecessors, VSTS included a combination of man-wearable, tethered, and desktop interfaces...Simulator Bayonet w/Omni Directional Treadmill TRAC-WSMR Soldier Station Soldier Visualization Station V-IMTS SVS2-DI, DAGGERS, ASWETS VSTS Dismounted...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and hand sensors to

  17. Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development (United States)


    military data samples. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Most manuscripts should be drafted by then. 6 Narrative Progress during the past year (2016) has nudged forward, but been slow. As discussed in

  18. The Black Soldier in World War I. (United States)

    Bodle, Walter S., Ed.


    A poster from the National Archives that intermediate grade and secondary social studies teachers can use to teach students about race relations in the military during World War I is presented. Background information concerning the ill treatment given blacks and teaching activities are also included. (RM)

  19. Study of the neuroendocrine and immunologic mechanism of fatigue caused by military operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LI


    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the regularity of the changes in neuroendocrine-immune system caused by fatigue due to military operations, and explore the mechanism by which fatigue occurs in military operations. Methods  The subjects were 240 soldiers belonging to a field artillery force. The medical history and physical examination were taken before military operations, and fatigue assessment scale was accomplished as well. The following variables were measured in all the subjects: pituitary-adrenal [adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, cortical hormone (B, 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC], pituitary-gonadal [luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone (T, estradiol (E2], pituitary-thyroid functions [serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, tetraiodothyronine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free thyroxine (FT4, and free triiodothyronine (FT3], and cellular immune parameters (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, B, NK. After 7 d of large-scale and high-intensity field exercises, the above variables were again measured in all the subjects. Results  After high-intensity military operations, the unpleasant feelings were significantly increased, and the compulsive and psychotic scores significantly decreased in the soldiers. In addition, the pituitary-adrenal and pituitary-gonadal hormone levels also decreased (all PPPConclusion  The depressed psychological tolerance in soldiers is the psychological factor of fatigue after a high-intensity military operation. The hypocorticoidism and inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are the pathophysiological basis of military operation fatigue. Suppression of immune function is an important reason for an increase of susceptibility to disease after high-intensity military operations.

  20. Estimation of Dog-Bite Risk and Related Morbidity Among Personnel Working With Military Dogs. (United States)

    Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A

    Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be

  1. A Methodology for Measuring the Physiological Strain of Enhanced Soldiers: The 1998 Soldier Combat System Enhancement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos, Denys


    ... or enhanced capabilities conducting routine operations in the tropics. Core temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate are appropriate measures for evaluating the physiological burden of soldier combat system enhancements...

  2. Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance


    The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.

  3. Soldiers and their families in the Slovak Republic: a report on quality of functioning from the empirical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Matis


    Full Text Available The article presents the problems that military families face nowadays, since the Slovak Armed Forces became fully professional. I provide a brief definition of the professional soldier’s family (military family and its structure, and then introduce the problems that the Slovak Armed Forces have to solve in order to eliminate two sources of stress. The first source is the impact of the professional soldiers’ job on their families and on the fulfilment of basic family roles. The second source of stress is the impact of the families on the fulfilment of soldiers’ duties at work. These two phenomena present in the Slovak Armed Forces were measured with a questionnaire distributed among 416 respondents. Its results confirmed that the impact of the soldiers’ profession on fulfilment of their basic family roles and the impact of the military family on soldiers’ performance at work (especially their mobility and career raise serious problems that military families need to face. I conclude by emphasizing that these problems can be eliminated with the help of a high-quality and complex system of social security for professional soldiers and their families, which could be implemented through social work in the armed forces and built alongside the development of the professional armed forces.

  4. Predictors of web-based follow-up response in the Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military Trial (POLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Michael E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving adequate follow-up in clinical trials is essential to establish the validity of the findings. Achieving adequate response rates reduces bias and increases probability that the findings can be generalized to the population of interest. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of attention, demographic, psychological, and health status factors on web-based response rates in the ongoing Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM trial. Methods Twenty companies of Soldiers (n = 4,325 were cluster randomized to complete a traditional exercise program including sit-ups (TEP with or without a psychosocial educational program (PSEP or a core stabilization exercise program (CSEP with or without PSEP. A subgroup of Soldiers (n = 371 was randomized to receive an additional physical and ultrasound imaging (USI examination of key trunk musculature. As part of the surveillance program, all Soldiers were encouraged to complete monthly surveys via email during the first year. Descriptive statistics of the predictor variables were obtained and compared between responders and non-responders using two sample t-tests or chi-square test, as appropriate. Generalized linear mixed models were subsequently fitted for the dichotomous outcomes to estimate the effects of the predictor variables. The significance level was set at .05 a priori. Results The overall response rate was 18.9% (811 subjects for the first year. Responders were more likely to be older, Caucasian, have higher levels of education and income, reservist military status, non smoker, lower BMI, and have received individualized attention via the physical/USI examination (p Conclusion The overall web based response rate during the first year of the POLM trial was consistent with studies that used similar methodology, but lower when compared to rates expected for standard clinical trials. One year response rate was significantly associated with

  5. War-related experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda: comparison with non-recruited youths. (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse


    Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.

  6. Military and Political Studies


    Alexey I. Podberyozkin


    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  7. Unintended pregnancies among women serving in the Israeli military. (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Loitner, Limor; Dar, Shir; Kedem, Ron; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi


    The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness. Most women (n=127,262) did not become pregnant while serving in the Israeli military. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 2365, with an additional 6 women reporting pregnancy resulting from sexual assault and 5 an intended pregnancy. Annual rates of unintended pregnancy among young women serving in the Israeli military declined from 1.69% in 2013 to 1.56% in 2014 and 1.33% in 2015. In multivariable models, unintended pregnancy was more common among women soldiers who had not graduated from high school (adjusted relative risk [RR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-6.04) and those who were first-generation immigrants (adjusted RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.90-2.35). Unintended pregnancy is rare among women serving into the Israeli military. Increasing contraceptive use among women who have not graduated from high school may further reduce rates of unintended pregnancy among women serving in the Israeli military. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the military. (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael


    Despite policies advocating the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in all settings that are a part of everyday life within society, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually excluded from service in the military. This study examined the meaning of service in the military for individuals with ID from the perspective of various stakeholder groups. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with ID, 36 relatives, and 28 commanders. The recent model for social inclusion developed by Simplican et al. (2015) served as the basis for analyses. Findings suggest a successful social inclusion process for individuals with ID, which resulted in them feeling as an integral part and as contributing members of the military unit and of society at large. Social inclusion in the military was described with reference to two overlapping and interacting domains of interpersonal relationships and community participation. The interaction between interpersonal relationships within the military and community participation has led to positive outcomes for soldiers with ID. Recommendations are provided for the continued inclusion of individuals with ID in the military and in other everyday settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a valid simulation assessment for a military dismounted assault task. (United States)

    Silk, Aaron J; Billing, Daniel C


    The Australian Defence Force is currently developing physical standards commensurate with job demands. Vital to this development process has been the accurate profiling of common military tasks. One such task required of all dismounted combat soldiers, an offensive assault on an enemy force, was the subject of in-depth profiling. In addition to overall assault performance, potential differences among patrol roles (scout, gunner, and flank) were investigated. Three different mock assaults of 100 to 150 m were performed by three patrols comprising qualified experienced infantry soldiers. Each soldier was fitted with a heart rate monitor and wore a global positioning device. Average assault duration was 6.5 minutes and required nineteen 7-m bounds performed on a 22-seconds duty cycle at 75% heart rate reserve and a work to rest ratio 1:4. Assaults conducted in more densely vegetated terrain resulted in significantly reduced (p 0.05). As a result of profiling the assault task, a valid simulation capable of assessing soldiers' physical capacity to perform this task was developed. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Exploring the ambiguities of masculinity in accounts of emotional distress in the military among young ex-servicemen. (United States)

    Green, Gill; Emslie, Carol; O'Neill, Dan; Hunt, Kate; Walker, Steven


    This paper examines the experiences and perspectives of ex-military servicemen in the UK. It focuses specifically on the complex links between emotional distress and various constructions of 'masculinity' in a military context. Aspects of military culture that exacerbate vulnerability and also those that are protective to mental health are identified and discussed with reference to the theoretical constructs relating to hegemonic masculinity. A qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews provided in-depth accounts of the experiences of 20 ex-servicemen aged 23-44, all but one of whom were in the Army. We found that in a military setting hegemonic masculinity is embedded in the construction of a soldier identity and expression of emotion may be seen as inappropriate. As a result soldiers often lack a language with which to express distress (in a context in which they may witness extremely distressing events), which may result in delays in recognising and treating mental health problems. However, constructions of masculinity in this setting to some degree also promote a caring, sharing ethos based on strong inter-dependent bonds. A young soldier who can cope with the stresses of military life 'becomes a man', adopts a masculine/soldier identity and is well-placed to benefit from these protective factors, notably the camaraderie that is part of service life. In this manner a caring ethos in which some admissions of weakness may be permissible is situated within hegemonic masculinity. This seeming paradox between hyper masculinity and caring masculinities appears to be embedded within military culture, perhaps reflecting the flexibility and ambiguity inherent in constructions of hegemonic masculinity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Soviet Soldier - Premilitary and Political Training. (United States)


    instruction relates to weapons training, including the care and maintenance of the light machine gun, the automatic rifle and the anti -tank grenade. Where...practice in firing these weapons. Finally, he acquires kowledge and skill in a particular military-technical specialty - as a motor vehicle driver... Power and Performnce, Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press, Inc., 1979 Flyagin, A. P., "Patriotic Indoctrination Is The Center of Attention", Sovetskiy

  12. Role of amino acids and vitamins in prevention of and rapid recovery from fatigue in the officers and soldiers at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen HUANG


    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the role of amino acids and vitamins in the prevention of and recovery from the fatigue related to military operation in the officers and soldiers at high altitude. Methods  The participants were 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into three groups: capsule, placebo, and granules. Amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained, placebo, or amino acid-fructose beverage was given to respective group for 14 days continuously. The 3000-m running performance of the officers and soldiers stationed on a plateau was measured on the first and 14th days. The maximal grip strength of the right hand, fist-making times per minute, and the height reaching by the hand after three-step run-up for the same candidate were observed before and after fatigue loading (3000-m running. The blood levels of lactic acid and urea nitrogen of the candidates were measured after fatigue loading on the first and the 14th days. Results  The 3000-m running performance of officers and soldiers in the capsule and granules groups on the 14th day were better than that of the first day (PP>0.05. The difference between the capsule and the granules groups in grip strength, fist-making times per minute, and hand reaching height on the 14th day were obviously lower than that on the first day (PP>0.05. The blood levels of lactic acid and urea nitrogen in the capsule and granules groups on the 14th day were lower than that on the first day (PP>0.05. Conclusions  Amino acids and vitamins preparations can obviously improve the military performance capacity of officers and soldiers stationed on the plateau. Similarly, they can effectively prevent the lowering of jumping ability and grip strength caused by military fatigue. Therefore, amino acids and vitamins preparations play an important role in the prevention of and rapid

  13. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani


    are analyzed. Psychological war is considered as a component of an information psychological antagonism, along with legal and media-wars. Such types of psychological war as operation-coercion, operation-deceit, operation-dissociation, operation-defense are identified. Methods of psychological war are highlighted. The general review of other trends of military psychological research is given: studying combat influence on soldier mental condition, stress resistance, post combat frustration and posttraumatic growth; collaborating on methods of psychological training and psychological resilience in military men; studying psychological aspects of «man-technics» system, etc. Results. To conclude, the Chinese military psychology is becoming an essential creative force in the PLA’s combat preparedness system and its experience is worthy of careful and in-depth study.

  14. Purple Reign: Ascent and Decline of Joint Behavior in the U.S. Military (United States)


    Huntington, and Morris Janowitz, among others, have described the military as a profession in significant scholarly works.104 Borrowing Huntington’s...State; Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (Glencoe: Free Press, 1960). 105 See, e.g., Combined Arms Center...service politics.1069 1068 President Johnson’s “ Tuesday Lunch Group,” convened for management of the

  15. Assessment of the Politico-Military Campaign to Counter ISIL and Options for Adaptation (United States)


    positions are called ghost soldiers, for whom salaries are paid. The funds either go into officers’ pockets or are used to pay for legitimate but...lations.1 In Syria, the elements of a more robust and efficacious partnered approach would include the following efforts: 1 DoD’s Dictionary of...Director for Joint Force Development, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Joint Publication 1-02, Washington, D.C

  16. The Political and Military Impact of the Spanish-American War (United States)


    become a better Marine Corps Officer, thank you. Todo es para la familia . iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Title: The Political and Military Impact of the...12,096 soldiers and 1,000 augmented sailors provided by Cervera actually defended the Santiago garrison. General Linares’ objective was defense of...of Cervera’s squadron and Spain’s likely capitulation. Despite consensus, the actual execution of the campaign changed drastically after Shafter

  17. The Military in Disaster Relief After the Explosion in Halifax, Nova Scotia, December 1917 (United States)


    order and security before the meeting took place. The outsize influence of soldiers and sailors made both crowds and politicians feel safe .228 This...another important Canadian port, gave way to Halifax around December when the St. Lawrence River froze.7 As an important military port, Halifax...Militia in Halifax were ineligible for overseas duty. Age, family status, or minor disability restricted them to serving in their home country.10 The

  18. The Consequences of Modern Military Deployment on Calcium Status and Bone Health (United States)


    tissue disorders were the predominant illness and injury- related category for ambulatory visits in military clinics and facilities in 2008, accounting...tobacco use, high bone turnover rates, and family history of osteoporosis all contribute to a higher risk of osteoporosis .23 During the physical...Soldiers reported they did not consume large quantities of milk in Baghdad because of its unpleasant taste. Increased skin pigmen- tation, obesity , and

  19. Successful model of suicide prevention in the Ukraine military environment. (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod A; Mokhovikov, Alexander N; Stiliha, Richard


    The article deals with the problem of suicidal behavior in the Ukraine military environment and gives an example of the successful prevention approach. The model of prevention is based on (1) education of the responsible officers, (2) training of the representatives of the most vulnerable risk groups, and (3) follow-up procedures based on distribution of pocket books for soldiers, educational booklets, and sets of helpful materials for officers. One of the main conclusions is that the prevention activity must be organized as a continuum of actions, seminars, consultations, and materials distribution.

  20. The Greek Archer Evolution in the Greek Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The trajectory of the bow in the History of Greece is associated with the transformation that was originated inside of the military environment. The poor prominence that for many centuries was granted to the archers in the warlike context, was going to give an unexpected draft with the explosion of the Persian Wars. Later, the playwright Euripides was going to turn Herakles, one of the most famous archer of the hellenic world, into the spokesman of the change that was going to bring with it the acceptance and the definitive incorporation of these soldiers as contingent of considerable value inside the greek armies.

  1. The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woguwale, Jasom


    .... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...

  2. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child soldiers. ... applied an unvarying standard of prevention in response to every occurrence ... encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of

  3. The Bright Face of Dark Tourism - Military Conflicts and World Travel in the Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Miklós Nagy


    Full Text Available In the history of modern culture, besides its primary task of imposing political will, the military has also served as a major travel institution. The geographical dimensions of wars and the increasingly greater military forces involved have resulted in millions of people being compelled to get to know foreign lands and cultures as soldiers. Thus, military forces have become agents of developing societies’ geographical culture. This phenomenon is the bright face of dark tourism. Still, dark tourism has another positive aspect as well: the scientific exploration of certain landscapes and regions. Modern military forces have launched numerous scientific explorations to learn about the Earth. There are two types of such explorations: exploratory trips related to military campaigns and endeavors of purely scientific purposes. At the same time, scientific knowledge accumulated in the military has also played important roles in geographic research. The transportation of large numbers of personnel and the scientific expeditions of military forces have led to the development of military travel literature, whose significance goes beyond the framework of military geography and which has become an organic part of academic geographical literature.

  4. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo


    Katharin Hermenau; Tobias Hecker; Anna Maedl; Maggie Schauer; Thomas Elbert


    Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression.Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants i...

  5. [Emotional Profile of a Group of Colombian Military Victims of Landmines or Improvised Explosive Devices]. (United States)

    Restrepo, Jorge Emiro; Yara, Eduardo Alfonso; Cano Betancur, Jessica; Tavera, Luz Navia


    Antipersonnel Mines (MAP) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are frequently used in Colombia as an armed resource without the need for direct combat. The Department of Antioquia has the highest number of events associated with the detonation of such battle techniques. There are no studies on the psychological effects that appear as a result of accidents with Antipersonnel Mines and IEDs in the military population. To establish the psychological profile of a group of military victims of MAP and AEI, and a control group of soldiers who were not victims from the analysis of four emotional variables (depression, anxiety, anger and stress). The research was conducted using a case-control design in a .quantitative, comparative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 80 soldiers assigned to the Seventh Division of the National Army of Colombia at Medellin, Antioquia. The sample included a group of 30 military cases and 50 soldiers as controls. The anxiety state, trait anxiety, state anger, and trait anger variables showed statistically significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in the variables depression and stress between groups variables. There was no depression, anxiety, or stress in either of the two groups, but there were clinically significant levels of anger in both groups. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Real Men Wear Uniforms: Photomontage, Postcards, and Military Visual Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Otto


    Full Text Available This essay examines early twentieth-century German representations of men and women in uniform to consider how mass culture allowed individuals to participate in aspects of gender construction. It also reveals how masculinity was increasingly linked to military ideals. The pictures under scrutiny here were made in two significant but as yet under-researched types of pictures: pre-avant-garde photomontaged soldier portraits and popular postcards. Both of these visual forms originated in the 1870s, the decade that Germany was itself founded, and they both were in wide circulation by the early twentieth century. Individualized soldier portraits and postcards offered a glorious vision of a man’s military service, and they performed what Theodor Lessing has called Vergemütlichung, the rendering harmless of history. These idealized images of soldierly life were available to a broad swath of the public, but their democratization only extended so far. Representations of women in uniform served to reinforce—through stereotyping and humor—the unquestionably male nature of military institutions and, by extension, of public space. At the same time, by making apparent their own constructed nature, these portraits and postcards offered viewers a glimpse behind the masquerade of masculinity. This essay thus also identifies these images’ links to the subsequent work of avant-garde artists and to the National Socialists’ return to the ideal of uniformed masculinity.

  7. Military training elicits marked increases in plasma metabolomic signatures of energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis. (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Castellani, John W; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Teien, Hilde-Kristin; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M


    Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25.4 MJ/day [SD 2.3]) and severe energy deficits (13.6 MJ/day [SD 2.5]). Of 737 identified metabolites, 478 changed during the training. Increases in 88% of the free fatty acids and 91% of the acylcarnitines, and decreases in 88% of the mono- and diacylglycerols detected within lipid metabolism pathways were observed. Smaller increases in 75% of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and 50% of the branched-chain amino acid metabolites detected were also observed. Changes in multiple metabolites related to lipid metabolism were correlated with body mass loss and energy balance, but not with energy and macronutrient intakes or energy expenditure. These findings are consistent with an increase in energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acid catabolism during strenuous military training. The magnitude of the energy deficit induced by undereating relative to high energy expenditure, rather than macronutrient intake, appeared to drive these changes, particularly within lipid metabolism pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers. (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M


    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  9. What's in a Rash? Viral Exanthem Versus CBRNE Exposure: Teleconsultation Support for Two Special Forces Soldiers With Diffuse Rash in an Austere Environment. (United States)

    Lee, Howard D; Butterfield, Samuel; Maddry, Joseph; Powell, Douglas; Vasios, William N; Yun, Heather; Ferraro, David; Pamplin, Jeremy C


    Review clinical thought process and key principles for diagnosing weaponized chemical and biologic injuries. Clinical Context: Special Operation Forces (SOF) team deployed in an undisclosed, austere environment. Organic Expertise: Two SOF Soldiers with civilian EMT-Basic certification. Closest Medical Support: Mobile Forward Surgical Team (2 hours away); medical consults available by e-mail, phone, or video-teleconsultation. Earliest Evacuation: Earliest military evacuation from country 12-24 hours. With teleconsultation, patients departed to Germany as originally scheduled without need for Medical Evacuation. 2018.

  10. Former child soldiers' problems and needs: Congolese experiences. (United States)

    Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge


    With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.

  11. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.


    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  12. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will


    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  13. Introduction: military neurosurgery, past and present. (United States)

    Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T


    For a physician has the worth of many other warriors, both for the excision of arrows and for the administration of soothing drugs. Homer, Iliad XI.514-515 Ever since armed conflict has been used as a means to settle disputes among men, there have been those who have been tasked to mend the wounds that ravage a soldier's body from the weapons of war. The Iliad portrays the pivotal 10th year of the legendary Trojan War, during which a schism in the Greek leadership prolongs the extended siege of the city of Troy. In the midst of this martial epic come the lines quoted above, quietly attesting to the value of the military physician, even under the crude conditions of the Greek Dark Age. They are uttered by Idomeneus, one of the foremost Greeks, when he is enjoining one of his comrades, Nestor, to rescue the injured Greek physician Machaon and take him back from the line to treat his wounds. He is afraid that Machaon will be captured by the Trojans, a loss far greater than that of any other single warrior. Duty to country has helped shape the careers of many neurosurgeons, including iconic US figures such as Harvey Cushing and Donald Matson. This issue of Neurosurgical Focus celebrates the rich history of military neurosurgery from the wars of yesterday to the conflicts of today. We have been humbled by the tremendous response to this topic. The 25 articles within this issue will provide the reader with both a broad and an in-depth look at the many facets of military neurosurgery. We have attempted to group articles based on their predominant topic. We also encourage our audience to read other recently published articles. The first 8 articles relate to the current conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. The lead article, written by Randy Bell and colleagues from the National Naval Medical Center and Walter Reed Army Medical Center, discusses what is arguably one of the most important contributions by military neurosurgeons from these 2 conflicts: the rapid and aggressive

  14. The grit effect: predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. (United States)

    Eskreis-Winkler, Lauren; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Beal, Scott A; Duckworth, Angela L


    Remaining committed to goals is necessary (albeit not sufficient) to attaining them, but very little is known about domain-general individual differences that contribute to sustained goal commitment. The current investigation examines the association between grit, defined as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, other individual difference variables, and retention in four different contexts: the military, workplace sales, high school, and marriage. Grit predicted retention over and beyond established context-specific predictors of retention (e.g., intelligence, physical aptitude, Big Five personality traits, job tenure) and demographic variables in each setting. Grittier soldiers were more likely to complete an Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF) selection course, grittier sales employees were more likely to keep their jobs, grittier students were more likely to graduate from high school, and grittier men were more likely to stay married. The relative predictive validity of grit compared to other traditional predictors of retention is examined in each of the four studies. These findings suggest that in addition to domain-specific influences, there may be domain-general individual differences which influence commitment to diverse life goals over time.

  15. The grit effect: predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren eEskreis-Winkler


    Full Text Available Remaining committed to goals is necessary (albeit not sufficient to attaining them, but very little is known about domain-general individual differences that contribute to sustained goal commitment. The current investigation examines the association between grit, defined as passion and perseverance for long-term goals, other individual difference variables, and retention in four different contexts: the military, workplace sales, high school, and marriage. Grit predicted retention over and beyond established context-specific predictors of retention (e.g. intelligence, physical aptitude, Big Five personality traits, job tenure and demographic variables in each setting. Grittier soldiers were more likely to complete an Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF selection course, grittier sales employees were more likely to keep their jobs, grittier students were more likely to graduate from high school, and grittier men were more likely to stay married. The relative predictive validity of grit compared to other traditional predictors of retention is examined in each of the four studies. These findings suggest that in addition to domain-specific influences, there may be domain-general individual differences which influence commitment to diverse life goals over time.

  16. Final report for LDRD project 11-0783 : directed robots for increased military manpower effectiveness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Wagner, John S.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Morrow, James Dan


    The purpose of this LDRD is to develop technology allowing warfighters to provide high-level commands to their unmanned assets, freeing them to command a group of them or commit the bulk of their attention elsewhere. To this end, a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) was developed, incorporating novel and uniquely capable feature creation and reinforcement learning algorithms. BECCA was demonstrated on both a mobile manipulator platform and on a seven degree of freedom serial link robot arm. Existing military ground robots are almost universally teleoperated and occupy the complete attention of an operator. They may remove a soldier from harm's way, but they do not necessarily reduce manpower requirements. Current research efforts to solve the problem of autonomous operation in an unstructured, dynamic environment fall short of the desired performance. In order to increase the effectiveness of unmanned vehicle (UV) operators, we proposed to develop robots that can be 'directed' rather than remote-controlled. They are instructed and trained by human operators, rather than driven. The technical approach is modeled closely on psychological and neuroscientific models of human learning. Two Sandia-developed models are utilized in this effort: the Sandia Cognitive Framework (SCF), a cognitive psychology-based model of human processes, and BECCA, a psychophysical-based model of learning, motor control, and conceptualization. Together, these models span the functional space from perceptuo-motor abilities, to high-level motivational and attentional processes.

  17. Applications of RFID technology in dismounted soldier solution systems – study of mCOP system capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Mariusz


    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of RFID technology in Dismounted Soldier Solutions gathered from the development and demonstration of mCOP platform. The software has been developed to elaborate Network Enabled Capabilities in tactical environments. Presented research was a part of demonstration prepared for the European Defence Agency. The main aim of the tool is the delivery of command support capabilities utilizing data fusion and integration mechanisms implemented in heterogeneous military mobile networks. Application of military integration standards such as JC3IEDM, NFFI and TSO supports interoperability with BMS class systems. Utilisation of RFID technology in mCOP software has several purposes, mainly used for process automation of authorisation and personal identification. Indirectly such functionalities can be used for implementation of UAV supported - Blue Force Tracking and IFF services. This research elaborates a set of implemented ideas for such solutions. Developed system serves as a multi-level and multi-platform command and control system supporting military and crisis operations. A crucial part of the system - mCOP, the handheld application for tactical level commanders, serves as personal toolkit for location monitoring and combat situation distribution and management. The tool delivers a set of tailored functionalities supporting commander’s situation awareness and decision making process. The mCOP hosting device equipped with RFID delivers also means of tactical , emergency, micro network communication.

  18. Assessment, mechanisms, prevention, and measures for quick recovery of military operation-associated fatigue


    Zhao-shen LI; Wen HUANG


    Fatigue is a worldwide problem. Military members frequently feel fatigue in military operations, which hinders the successful completion of their tasks. In complicated international military environments, military fatigue has received great attention from the armed forces in all countries. The present paper elaborates the performances, assessment, and mechanism of fatigue in military operations. In addition, the current study discusses the prevention and rapid recovery of fatigue, aiming at p...

  19. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    between the military and the police: a development that can crush Nigeria's avant .... Direct military control of political power began after independence. General ... of the Dorr's rebellion, the Russian revolution, and the Egyptian revolution. The.

  20. Shared Values?: Measuring Value Differences Between Civilians and Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Efflandt, Scott


    .... In response to this many within and outside of the military have attributed these problems to the absence of personal values among new service members that are congruent with the military's core values...

  1. Risk of depressive disorder following disasters and military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J. P.; Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Bertelsen, M.


    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies describe the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters, but less is known about the risk of major depression. AIMS: To review the risk of depressive disorder in people surviving disasters and in soldiers returning from military deployment. METHOD.......30-3.98), technological disaster OR = 1.44 (95% CI 1.21-1.70), terrorist acts OR = 1.80 (95% CI 1.38-2.34) and military combat OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.09-2.35). In a subset of ten high-quality studies OR was 1.41 (95% CI 1.06-1.87). CONCLUSIONS: Disasters and combat experience substantially increase the risk of depression...

  2. Using biofeedback while immersed in a stressful videogame increases the effectiveness of stress management skills in soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bouchard

    Full Text Available This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing. All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a no additional stress management training (SMT for three days, or (b 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT.

  3. Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Éric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Geneviève


    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

  4. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee. (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S


    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Risk of Stress Fracture Varies by Race/Ethnic Origin in a Cohort Study of 1.3 Million US Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Bulathsinhala, Lakmini; Hughes, Julie M; McKinnon, Craig J; Kardouni, Joseph R; Guerriere, Katelyn I; Popp, Kristin L; Matheny, Ronald W; Bouxsein, Mary L


    Stress fractures (SF) are common and costly injuries in military personnel. Risk for SF has been shown to vary with race/ethnicity. Previous studies report increased SF risk in white and Hispanic Soldiers compared with black Soldiers. However, these studies did not account for the large ethnic diversity in the US military. We aimed to identify differences in SF risk among racial/ethnic groups within the US Army. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database from 2001 until 2011. SF diagnoses were identified from ICD-9 codes. We used Cox-proportional hazard models to calculate time to SF by racial/ethnic group after adjusting for age, education, and body mass index. We performed a sex-stratified analysis to determine whether the ethnic variation in SF risk depends on sex. We identified 21,549 SF cases in 1,299,332 Soldiers (more than 5,228,525 person-years of risk), revealing an overall incidence rate of 4.12 per 1000 person-years (7.47 and 2.05 per 1000 person-years in women and men, respectively). Using non-Hispanic blacks as the referent group, non-Hispanic white women had the highest risk of SF, with a 92% higher risk of SF than non-Hispanic black women (1.92 [1.81-2.03]), followed by American Indian/Native Alaskan women (1.72 [1.44-1.79]), Hispanic women (1.65 [1.53-1.79]), and Asian women (1.32 [1.16-1.49]). Similarly, non-Hispanic white men had the highest risk of SF, with a 59% higher risk of SF than non-Hispanic black men (1.59 [1.50-1.68]), followed by Hispanic men (1.19 [1.10-1.29]). When examining the total US Army population, we found substantial differences in the risk of stress fracture among racial/ethnic groups, with non-Hispanic white Soldiers at greatest risk and Hispanic, American Indian/Native Alaskan, and Asian Soldiers at an intermediate risk. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors underlying these race- and ethnic-related differences in stress fracture risk.

  6. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children ... existence perceived as endless oppressive reigns of varied proportions (World War. II, Apartheid, the Berlin Wall ... UK, and what is the currency of a child soldier “a long way gone” in the streets of. South Africa?

  8. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared


    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  9. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma | Kalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...

  10. Child Soldiers - Lessons Learned on Prevention, Demobilization, and Reintegration


    Verhey, Beth


    As highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive ...

  11. The role of silence in Burundian former child soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.


    Conscription of children into the armed forces continues to be a worldwide problem. Understanding the transition from being a child soldier to becoming a civilian adult is crucial in understanding the longitudinal and social effects of childhood trauma. This study examined the community and family

  12. Czech Soldiers during the Great War (1914-1918)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav


    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  13. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media. (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi


    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Civil Military Relations in the Modern Democratic Argentina Era: Army Soldiers as Military Professionals Versus Civilians in Uniform (United States)


    Homepage, Convenio Colectivo de Trabajo para la Administracion Publica Nacional – Homologacion - Decreto 66/99 – 26 de Febrero de 1999 http...past, but were formative in fostering a sense of legitimacy in how the Argentine government served the civilian populace. Ley de la Obediencia Debida...Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University, 2002), 91-99. 6 Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas (CONADEP), Nunca Mas, Capitulo 1, La

  15. Analysis of factors related to military training injury and the effect of self-rescue and buddy rescue on the final result of the injury in tank crew of the armored forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-bin ZHOU


    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the factors related to military training injury and the effect of self-rescue and buddy rescue on the result of the injury in the soldiers.Methods All data were statistically classified with cluster sampling according to the diagnosis standard of Chinese PLA for analysis.Investigation was conducted in 1028 soldiers of the armored forces with questionnaire,and non-condition logistic regression analysis was applied.Results The total incidence of military training injury was 40.2%.Of all the injured soldiers,36.80% of them served for one year only,and the incidence of injury was obviously higher than those who had served in armed forces for 2 or 3 years.Unconditioned regression analysis revealed that the main causes related to military training injury in the soldiers were as follows: the items of training,the terrain feature,motion sickness,self-rescue and buddy rescue training,and whether the action consistent with the standards.The rehabilitation rate within one month was significantly higher in those who underwent self-rescue or buddy rescue(93.8% and 94.2%,respectively than those who did not undergo self-rescue or buddy rescue(76.3%,76.7%,respectively,P < 0.001.Conclusions The incidence of military training injury in the armored forces is high.It should be emphysized that soldiers with one year of military service should be partioularly taken care to prevent from injuries.Many factors may influence the military training injury,and protective measures should be taken.Those who have the knowledge of self-rescue or undergo buddy rescue will have higher rehabilitation rate within one month.

  16. Caffeine and energy drink use by combat arms soldiers in Afghanistan as a countermeasure for sleep loss and high operational demands. (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Riviere, Lyndon A; Williams, Kelly W; McGurk, Dennis; Lieberman, Harris R


    Combat deployments are characterized by high operational demands with limited opportunities for sleep leading to fatigue and degraded cognitive and operational performance. Caffeine in moderate doses is recognized as an effective intervention for physical and cognitive decrements associated with sleep loss. This report is based on data collected by two separate, independently conducted surveys administered in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. It assessed caffeine use and sleep disruption among U.S. Army combat soldiers (J-MHAT 8; n = 518) and among deployed soldiers with different military assignments (USARIEM Deployment Survey; n = 260). Daily caffeine intake assessed in the J-MHAT 8 survey averaged 404 ± 18 mg. In the USARIEM Deployment Survey, intake was 303 ± 29 mg and was significantly higher among combat arms soldiers (483 ± 100 mg) compared to combat service support personnel (235 ± 23 mg). In both surveys, over 55% of total caffeine intake was from energy drinks. Additional sources of caffeine included coffee, tea, sodas, gum, candy, and over-the-counter medications. Higher caffeine intake was not associated with ability to fall asleep at night or wake-up in the morning (J-MHAT 8 survey). Higher caffeine consumption was associated with disrupted sleep from high operational tempo and nighttime duties of combat operations. Overall caffeine consumption and energy drink use in Afghanistan was greater than among non-deployed soldiers and civilians. Caffeine was frequently used as a countermeasure during night operations to offset adverse effects of sleep loss on physical and cognitive function, consistent with current Department of the Army recommendations.

  17. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was

  18. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry


    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  19. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J


    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  20. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.


    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  1. National Military Family Association (United States)

    ... © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  2. TRICARE, Military Health System (United States)

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  3. Effect of military deployment in operational area on the trend of smoking among troops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, S.; Mubarik, H.


    To identify effect of military deployment in operational area on trend of smoking cigarettes among troops. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was carried out in an Army Brigade deployed in Operation Al-Mizan, Swat, from Jan to March 2014. Material and Methods: Whole troops of an army brigade deployed in operation Al-Mizan, Swat were the part of present study. Total strength of brigade comprised of 1850 troops. Out of these 1850, officers constituted 53 (2.86%) and rest 1797 (97.14%) were Junior Commissioned officers (JCOs), noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and soldiers. All ranks other than officers were collectively termed as soldiers. All the individuals were given structured questionnaire to fill. The information was gathered on variables like age, rank, unit, education, duration of deployment in operational area, habit of smoking, intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily) and change in the habit and intensity of smoking after being deployed in the operational area. Information was also gathered from the individuals about the reasons for change in the habit (starting or stopping smoking) and intensity of smoking after deployment in operational area. Forty nine individuals with less than 6 months duration in operational area were excluded. All the other officers and soldiers (1801) having served more than 6 months in the operational area were included in the study. Results: There were total 1801 individuals included in the study. Officers constituted 52 (2.88%) of the total and rest 1749 (97.12%) were soldiers. The mean age of officers was 26.34 ± 4.6 years and mean age of soldiers was 27.92 ± 4.5 years. The overall frequency of smoking in officers and soldiers in the operational area came out to be 29.6%, however the overall frequency of smoking in these individuals before coming to operational area was 26.8%. There were 3 officers and 47 soldiers who started smoking in the operational area

  4. Types of injuries among Polish soldiers and civilian staff in the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th rotation of the Afghan stabilization mission. (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław


    The Afghan military theatre is specifically marked by guerilla operations and massive use of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) that pose new types of threats for their victims. At the same time, the relevant literature contains only a single, fragmentary analysis on injuries suffered by soldiers serving in the Afghan mission. This is a review of medical reports of the Polish Military Contingent deployed within Operation Enduring Freedom, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011; the analysis includes all cases of combat and non-combat injuries in terms of their causes. In the period under analysis, 380 Polish soldiers were reported injured; 87.1% of cases were combat and 12.9% non-combat injuries. The structure of injuries caused as a result of IED explosions was dominated by multiple limb injuries, associated most frequently with severe body cavities/spine injuries. In the case of other incidents, both combat and non-combat, the predominant consequences were single and, most commonly, less severe injuries. The average number of injuries suffered from IED attacks (3.37) was significantly higher than the number of injuries from other attacks (1.16), and higher than the number of non-combat injuries (1.43). IED attacks pose a serious medical problem, considering their high number and the severity of injuries they cause.

  5. Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers. (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah D; Iverson, Grant L


    The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.

  6. Determinants of compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis among French soldiers during missions in inter-tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradines Bruno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known. Methods The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. "Correct compliance" was defined as "no missed doses" of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model. Results The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6%to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028, a medical history of clinical malaria (p Conclusions The identification of circumstances and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.

  7. Analysis of Factors Influencing Inpatient and Outpatient Satisfaction with the Chinese Military Health Service. (United States)

    Lv, Yipeng; Xue, Chen; Ge, Yang; Ye, Feng; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu


    Relatively few articles have focused on exploring factors influencing soldiers' overall satisfaction and differences between inpatients' and outpatients' satisfaction, particularly in the Chinese army. Elucidating factors influencing military inpatient and outpatient care separately and analyzing their differences may provide more information for the health system. The Revised China National Health Service Survey questionnaire was used in the survey. The questionnaire included 5 sections and 32 items concerning demographic, inpatient, and outpatient characteristics and perception variables for both inpatients and outpatients. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relationships between satisfaction and the variables assessed. Outpatients' and inpatients' overall satisfaction rates were 19.0% and 18.5%, respectively. The strongest determinant of outpatients' satisfaction was satisfaction with doctor's communication regarding therapeutic regimen followed by length of military service, level of trust in medical staff, and disease severity. Determinants of inpatients' satisfaction included staff categories, satisfaction with environment, and satisfaction with medical quality. The factors influencing military outpatients' satisfaction differed from those of inpatients. Exploring the causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with military health institutions is important in their fulfillment of their responsibility to maintain soldiers' health.

  8. Analysis of Factors Influencing Inpatient and Outpatient Satisfaction with the Chinese Military Health Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Lv

    Full Text Available Relatively few articles have focused on exploring factors influencing soldiers' overall satisfaction and differences between inpatients' and outpatients' satisfaction, particularly in the Chinese army. Elucidating factors influencing military inpatient and outpatient care separately and analyzing their differences may provide more information for the health system.The Revised China National Health Service Survey questionnaire was used in the survey. The questionnaire included 5 sections and 32 items concerning demographic, inpatient, and outpatient characteristics and perception variables for both inpatients and outpatients. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were used to reveal relationships between satisfaction and the variables assessed.Outpatients' and inpatients' overall satisfaction rates were 19.0% and 18.5%, respectively. The strongest determinant of outpatients' satisfaction was satisfaction with doctor's communication regarding therapeutic regimen followed by length of military service, level of trust in medical staff, and disease severity. Determinants of inpatients' satisfaction included staff categories, satisfaction with environment, and satisfaction with medical quality.The factors influencing military outpatients' satisfaction differed from those of inpatients. Exploring the causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with military health institutions is important in their fulfillment of their responsibility to maintain soldiers' health.

  9. The new military medical ethics: legacies of the Gulf Wars and the War on Terror. (United States)

    Miles, Steven H


    United States military medical ethics evolved during its involvement in two recent wars, Gulf War I (1990-1991) and the War on Terror (2001-). Norms of conduct for military clinicians with regard to the treatment of prisoners of war and the administration of non-therapeutic bioactive agents to soldiers were set aside because of the sense of being in a 'new kind of war'. Concurrently, the use of radioactive metal in weaponry and the ability to measure the health consequences of trade embargos on vulnerable civilians occasioned new concerns about the health effects of war on soldiers, their offspring, and civilians living on battlefields. Civilian medical societies and medical ethicists fitfully engaged the evolving nature of the medical ethics issues and policy changes during these wars. Medical codes of professionalism have not been substantively updated and procedures for accountability for new kinds of abuses of medical ethics are not established. Looking to the future, medicine and medical ethics have not articulated a vision for an ongoing military-civilian dialogue to ensure that standards of medical ethics do not evolve simply in accord with military exigency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Fuel cells for military applications - an overview of the DERA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, J.B.; Green, K.J.; Mepsted, G.O.; Browning, D.J.


    DERA is investigating fuel cells at all sizes for military applications, but two applications stand out: man-portable power and hybrid electric vehicles. The future fighting soldier will have various electrical equipments in order to maximise his combat effectiveness. Although electronic circuitry is becoming increasingly efficient, the soldier's power budget will significantly increase as more equipments are added and higher performances are specified. Consequently, there is a pressing need for high performance, man-portable power sources to replace the traditional, low performance, rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery. The paper reports a novel, potentially low cost, simple to construct, lightweight, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) being developed at DERA Haslar as well as briefly mentioning alternatives. Another key application area could be military vehicles, both terrestrial and marine, where a fuel cell could be used as apart of a hybrid power train. The success of the fuel cell in military HEVs will depend on its ability to utilise a military logistic fuel, namely diesel. Two fuel cell options are described, which are being investigated by DERA: the high temperature proton conducting fuel cell (HTPCFC) and the high power PEMFC. (author)

  11. A global epidemiological survey and strategy of treatment of military ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-nian ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular

  12. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham


    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  13. Soldier Beliefs about the Readiness of Military Personnel with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)


    Those who suffer an mTBI may experience neuropsychological difficulties following the injury lasting typically a few days to a few weeks (Hanna... Schizophrenia Bulletin. 30: 511-541. MacGregor, A. J., Shaffer, R. A., Dougherty, A. L., Galarneau, M. R., Raman, R., et al. 2010. Prevalence and...Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 16: 705- 710. Mittal, D., Drummond, K. L., Blevins, D., Curran, G. C., Corrigan, P., and

  14. Exploring the Association Between Military Base Neighborhood Characteristics and Soldiers’ and Airmen’s Outcomes (United States)


    24.7 Fort Carson 8,677 1.7 9.0 24.8 Fort Drum 5,116 2.5 12.9 25.0 Fort Eustis 3,073 2.5 11.5 25.1 Fort George Meade 1,893 2.4 14.0 25.1 101...Fort George Meade 348 4.04 7.76 24.95 Fort Gordon 1,025 3.04 7.23 25.21 Fort Hood 3,221 2.11 4.47 25.26 Fort Huachuca 558 3.61 5.94 25.04 Fort Irwin...shape public policy (Cobb and Rixford, 1998).6 In 1929, President Herbert Hoover established an ad hoc committee to examine social change in America

  15. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945 (United States)


    social elites of the old and new stripes. This growing trend involved artists , intellectuals, and political thinkers who rejected the philosophical...creating ‘normative aesthetics,’ guidelines for what was ‘correct’ in the adherence to a cult of artistic beauty was translated to youth, the standard...the development of gymnastic and youth associations, these athletic associations propagated a distinctly militant brand of nationalistic ideology in

  16. Incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Elhalel, Amir; Pikkel, Joseph; Krauss, Eli; Miller, Benjamin


    To analyze the incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries in the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. Retrospective cohort study. All patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War (July-August, 2006). Retrieval of all data relevant to ocular and adnexal injuries sustained during the study period, and differentiation between those associated with combat/terrorist and other events. Analysis of data according to the severity of trauma , anatomical location of the injury, and whether the patients were military personnel or civilians. A total of 69 war-related ocular trauma patients (58 military personnel and 11 civilians) were registered during the 34 days of war. The injuries involved the anterior segment injury (n = 25), posterior segment (n = 29) and the periocular region (n = 15, all severe). Twenty-seven of the patients had open-globe injuries, of which 18 involved intraocular foreign bodies, and 27 patients had closed-globe injuries. The rate of ocular injuries was 7% among all registered wounded military personnel and 1.2% among all injured civilians. The incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries among military personnel during the Second Lebanon War were consistent with previous reports from American sources of ocular injuries sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. The rates of ocular injury associated with wartime events sustained by civilians has not been investigated before, and it was relatively low, probably as a result of stringent government-mandated building regulations for passive defense that are discussed.

  17. Soviet Union, Military Affairs. (United States)


    gardens, and in the vineyard ’.s and in the pastures of their "Pakhtako’r" kolkhoz. I gave birth to a dream—to become an officer. Back in the eighth...These dodgers, who prefer fancy pastry at home to the soldier’s dried crust, have always been around, of course. Every family has its black sheep , as

  18. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Kilic


    Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a “no-cost” intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 285-290

  19. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. The role of the military: to protect society -- and themselves. (United States)

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R


    Military personnel are at particularly high risk of becoming infected with HIV because they are in the age group at highest risk for infection, age 15-24 years; they are away from home for long periods of time; many feel invulnerable and ready to take risks; there are usually prostitutes and drugs in military areas; and troops have cash, but maybe not condoms, in their pockets. The level of attention given to HIV/AIDS in the military has grown over the course of the last few international AIDS conferences. One roundtable on HIV/AIDS in the armed forces was held at the 11th International Conference on AIDS held in Vancouver during July 7-12, 1996. A large-scale survey reported at the conference found the level of sexual activity to be significantly higher among US military personnel than in the civilian population. Even the oldest soldiers reported higher levels of multiple partner sex habits than the most sexually active young men in the UK and France. The data further indicate that significant numbers of those men who were infected continued to knowingly have unprotected sex. Data from Angola, Cambodia, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Thailand, and Zimbabwe show significantly higher levels of HIV infection among military personnel compared to the civilian populations. The authors stress the important role the military can play in preventing the spread of HIV and the need to involve military personnel in AIDS prevention programs.

  20. The use of creatine supplements in the military. (United States)

    Havenetidis, Konstantinos


    Creatine is considered an effective nutritional ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance. In spite of the publication of several reviews in the last decade on the topic of exercise performance/sports and creatine there is a need for an update related to the military given the lack of information in this area. The aim of this study was to critically assess original research addressing the use of creatine supplements in the military. A search of the electronic databases PubMed and SPORTDiscus, for the following key words: military personnel, trainees, recruit, soldier, physical fitness, physical conditioning, creatine supplementation, creatine ingestion, nutritional supplements to identify surveys and randomised clinical trials from journal articles and technical reports investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on military populations. Thirty-three out of 90 articles examined the use of creatine as a dietary supplement in military personnel. Twenty-one studies were finally selected on the basis of stated inclusion criteria for military surveys and randomised clinical trials. Most of the surveys (15/17) in the military indicate a high popularity of creatine (average 27%) among supplement users. In contrast, in most of the exercise protocols used (6/9) during randomised clinical trials creatine has produced a non-significant performance-enhancing effect. Creatine is one of the most widely used supplemental compounds in the military. It is not considered a doping infraction or related to any adverse health effects but its long-term usage needs further investigation. Experimental research suggests that creatine supplementation does not enhance physical performance in the military. However, limitations in creatine dosage, military fitness testing and sample group selection might have underestimated the ergogenic properties of creatine. Recent studies also indicate positive effects on various aspects of total force fitness such as cognitive

  1. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti


    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  3. [Reimbursement of opiate substitution drugs to militaries in 2007]. (United States)

    d'Argouges, F; Desjeux, G; Marsan, P; Thevenin-Garron, V


    The use of psychoactive drugs by militaries is not compatible with the analytical skills and self-control required by their jobs. Military physicians take this problem into consideration by organising systematic drugs screening in the French forces. However, for technical reasons, opiates are not concerned by this screening with the agreement of the people concerned. The estimated number of militaries who use an opiate substitute may be an approach of heroin consumption in the French forces. This study describes buprenorphine and methadone reimbursements made during 2007 by the national military healthcare centre to French militaries. Each French soldier is affiliated to a special health insurance. The national military healthcare centre has in its information system, all the data concerning drug reimbursement made to French military personnel. This is a retrospective study of buprenorphine and methadone reimbursements made during 2007 by the military healthcare centre, to militaries from the three sectors of the French forces, and from the gendarmerie and joint forces. Only one reimbursement of one of these two drugs during this period allowed the patient to be included in our study. Daily drug dose and treatment steadiness profile have been calculated according to the criteria of the French monitoring centre for drugs and drug addiction. The criteria of the National guidelines against frauds have been used to identify misuse of these drugs. Doctors' shopping behaviour has also been studied. Finally, the nature of the prescriber and the consumption of other drugs in combination with opiate substitute have been analysed. One hundred and eighty-one military consumers of opiate substitute drugs (167 men and 14 women) participated. This sample included people from the three sectors of the French forces as well as from the gendarmerie and from the joint forces. The average age of the consumers was 26.6 years (20-42 years). The average length of service was 6.1 years

  4. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers (United States)


    testing results of over 400 Soldiers, the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was developed and validated (AUG 08-MAR 09- PHASE 3) for implementation...0.075 kg per kg body mass. Resistance often increases to 1.0 kg x body mass or higher (up to 1.3 kg) when testing power and sprint athletes. An...Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) Background: The development of overuse injuries has

  5. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden (United States)


    allow heavy items to be packed close to the soldier’s natural centre of mass . The Infantryman, with such a large equipment burden, is in effect...COM Centre of Mass COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPL Corporal DARPA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency DMO Defence Materiel...Eighteen soldiers had customised their packs, either the issued packs or their own. The most common customisation was the addition of an external

  6. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war. (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor


    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  7. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers (United States)


    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  8. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look (United States)


    Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “ the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically...Frederick J. Gellert Department of Command, Leadership and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the ...organization and at every level within the Army, MRTs serve as the principal advisor to the leadership regarding CSF and as a resource for Soldiers

  9. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers (United States)


    Arbor, MI: Fairfax Press, 1960), 63. 17 Emmy E . Werner, Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998...Soldiers: From Violence to Protection (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 20–21. 71 Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich, “No Place to Hide...Conflict: Law, Policy and Practice (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005), 23. 86 Tanya Zayed and Svenja Vollmer, E -Learning

  10. Creating a New Military Service: Historical Precedents (United States)

    2016-06-01 cyborg /2015/03/08/cyber-warriors-need-not-soldiers. 76 drives unnecessary administrative overhead into the development...Be Soldiers.” Discover Magazine (8 March 2015): cyborg /2015/03/08/cyber-warriors-need-not-soldiers

  11. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing. (United States)

    Trego, Lori L


    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  12. Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq


    Skotnicka, Justyna


    Aims. The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Methods. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. Results: A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during th...

  13. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance. (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M


    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P balance was lower (P military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  14. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter? (United States)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.


    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators of Mental Health Treatment-Seeking in U.S. Active Duty Soldiers With Sexual Assault Histories. (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Britt, Thomas W; Pury, Cynthia L S; Jennings, Kristen; Cheung, Janelle H; Raymond, Mary Anne


    Despite significant mental health needs among sexual assault (SA) victims in the military, little is known about treatment-seeking patterns or factors associated with service use. This study examined service use behavior, barriers, and facilitators of mental health treatment-seeking in an active duty sample of 927 U.S. Army soldiers with mental health problems. SA victims (n = 113) did not differ from non-victims on barriers or facilitators after adjusting for demographic and mental health variables, with stigma rated as the largest barrier. Most SA victims (87.6%) had sought informal support and 59.3% had sought formal treatment. One third of treatment-seekers had dropped out of treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified several correlates of treatment-seeking among SA victims: Black race (OR = 7.57), SA during the military (OR = 4.34), positive treatment beliefs (OR = 2.22), social support for treatment (OR = 2.14), self-reliance (OR = 0.47), and stigma towards treatment seekers (OR = 0.43). Mental health symptoms were not associated with treatment seeking. Findings suggested that treatment-facilitating interventions should focus on improving recognition of mental health symptoms, altering perceptions related to self-reliance, and reducing stigma. Interventions should also enlist support for treatment-seeking from unit members, leaders, and significant others. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Correlation analysis of indicators of physical condition, health and physical fitness of soldiers involved in peacekeeping operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Fedak


    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the main physical qualities, which positively influence the physical state, health and military - professional career peacekeepers when performing tasks in different climatic conditions. Material : the study involved 98 military service under the contract the first age group (men. Analyzed contingent divided into groups according to climatic conditions of service: in the highlands - 37 person, in hot climates - 35 person, in towns and areas with limited space - 26 person. A correlation analysis between the results of running 100 meters, pulling, running 3 kilometre and indicators of the health and physical condition of the soldiers. Results : It was determined that the participation in peacekeeping missions in mountainous areas and in areas with a hot climate is the quality of the underlying physical endurance. With the participation in peacekeeping missions in populated areas and in areas with limited space - this is the strength and speed. Conclusions : on improving these physical qualities should focus during lessons in physical training of peacekeepers in the centers of immediate preparation for missions.

  17. Policing and Transgressing Borders: Soldiers, Slave Rebels, and the Early Modern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoleine Kars


    Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

  18. The long-term effects of military conscription on educational attainment and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. Hubers (Frank); H.D. Webbink (Dinand)


    markdownabstractThis study investigates the long-term effects of peace-time military conscription on educational attainment and earnings by exploiting a policy change that exempted a complete birth cohort from military service. We find that compulsory military service decreases the proportion of

  19. A retrospective study of ketamine administration and the development of acute or post-traumatic stress disorder in 274 war-wounded soldiers. (United States)

    Mion, G; Le Masson, J; Granier, C; Hoffmann, C


    The objective of this study was to explore whether ketamine prevents or exacerbates acute or post-traumatic stress disorders in military trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a database from the French Military Health Service, including all soldiers surviving a war injury in Afghanistan (2010-2012). The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was made by a psychiatrist and patients were analysed according to the presence or absence of this condition. Analysis included the following covariables: age; sex; acute stress disorder; blast injury; associated fatality; brain injury; traumatic amputation; Glasgow coma scale; injury severity score; administered drugs; number of surgical procedures; physical, neurosensory or aesthetic sequelae; and the development chronic pain. Covariables related to post-traumatic and acute stress disorders with a p ≤ 0.10 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. The data from 450 soldiers were identified; 399 survived, of which 274 were analysed. Among these, 98 (36%) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder and 89 (32%) had received ketamine. Fifty-four patients (55%) in the post-traumatic stress disorder group received ketamine vs. 35 (20%) in the no PTSD group (p stress disorder and total number of surgical procedures were independently associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. In this retrospective study, ketamine administration was not a risk factor for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in the military trauma setting. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Commentary on "The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)": Army STARRS: a Framingham-like study of psychological health risk factors in soldiers. (United States)

    Ressler, Kerry J; Schoomaker, Eric B


    Although historically the Army suicide rate has been significantly lower than the civilian rate, in 2004, the suicide and accidental death rates began trending upward. By 2008, the Army suicide rate had risen above the national average (20.2 per 100,000). In 2009, 160 active duty Soldiers took their lives, making suicide the third leading cause of death among the Army population. If accidental death, frequently the result of high-risk behavior, is included, then more Soldiers died by their own actions than in combat in 2009. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) was thus created in 2009 to begin to address these problems. The Army STARRS project is a large consortium of seven different studies to develop data-driven methods for mitigating or preventing suicide behaviors and improving the overall mental health and behavioral functioning of Army Soldiers during and after their Army service. The first research articles from the Army STARRS project were published in late 2013 and early 2014. This work has already begun to outline important facets of risk in the military, and it is helping to drive an empirically derived approach to improvements in understanding mental disorders and risk behavior and to improve prevention and support of mental health and resilience. The Framingham Heart Study, started in the 1940s, marked a watershed event in utilizing large cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal collaborative research to identify and understand risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Army STARRS project, through its collaborative, prospective, and robust innovative design and implementation, may provide the beginning of a similar scientific cohort in mental disorders. The work of this project will help understand biological and psychological aspects of military service, including those leading to suicide. When coupled with timely feedback to Army leadership, it permits near real-time steps to diagnose, mitigate, and

  1. the honour to serve: recollections of an umkhonto soldier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    motivated him to join Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the military wing of the African. National Congress (ANC). During his ... He was also one of the founding members of the MK Military Intelligence wing, which played an important role in the ... At times, there was no water in the camps, so they were forced to fetch water from.

  2. Energy balance and physical demands during an 8-week arduous military training course. (United States)

    Richmond, Victoria L; Horner, Fleur E; Wilkinson, David M; Rayson, Mark P; Wright, Antony; Izard, Rachel


    This study assessed soldier's physical demands and energy balance during the Section Commanders' Battles Course (SCBC). Forty male soldiers were monitored during the 8-week tactics phase of the SCBC. Energy expenditure was measured using the doubly labeled water method. Cardiovascular strain (heart rate) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometer) were also monitored. Average sized portions of meals were weighed, with all recipes and meals entered into a dietary analysis program to calculate the calorie content. Energy expenditure averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 2 to 3 and 21.3 ± 2.0 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 6 to 7. Soldiers lost 5.1 ± 2.6 kg body mass and body fat percent decreased from 23 ± 4% to 19 ± 5%. This average weight loss equates to an estimated energy deficit of 2.69 MJ · d(-1). The Army provided an estimated 14.0 ± 2.2 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 2 to 3 and 15.7 ± 2.2 MJ · d(-1) in weeks 6 to 7. Although this provision adheres to the minimum requirement of 13.8 MJ · d(-1) set by Army regulations, soldiers were in a theoretical 5.6 MJ · d(-1) energy deficit. The physical demands of SCBC were high, and soldiers were in energy deficit resulting in loss in body mass; primarily attributed to a loss in fat mass. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  4. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert


    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

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  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  7. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  8. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....

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  10. Assessing Israeli Military Effectiveness (United States)


    who stated in reference to Israel that a “state whose newspapers publish on their front pages the photograph and biography of each soldier who...then attacked Jordanian forces in Jerusalem and the Syrians in the Golan Heights. As was the case with Egypt, Jordanian forces possessed more advanced...flexibility by having the ability to shift forces from one front to another (i.e., paratroopers from the Sinai to Jerusalem ) in order to take advantage of

  11. Redefined Soviet military doctrine in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menning, B.W.


    On May 29, 1987, the Warsaw Pact's Political Consultative Committee issued a communique proclaiming that the military doctrine of the Warsaw Pact member states is strictly defensive and proceeds from the fact that the application of military means to resolve any dispute is inadmissible under current conditions. Following this declaration, a corresponding redefinition of Soviet military doctrine to emphasize defensiveness and war prevention has evoke lively commentary and debate in both the West and the East. Because doctrinal issues are likely to retain significance during arms control and security negotiations. The purpose of this paper is to highlight important trends associated with a continuing dialogue over Soviet military doctrine and to assess what the future portends as doctrinal discussions unfold. Since 1987 the accelerating pace of change has accentuated the importance of doctrinally related concerns. As a result of the INF Treaty and the Stockholm agreement, there has been greater transparency regarding Soviet and Warsaw Pact military developments. On December 7, 1988, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev announced unilateral troop reduction over the next two years, which, when completed, would reduce the offensive capabilities of Soviet forces in Eastern Europe. In March 1989 talks on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) opened in Vienna, with suggestions for exchanges of views on military policy. At the very same time, NATO and the Warsaw Pact began formal negotiations on reduction of Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) with a specific mandate to reduce those asymmetries that most favored prosecution of deep operations

  12. Informal caregiving and intimate relationships: the experiences of spouses of UK military personnel


    Thandi, Gursimran; Oram, S.; Verey, A.; Greenberg, N.; Fear, N. T.


    Aim Currently, there is no research available on the experiences of spouses providing informal care to wounded, injured or sick (WIS) UK military personnel. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by investigating the relationship experiences of non-military partners caring for WIS UK military personnel.Methods Spouses of WIS military personnel (n=25) completed telephone interviews with the research team. The data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The transcripts were ...

  13. Military-specific application of nutritional supplements: a brief overview [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Hoedebecke


    Full Text Available The Soldiers of America's military endure numerous physical and mental challenges that demand strict physical fitness regimens, extreme mental agility, and a perpetual readiness to deploy at a moment's notice. The chronicity of these stressors has the potential to dramatically reduce performance - both directly and indirectly.  Because of this risk, many Soldiers turn to nutritional supplements with hopes of optimizing performance. Increasing amounts of research have demonstrated that various supplements may enhance overall physical prowess, health, and offer quicker recovery in the face of corporal or psychological extremes. Most individuals, including many medical and nutrition professionals, possess only an elementary comprehension of nutritional supplements and their effect on Soldiers in training or combat environments. Nevertheless, a grasp of these details is required for safety and optimal benefits. Various compounds have been evaluated - to include evidence within the military setting - and found to augment endurance, increase cognitive function, decrease knee pain, or offer hearing or lung protection in the face of high-energy impulses. These efficacious outcomes may serve to augment the health and longevity of these Soldiers; however, continued research is needed for efficacy and long-term safety within specific environments.

  14. Prospective risk factors for post-deployment heavy drinking and alcohol or substance use disorder among US Army soldiers. (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Sun, Xiaoying; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B


    Investigations of drinking behavior across military deployment cycles are scarce, and few prospective studies have examined risk factors for post-deployment alcohol misuse. Prevalence of alcohol misuse was estimated among 4645 US Army soldiers who participated in a longitudinal survey. Assessment occurred 1-2 months before soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 (T0), upon their return to the USA (T1), 3 months later (T2), and 9 months later (T3). Weights-adjusted logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of hypothesized risk factors with post-deployment incidence and persistence of heavy drinking (HD) (consuming 5 + alcoholic drinks at least 1-2×/week) and alcohol or substance use disorder (AUD/SUD). Prevalence of past-month HD at T0, T2, and T3 was 23.3% (s.e. = 0.7%), 26.1% (s.e. = 0.8%), and 22.3% (s.e. = 0.7%); corresponding estimates for any binge drinking (BD) were 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), 52.5% (s.e. = 1.0%), and 41.3% (s.e. = 0.9%). Greater personal life stress during deployment (e.g., relationship, family, or financial problems) - but not combat stress - was associated with new onset of HD at T2 [per standard score increase: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35, p = 0.003]; incidence of AUD/SUD at T2 (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89, p risk of alcohol-related problems post-deployment.

  15. Workplace victimization risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior among active duty military personnel. (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Jason; Lattimore, Pamela K; Morgan, Jessica K; Hopkinson, Susan G; Jenkins, Linda; Cartwright, Joel


    Workplace victimization is a potential risk factor for suicidal behaviors (SB) among military personnel that has been largely overlooked. This paper examines both the impact of workplace victimization on reported SB and several potential protective factors associated with such suicidal behaviors in a large sample of active duty soldiers. A case-control study was conducted with 71 soldiers who reported SB in the past 12 months, each matched on sociodemographic characteristics to two others without reported suicidal behaviors. A multiple regression model was estimated to assess the effects of risk and protective factors while controlling for other variables. SB was associated with several aspects of victimization, mental health and substance abuse conditions, pain, impulsivity, stressors, negative life events, work-family conflict, active coping behaviors and positive military-related factors. Controlling for other variables, those with SB were more likely to have sought mental health or substance abuse services, to be depressed, anxious, impulsive, and less resilient than non-SB personnel. Study limitations included the use of retrospective self-report data, absence of some known SB predictors, and a population restricted to active duty Army personnel. SB among active duty personnel is associated with victimization since joining the military and is protected by resiliency. These findings suggest that in addition to the usual mental health factors, these additional predictors should be accounted for in SB intervention and prevention planning for active duty personnel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin


    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  17. Speech-Based Robotic Control for Dismounted Soldiers: Evaluation of Visual Display Options (United States)


    expected to reduce mission completion times by enhancing the operator’s ability to multitask . For example, the operator could drive the SUGV with the...Individual Differences in Human-Robot Interaction in a Military Multitasking Environment. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 2011, 5...Bugajska, M.; Schultz, A.; Trafton, J.; Blisard, S.; Skubic, M. Finding the FOO: A Pilot Study for a Multimodal Interface; ADA434963; U.S. Navy Center

  18. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance in Southwest Asia: Guidance for Small Unit Leaders (United States)


    extended post - partum depression . Because of family problems, soldiers may be irritable, nervous, inattentive and have difficulty sleeping. Soldiers most, regardless of rank, shyness or distance from post . c. Keep families and friends Informed. Establish effective lines of communication with the

  19. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I. (United States)

    Boshier, Roger


    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  20. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.


    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  1. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War]. (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus


    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  2. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers


    Summaira Naz


    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  3. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.


    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  4. Indero: Intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.


    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers

  5. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq]. (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna


    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  6. DefenseLink Special: U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future (United States)

    Us Afghanistan, U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future 'Forces of Freedom, Decency Will people, defend our freedom, and send a clear message to the extremists: The forces of freedom and decency will prevail," he said in a speech at Latvia University. Story U.S. Soldiers Work With Afghan Army

  7. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (United States)


    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  8. Glasnost and Secrecy in the Soviet Military (United States)


    the most vicious and xenophobic brand of Russian chauvinism, complete with witch-hunts and spymania. Secrecy was also important for enhancing the...the Soviet Armed Forces, a significant factor tor a military establishment historically used to ’ie position of the underdog because of the Soviet

  9. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales (United States)


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ECONOMIC VALUE OF ARMY FOREIGN MILITARY SALES ...this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data...sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden

  10. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkas C


    Full Text Available Can Nakkas,1 Hubert Annen,1 Serge Brand2,3 1Department of Military Psychology Studies, Military Academy at ETH Zurich, Zurich, 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods: A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility, and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results: Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion: Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for

  11. Gender differences in the effects of deployment-related stressors and pre-deployment risk factors on the development of PTSD symptoms in National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. (United States)

    Polusny, Melissa A; Kumpula, Mandy J; Meis, Laura A; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul A; Murdoch, Maureen; Thuras, Paul; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon M; Johnson, Alexandria K


    Although women in the military are exposed to combat and its aftermath, little is known about whether combat as well as pre-deployment risk/protective factors differentially predict post-deployment PTSD symptoms among women compared to men. The current study assesses the influence of combat-related stressors and pre-deployment risk/protective factors on women's risk of developing PTSD symptoms following deployment relative to men's risk. Participants were 801 US National Guard Soldiers (712 men, 89 women) deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan who completed measures of potential risk/protective factors and PTSD symptoms one month before deployment (Time 1) and measures of deployment-related stressors and PTSD symptoms about 2-3 months after returning from deployment (Time 2). Men reported greater exposure to combat situations than women, while women reported greater sexual stressors during deployment than men. Exposure to the aftermath of combat (e.g., witnessing injured/dying people) did not differ by gender. At Time 2, women reported more severe PTSD symptoms and higher rates of probable PTSD than did men. Gender remained a predictor of higher PTSD symptoms after accounting for pre-deployment symptoms, prior interpersonal victimization, and combat related stressors. Gender moderated the association between several risk factors (combat-related stressors, prior interpersonal victimization, lack of unit support and pre-deployment concerns about life/family disruptions) and post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Elevated PTSD symptoms among female service members were not explained simply by gender differences in pre-deployment or deployment-related risk factors. Combat related stressors, prior interpersonal victimization, and pre-deployment concerns about life and family disruptions during deployment were differentially associated with greater post-deployment PTSD symptoms for women than men. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. International military operations and mental health--A review. (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Noora M; Laukkala, Tanja


    Volunteering in international military missions has been scrutinized for its effects on mental health. Different kinds of exposures to traumatic events are associated with a variety of mental disorders, mainly heightened rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse. Based on the literature we discuss risk and protective factors concerning the psychological well-being of soldiers attending to international military operations. A systematic literature search was carried out using relevant search terms to identify the articles for this review. The ability to recognize and treat acute stress reactions during deployments is important. Post-deployment psychosocial support and services have a role in lowering barriers to care, diminishing stigma and also in recognizing individuals who suffer from psychological distress or psychiatric symptoms, to connect them with appropriate care. Further investigation of gender differences and the role of stigmatization is warranted. Most of those participating in international military operations are repatriated without problems, but repeated exposure to combat situations and other stressors may affect mental health in various ways. Stigmatization is still a barrier to care.

  13. Coordination Motor Skills of Military Pilots Subjected to Survival Training. (United States)

    Tomczak, Andrzej


    Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.

  14. An outbreak of trichinellosis in a military unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Vladan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In December 2001, an outbreak of trichinellosis spreaded in a military unit. The aim of this paper was to show possibilities and consequences of trichinellosis infestations in military units during peace time, as well as to improve knowledge and awareness of medical corps personnel, commanders and soldiers about this disease. Methods. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological models were used to find out a source of outbreak and to identify the ways of its transmission. Results. This outbreak was caused by the contaminated raw smoked sausage which had not undergone health inspection and brought from civilians to a military unit. Thirty-eight persons were exposed, twenty-one affected and hospitalized. The most frequent symptoms reported were fever (76.2%, myalgia (76.2%, palpebral edema (42.8%, face edema (19.0% and diarrhea (14.3%. Test for indirect immunofluorescence was positive in 14.3% and ELISA test was positive in 28.6% of the patients. Eosinophilia was present in 85.7% of the affected. IgE values were increased in 28.6% and CPK values were increased in 61.9% of the diseased. All of the 17 exposed undiseased had negative laboratory analyses for trichinellosis. Conclusion. We propose intensifying health education and continuing the implementation of duly supervised and evaluated self-check programs. A well-tuned, fast-reacting epidemiological monitoring system has to be obligatory.

  15. Helmet-Induced Occipital Neuralgia in a Military Aviator. (United States)

    Chalela, Julio A


    Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status. A 24-yr-old door gunner presented with suboccipital pain associated with the wear of his helmet. He described the pain as a paroxysmal stabbing sensation coming in waves. The physical exam and history supported the diagnosis of primary occipital neuralgia. Systemic pharmacological options were discussed with the soldier, but rejected due to his need to remain in flying status. An occipital nerve block was performed with good clinical results, supporting the diagnosis of occipital neuralgia and allowing him to continue as mission qualified. Occipital neuralgia can be induced by helmet wear in military personnel. Occipital nerve block can be performed in the deployed setting, allowing the service member to remain mission capable and sparing him/her from systemic side effects.Chalela JA. Helmet-induced occipital neuralgia in a military aviator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):409-410.

  16. Military Justice Study Guide (United States)


    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  17. Families in the Military (United States)

    ... family that loses the active presence of a parent through separation faces significant challenges and stress. During the parent's ... children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and stress involved when a parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military ...

  18. Body composition and military performance--many things to many people. (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E


    Soldiers are expected to maintain the highest possible level of physical readiness because they must be ready to mobilize and perform their duties anywhere in the world at any time. The objective of Army body composition standards is to motivate physical training and good nutrition habits to ensure a high state of readiness. Establishment of enforceable and rational standards to support this objective has been challenging even at extremes of body size. Morbidly obese individuals are clearly not suited to military service, but very large muscular individuals may be superbly qualified for soldier performance demands. For this reason, large individuals are measured for body fat using a waist circumference-based equation (female soldiers are also measured for hip circumference). The main challenge comes in setting appropriate fat standards to support the full range of Army requirements. Military appearance ideals dictate the most stringent body fat standards, whereas health risk thresholds anchor the most liberal standards, and physical performance associations fall on a spectrum between these 2 poles. Standards should not exclude or penalize specialized performance capabilities such as endurance running or power lifting across a spectrum of body sizes and fat. The full integration of women into the military further complicates the issue because of sexually dimorphic characteristics that make gender-appropriate standards essential and where inappropriately stringent standards can compromise both health and performance of this segment of the force. Other associations with body composition such as stress effects on intraabdominal fat distribution patterns and metabolic implications of a fat reserve for survival in extreme environments are also relevant considerations. This is a review of the science that underpins the U.S. Army body composition standards.

  19. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother". (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit


    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  20. Childhood maltreatment history as a risk factor for sexual harassment among U.S. Army soldiers. (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L


    Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.

  1. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment (United States)


    Young males, 18 or 19-year-old males; it’s like a soldier (that inhibits treatment- bullpen. They beat each other up, and don’t give seeking...forced me to go to mental health. After seeing a therapist, [they said I] someone wasn’t suicidal , wasn’t homicidal, but [they] told me I...I was given a choice to either stay at the house or go to this Uuvenile delinquency ] group home...Our therapist was good at what she did. That

  2. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  3. Postwar environment and long-term mental health problems in former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study. (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Stochl, Jan; Ovuga, Emilio; Abbott, Rosemary; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Croudace, Tim J; Jones, Peter B


    War experiences (WE) and postwar environments (PWE) are associated with mental ill-health. The present study aims to investigate the pathways from WE and PWE to mental ill-health and to define opportunities for intervention through analysis of the war-affected youths study (WAYS) cohort study. WAYS is an ongoing study of a large cohort of former child soldiers being conducted in Uganda. Mental health problems, subjective WE and PWE contexts were assessed by local adaptations of internationally developed measures for use with former child soldiers at least 6 years after the end of the war. Structural equation modeling was used to test two mediation hypotheses: (1) the 'trauma model' in which WE directly influence long-term mental health and (2) the 'psychosocial path' in which WE influence long-term mental health through PWE stressors. WE were linked to depression/anxiety (β=0.15 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.30)) through PWE (accounting for 44% of the variance in the relationship between these variables) and to conduct problems (β=0.23 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.43); (accounting for 89% of the variance, ie, near complete mediation)). The direct relation between WE and depression/anxiety attenuated but remained statistically significant. For conduct problems, the direct relationship was no longer significant after accounting for PWE. PWE are a key determinant of continued mental health problems in former child soldiers. Interventions to reduce long-term mental problems should address both PWE stressors (psychosocial model) and specialised mental healthcare (trauma model) and consider both models of intervention as complementary.

  4. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  5. Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul


    To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.

  6. Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment: Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Felmingham, Kim L; Palmer, Matthew A; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Van Hooff, Miranda; Lawrence, Andrew J; Bryant, Richard A; McFarlane, Alexander C


    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI. Participants viewed emotional face expressions while their neural activity was recorded (via event-related potentials) prior to and following deployment. The high-PTSD group displayed increased P1 and P2 amplitudes to threatening faces at post-deployment compared to the low-PTSD group. In contrast, the mTBI group displayed reduced face-specific processing (N170 amplitude) to all facial expressions compared to the no-mTBI group. Here, we identified distinctive neural patterns of emotional face processing, with attentional biases towards threatening faces in PTSD, and reduced emotional face processing in mTBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Industry - Military Energy Symposium, held 21-23 October 1980, San Antonio, Texas (United States)


    porning Is that of a professional soldier--as oric who will be m the thick of things i1 this currently tentative international order falls -pAprt. In...But the bubble burst in 1973. In a somewhat politit.lly Lue’trived shtortfoll, tie producing Arab states shut off oil exports--draimiatizing Ituw...missions In 14 dayb during the Arab -Israeli conflict--hauling 13,000 tons of military equipment and supphes to Egypt, Syria and !-aq. t They developed

  8. Canadian Military Nurse Deaths in the First World War. (United States)

    Dodd, Dianne


    This paper examines the lives of sixty-one Canadian Nursing Sisters who served during the First World War, and whose deaths were attributed, more or less equally, to three categories: general illness, Spanish Influenza, and killed in action. The response by Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC) physicians to the loss of these early female officers who were, in fact, Canada's first female war casualties, suggests a gendered construction of illness at work in the CAMC. While nurses tried to prove themselves good soldiers, military physicians were quick to attribute their illnesses and deaths to horrific war conditions deemed unsuitable for women. This gendered response is particularly evident in how CAMC physicians invoked a causal role for neurasthenia or shell shock for the nurses' poor health. The health profile of these women also suggests that some of these deaths might have occurred had these women stayed in Canada, and it encourages future comparative research into death rates among physicians and orderlies.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning: impact for the military health care provider. (United States)

    Arnett, Michael V; Lim, Julia T


    Ciguatera toxin is a marine neurotoxin produced by microorganisms that becomes concentrated in predatory fish. Toxicity in humans results from the ingestion of contaminated fish harvested in tropical waters. Clinical manifestations of illness include the rapid onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and neurological abnormalities. Because of the rapid onset of symptoms and the potential for case clusters from a common source ingestion of contaminated fish, there is the potential that ciguatera poisoning may initially mimic illnesses caused by antipersonnel biological and chemical agents. We present data on an active duty soldier who presented to sick call for evaluation of new onset paresthesias and was diagnosed with ciguatera toxin poisoning. We also present a review of ciguatera poisoning literature with emphasis on the distinguishing features between ciguatoxin and other neurotoxins of military significance.

  10. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service


    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee


    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  11. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies


    Borysov, Andrii


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  12. [Mineral springs on the north-east of Caucasus and its role in the treatment of soldiers of the Russian army in XIX--beginning XX c]. (United States)

    Akhmadov, T Z; Poddubnyĭ, M V


    The article is concerned to the history of formation of sanitary-treatment stations on the North Caucasus, in Chechnya (Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs) till 1917 year. The basis of the article are archive documents, scientific papers of contemporaries and official documents. Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs were more than 70 years the one the best recreative base of the Caucasian standing army including the caucasian cossack troop. The sanitary-treatment stations were of great importance during the active military actions with Hill people within the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the First World War (1914-1918), when the amount of the wounded and ill soldiers increased.

  13. Reaching soldiers with untreated substance use disorder: lessons learned in the development of a marketing campaign for the Warrior Check-Up study. (United States)

    Walton, Thomas O; Walker, Denise D; Kaysen, Debra L; Roffman, Roger A; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Neighbors, Clayton


    The Warrior Check-Up, a confidential telephone-delivered intervention, is designed to reach active-duty soldiers with untreated substance-use disorder at a large U.S. military base. This paper describes the development and successful implementation of the study's marketing strategies at the recruitment period's midpoint (2010-2012). Qualitative analyses of focus groups (n = 26) and survey responses (n = 278) describe the process of campaign design. Measures of demographics, media exposure, post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression gathered from callers (n = 172) are used in quantitative analysis assessing the campaign's success in reaching this population. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Department of Defense provided study funding.

  14. “What We Want Is for the Whites and Soldiers to Leave.” Yaquis and Mexicans in Times of Revolution (1910-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cárdenas García


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between the Yaqui people and Mexican revolutionaries. This relationship was complex and strained, partly due to the long and cruel war that preceded the revolution and partly because it involved collective, non-homogenous actors. Madero and many of his fellow revolutionaries recognized  the justice of Yaqui demands  and the injustice of Porfirian policies, but were unable to find a peaceful solution to the problem as they couldn’t accept the central demand of the Yaquis: the departure of soldiers and white settlers from their territory. in the end, the revolutionaries generally continued prior policies, that is, a mixture of war, colonization and military occupation. And though they were increasingly unorganized and divided, part of the Yaqui people continued to resist these policies.

  15. Reaching Soldiers with Untreated Substance Use Disorder: Lessons Learned in the Development of a Marketing Campaign for the Warrior Check-Up Study (United States)

    Walton, Thomas O.; Walker, Denise D.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Roffman, Roger A.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Neighbors, Clayton


    The Warrior Check-Up, a confidential telephone-delivered intervention, is designed to reach active-duty soldiers with untreated substance-use disorder at a large US military base. This paper describes the development and successful implementation of the study’s marketing strategies at the recruitment period’s midpoint (2010–2012). Qualitative analyses of focus groups (n = 26) and survey responses (n = 278) describe the process of campaign design. Measures of demographics, media exposure, post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression gathered from callers (n = 172) are used in quantitative analysis assessing the campaign’s success in reaching this population. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Department of Defense provided study funding. PMID:23869462


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU


    Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.

  17. Supplemental tests in the evaluation of occupational hand dermatitis in soldiers. (United States)

    Wolf, R; Movshowitz, M; Brenner, S


    Hand dermatitis in soldiers is a considerable problem. The purpose of the study was to evaluate appropriate screening tests to improve the diagnosis of hand dermatitis in soldiers. A group of 111 soldiers with occupational dermatitis from contact with fuels and oils underwent "tailored patch tests" with allergens relevant to their field of work and their environment. The control group consisted of 24 soldiers with various jobs similar to those of civilian life, who had not been exposed to oils and fuels. Seventy-three civilian patients, attending the clinic for patch testing, were also included. Twenty soldiers, who had a history of intensive contact with oil and fuels, but no contact dermatitis, and who were admitted because of various skin diseases (fungal infections, acne, etc.) also underwent the supplemental testing and served as an additional control group. Of the soldiers, 31 (29%) showed one or more positive skin tests of the oil series and 30 patients of this group one or more positive reactions to the standard patch tests trays. No patient of the control groups had a positive test to the oil series. Our results show the value of the supplementary tests as a first-step screening test for detection of oil allergy in soldiers and automobile-mechanics or in workers handling other gasoline- or diesel-powered engineering equipment. The test method appears to be practical, easy to perform, reliable and giving clear and accurate results, with a negligible rate of false positive reactions.

  18. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II. (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas


    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  19. Stigma, career worry, and mental illness symptomatology: Factors influencing treatment-seeking for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom soldiers and veterans. (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas B; Bruce, Steven E


    Mental health related stigma, as well as mental illness symptomatology, have been shown to negatively impact treatment-seeking within military populations. However, few studies have delineated the 2 forms of stigma (self-stigma and public stigma), and none have differentiated between stigma and career-related consequences (career worry). The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of low treatment-seeking rates among soldiers and veterans by expanding upon previous measurements of the stigma construct and examining factors influencing willingness to seek treatment. The sample consisted of 276 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) soldiers and veterans. Individual levels of self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry were measured, as were levels of willingness to seek treatment. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, and substance abuse were also evaluated to account for the influence of mental illness on treatment-seeking. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 3-factor model including self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry fit the data significantly better than a 1- or 2- factor model. A multiple regression analysis also revealed that these 3 factors, combined with mental illness symptomatology, significantly predicted individual levels of willingness to seek treatment. Career worry was the strongest predictor, particularly for individuals with no treatment history. This study confirmed that career worry is a factor independent of self-stigma and public stigma. Findings indicate that a fear of negatively affecting one's career is the most influential factor in determining willingness to seek mental health treatment for the military population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  1. Integrating a hip belt with body armour reduces the magnitude and changes the location of shoulder pressure and perceived discomfort in soldiers. (United States)

    Lenton, Gavin K; Doyle, Tim L A; Saxby, David J; Billing, Dan; Higgs, Jeremy; Lloyd, David G


    Soldiers carry heavy loads that may cause general discomfort, shoulder pain and injury. This study assessed if new body armour designs that incorporated a hip belt reduced shoulder pressures and improved comfort. Twenty-one Australian soldiers completed treadmill walking trials wearing six different body armours with two different loads (15 and 30 kg). Contact pressures applied to the shoulders were measured using pressure pads, and qualitative assessment of comfort and usability were acquired from questionnaires administered after walking trials. Walking with hip belt compared to no hip belt armour resulted in decreased mean and maximum shoulder pressures (p armour and backpack designs should integrate a hip belt and distribute load closer to shoulder midline to reduce load carriage discomfort and, potentially, injury risk. Practitioner Summary: Soldiers carry heavy loads that increase their risk of discomfort and injury. New body armour designs are thought to ease this burden by transferring the load to the hips. This study demonstrated that designs incorporating a hip belt reduced shoulder pressure and shoulder discomfort compared to the current armour design.

  2. Vreme reagovanja vojnika vozača / Reacting time of military solders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir S. Gordić


    Full Text Available Bezbednost vojnog saobraćaja i upravljanje kretanjem zavise od vremena reagovanja vojnika vozača. Vojnici vozači su selekcionirana grupa vozača, pa se smatra daje njihovo vreme reagovanja kraće od vremena reagovanja generalne populacije vozača i od normativnog vremena reagovanja, koje se koristi u analizama. Zbog toga je izvršeno merenje vremena reagovanja vojnika vozača kočenjem, s ciljem da se sagleda njegov uticaj na bezbednost saobraćaja i na upravljanje saobraćajnim tokovima, kao i da se stručna javnost upozna sa dobijenim rezultatima. U radu su prikazani rezultati merenja vremena reagovanja vojnika vozača kočenjem, za slučajno odabranu grupu, u realnim uslovima. / Safety in military traffic and its management depends on the reaction time of military drivers. Military drivers are a selected group of soldiers, so it is considered that their reaction time is shorter than the reaction time of general drivers population and it is also shorter than the normative reaction time, which is used in the analyses. Therefore, the stopping time of military drivers was tested, in aider to see the influence on traffic safety and management of traffic courses, and to interest the professionals in the given results. In the essay results of stopping time in the real conditions for a random chosen group of military drivers are shown.

  3. Factors associated with substance use among Spanish military personnel involved in "Bosnia-Herzegovina". (United States)

    Vargas Pecino, Cristina; Castellano, Enrique; Trujillo, Humberto


    The use of both legal and illegal drugs has rarely been investigated among the Spanish military population involved in multinational military operations. The aim of the current study was to examine the consumption of drugs by Spanish military personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the variables associated with such substance use. A total of 605 military personnel participated in the cross-sectional study. The participants' mean age was 25.9 years (SD = 5.9), and 93.9% of the sample was male. The majority of the participants were enlisted personnel (83.5%). The most widely used drugs were tobacco (54.2%), and alcohol (39.9%). With respect to illegal drugs, the results showed that the drug with the highest prevalence of "use at some point during a lifetime" was cannabis (36.2%), followed by cocaine (14.9%) and amphetamines (12.1%). The most important variable associated with a decrease in the consumption of illegal drugs was social support. Conversely, participants with friends who have used illegal drugs had an increased likelihood of drug consumption. Given that the use of drugs can adversely affect soldiers' performance, preventive measures should be applied in multinational military operations.

  4. Effect of military training stress on plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) levels in recruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Luo Nanping


    Objective: To investigate the effect of military training stress on the secretion and metabolism of adrenomedullin in recruits. Methods: Plasma ADM (with RIA) and urinary VMA (with colorimetric analysis) contents were determined both before and after 1h strenuous military exercise in 60 newly enlisted soldiers and once in 50 soliders served over 3 years (as controls). Results: For the recruits group, the plasma concentrations of ADM and urinary concentrations of VMA both before and after military training were significantly higher than those in veterans control (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01). High strength military training resulted in significant elevation of concentrations of both ADM and VMA (P<0.01, P<0.05). The elevation of plasma ADM concentration was extremely significant with an amplitude about 9 times (23.72 ± 12.63 pg/ml before training and 214.97 ± 57.75 pg/ml after training). Conclusion: 1) The stress of enrollment and military training may result in increase of secretion of ADM and VMA in recruits. 2) Appropriate stress is beneficial in terms of rapid adaptation for changes of internal and external environment, while excessive acute and repeated stress may be harmful. (authors)

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

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    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  6. Forecasting military expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Böhmelt


    Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.

  7. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L


    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  8. About Military Sexual Trauma

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    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... Loading... Loading... Rating is available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right ...

  9. About Military Sexual Trauma

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    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... is Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) [for posttraumatic stress disorder]? - Duration: 2:01. Veterans Health Administration 27,844 ...

  10. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  11. About Military Sexual Trauma (United States)

    ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... 5:31 Get Fit for Life (8) Strength/Balance Training - Duration: 32:02. Veterans Health Administration 2, ...

  12. The Military Cooperation Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renzi, Jr, Alfred E


    .... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...

  13. Privatized Military Operations (United States)


    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  14. The Professional Military Ethic (United States)


    would require of us. (In fact, it could ultimately end up requiring us to do harm.) This is a case of cultural relativism in its least plausible...recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships

  15. Do Military Personnel Patent (United States)


    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  16. Rationale, design, and protocol for the prevention of low back pain in the military (POLM trial (NCT00373009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Jessica L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few effective strategies reported for the primary prevention of low back pain (LBP. Core stabilization exercises targeting the deep abdominal and trunk musculature and psychosocial education programs addressing patient beliefs and coping styles represent the current best evidence for secondary prevention of low back pain. However, these programs have not been widely tested to determine if they are effective at preventing the primary onset and/or severity of LBP. The purpose of this cluster randomized clinical trial is to determine if a combined core stabilization exercise and education program is effective in preventing the onset and/or severity of LBP. The effect of the combined program will be compared to three other standard programs. Methods/Design Consecutive Soldiers participating in advanced individual training (AIT will be screened for eligibility requirements and consented to study participation, as appropriate. Companies of Soldiers will be randomly assigned to receive the following standard prevention programs; a core stabilization exercise program (CSEP alone, a CSEP with a psychosocial education (PSEP, a traditional exercise (TEP, or a TEP with a PSEP. Proximal outcome measures will be assessed at the conclusion of AIT (a 12 week training period and include imaging of deep lumbar musculature using real-time ultrasound imaging and beliefs about LBP by self-report questionnaire. We are hypothesizing that Soldiers receiving the CSEP will have improved thickness of selected deep lumbar musculature (transversus abdominus, multifidi, and erector spinae muscles. We are also hypothesizing that Soldiers receiving the PSEP will have improved beliefs about the management of LBP. After AIT, Soldiers will be followed monthly to measure the distal outcomes of LBP occurrence and severity. This information will be collected during the subsequent 2 years following completion of AIT using a web-based data entry system

  17. Outbreak of caliciviruses in the Singapore military, 2015. (United States)

    Neo, Freddy Jun Xian; Loh, Jimmy Jin Phang; Ting, Peijun; Yeo, Wei Xin; Gao, Christine Qiu Han; Lee, Vernon Jian Ming; Tan, Boon Huan; Ng, Ching Ging


    From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated. We collected 86 stool samples from AGE cases and 58 samples from food-handlers during the course of the outbreak and these stool samples were tested for 8 bacterial pathogens and 2 viral pathogens (i.e., norovirus and sapovirus). We detected Sapovirus (SaV), group I Norovirus (NoV GI) and group II Norovirus (NoV GII) from the stool samples of AGE cases. Further sequence analyses showed that the AGE outbreak in August was caused mainly by three rarely reported calicivirus novel genotypes: NoV GI.7, NoV GII.17 and SaV GII.3. Control measures implemented focused on the escalation of personal and environmental hygiene, which included the separation of affected and unaffected soldiers, enforcement of rigorous hand-washing and hygiene, raising awareness of food and water safety, and disinfection of communal areas with bleach. This study identified both NoV and SaV as the causative agents for an AGE outbreak at a Singapore military camp in August 2015. This study is also the first to report SaV as one of the main causative agents, highlighting the importance of caliciviruses as causative agents of AGE outbreaks in the Singapore military. As there are no commercially available vaccines against caliciviruses, strict personal hygiene and proper disinfection of environmental surfaces remain crucial to prevent calicivirus outbreak and transmission.

  18. Olecranon Bursitis in a Military Population: Epidemiology and Evidence for Prolonged Morbidity in Combat Recruits. (United States)

    Schermann, Haggai; Karakis, Isabella; Dolkart, Oleg; Maman, Eran; Kadar, Assaf; Chechik, Ofir


    Olecranon bursitis (OB) is a benign but disturbing condition that may adversely affect a military recruit's combat preparedness. This study was designed to assess incidence, risk factors, and associated medical burden of OB in the Israel Defense Forces. This is a retrospective study drawing on medical records of all Israel Defense Forces soldiers diagnosed as having OB between 2005 and 2015. OB was classified as septic and noninfectious. Crude incidence rates and duty-specific incidence rates were calculated. Medical burden was defined by the number of physician visits, referrals to orthopedic specialist consultations, duration of symptoms, and duration of pharmaceutical treatment. Demographic and occupational information (age, sex, height, weight, socioeconomic status, country of origin, type of military service, time of presentation to medical services) was used to identify risk factors for septic bursitis and longer duration of symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed in R statistical software. Risk factors were evaluated using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and Pearson correlation coefficients were used for continuous variables. The study was approved by the Israeli Defense Force IRB. A total of 2,692 soldiers were diagnosed with OB during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of OB was 29/100,000 person-years (PY). Combat duty had an incidence of 97/100,000 PY, and noncombat duties had an incidence of 12/10,000 PY (p Origin from the former USSR was associated with a higher duration of symptoms (p = 0.012). Type of military service was the principal risk factor for OB, as indicated by a higher incidence of the disorder among combat compared to noncombat units, possibly the result of field training without protective gear and repetitive trauma to elbows. The greater number of diagnoses of OB during summer and autumn, when training is more intensive, support that explanation. Sex did not affect incidence of OB in administrative

  19. Military Internal Medicine Resident Decision to Apply to Fellowship and Extend Military Commitment. (United States)

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Hartzell, Joshua D; Bonura, Erin M; Ressner, Roseanne A; Whitman, Timothy J; Yun, Heather C


    Nationally, the number of internal medicine physicians practicing in primary care has decreased amidst increasing interest in hospitalist medicine. Current priorities in the Military Health System include access to primary care and retention of trained personnel. Recently, we have conducted a study of military internal medicine residents' decision to enter infectious disease. As part of our larger effort, we saw an opportunity to characterize factors impacting decision making of internal medicine residents' desire to apply for subspecialty training and to extend active duty service obligations. Questions were developed after discussion with various military graduate medical education and internal medicine leaders, underwent external review, and were added to a larger question set. The survey link was distributed electronically to all U.S. military affiliated residencies' graduating internal medicine residents in December 2016-January 2017. Data were analyzed by decision to apply to fellowship and decision to extend military obligation using Fisher's exact test or Pearon's chi-square test. Sixty-eight residents from 10 of 11 military residency programs responded, for a response rate of 51%. The majority (62%) applied to fellowship to start after residency completion. Reasons cited for applying to fellowship included wanting to become a specialist as soon as possible (74%), wishing to avoid being a general internist (57%), and because they are unable to practice as a hospitalist in the military (52%). Fellowship applicants were more likely to plan to extend their military obligation than non-applicants, as did those with longer duration of military commitments. No other factors, including Uniformed Services University attendance or participation in undergraduate military experiences, were found to impact plan to extend active duty service commitment. The majority of graduating internal medicine residents apply for fellowship and report a desire to avoid being a

  20. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (United States)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard


    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  1. Civilian Reuse of Former Military Bases. Summary of Completed Military Base Economic Adjustment Projects (United States)


    Theodore Army Terminal 1965 (-) Unde, deal Basic Industries, Chamber of Commerce . P.O. Box 2187 Mobile Paint Mfg Co, Hula, Taylor- Mobile. AL 36652 Wharton...585 650 Sidney Warehousing Activities, 300(C) Anita Pennel, Chamber of Commerce . Sioux Army Depot 1967 (2) Western Nebraska Community College, Sidney...Inc. Laurel Oaks Vo-Tech, 600(S) Wilmington Area Chamber of Commerce Industrial Park, Hydro-Lift Trucks, 69 North South Street Southern State Community

  2. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon S. Finestone


    Full Text Available A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm than males (174 cm, CI 173–176, had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg, had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1 than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5% than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%, and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7% than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%. Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers.

  3. A demonstration of remote survey and characterization of a buried waste site using the SRIP [Soldier Robot Interface Project] testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Armstrong, G.A.; Hamel, W.R.; Jansen, J.F.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Emery, M.S.


    During FY 1990, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supported the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Office of Technology Development through several projects including the development of a semiautonomous survey of a buried waste site using a remotely operated all-terrain robotic testbed borrowed from the US Army. The testbed was developed for the US Army's Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) for the US Army's Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP). Initial development of the SRIP testbed was performed by a team including ORNL, HEL, Tooele Army Depot, and Odetics, Inc., as an experimental testbed for a variety of human factors issues related to military applications of robotics. The SRIP testbed was made available to the DOE and ORNL for the further development required for a remote landfill survey. The robot was modified extensively, equipped with environmental sensors, and used to demonstrate an automated remote survey of Solid Waste Storage Area No. 3 (SWSA 3) at ORNL on Tuesday, September 18, 1990. Burial trenches in this area containing contaminated materials were covered with soil nearly twenty years ago. This paper describes the SRIP testbed and work performed in FY 1990 to demonstrate a semiautonomous landfill survey at ORNL. 5 refs

  4. Cracking the code: a decode strategy for the international business machines punch cards of Korean war soldiers. (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Erin M


    During the Korean War, International Business Machines (IBM) punch cards were created for every individual involved in military combat. Each card contained all pertinent personal information about the individual and was utilized to keep track of all soldiers involved. However, at present, all of the information known about these punch cards reveals only their format and their significance; there is little to no information on how these cards were created or how to interpret the information contained without the aid of the computer system used during the war. Today, it is believed there is no one available to explain this computerized system, nor do the original computers exist. This decode strategy is the result of an attempt to decipher the information on these cards through the use of all available medical and dental records for each individual examined. By cross-referencing the relevant personal information with the known format of the cards, a basic guess-and-check method was utilized. After examining hundreds of IBM punch cards, however, it has become clear that the punch card method of recording information was not infallible. In some cases, there are gaps of information on cards where there are data recorded on personal records; in others, information is punched incorrectly onto the cards, perhaps as the result of a transcription error. Taken all together, it is clear that the information contained on each individual's card should be taken solely as another form of personal documentation.

  5. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis. (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia


    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  6. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.


    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  7. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.

  8. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R


    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  9. From Rampart to Chamber House: Soldiers, Statesmen and the Dialogue of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Edwin H


    .... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...

  10. The Effects of an Auditory Versus a Visual Presentation of Information on Soldier Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glumm, Monica


    This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...

  11. Current Issues in the Use of Virtual Simulations for Dismounted Soldier Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W


    Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...

  12. U.S. Soldier Peacekeeping Experiences and Wellbeing After Returning from Deployment to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy


    ... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...

  13. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoge, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; Engel, Charles C; Castro, Carl A


    .... Validated clinical instruments were used to compare soldiers reporting mild traumatic brain injury, defined as an injury with loss of consciousness or altered mental status (e.g., dazed or confused...

  14. Soldier Performance and Heat Strain During Evaluation of a Combat Fitness Assessment in Northern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotter, James


    ...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori


    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  16. Soldier Dimensions and Operational Readiness in U.S. Army Forces Deployed to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl


    .... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...

  17. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Demirtas


    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  18. The Transition of Military Personnel to Public Educatiion


    West, Richard Wayne


    This is a qualitative study of second-career military personnel who have become teachers after they completed an alternative certification program. Factors that contributed to the transition of second-career military teachers to the classroom were examined. Obstacles the teachers encountered during the transition were also examined. How well the alternative certification program prepared the participants for selected components of teaching in this study was determined. Finally, the beginnin...

  19. Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0685 TITLE: Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...individuated brain training program (cognitive training + mindfulness /stress- reduction training) with caregiver support portal and lifestyle monitor is

  20. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab


    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.