WorldWideScience

Sample records for soldier production reflects

  1. Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old...... comedy, the independent mercenary becomes a central character of New Comedy. Thus the comic view on soldiers reflects the martial attitudes and ideologies of contemporary society....

  2. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-09-22

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  3. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  4. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  5. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women in WAR and peace – reflections on gender and the role of female soldiers in MINUSMA, MALI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Active involvement of women is key to sustainable and inclusive peace. Despite efforts to increase the deployment of female soldiers, the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) remains dominated by men. A focus on the operational relevance of gender integration and building...... on existing capacities in the mission will be small, yet realistic, steps forward. This paper discusses mechanisms within the mission that have been established to raise gender awareness, based on fieldwork conducted by me in MINUSMA in June 2016, together with post.doc Signe Cold-Ravnkilde and Peter Albrecht...

  7. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the

  8. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the relations between

  9. Designing Visceral, Behavioural and Reflective Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Mersha; Rusli, Helen Agustin

    2017-09-01

    Designers and manufacturers often see consumption as the primary objective of a product - with implications such as discarded products, obsolete wastes, and ecological degradation. The paper aims to find the answer to the question, how emotional design can adapt the discarded and undesirable products into something valuable in a long term? This paper presents a framework combining Chapman's theory and Norman's theory on three levels of emotional design to highlight what long lasting connection with products entails. A design approach is presented combing the Wabi Sabi philosophy that promotes the celebration of decay and damage. This is used as one of the design principles for the experiments conducted on discarded products. Through constant user interaction before, during and after the experiments the evaluation of design as an agent of transformation is done. The user conducted the evaluation based on the Kansei elements of looks, sound, smell, and feel of the product. The experiments confirmed that a long-term value is only achieved through redesigning and reconstructing the perception of people towards products on a reflective level, rather than the visceral and behavioural elements of the product. The research found attachment to the visceral and behavioural elements of a product instead of an emotional one was causing users to discard products faster than required. The research indicated that many people, including designers and manufacturers, are unconsciously focusing on usability (behavioural level) and physical look (visceral level) of a product that are easily replaced, than on a meaningful way (reflective level) to create and maintain long-lasting emotions. The research concluded with a proposition towards digitization of products which could perhaps be an all round solution to make products more appropriate to human emotions. Digitization could give products the ability to capture, store and then communicate the stories, journey and memories back, in

  10. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  11. Production in Gdlrc and Present Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, A.; Çolak, S.; Bakici, S.; Özmüş, L.

    2013-08-01

    in the country, 1/5000 scaled digital color orthophoto images were producedbetween 2009-2012. Orthophoto images of other areas is carried out by General Command of Mapping (GCM). Orthophotos , base images with the current covering the whole country, cloudless, 30-45 cm in the sampling interval (Ground Sample Distance - GSD), produced will be realized by both institutions in 2014. Ongoing projects in the fields covered by the renewal is important. Orthophoto production stage, stereo, color, and near-infrared aerial photographs of the terrain elevation models are also available. Municipalities places by 1/1000 scale orthophoto images prepared in this process. The production of orthophotos, digital cadastral works of engineering projects and other institutions, decision-support processes, quality controls and integrity of the legal dimension of the feature can be used to create litter. GDLRC for these purposes by the OGC Web Services standards TNGIS prepared and successfully created the image layer. Two projects planned by GDLRC. In both of projects, historical aerial photographs, are retrieved from GDLRC and GCM archives, will scan, produce orthophoto and service from web.

  12. Soldiers Magazine | Telling the Soldier's story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldier, fight in the Korean War and serve as a intelligence agent during the Cold War. 14 April 2016 professionals vying for Best Medic bragging rights. 14 October 2016 The U.S. Army's Hispanic-American Medal of possible On Women's Equality Day, learn about 19 ways U.S. Army women helped make the 19th Amendment

  13. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...protection of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  14. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  15. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  16. Harmonized Landsat/Sentinel-2 Reflectance Products for Land Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, J. G.; Ju, J.; Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Dungan, J. L.; Roger, J. C.; Skakun, S.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    Many land applications require more frequent observations than can be obtained from a single "Landsat class" sensor. Agricultural monitoring, inland water quality assessment, stand-scale phenology, and numerous other applications all require near-daily imagery at better than 1ha resolution. Thus the land science community has begun expressing a desire for a "30-meter MODIS" global monitoring capability. One cost-effective way to achieve this goal is via merging data from multiple, international observatories into a single virtual constellation. The Harmonized Landsat/Sentinel-2 (HLS) project has been working to generate a seamless surface reflectance product by combining observations from USGS/NASA Landsat-8 and ESA Sentinel-2. Harmonization in this context requires a series of radiometric and geometric transforms to create a single surface reflectance time series agnostic to sensor origin. Radiometric corrections include a common atmospheric correction using the Landsat-8 LaSRC/6S approach, a simple BRDF adjustment to constant solar and nadir view angle, and spectral bandpass adjustments to fit the Landsat-8 OLI reference. Data are then resampled to a consistent 30m UTM grid, using the Sentinel-2 global tile system. Cloud and shadow masking are also implemented. Quality assurance (QA) involves comparison of the output 30m HLS products with near-simultaneous MODIS nadir-adjusted observations. Prototoype HLS products have been processed for 7% of the global land area using the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) compute environment at NASA Ames, and can be downloaded from the HLS web site (https://hls.gsfc.nasa.gov). A wall-to-wall North America data set is being prepared for 2018.This talk will review the objectives and status of the HLS project, and illustrate applications of high-density optical time series data for agriculture and ecology. We also discuss lessons learned from HLS in the general context of implementing virtual constellations.

  17. Reflection on the Production of Knowledge: From Postmodernism to Pseudoscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Aris Tanudirjo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the Indonesian government has impelled academics and higher education institutions as the centre of knowledge production to publish their works in reputed international journal. This policy is necessary to elevate the position of Indonesian higher education institution in the World University Rankings. In fact, such a policy will not only have impact on the status of the higher education institution but also in the course of human culture and society. This article tries to reflect on the impact of the implementation of the policy in the wider cultural context. Predictably, new knowledge will only be circulated among the elite academics and the higher education institutions will become inaccessible ivory tower for the society. On the other hand, the society will tend to consume more pseudoscientific knowledge which is more attractive and easier to understand. Ultimately this will have a significant impact on the course and quality of human culture.

  18. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  19. Soldier Survey Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    programs and policies and to increase the knowledge base needed for informed decisionmaking. Data for the soldier survey were collected in on-site...Subsequent analyses will be prepared in the form of reports and other materials designed to meet the needs of Army program and policy staff and other...743 * -C Mm C mm l W G gi’ 4.18L. 1 mmI 2In m -P 6- C-4 , 4. C14 u Cc 3 4.1 41 4.1 - C I-D 6. 1 +5 4.1 4-- C-4 RO C4 r ’ C-4, CD 0 f33 Es *i C5 W CNCD

  20. REFLECTIONS ON THE NICE DECISION TO REJECT PATIENT PRODUCTION LOSSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, James; Byford, Sarah; Birch, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Patient production losses occur when individuals' capacities to work, whether paid or unpaid, are impaired by illness, treatment, disability, or death. There is controversy about whether and how to include patient production losses in economic evaluations in health care. Patient production losses have not previously been considered when evaluating medications for reimbursement under the U.K. National Health Service. Proposals for value-based assessment of health technologies in the United Kingdom created renewed interest in whether and how to include costs from a wider societal perspective, such as patient production losses, within economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. A narrative review was undertaken of theoretical, ethical, and policy issues that might inform decisions that involve the normative question of whether or not to include patient production losses in economic evaluation. It seems difficult to reconcile the implications of including patient production losses with the objectives of a healthcare system dedicated to providing universal healthcare coverage without regard to patients' ability to pay. Tax payer funded healthcare systems may legitimately adopt maximands other than health gain, but these will be at the opportunity cost of less than maximum health gains.

  1. Reproduction, Contestation, and Political Theater: Reflections on Three Productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Considers the potential of political theater to raise questions of social justice in a provocative manner for students. Describes three productions at a Swiss boarding school, in which the author served as director: a feminist "Taming of the Shrew," a student-written satirical cabaret, and Brecht's "The Good Person of Sezuan."…

  2. Active Learning and Reflection in Product Development Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Aruna

    2007-01-01

    Traditional engineering courses at tertiary level have been traditionally theory-based, supported by laboratory work, but there is now a world-wide trend towards project-based learning. In product development education, project-based learning is essential in order to integrate the disciplines of design, marketing and manufacturing towards the…

  3. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  4. REFLECTIONS ON PRODUCTION INTERNALIZATION AND ITS INTERNATIONAL TRADE IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLIPA RALUCA IRINA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically-integrated multinational companies place the different stages of production and marketing chain in different countries, looking for advantages such as low production costs, lower taxes, abundant resources and so on, while benefiting from the advantages of economies of scale, control of supplies or outlets. In fact, this vertical integration of multinational companies has led to the expansion of intra-firm trade and "internalized" operations, thus creating their own markets for the vertically-integrated production. Internationally active firms operate in a way that replaces the different functions of an open market with internal transactions, i.e. intra-firm transactions, whenever internal transaction costs are lower than the open-market ones. The direct consequence over international trade is the increase of intra-firm share of trade flows to one third of world trade, those companies making a suppression of international market segments that act in favour of an internal market. The creation of a multinational market and the enhancement of intra-firm trade have profound quantitative and qualitative implications on the composition, geographic orientation and dynamics of international trade. This paper deals with the issue of production internalization, with an overview of the main contributions made to the theory of internalization, while tackling its relative dimension. However, we intend to highlight the implications of this phenomenon on international trade. The work methodology falls within the range of qualitative approaches: logical argumentation, critical theoretical analysis.

  5. Wood products utilization : a call for reflection and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Youngquist; Thomas E. Hamilton

    1999-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without forests. Forests provide a wide range of benefits at the local, national, and global levels. Some of these benefits depend on leaving the forest alone or subjecting it to only minimal interference. Other benefits can only be realized by harvesting the forest for wood and other products. The shrinking land base and growing human...

  6. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  7. Conference on soldiers, civilians and environment protection against contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The military and civil aspects of radiation protection have been discussed. The special emphasize has been done on contamination monitoring of environment, soldier radiological protection during hypothetical warfare, radiological health hazard assessment, post Chernobyl contamination control of environment and food products in Poland, dose equivalent estimation and radiometric control equipment used in military and civil service

  8. Child Soldiers - Lessons Learned on Prevention, Demobilization, and Reintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Verhey, Beth

    2002-01-01

    As highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive ...

  9. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  10. Non-Deployable Soldiers: Understanding the Army’s Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-07

    Effects ( MFE ) specialties. As reflected in table 3, most Soldiers opted for DEIP within 90 days of LAD or after deployment.86 Unit Type from LAD...Eligible Takers Take % BCTs ៊ / Dep 14935 5163 34.6% 91-180 6663 1246 18.7% 181+ 841 89 10.6% Total 22439 6498 29.0% MFE ៊ / Dep 8352 2232 26.7% 91...MEDPROS Medical Protection System MFE Maneuver, Fires, and Effects MILPER Military Personnel [message] MMC Medical Management

  11. DCT-Based Characterization of Milk Products Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use the two-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for decomposition of diffuse reflectance images of laser illumination on milk products in different wavelengths. Based on the prior knowledge about the characteristics of the images, the initial feature vectors are formed at ea...... discriminate milk from yogurt products better....

  12. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  13. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Enhancing Configuration Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witmer, Bob

    2000-01-01

    ...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...

  14. Health promotion research in active duty army soldiers: The road to a fit and ready force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Elshaw, Evelyn B; Szekely, Barbara M; Pflugeisen, Bethann

    In the last decade the Military Health System has changed its paradigm to focus on health promotion and disease prevention. This paper reviews a decade of research exploring the effects of military life on nutritional status and bone health of Army soldiers. Descriptive and experimental approaches have assessed occupational demands on soldiers in variable environments that require optimal nutrition status and physical health. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military has risen dramatically and the implications for health, readiness, productivity, and cost demands attention. The related nutritional deficits such as suboptimal vitamin D status likely contribute to musculoskeletal injuries which have a greater impact on the performance and readiness of soldiers than any other medical condition in peacetime or conflict. The greatest challenge in our system for health is optimizing the performance of all soldiers while minimizing health risks and long-term disability resulting from occupational hazards, particularly those inherent to war. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  16. Reflections on product/service-system (PSS) conceptualisation in a course setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2009-01-01

    Product/service-system (PSS) approaches have over the past decade received considerable attention as possible sustainable innovation strategies. This paper presents and reflects upon the background, rationale and experiences behind a PSS design methodology applied with engineering students...... in a project course for the past five years. The methodology proposes four complementary dimensions of PSS: value proposition, product life cycle, activity modelling cycle and actor network, that all seem to comprehensively describe the essential conceptual design perspectives. Each of these dimensions...

  17. Tapping Technology in Creating Product Development Studies: Reflections on an ESP-Business Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a teacher's reflections on a technology-enhanced project-based learning approach to teaching an ESP-business lesson on product development, which is part of the curriculum for Conference English and Meetings Practice (CEMP), a business-track course for the Adult Continuing Education program at a private university in southern…

  18. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard...

  19. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  1. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  2. Development of a High Resolution BRDF/Albedo Product by Fusing Airborne CASI Reflectance with MODIS Daily Reflectance in the Oasis Area of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin You

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A land-cover-based linear BRDF (bi-directional reflectance distribution function unmixing (LLBU algorithm based on the kernel-driven model is proposed to combine the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI reflectance with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS daily reflectance product to derive the BRDF/albedo of the two sensors simultaneously in the foci experimental area (FEA of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER, which was carried out in the Heihe River basin, China. For each land cover type, an archetypal BRDF, which characterizes the shape of its anisotropic reflectance, is extracted by linearly unmixing from the MODIS reflectance with the assistance of a high-resolution classification map. The isotropic coefficients accounting for the differences within a class are derived from the CASI reflectance. The BRDF is finally determined by the archetypal BRDF and the corresponding isotropic coefficients. Direct comparisons of the cropland archetypal BRDF and CASI albedo with in situ measurements show good agreement. An indirect validation which compares retrieved BRDF/albedo with that of the MCD43A1 standard product issued by NASA and aggregated CASI albedo also suggests reasonable reliability. LLBU has potential to retrieve the high spatial resolution BRDF/albedo product for airborne and spaceborne sensors which have inadequate angular samplings. In addition, it can shorten the timescale for coarse spatial resolution product like MODIS.

  3. Modelling ramp-up curves to reflect learning: improving capacity planning in secondary pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    availability at market launch is ensured. Our MILP model is applied to a real industry case study using three empirically observed ramp-up curves to demonstrate its value as decision support tool. We demonstrate the superiority of our volume-dependent method over the traditional time-dependent ramp......The experience gained during production ramp-up leads to an increase of the effective production capacity over time. However, full utilisation of production capacity is not always possible during ramp-up. In such cases, the experience gained and hence the available effective capacity...... are overestimated. We develop a new method, which captures ramp-up as a function of the cumulative production volume to better reflect the experience gained while producing the new product. The use of the more accurate and computationally effective approach is demonstrated for the case of secondary pharmaceutical...

  4. Whatever happened to the soldiers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Refshauge, Anne Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main...... the systematic analysis of the qualitative case studies. This review found that a large amount of projects offering NAT to veterans suffering from PTSD exist in many parts of the world and they present no adverse negative results. Recommendations for future practice and research are posed....... and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited...

  5. Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Mark; Woytowich, Jason; Carlson, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program was to develop prototypes of a novel flexible display technology device for demonstration in a laboratory setting and use in Future Force Warrior (FFW) demonstrations...

  6. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2007-01-01

    ... R&D organizations during the period 1997 - 2005. The major findings are organized around the topics of training effectiveness, Soldier task performance, and advantages and disadvantages of immersive...

  7. Support of USARIEM Postpartum Soldier Research Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dettori, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    It is estimated approximately 9% of Army women are pregnant at any one time. Shortly after delivery, postpartum soldiers are expected to return to full duty, meet body fat standards and pass the APFT...

  8. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  9. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-05

    Micronesian), Operations Sergeant; SSG Willie Maxwell, Field First Sergeant; SGT Tipo Toomalatai (Western Samoan), Platoon Sergeant, and SSG Alfredo Taitague...Rican), ESL Instructor and Ms. Norma Garrett (Puerto Rican), ESL Instructor, BSEP Program, Ft Jackson, SC, 16 Jun 81. NARRATIVE Ms. Padilla and Ms...psychiatric disor- de .’s in the Puerto Rican population at large and among Puerto Rican soldiers. Compare these with the US population and Anglo soldiers. 9. Mr

  10. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  11. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    domains interact and influence performance. From January to May 2016, the research team conducted three qualitative studies with Soldiers including... Research Questions UNCLASSIFIED 9 • From January to May 2016, the research team conducted a series of qualitative studies with Soldiers from the 82nd...that the Army’s current approach for providing these types of training is not always ideal. Specifically, the train-the-trainer method or use of

  12. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, C H

    1991-07-01

    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROCESS OF PRODUCTION IN THE HEALTH OF WORKERS: SOME REFLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work represents a conscious activity of human beings, fruit of the effort to transform the nature of products or services. The industrial revolution and how the relationship of work organization are modified resulting consequences on the health of the worker. The purpose of this paper is to present some reflections on the implications of the production process on the health of workers, addressing the discussion of management models of work. Based in analyzes of studies it was found that the methods of analysis of the work contributed to better understanding of the implications of the production process on the health of workers. All types of studies proposed found that working conditions can lead to wear biopsychic employees, becoming the main component illness.

  14. Implications of the process of production in the health of workers: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work represents a conscious activity of human beings, fruit of the effort to transform the nature of products or services. The industrial revolution and how the relationship of work organization are modified resulting consequences on the health of the worker. The purpose of this paper is to present some reflections on the implications of the production process on the health of workers, addressing the discussion of management models of work. Based in analyzes of studies it was found that the methods of analysis of the work contributed to better understanding of the implications of the production process on the health of workers. All types of studies proposed found that working conditions can lead to wear biopsychic employees, becoming the main component illness.

  15. Mozambique child soldier life outcome study: lessons learned in rehabilitation and reintegration efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, N; Crawford, J; Halperin, J

    2006-01-01

    As the use of child soldiers continues to proliferate throughout the world, effective psychosocial interventions must be developed and evaluated. Our research shows that former child soldiers who are provided rehabilitative services and accepted back into their families and communities are able to become productive, responsible and caring adults. In 1988, 39 captured or escaped child soldiers were brought by the Mozambican government to the Lhanguene Rehabilitation Center in Maputo, Mozambique's capital city. Interventions that focused on rehabilitating the children both psychologically and physically were initiated during their 6-month stay at the Lhanguene centre, and reintegration assistance was provided for 2 years thereafter to support their return to families and communities. Our research continued to follow these former child soldiers for 16 years, and focused on their psychological, social and economic functioning. The study included qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to obtain adult well-being outcomes and was also designed to identify interventions that enabled these child soldiers to re-enter civilian life and lead relatively productive lives. Efficacious rehabilitation activities included those that strengthened individuals' coping skills for anticipated trauma and grief, instilled a sense of social responsibility and promoted self-regulation and security (versus survival) seeking behaviour. Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships.

  16. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  17. User Evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James B; Boynton, Angela C; Mitchell, K. B; Magnifico, Dennis S; DuPont, Frederick J

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate conducted an evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant...

  18. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    claims of the encumbered dismounted Soldier. Soldiers are required to wear multiple layers of clothing and protective equipment in addition to mission...depth (i.e., bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements...bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements. The

  19. Harmonized Landsat/Sentinel-2 Reflectance Products for Land Monitoring (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Ju, Junchang; Roger, Jean-Claude; Claverie, Martin P.; Skakun, Sergii; Vermote, Eric; Justice, Christopher Owen

    2017-01-01

    Many land applications require more frequent observations than can be obtained from a single 'Landsat class'� sensor. Agricultural monitoring, inland water quality assessment, stand-scale phenology, and numerous other applications all require near-daily imagery at better than 1ha resolution. Thus the land science community has begun expressing a desire for a '30-meter MODIS' global monitoring capability. One cost-effective way to achieve this goal is via merging data from multiple, international observatories into a single virtual constellation. The Harmonized Landsat/Sentinel-2 (HLS) project has been working to generate a seamless surface reflectance product by combining observations from USGS/NASA Landsat-8 and ESA Sentinel-2. Harmonization in this context requires a series of radiometric and geometric transforms to create a single surface reflectance time series agnostic to sensor origin. Radiometric corrections include a common atmospheric correction using the Landsat-8 LaSRC/6S approach, a simple BRDF adjustment to constant solar and nadir view angle, and spectral bandpass adjustments to fit the Landsat-8 OLI reference. Data are then resampled to a consistent 30m UTM grid, using the Sentinel-2 global tile system. Cloud and shadow masking are also implemented. Quality assurance (QA) involves comparison of the output 30m HLS products with near-simultaneous MODIS nadir-adjusted observations. Prototoype HLS products have been processed for approximately 7% of the global land area using the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) compute environment at NASA Ames, and can be downloaded from the HLS web site (https://hls.gsfc.nasa.gov). A wall-to-wall North America data set is being prepared for 2018. This talk will review the objectives and status of the HLS project, and illustrate applications of high-density optical time series data for agriculture and ecology. We also discuss lessons learned from HLS in the general context of implementing virtual constellations.

  20. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...

  1. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  2. A Harmonized Landsat-Sentinel-2 Surface Reflectance product: a resource for Agricultural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, J. G.; Claverie, M.; Ju, J.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data offers a unique opportunity to observe globally the land every 2-3 days at medium (reflectance data from Landsat and Sentinel-2 missions and to deliver them to the community in a combined, seamless form. The HLS will be beneficial for global agricultural monitoring applications that require medium spatial resolution and weekly or more frequent observations. In particular, the provided opportunity to track crop phenology at the scale of individual fields will support detailed mapping of crop type and type-specific vegetation conditions. To create a compatible set of radiometric measurements, the HLS product relies on rigorous pre- and post-launch cross-calibration (Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI) activities. The processing chain includes the following components: atmospheric correction, cloud/shadow masking, nadir BRDF-adjustment, spectral-adjustment, regridding, and temporal composite. The atmospheric correction and cloud masking is based on the OLI atmospheric correction developed at NASA-GSFC and has been adapted to the MSI data. The BRDF-adjustment is based on a disaggregation technique using MODIS-based BRDF coefficients. The technique has been evaluated using the multi-angular acquisition from the SPOT 4 and 5 (Take5) experiments. The spectral-adjustment relies on a linear regression that has been calibrated and evaluated using synthetic data and surface reflectance processed from a large number of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion scenes. Finally, significant effort is placed on product validation and evaluation. The delivered data set will include surface reflectance products at different levels: Using the native gridding, i.e. UTM, 30m for Landsat-8, and UTM, 10-20m for Sentinel-2 Using a common global gridding (Sinusoidal, 30m) Temporal composite (Sinusoidal, 30m, 5-day) During the first year of operation of Sentinel-2A, the HLS will be prototyped over a selection of 30 sites that includes some of the JECAM sites

  3. Using the Surface Reflectance MODIS Terra Product to Estimate Turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity is a commonly-used index of the factors that determine light penetration in the water column. Consistent estimation of turbidity is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Traditional methods monitoring fixed geographical locations at fixed intervals may not be representative of the mean water turbidity in estuaries between intervals, and can be expensive and time consuming. Although remote sensing offers a good solution to this limitation, it is still not widely used due in part to required complex processing of imagery. There are satellite-derived products, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra surface reflectance daily product (MOD09GQ Band 1 (620–670 nm which are now routinely available at 250 m spatial resolution and corrected for atmospheric effect. This study shows this product to be useful to estimate turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida, after rainfall events (R2 = 0.76, n = 34. Within Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay (HB and Old Tampa Bay (OTB presented higher turbidity compared to Middle Tampa Bay (MTB and Lower Tampa Bay (LTB.

  4. Sounding ruins: reflections on the production of an ‘audio drift’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the use of audio media in researching places, which I term ‘audio geography’. The article narrates some episodes from the production of an ‘audio drift’, an experimental environmental sound work designed to be listened to on a portable MP3 player whilst walking in a ruinous landscape. Reflecting on how this work functions, I argue that, as well as representing places, audio geography can shape listeners’ attention and bodily movements, thereby reworking places, albeit temporarily. I suggest that audio geography is particularly apt for amplifying the haunted and uncanny qualities of places. I discuss some of the issues raised for research ethics, epistemology and spectral geographies. PMID:29708107

  5. The Factors of Soldier’s Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    turtles . My ruck weighed 120 pounds. American Airborne Soldier Grenada, 1983 One of the tenets of Army doctrine in Field Manual 100-5 QIp.r.aition•. is...from a lack of the appropriate physical conditioning in some units; and the more nebulous problem of insufficient logistical challenges built into

  6. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  7. Autistic expertise: a critical reflection on the production of knowledge in autism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Damian Em

    2014-10-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I utilise the theories of Harry Collins and colleagues in order to reflect upon and conceptualise the various claims to knowledge production and expertise within the field of autism studies, from the perspective of an author who has been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. The notion that autistic people lack sociality is problematised, with the suggestion that autistic people are not well described by notions such as the 'social brain', or as possessing 'zero degrees of cognitive empathy'. I then argue, however, that there is a qualitative difference in autistic sociality, and question to what extent such differences are of a biological or cultural nature, and to what extent interactional expertise can be gained by both parties in interactions between autistic and non-autistic people. In conclusion, I argue that autistic people have often become distrustful of researchers and their aims, and are frequently frozen out of the processes of knowledge production. Such a context results in a negative feedback spiral with further damage to the growth of interactional expertise between researchers and autistic people, and a breakdown in trust and communication leading to an increase in tension between stakeholder groups. The involvement of autistic scholars in research and improvements in participatory methods can thus be seen as a requirement, if social research in the field of autism is to claim ethical and epistemological integrity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Backache amongst soldiers: a prospective analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Janjua, S.H.; Tarrar, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the occupational predispositions of low back pain in soldiers Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, from June 2009 to Jan 2010. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed to investigate the occupation-related issues in soldiers reporting with low backache in surgical OPD at CMH Bahawalpur. It included personal and occupational factors. The body mass index was also calculated. Of the 107 male soldiers assessed, 90 were enrolled into the study. The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis of the data using SPSS 17.0. Results: Of all the soldiers evaluated (n=90), 32 (35.6%) were clerks/computer operators, 21 (23.1%) were drivers and 14(15.6%) were signal men. All were males (100%) and the average BMI was 24.8 kg/m2. The 69 (76.7%) patients who had backache had prolonged working hours (average 10.8 hours per day), 68 (75.6%) patients used to sleep over tape/nawar bed and only 12 (13.3%) had been sleeping on mattresses. The onset of pain was sudden in 58 (64.4%) patients. 27 (23.3%) had developed acute backache after prolonged sitting, 21 (30%) after lifting heavy objects. The pain was exaggerated by doing morning physical training 82 (91.1%), prolonged sitting 61 (67.8%) and standing with rifle 24 (26.7%). Conclusion: The prevalence of low back pain in sedentary occupation or soldiers on sitting jobs was higher 69 (76%). The number of working hours on these occupations was associated with occurrence as well as aggravation of low back pain. (author)

  9. Updating Landsat time series of surface-reflectance composites and forest change products with new observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Txomin; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Hobart, Geordie W.

    2017-12-01

    The use of time series satellite data allows for the temporally dense, systematic, transparent, and synoptic capture of land dynamics over time. Subsequent to the opening of the Landsat archive, several time series approaches for characterizing landscape change have been developed, often representing a particular analytical time window. The information richness and widespread utility of these time series data have created a need to maintain the currency of time series information via the addition of new data, as it becomes available. When an existing time series is temporally extended, it is critical that previously generated change information remains consistent, thereby not altering reported change statistics or science outcomes based on that change information. In this research, we investigate the impacts and implications of adding additional years to an existing 29-year annual Landsat time series for forest change. To do so, we undertook a spatially explicit comparison of the 29 overlapping years of a time series representing 1984-2012, with a time series representing 1984-2016. Surface reflectance values, and presence, year, and type of change were compared. We found that the addition of years to extend the time series had minimal effect on the annual surface reflectance composites, with slight band-specific differences (r ≥ 0.1) in the final years of the original time series being updated. The area of stand replacing disturbances and determination of change year are virtually unchanged for the overlapping period between the two time-series products. Over the overlapping temporal period (1984-2012), the total area of change differs by 0.53%, equating to an annual difference in change area of 0.019%. Overall, the spatial and temporal agreement of the changes detected by both time series was 96%. Further, our findings suggest that the entire pre-existing historic time series does not need to be re-processed during the update process. Critically, given the time

  10. The Glycemic Response Does Not Reflect the In Vivo Starch Digestibility of Fiber-Rich Wheat Products in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, C.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wang, H.W.; Schepers, M.; Preston, T.; Boer, T.; Vonk, R.J.; Schierbeek, H.; Priebe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Starchy food products differ in the rate of starch digestion, which can affect their metabolic impact. In this study, we examined how the in vivo starch digestibility is reflected by the glycemic response, because this response is often used to predict starch digestibility. Ten healthy male

  11. US Army Soldiers With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon

    2018-04-01

    US Army soldiers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were previously considered unfit for duty. For highly motivated soldiers, current advanced technologies allow the possibility of not only retention on active duty, but military deployment. We present our experience at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, taking care of soldiers newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Through intensive diabetes education, extensive military and physical training, optimization of diabetes technology, and remote real-time monitoring, soldiers are able to continue to serve their country in the most specialized roles.

  12. Public commemorations of Danish soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2016-01-01

    , recent experiences in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere have implied renegotiations and reconstructions of the national ‘we’. In this article, I examine how this is reflected in the emergent memorial landscape by focusing on one national monument, two grassroots memorials, and 20 individual tombstones...... generation’ inevitably implies. Assembling different kinds of memorials that represent different positions of authority and power in the same analysis, I argue, provides a unique insight into how Denmark’s recent military adventures are ascribed meaning, contested, and negotiated.......This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish...

  13. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  14. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  15. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  16. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi ... Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling ..... gender equality and involvement of religious leaders ... unusual in Nigeria for women to use contraceptives .... United Arab Emirates.

  17. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  18. Hold Your Fire!: Preventing Fratricide in the Dismounted Soldier Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Jong, J.L. de; Hiemstra, H.; Schutte, K.; Marvelde, A. te; Norden, W. van; Spaans, M.

    2008-01-01

    Since WWI, an estimated 15% of all soldiers killed in combat are attributed to fratricide, and recent military operations show no decline. A substantial amount concerns fratricide incidents between dismounted soldiers. However, most techniques introduced to prevent fratricide focus on inter-vehicle

  19. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  20. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.

    1981-01-01

    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  1. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, K O.A.; Somer, K; Lamminen, A

    1981-05-01

    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild.

  2. Production of a diffuse very high reflectivity material for light collection in nuclear detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, B J; Mirzoyan, R; Weiss, L; Ziegler, S I

    2000-01-01

    A diffuse very high reflectivity material, based on polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) for optimization of light-collection efficiency has been developed. PTFE powder was used to produce reflector block material. The powder was pressed with 525 kPa in a form and sintered at 375 deg. C. The reflectivity was above 98% within the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm. The blocks of this material are machinable with saws, drilling and milling machines. The reflector is used as a housing for scintillating crystals in a nuclear medicine application (small animal positron emission tomograph). It is also used as a light collector in very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysicas experiments, HEGRA and MAGIC. The application of this inexpensive, easy to make diffuse reflector may allow the optimization of light collection in a wide range of low-level light-detector configurations.

  3. The conception of fashion products for children: reflections on safety parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Lígia Gomes Pereira; Emidio, Lucimar de Fátima Bilmaia; Martins, Suzana Barreto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reflect on safety requirements for children's clothing, based on the standardization proposed by the ABNT (Technical Standardization Brazilian Association). Bibliographic research and case studies were considered on writing this work. We also discuss the importance of adding other safety requirements to the current standardization, as well as the increasing of the actual age range specified by the ABNT, following the children's clothing safety standardizations in Portugal and the United States, also stated here.

  4. Chronic daily headache in U.S. soldiers after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Flynn, Frederick G; Erickson, Jay C

    2012-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of, and factors associated with, chronic daily headache (CDH) in U.S. soldiers after a deployment-related concussion. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted with a cohort of 978 U.S. soldiers who screened positive for a deployment-related concussion upon returning from Iraq or Afghanistan. All soldiers underwent a clinical evaluation at the Madigan Traumatic Brain Injury Program that included a history, physical examination, 13-item self-administered headache questionnaire, and a battery of cognitive and psychological assessments. Soldiers with CDH, defined as headaches occurring on 15 or more days per month for the previous 3 months, were compared to soldiers with episodic headaches occurring less than 15 days per month. One hundred ninety-six of 978 soldiers (20%) with a history of deployment-related concussion met criteria for CDH and 761 (78%) had episodic headache. Soldiers with CDH had a median of 27 headache days per month, and 46/196 (23%) reported headaches occurring every day. One hundred seven out of 196 (55%) soldiers with CDH had onset of headaches within 1 week of head trauma and thereby met the time criterion for posttraumatic headache (PTHA) compared to 253/761 (33%) soldiers with episodic headache. Ninety-seven out of 196 (49%) soldiers with CDH used abortive medications to treat headache on 15 or more days per month for the previous 3 months. One hundred thirty out of 196 (66%) soldiers with CDH had headaches meeting criteria for migraine compared to 49% of soldiers with episodic headache. The number of concussions, blast exposures, and concussions with loss of consciousness was not significantly different between soldiers with and without CDH. Cognitive performance was also similar for soldiers with and without CDH. Soldiers with CDH had significantly higher average scores on the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist compared to soldiers with episodic headaches. Forty

  5. [Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS): a novel approach to reconstructing historical changes of primary productivity in Antarctic lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Wen-Qi; Jiang, Shan

    2011-10-01

    Compared with traditional chemical analysis methods, reflectance spectroscopy has the advantages of speed, minimal or no sample preparation, non-destruction, and low cost. In order to explore the potential application of spectroscopy technology in the paleolimnological study on Antarctic lakes, we took a lake sediment core in Mochou Lake at Zhongshan Station of Antarctic, and analyzed the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) data in the sedimentary samples. The results showed that the factor loadings of principal component analysis (PCA) displayed very similar depth-profile change pattern with the S2 index, a reliable proxy for the change in historical lake primary productivity. The correlation analysis showed that the values of PCA factor loading and S2 were correlated significantly, suggesting that it is feasible to infer paleoproductivity changes recorded in Antarctic lakes using NIRS technology. Compared to the traditional method of the trough area between 650 and 700 nm, the authors found that the PCA statistical approach was more accurate for reconstructing the change in historical lake primary productivity. The results reported here demonstrate that reflectance spectroscopy can provide a rapid method for the reconstruction of lake palaeoenviro nmental change in the remote Antarctic regions.

  6. Non-Invasive Assessment of Dairy Products Using SpatiallyResolved Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Kamran, Faisal; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    of commercially available milk and yogurt products with three different levels of fat content are measured. These constitute a relevant range of products at a dairy plant. The measured reduced scattering properties of the samples are presented and show a clear discrimination between levels of fat contents as well...... as fermentation. The presented measurement technique and method of analysis is thus suitable for a rapid, noncontact, and non-invasive inspection that can deduce physically interpretable properties....

  7. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation

  8. Technological Areas to Improve Soldier Decisiveness: Insights From the Soldier-System Design Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    input several sets of words or concepts and return novel concepts or ideas. While being driven largely by the advertising industry , these base...Soldiers fitted with ballistic and laser-protective eyewear that contains or is itself a screen on which images and information can be projected. Images...visible through the eyewear would be augmented by imagery created by the UAV surveillance platforms described previously. In addition to augmenting

  9. User Generated Diversity - Some reflections on how to improve the quality of amateur productions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Leurdijk, A.G.D.; Munck, S.G.E. de

    2010-01-01

    The potential of user created content to make a meaningful contribution to media diversity is subject to debates. Central to these debates is the argument of the quality of amateur productions. This article will take a close look at this argument, and make some suggestions on how to improve the

  10. From products to services : reflections on the challenges in designing for services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhomer, ten M.; De Lille, C. S. H.; Tomico, O.; Kleinsmann, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will point to implications for designers who support organizations in the transition process from products to services based business models. These implications are based on four important challenges when designing for services: the designerly mindset, collaboration, empathy with

  11. Autistic Expertise: A Critical Reflection on the Production of Knowledge in Autism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Damian E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I…

  12. User generated diversity: some reflections on how to improve the quality of amateur productions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Leurdijk, A.; de Munck, S.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of user created content to make a meaningful contribution to media diversity is subject to debates. Central to these debates is the argument of the quality of amateur productions. This article will take a close look at this argument, and make some suggestions on how to improve the

  13. Reflections on the Development of a Machine Vision Technology for the Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; D.Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    The authors have approximately 25 years experience in developing machine vision technology for the forest products industry. Based on this experience this paper will attempt to realistically predict what the future holds for this technology. In particular, this paper will attempt to describe some of the benefits this technology will offer, describe how the technology...

  14. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  15. Incidence and risk factors for backpack palsy in young Korean soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, E-J

    2016-02-01

    Backpack palsy (BPP) is a common aetiology of brachial plexopathy in military hospitals. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of BPP in young Korean soldiers. We identified enlisted patients who were diagnosed with BPP from a review of the medical records of all the Korean military hospitals in 2011 and 2012 and investigated their clinical findings and medical study results. To identify risk factors of BPP, we also surveyed, by questionnaire, healthy recruits of a company in a training centre who had just finished night marches. We divided them according to whether they had paresthaesia and/or weakness in their arm(s) during marching and compared their characteristics. The incidence of BPP in Korean soldiers was 29.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 17.2 to 24.3). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with BPP than it was in healthy recruits. Among healthy recruits, those who had experienced paresthaesia and/or weakness during marching had a significantly lower BMI than did those who had not. We report the incidence of BPP in young Korean soldiers. A low BMI was a risk factor for BPP. These results may be helpful in establishing a strategy for the prevention of BPP in the setting of military training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan: a longitudinal investigation of Danish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B; Bertelsen, Mette; Madsen, Trine

    2015-04-01

    In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. In a prospective, longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. Between 3.6 and 18.0% reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. Reintegration difficulties after deployment are present in less than 20% of Danish soldiers who return from Afghanistan. Difficulties are greater in individuals who follow symptomatic PTSD trajectories in the first years following deployment than in those who follow a low-stable trajectory with no or few symptoms.

  17. Categories of difference in science and policy: Reflections on academic practices, conceptualizations and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policy-making. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences. The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be.

  18. Soldier's Expectancies, Implications for Recruitment and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelooven, Renier

    1999-01-01

    .... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.

  19. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fregoso, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    .... These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war environment, they must learn how to harness this ability in support of their nation's war strategy...

  20. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  1. Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fober, Gene

    2001-01-01

    .... Soldiers from four Army installations were given a survey that examined their experiences with computers, self-perceptions of their skill, and an objective test of their ability to identify Windows-based icons...

  2. The Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY01

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Harnam

    2002-01-01

    A multi-year research effort was instituted in FY99 to examine soldiers' experiences with computers, self- perceptions of their computer skill, and their ability to identify frequently used, Windows-based icons...

  3. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    difficulties in the civilian job market . Furthermore, since 2012, the Army has been reducing its active component end strength; this has increased the number... online versions of the surveys to collect data on civilian occupations. Making the surveys available to soldiers online and integrating them into the...civilian occupation matches by MOS and pay grade. An online format could even help gen- erate job recommendations for individual soldiers based on

  4. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Virtual Squad Training System ( VSTS ). Like some of its predecessors, VSTS included a combination of man-wearable, tethered, and desktop interfaces...Simulator Bayonet w/Omni Directional Treadmill TRAC-WSMR Soldier Station Soldier Visualization Station V-IMTS SVS2-DI, DAGGERS, ASWETS VSTS Dismounted...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and hand sensors to

  5. A Methodology for Measuring the Physiological Strain of Enhanced Soldiers: The 1998 Soldier Combat System Enhancement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos, Denys

    1998-01-01

    ... or enhanced capabilities conducting routine operations in the tropics. Core temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate are appropriate measures for evaluating the physiological burden of soldier combat system enhancements...

  6. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0.2 μm seawater were amended with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P in low (3 vessels; 5 μM N, 0.3 μM P, moderate (3 vessels; 25 μM N, 1.6 μM P, and high amounts (3 vessels; 50 μM N, 3.1 μM P. The parameters necessary to calculate carbonate chemistry, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and particulate δ13C values were measured throughout the 14 day experiments. Outflow lines from the experimental vessels fed 250 ml containers seeded with juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. Mussel subsamples were harvested on days 0, 7, and 14 and their tissues were analyzed for δ13C values. We consistently observed that particulate δ13C values were positively correlated with chlorophyll-a, carbonate chemistry, and to changes in the ratio of bicarbonate to dissolved carbon dioxide (HCO3-:CO2. While the relative proportion of HCO3- to CO2 increased over the 14 days, concentrations of each declined, reflecting the drawdown of carbon associated with enhanced production. Plankton δ13C values, like chlorophyll-a concentrations, increased over the course of each experiment, with the greatest increases in the moderate and high treatments. Trends in δ13C over time were also observed in the mussel tissues. Despite ecological variability and different plankton abundances the experiments consistently demonstrated how δ13C values in primary producers and consumers reflected nutrient availability, via its impact on carbonate chemistry. We

  7. Reflections on Dry Eye Syndrome Treatment: Therapeutic Role of Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Drew

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is a multifactorial, frequent, pathology characterized by deficient tear production or increased evaporation of tears and associated with ocular surface alteration and inflammation. It mostly affects, but not exclusively, older individuals and leads to varying degrees of discomfort and decreased quality of life. Although the typical treatments of DES rely on using artificial tears, polyunsaturated fatty acids, integrin antagonists, anti-inflammatory agents, or on performing punctal occlusion, recently, standardized blood-derived serum eye drops (SED are generating much interest as a new physiological treatment option. The scientific rationale in using SED for treating or releasing the symptoms of DES is thought to lie in its composition in multiple factors that resembles that of tears and contributes to the healing and protection of the ocular surface. This manuscript seeks to provide relevant background information on the management of DES, and on the increasing role that various types of SED or platelet lysates, from autologous or allogeneic origins, are playing in the improved therapeutic management of this pathology. The increasing role played by blood establishments in producing better-standardized SED is also addressed.

  8. Soldiers suicides risk factors in the Serbian Army Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analyses of suicide risk factors enable to undertake appropriate preventive measures within the Suicide Prevention Program in Military Environment, which was fully applied in 2003 in the Serbian Army Forces. The aim of our study was to identify the most important suicide risk factors in soldiers within the period from 1998 to 2007. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The control group was matched with adapted soldiers by socio-demographic factors. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Comparison of groups of soldiers was done by the t-test and Pearson's χ2-test. Results. A total of 35 soldiers aged 22-49 years (21.76 ± 1.76 years on average committed suicide within the period 1999-2007, the 2/3 within, and 1/3 out of a military compound. More than one half soldiers committed suicide after transferring to a different post. Soldiers who committed suicide had come from uncompleted, dysfunctional families (p < 0.05. In comparison with the adapted soldiers, in premilitary period they had more interpersonal problems with their comrades (p < 0.001 and problems with law (p < 0.05. During military service, alcohol consumption was less presented; they used to have fewer separation problems (p < 0.05 and to be rarely awarded (p < 0.001 in comparison with the adapted soldiers. A soldier who committed suicide was emotionally and socially immature persons. The commonest motives for suicide were: decreased capacity of adaptation to military service, actual psychic disturbance, emotional interruption, fear of environment judgment, actual family problems, but in the one fifth, motive stayed unrecognized. Conclusion. Suicide risk factors in soldiers are primary in their immature personality organization, its relation with family and military environment factors which, in coexistence with actual life accidents, result in suicide as a consequence. A

  9. Reflections on the Production of the Formation of Physiotherapy in the Con-text of SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Pinho Pinto Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: This study was motivated by the need of understanding how the relationship of the training with the national health system is treated, both in the sphere of health services and the aca-demic area. This work aims to contribute to the debate on the inclusion of the physiotherapist in SUS (Brazil's NHS by pointing out issues that need to be deepened in future studies. Purpose: To analyze the national literature production on the relationship between the training of therapists and their work in SUS, from 1996 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive research with literature on the bases: LILACS, SCI-ELO Bank and CAPES thesis. Results: We found 13 publications, sorted by: year, publication type, region where it was published in the categories "national curriculum guidelines," "professional respon-sibility", "integrality in health" and "conceptions of teachers in training in Physiotherapy ". There no publishing from 1996 to 2005, gradually increasing from this year. It was identified a higher number of articles compared to other types of publications; there is also an important difference between the Brazilian regions, with higher prevalence of studies in the South (53.8% and a greater number of pub-lications in the category "national curriculum guidelines". Conclusion: It was possible to raise ques-tions that involve the applicability of the National Curriculum Guidelines on the pedagogical courses; suitability of teachers to the reality of SUS; investigation of the models covered in health care envi-ronments trainers, and the lack of contribution by higher education institutions on teaching-research and teaching and public service, contributing to form an important agenda of study. {#}

  10. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  11. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...

  12. The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woguwale, Jasom

    2000-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...

  13. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child soldiers. ... applied an unvarying standard of prevention in response to every occurrence ... encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of

  14. Production and release of acylcarnitines by primary myotubes reflect the differences in fasting fat oxidation of the donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Magnus; Chen, Shili; Zhao, Xinjie; Scheler, Mika; Irmler, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Beckers, Johannes; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Schleicher, Erwin D; Xu, Guowang; Lehmann, Rainer; Weigert, Cora

    2013-06-01

    Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo. Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ). Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125 μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different. Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to

  15. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Katharin Hermenau; Tobias Hecker; Anna Maedl; Maggie Schauer; Thomas Elbert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression.Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants i...

  16. Former child soldiers' problems and needs: Congolese experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge

    2014-01-01

    With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.

  17. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  18. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  19. A Study of How Letters to the Editor Published in "The Stars and Stripes" Newspaper between March 1, 1918, and November 15, 1918, Reflected the Morale of the Troops during World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Vicky Ann

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative historical study that examines the state of morale of World War I soldiers as reflected in letters to the editor published in "The Stars and Stripes" newspaper between March 1, 1918, and November 15, 1918. The narrative includes extensive use of the actual words published in the soldiers' letters in order to…

  20. Light mirror reflection combined with heating/cooling curves as a method of studying phase transitions in transparent and opaque petroleum products: Apparatus and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, Yu.L.

    2007-01-01

    A portable low weight low cost apparatus 'Phasafot' and method for determining pour and cloud points of petroleum products, as well as precipitation and melting temperatures of paraffins in both transparent (diesel fuels), semi-transparent (lube oils) and opaque (crude oils) samples are described. The method consists in illuminating the surface of a sample with an oblique light beam and registering the intensity of specularly reflected light while heating/cooling the sample in the temperature range of its structural transitions. The mirror reflection of a light beam from an ideally smooth liquid surface falls in intensity when the surface becomes rough (dim) due to crystal formation. Simultaneous recording of the temperature ramp curve and the mirror reflection curve enables the determination of the beginning and end of crystallization of paraffins in both transparent and opaque petroleum products. Besides, their rheological properties can be accurately determined by rocking or tilting the instrument while monitoring the sample movement via its mirror reflection

  1. Rehabilitation and restoration: orthopaedics and disabled soldiers in Germany and Britain in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie; Perry, Heather R

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a comparative analysis of the evolution of orthopaedics and rehabilitation within German and British military medicine during the Great War. In it, we reveal how the field of orthopaedics became integral to military medicine by tracing the evolution of the discipline and its practitioners in each nation during the war. In doing so, however, we document not only when and why both medical specialists and military officials realized that maintaining their respective national fighting forces depended upon the efficient rehabilitation of wounded soldiers, but also how these rehabilitative practices and goals reflected the particularities of the military context, civilian society and social structure of each nation. Thus, while our comparison reveals a number of similarities in the orthopaedic developments within each nation as a response to the Great War, we also reveal significant national differences in war-time medical goals, rehabilitation treatments and soldierly 'medical experiences'. Moreover, as we demonstrate, a social and cultural re-conceptualization of the disabled body accompanied the medical advancements developed for him; however, this re-conceptualization was not the same in each nation. Thus, what our article reveals is that although the guns of August fell silent in 1918, the war's medical experiences lingered long thereafter shaping the future of disability medicine in both nations.

  2. A Serious Game for Massive Training and Assessment of French Soldiers Involved in Forward Combat Casualty Care (3D-SC1): Development and Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Pierre; Mérat, Stéphane; Malgras, Brice; Petit, Ludovic; Queran, Xavier; Bay, Christian; Boutonnet, Mathieu; Jault, Patrick; Ausset, Sylvain; Auroy, Yves; Perez, Jean Paul; Tesnière, Antoine; Pons, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2016-05-18

    The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ''Sauvetage au Combat'' (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment. A group of 10 experts and the Paris Descartes University Medical Simulation Department spin-off, Medusims, coproduced 3D-SC1. Medusims are virtual medical experiences using 3D real-time videogame technology (creation of an environment and avatars in different scenarios) designed for educational purposes (training and assessment) to simulate medical situations. These virtual situations have been created based on real cases and tested on mannequins by experts. Trainees are asked to manage specific situations according to best practices recommended by SC, and receive a score and a personalized feedback regarding their performance. The scenario simulated in the SG is an attack on a patrol of 3 soldiers with an improvised explosive device explosion as a result of which one soldier dies, one soldier is slightly stunned, and the third soldier experiences a leg amputation and other injuries. This scenario was first tested with mannequins in military simulation centers, before being transformed into a virtual 3D real-time scenario using a multi-support, multi-operating system platform, Unity. Processes of gamification and scoring were applied, with 2 levels of difficulty. A personalized debriefing was integrated at the end of the simulations. The design and production of the SG took 9 months. The deployment, performed in 3 months, has reached 84 of 96 (88%) French Army units, with a total of 818

  3. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S

    2017-10-01

    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhan Wang

    Full Text Available Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes, a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2 were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre

  5. The response of human skin commensal bacteria as a reflection of UV radiation: UV-B decreases porphyrin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhu, Wenhong; Shu, Muya; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis

  6. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy.

  7. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  8. A LONG WAY GONE – MEMOIRS OF A BOY SOLDIER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children ... existence perceived as endless oppressive reigns of varied proportions (World War. II, Apartheid, the Berlin Wall ... UK, and what is the currency of a child soldier “a long way gone” in the streets of. South Africa?

  9. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  10. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma | Kalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...

  11. The role of silence in Burundian former child soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.

    2014-01-01

    Conscription of children into the armed forces continues to be a worldwide problem. Understanding the transition from being a child soldier to becoming a civilian adult is crucial in understanding the longitudinal and social effects of childhood trauma. This study examined the community and family

  12. Czech Soldiers during the Great War (1914-1918)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  13. Recent eolian activity and paleoclimate fluctuations in the Ferris Lost Soldier Area, South-Central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, D. R.

    1983-09-01

    The Ferris Dune Fields were examined. Sand dunes are especially valuable in paleoclimate reconstructions because they: (1) bury and preserve datable materials and artifacts; (2) respond to even subtle changes in wind velocity and direction as reflected both in external morphology and internal structures; and (3) remain unconsolidated, making them amenable to easy textural and compositional examination. The valley of Clear Creek in the Ferris Dunes reveals a relatively continuous Holocene section of interbedded dune and interdunal pond deposits. Radiocarbon dates from the interdunal pond strata at Clear Creek, theoretical sand dune migration rates, compositional analysis of periglacial sand wedges, and relative dating of actively migrating parabolic dunes reveals a general sequence of geologic-climatic events that affected the Ferris-Lost Soldier area. The most recent major reactivaton of dunes occurred approximately 290 years ago.

  14. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  15. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  16. Effect of the Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation Estimation Error on Net Primary Production Estimation - A Study with MODIS FPAR and TOMS Ultraviolet Reflective Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hoyano, A.

    2002-01-01

    Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), which is defined as downward solar radiation in 400-700 nm absorbed by vegetation, is one of the significant variables for Net Primary Production (NPP) estimation from satellite data. Toward the reduction of the uncertainties in the global NPP estimation, it is necessary to clarify the APAR accuracy. In this paper, first we proposed the improved PAR estimation method based on Eck and Dye's method in which the ultraviolet (UV) reflectivity data derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) at the top of atmosphere were used for clouds transmittance estimation. The proposed method considered the variable effects of land surface UV reflectivity on the satellite-observed UV data. Monthly mean PAR comparisons between satellite-derived and ground-based data at various meteorological stations in Japan indicated that the improved PAR estimation method reduced the bias errors in the summer season. Assuming the relative error of the fraction of PAR (FPAR) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to be 10%, we estimated APAR relative errors to be 10-15%. Annual NPP is calculated using APAR derived from MODIS/ FPAR and the improved PAR estimation method. It is shown that random and bias errors of annual NPP in a 1 km resolution pixel are less than 4% and 6% respectively. The APAR bias errors due to the PAR bias errors also affect the estimated total NPP. We estimated the most probable total annual NPP in Japan by subtracting the bias PAR errors. It amounts about 248 MtC/yr. Using the improved PAR estimation method, and Eck and Dye's method, total annual NPP is 4% and 9% difference from most probable value respectively. The previous intercomparison study among using fifteen NPP models4) showed that global NPP estimations among NPP models are 44.4-66.3 GtC/yr (coefficient of variation = 14%). Hence we conclude that the NPP estimation uncertainty due to APAR estimation error is small

  17. Characterizing the Size of the Encumbered Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Follow the procedures in DoD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security Manual, Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter...wore glasses. No eyewear was worn during the 3D scanning sessions as light reflection can affect the image quality of the scan. 2.4 Test

  18. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi

    2018-04-01

    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  20. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  1. [A historical medical study of post-traumatic stress disorders in World War I soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, S

    2007-01-01

    The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was to be verified considering World War I soldiers suffering from psychiatric and neurologic diseases. According to hypotheses, relevant circumstances of the case history and significance of the direct military action had to be examined. In 2002, medical histories dating from 1914 to 1921 of male soldiers in Jena, Germany, were analyzed. Statistical examination carried out by means of the chi2 test revealed mental illness more frequently in soldiers with relevant family anamnesis, previous psychiatric treatment, or degree of voluntariness than in soldiers not so characterized. The accumulation of mental illnesses was lower in soldiers involved in military actions or directly with firing weapons than in soldiers never involved in battles. These results are in accord with historical but not current literature on PTSD. The author is of the opinion that psychiatric anamnesis is not given enough consideration in the concept of PTSD.

  2. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam

    2012-05-01

    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems.

  4. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  5. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  6. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  7. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  8. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    testing results of over 400 Soldiers, the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was developed and validated (AUG 08-MAR 09- PHASE 3) for implementation...0.075 kg per kg body mass. Resistance often increases to 1.0 kg x body mass or higher (up to 1.3 kg) when testing power and sprint athletes. An...Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) Background: The development of overuse injuries has

  9. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    allow heavy items to be packed close to the soldier’s natural centre of mass . The Infantryman, with such a large equipment burden, is in effect...COM Centre of Mass COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPL Corporal DARPA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency DMO Defence Materiel...Eighteen soldiers had customised their packs, either the issued packs or their own. The most common customisation was the addition of an external

  10. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  11. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  12. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  13. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  14. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “ the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically...Frederick J. Gellert Department of Command, Leadership and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the ...organization and at every level within the Army, MRTs serve as the principal advisor to the leadership regarding CSF and as a resource for Soldiers

  15. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Arbor, MI: Fairfax Press, 1960), 63. 17 Emmy E . Werner, Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998...Soldiers: From Violence to Protection (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 20–21. 71 Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich, “No Place to Hide...Conflict: Law, Policy and Practice (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005), 23. 86 Tanya Zayed and Svenja Vollmer, E -Learning

  16. Understanding and Managing the Career Continuance of Enlisted Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    presented. Although this presentation would be informative, it would use comedy and action movie clips to maintain the interest of the recruits...a history of Family members serving in the military. Additionally, Soldiers may join the Army due to a lack of alternative job options, as a way to...joining, pre-existing behavioral or emotional difficulties, physical injuries or problems, family history of service, and ability to adjust to Army

  17. Reconstructed Solar-Induced Fluorescence: A Machine Learning Vegetation Product Based on MODIS Surface Reflectance to Reproduce GOME-2 Solar-Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Alemohammad, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) observations from space have resulted in major advancements in estimating gross primary productivity (GPP). However, current SIF observations remain spatially coarse, infrequent, and noisy. Here we develop a machine learning approach using surface reflectances from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) channels to reproduce SIF normalized by clear sky surface irradiance from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). The resulting product is a proxy for ecosystem photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by chlorophyll (fAPARCh). Multiplying this new product with a MODIS estimate of photosynthetically active radiation provides a new MODIS-only reconstruction of SIF called Reconstructed SIF (RSIF). RSIF exhibits much higher seasonal and interannual correlation than the original SIF when compared with eddy covariance estimates of GPP and two reference global GPP products, especially in dry and cold regions. RSIF also reproduces intense productivity regions such as the U.S. Corn Belt contrary to typical vegetation indices and similarly to SIF.

  18. Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-15

    killing child soldiers. Additional attention should also be invested into identifying interventions that would decrease the negative stigma of mental...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CHILD SOLDIERS: ARE U.S. MILITARY MEMBERS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT? by Judith Hughes, LtCol, USAF A...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Methods. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. Results: A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during th...

  20. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  2. Soldier Health Habits and the Metabolically Optimized Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Policing and Transgressing Borders: Soldiers, Slave Rebels, and the Early Modern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoleine Kars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

  4. Military Nutrition Research: Eight Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna H

    2005-01-01

    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  5. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1998-01-01

    To assess, maintain or improve a soldier's physical/ physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and emotional stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  6. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1997-01-01

    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  7. Reassessment of FDG uptake in tumor cells: High FDG uptake as a reflection of oxygen-independent glycolysis dominant energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waki, A.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Sadato, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yokoyama, A

    1997-10-01

    To determine appropriate use of 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in the diagnosis of malignant tumors, the mechanism of enhanced FDG uptake in tumor cells was reassessed using in vitro cultured cell lines and {sup 3}H-deoxyglucose (DG), in combination with possible parameters of aerobic and anaerobic energy production. The high DG uptake in the tumor cells reflected the dependency of energy production on anaerobic glycolysis, and paradoxically on low levels of aerobic oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. We discuss here factors underlying anaerobic glycolysis in tumor cells.

  8. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  9. Alteration and mineralization in the eastern part of the Soldier Mountains, Camas County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Reed S.

    2001-01-01

    The eastern part of the Soldier Mountains in Camas County, south-central Idaho, is underlain principally by plutonic rocks of Cretaceous and Eocene age that locally have undergone propylitic, potassic, and muscovite-quartz alteration. Muscovite- quartz alteration is Cretaceous in age and is localized along joints and fractures, some of which are filled with quartz. Associated veins have yielded minor amounts of gold. Potassic alteration is probably both Cretaceous and Eocene in age but is weakly developed and limited in extent. Propylitic alteration is Eocene in age and is pronounced around biotite granite plutons. Despite a clear association between plutons of biotite granite and widespread propylitic alteration, mineralization associated with these rocks was minimal. Mineralized areas within more mafic Eocene plutons are characterized by veins and (or) stockworks(?) enriched in copper, molybdenum, and silver, but these areas are restricted in size and have not been productive.

  10. Derivation of Land Surface Albedo at High Resolution by Combining HJ-1A/B Reflectance Observations with MODIS BRDF Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a high spatio–temporal resolution is currently very scarce. This paper proposes a method for deriving land surface albedo with a high spatio–temporal resolution (space: 30 m and time: 2–4 days. The proposed method works by combining the land surface reflectance data at 30 m spatial resolution obtained from the charge-coupled devices in the Huanjing-1A and -1B (HJ-1A/B satellites with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF parameters product (MCD43A1, which is at a spatial resolution of 500 m. First, the land surface BRDF parameters for HJ-1A/B land surface reflectance with a spatial–temporal resolutions of 30 m and 2–4 day are calculated on the basis of the prior knowledge from the MODIS BRDF product; then, the calculated high resolution BRDF parameters are integrated over the illuminating/viewing hemisphere to produce the white- and black-sky albedos at 30 m resolution. These results form the basis for the final land surface albedo derivation by accounting for the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. The albedo retrieved by this novel method is compared with MODIS land surface albedo products, as well as with ground measurements. The results show that the derived land surface albedo during the growing season of 2012 generally achieved a mean absolute accuracy of ±0.044, and a root mean square error of 0.039, confirming the effectiveness of the newly proposed method.

  11. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  12. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  13. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance in Southwest Asia: Guidance for Small Unit Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    extended post - partum depression . Because of family problems, soldiers may be irritable, nervous, inattentive and have difficulty sleeping. Soldiers returning...it most, regardless of rank, shyness or distance from post . c. Keep families and friends Informed. Establish effective lines of communication with the

  14. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    1985-01-01

    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  15. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  16. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  17. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Summaira Naz

    2015-01-01

    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  18. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  19. Indero: Intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.

    2014-01-01

    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers

  20. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  1. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  2. DefenseLink Special: U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us Afghanistan, U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future 'Forces of Freedom, Decency Will people, defend our freedom, and send a clear message to the extremists: The forces of freedom and decency will prevail," he said in a speech at Latvia University. Story U.S. Soldiers Work With Afghan Army

  3. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  4. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  5. Biomechanical, Physiological, and Agility Performance of Soldiers Carrying Loads: A Comparison of the Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment and a Lightning Packs, LLC, Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-27

    angle, hip angle, and sagittal plane hip moments. In terms of energy harvesting and production during walking, the current weight penalty of carrying...MODULAR LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD CARRYING EQUIPMENT) HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN...pack type and walking speed at a 0% grade. .......................................................35  vii Table 20: Means (SE) of the mean and

  6. Examination of soldier target recognition with direct view optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.

    2017-10-01

    Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.

  7. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2017-01-01

    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  8. Childhood maltreatment history as a risk factor for sexual harassment among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-01-01

    Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.

  9. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Young males, 18 or 19-year-old males; it’s like a soldier (that inhibits treatment- bullpen. They beat each other up, and don’t give seeking...forced me to go to mental health. After seeing a therapist, [they said I] someone wasn’t suicidal , wasn’t homicidal, but [they] told me I...I was given a choice to either stay at the house or go to this Uuvenile delinquency ] group home...Our therapist was good at what she did. That

  10. Some Reflections on the Characterisation and Assessment of the Environmental Practice and Competence Development in Companies and Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    The paper discusses the concept of coorporate environmental competence and a methodology for the application of the concept in analyses of the shaping of corporate environmental competence in companies and product chains. The paper is based on a number of studies ig the shaping of environmental p...... practice in Danish companies and the interaction within supply chains and other types of network relations.......The paper discusses the concept of coorporate environmental competence and a methodology for the application of the concept in analyses of the shaping of corporate environmental competence in companies and product chains. The paper is based on a number of studies ig the shaping of environmental...

  11. Identification of Yeast Species In the Oral Cavity of Iranian Soldiers By Disk Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:The disk diffusion method for identification of yeasts species was performed based on different but distinct susceptibilities of yeasts spp.to chemicals:janus green, ethidium bromide,2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, brilliant green, cycloheximide and rhodamine 6G. Methods: Atotal of 568 Iranian soldiers went under study for isolation and identification of Yeast species from their oral cavity. Asterile swab was used for each individual and specimens were collected from the nasopharynx region, then inoculated to petri dishes containing Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated for 48 hrs at 37 °C. All colonies were counted and stocked in distilled water and stored in a refrigerator for further analysis. The yeasts were identified by the “disk diffusion test” [6,8]. This is a simple, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive technique presented by Sobczak [8]. By this method we identified yeast species within 24-48 hrs. Results: 51.4% of petri dishes were positive for yeast species and 318 strains were identified. Candida albicans, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii were the most common yeast species isolated from the oral cavity of soldiers. Conclusion: We used this method because of its simplicity and other beneficial characteristics for rapid identification of large and numerous isolates and the results were compared with other morphological characters such as chlamydospore and germ tube production. In addition,we used some type strains (Candida parapsilosis: PTCC 5089,Candida tropicalis: PTCC 5028,Saccharomyces cerevisiae:PTCC 5052,Candida lipolytica: PTCC 5063,Candida lipolytica:PTCC 5064,and the results were acceptable.

  12. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Product-services as a research field: past, present and future. Reflections from a decade of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Tischner, U.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade many researchers, institutes and programs in the EU paid attention to product-service systems (PSS). Given this massive effort, it is time to take stock. Is PSS research a theoretical field in its own right? Is the PSS concept indeed the road to the Factor 10 world? Is it the road

  14. Reflection on the role of the Dutch government in sustainable supply chains. New phase in the transition of sustainable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, W.; Kok, M.; Van Oorschot, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on an exploratory study which analyses some of the earliest multi-actor sustainable supply chain governance systems in order to answer the key research questions: Which strategies and instruments do governments - national and supranational - apply in advancing sustainable production and consumption in global supply chains; and What is known about the effectiveness of these strategies and instruments? The study focuses on two supply chains with the longest history of addressing imports from developing countries (tropical timber and coffee). These two supply chains are compared with two supply chains that are gaining increasing attention: - cocoa and tea. The study shows that the two most 'mature' global sustainable supply chains are market led in issuing voluntary certification and that buying certified products is starting to become mainstream and increasingly effective. The sustainable supply chains for tea and cocoa are more recent developments but may develop faster because of the lessons learnt in sustainable supply chains developed earlier. [nl

  15. Development and production of a multilayer-coated x-ray reflecting stack for the Athena mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massahi, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Christensen, F. E.; Shortt, B.; Girou, D. A.; Collon, M.; Landgraf, B.; Barriere, N.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Schreiber, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics, Athena, selected as the European Space Agency's second large-mission, is based on the novel Silicon Pore Optics X-ray mirror technology. DTU Space has been working for several years on the development of multilayer coatings on the Silicon Pore Optics in an effort to optimize the throughput of the Athena optics. A linearly graded Ir/B4C multilayer has been deposited on the mirrors, via the direct current magnetron sputtering technique, at DTU Space. This specific multilayer, has through simulations, been demonstrated to produce the highest reflectivity at 6 keV, which is a goal for the scientific objectives of the mission. A critical aspect of the coating process concerns the use of photolithography techniques upon which we will present the most recent developments in particular related to the cleanliness of the plates. Experiments regarding the lift-off and stacking of the mirrors have been performed and the results obtained will be presented. Furthermore, characterization of the deposited thin-films was performed with X-ray reflectometry at DTU Space and in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II.

  16. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  17. Drug Use in Soldiers: Family and Peer Contextual Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili

    2017-08-24

    Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.

  18. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Studies and developments for the analysis of products of nuclear reprocessing plants with the help of the X-ray fluorescence analysis on totally reflecting sample holders (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, H.; Eggers, I.; Gibau, F.; Haarich, M.; Hastenteufel, S.; Haurand, M.; Knoechel, A.; Salow, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies with inactive and active simulates of products of nuclear reprocessing plants show the suitability of the X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis on Totally Reflecting Sample Holders (TXRF), to detect the available elements simultaneously by direct measurements of specially prepared thin samples. High dilution enables in the most cases, to avoid working in hot cells and to carry out the analysis in glove boxes. The analysis of uranium products and great amounts of matrix elements containing solutions like LAW and MAW demands the separation of the matrix elements before TXRF measurement. Procedures for this task have been developed. The potential of the new analytical procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of two samples of highly diluted high active wastes. (orig.) With 65 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  20. Linking canopy reflectance to crop structure and photosynthesis to capture and interpret spatiotemporal dimensions of per-field photosynthetic productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Tenhunen, John

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen and water availability alter canopy structure and physiology, and thus crop growth, yielding large impacts on ecosystem-regulating/production provisions. However, to date, explicitly quantifying such impacts remains challenging partially due to lack of adequate methodology to capture spatial dimensions of ecosystem changes associated with nitrogen and water effects. A data fitting, where close-range remote-sensing measurements of vegetation indices derived from a handheld instrument and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system are linked to in situ leaf and canopy photosynthetic traits, was applied to capture and interpret inter- and intra-field variations in gross primary productivity (GPP) in lowland rice grown under flooded conditions (paddy rice, PD) subject to three nitrogen application rates and under rainfed conditions (RF) in an East Asian monsoon region of South Korea. Spatial variations (SVs) in both GPP and light use efficiency (LUEcabs) early in the growing season were enlarged by nitrogen addition. The nutritional effects narrowed over time. A shift in planting culture from flooded to rainfed conditions strengthened SVs in GPP and LUEcabs. Intervention of prolonged drought late in the growing season dramatically intensified SVs that were supposed to seasonally decrease. Nevertheless, nitrogen addition effects on SV of LUEcabs at the early growth stage made PD fields exert greater SVs than RF fields. SVs of GPP across PD and RF rice fields were likely related to leaf area index (LAI) development less than to LUEcabs, while numerical analysis suggested that considering strength in LUEcabs and its spatial variation for the same crop type tends to be vital for better evaluation in landscape/regional patterns of ecosystem photosynthetic productivity at critical phenology stages.

  1. Food security, wheat production and policy in South Africa: Reflections on food sustainability and challenges for a market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois de Wet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of security has broadened over the past decades. Food security in South Africa is an imperative for human and non-human survival. In the contemporary political economy, there is a real nexus between globalisation, exploitation, the state, scarcity of resources, the market, peoples’ need to feel secure, notions of state responsibility and food production. Political economy and human security in theoretical debates and face-to-face politics are intrinsically linked. The notion of a ‘secure community’ changed. Food security and the right to quality living became a social imperative. Understanding current agricultural economics requires the ability to link security and access to food for all. In this case study, wheat production in South Africa is addressed against the interface of the global and the local including South Africa’s transition to a democratic and constitutional state with a Bill of Rights. The current security approach represents a more comprehensive understanding of what security is meant to be and include, amongst others, housing security, medical security, service delivery and food security, as set out in the Millennium Development Goals and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals. The issue of food security is addressed here with particular reference to wheat production, related current government policies and the market economy. The authors chose to limit their socio-economic focus to a specific sector of the agricultural market, namely wheat, rather than discuss food security in South Africa in general. Wheat was chosen as a unit of analysis because as a crop, wheat used in bread is one of the staples for the majority of South Africans and given the current negative economic developments, wheat as a staple is likely to remain integral, if not increasing its status of dependability

  2. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  3. Ability of carbon footprint to reflect the environmental burden of a product or service – an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    arise if one decides to expand the outlook to include other environmental impacts, which are commonly evaluated in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). In that perspective, over 500 products/services and two concrete cases are investigated, using the EDIP-methodology and the USEtoxTM-based toxicity......-related impacts, each one updated with the latest set of characterization factors and with normalization references for the emission year 2004. Outcome of the study shows that carbon footprinting coincides well with the LCA-based global warming assessment, though divergences rise whenever NMVOC show a significant...

  4. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almack, Kathryn; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors). Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff. PMID:29642460

  5. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Paul; Almack, Kathryn; Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-04-07

    Background : Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors) . Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion-itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people's care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  6. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Willis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors. Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  7. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  8. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  9. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  10. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    HD 38563B, are the main powerhouses behind Messier 78. However, the nebula is home to many more stars, including a collection of about 45 low mass, young stars (less than 10 million years old) in which the cores are still too cool for hydrogen fusion to start, known as T Tauri stars. Studying T Tauri stars is important for understanding the early stages of star formation and how planetary systems are created. Remarkably, this complex of nebulae has also changed significantly in the last ten years. In February 2004 the experienced amateur observer Jay McNeil took an image of this region with a 75 mm telescope and was surprised to see a bright nebula - the prominent fan shaped feature near the bottom of this picture - where nothing was seen on most earlier images. This object is now known as McNeil's Nebula and it appears to be a highly variable reflection nebula around a young star. This colour picture was created from many monochrome exposures taken through blue, yellow/green and red filters, supplemented by exposures through an H-alpha filter that shows light from glowing hydrogen gas. The total exposure times were 9, 9, 17.5 and 15.5 minutes per filter, respectively. Notes [1] Igor Chekalin from Russia uncovered the raw data for this image of Messier 78 in ESO's archives in the competition Hidden Treasures (eso1102). He processed the raw data with great skill, claiming first prize in the contest for his final image (Flickr link). ESO's team of in-house image processing experts then independently processed the raw data at full resolution to produce the image shown here. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an

  11. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  12. Supplemental tests in the evaluation of occupational hand dermatitis in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Movshowitz, M; Brenner, S

    1996-03-01

    Hand dermatitis in soldiers is a considerable problem. The purpose of the study was to evaluate appropriate screening tests to improve the diagnosis of hand dermatitis in soldiers. A group of 111 soldiers with occupational dermatitis from contact with fuels and oils underwent "tailored patch tests" with allergens relevant to their field of work and their environment. The control group consisted of 24 soldiers with various jobs similar to those of civilian life, who had not been exposed to oils and fuels. Seventy-three civilian patients, attending the clinic for patch testing, were also included. Twenty soldiers, who had a history of intensive contact with oil and fuels, but no contact dermatitis, and who were admitted because of various skin diseases (fungal infections, acne, etc.) also underwent the supplemental testing and served as an additional control group. Of the soldiers, 31 (29%) showed one or more positive skin tests of the oil series and 30 patients of this group one or more positive reactions to the standard patch tests trays. No patient of the control groups had a positive test to the oil series. Our results show the value of the supplementary tests as a first-step screening test for detection of oil allergy in soldiers and automobile-mechanics or in workers handling other gasoline- or diesel-powered engineering equipment. The test method appears to be practical, easy to perform, reliable and giving clear and accurate results, with a negligible rate of false positive reactions.

  13. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  14. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Repub...

  15. Advanced Product Development for Combat Casualty Care at the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    soldiers (22). These results were in contrast to concerns that ketamine, a psychoactive drug , would increase PTSD development. Later work showed that...problem. As the most important step to this process, research products, devices, drugs , techniques and practice guidelines are fielded to implement...Anesthesia (URODA) in decreasing narcotic consumption and opioid dependence in burned soldiers. Within our burn center, increased and improved

  16. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon S. Finestone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm than males (174 cm, CI 173–176, had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg, had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1 than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5% than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%, and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7% than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%. Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  18. From Rampart to Chamber House: Soldiers, Statesmen and the Dialogue of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Edwin H

    2005-01-01

    .... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...

  19. The Effects of an Auditory Versus a Visual Presentation of Information on Soldier Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glumm, Monica

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...

  20. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). (2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performs analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. (3...

  1. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1998-01-01

    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). 2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performed analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. 3...

  2. Current Issues in the Use of Virtual Simulations for Dismounted Soldier Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...

  3. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  4. U.S. Soldier Peacekeeping Experiences and Wellbeing After Returning from Deployment to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2000-01-01

    ... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...

  5. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    This study of civil-military relations addresses the parallel development of the professional soldier and the Prussian-German Army from 1806 until 1945, as well as the rise of nationalism in central...

  6. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoge, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; Engel, Charles C; Castro, Carl A

    2008-01-01

    .... Validated clinical instruments were used to compare soldiers reporting mild traumatic brain injury, defined as an injury with loss of consciousness or altered mental status (e.g., dazed or confused...

  7. Soldier Performance and Heat Strain During Evaluation of a Combat Fitness Assessment in Northern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotter, James

    2000-01-01

    ...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...

  8. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  9. Soldier Dimensions and Operational Readiness in U.S. Army Forces Deployed to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...

  10. Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0685 TITLE: Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...individuated brain training program (cognitive training + mindfulness /stress- reduction training) with caregiver support portal and lifestyle monitor is

  11. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  12. Soldier Quality of Life (Operational) and Readiness at Contingency Base Camps: Insights From Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-13

    Providing familiar foods and beverages reminds Soldiers of the world outside the AO and can provide an important bump that sustains morale. “I’m Hispanic...including fellow Soldiers, local nationals, civilians, etc. Emotional Anything having to do with managing your emotions, handling stress, and...almost removed from the group for your own mental well-being.” Back 38UNCLASSIFIED Billets Act as an Oasis Food Is More Than Fuel Top-Line: Field

  13. Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    a mother with depression may be less sensitive to her child’s cues, and may feel less efficacious as a parent, decreasing her application of...functioning, spouse depression , spouse anxiety, child mental health symptoms and service use, and Soldier job satisfaction. Spouse depression was the...in Soldiers with PTSD and their spouses, and also to describe rates of spouse depression and anxiety, as well as child mental health problems. The

  14. The voices of the invisible girls : reintegration of former female child soldiers in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Camilla Carlsen

    2013-01-01

    Master thesis in development management - University of Agder 2013 Child soldiers are used in armed groups and forces around the word. Children as young as seven years of age have been reported to actively participate in armed conflict. The phenomenon of child soldiering has become increasingly recognized in recent decades. Females constitute between ten per cent to one third of the fighting forces worldwide. Despite this, girls and women have until recently been highly invisible in both r...

  15. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Veysey

    2016-01-01

    This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859) by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. Afte...

  16. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  17. Trends in mental health services utilization and stigma in US soldiers from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Bray, Robert M; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W

    2014-09-01

    We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12,835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22,627). HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention.

  18. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  19. Reflective Reconstruction of Visual Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    objects. The teacher used a range of visual materials including video clips, diagrams, student drawings, and student produced 3D models, each endowed with unique material and visual dimensions. The teacher activated those through talking, writing, drawing and working with artifacts and purposefully...

  20. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  1. Stigma, barriers to care, and use of mental health services among active duty and National Guard soldiers after combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Y; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wilk, Joshua E; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W

    2010-06-01

    This study examined rates of utilization of mental health care among active duty and National Guard soldiers with mental health problems three and 12 months after they returned from combat in Iraq. Stigma and barriers to care were also reported for each component (active duty and National Guard). Cross-sectional, anonymous surveys were administered to 10,386 soldiers across both time points and components. Mean scores from 11 items measuring stigma and barriers to care were computed. Service utilization was assessed by asking soldiers whether they had received services for a mental health problem from a mental health professional, a medical doctor, or the Department of Veterans Affairs in the past month. Risk of mental problems was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, and items asking about aggressive behaviors and "stress, emotional, alcohol, or family" problems within the past month. A higher proportion of active duty soldiers than National Guard soldiers reported at least one type of mental health problem at both three months (45% versus 33%) and 12 months (44% versus 35%) postdeployment. Among soldiers with mental health problems, National Guard soldiers reported significantly higher rates of mental health care utilization 12 months after deployment, compared with active duty soldiers (27% versus 13%). Mean stigma scores were higher among active duty soldiers than among National Guard soldiers. Active duty soldiers with a mental health problem had significantly lower rates of service utilization than National Guard soldiers and significantly higher endorsements of stigma. Current and future efforts to improve care for veterans should work toward reducing the stigma of receiving mental health care.

  2. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  3. Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing anti-oxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating...

  4. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  5. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters.

  6. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  7. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Where Do Soldiers Really Come From? A Faculty Development Workshop on Veteran-Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lypson, Monica L; Ross, Paula T; Zimmerman, Natalie; Goldrath, Kathryn E; Ravindranath, Divy

    2016-10-01

    Addressing the medical concerns of veterans in both civilian health care systems and the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system, where staff are familiar with issues of military reintegration, remains difficult but is increasingly important. In 2013, the authors developed and implemented a faculty development workshop for practicing clinicians using the documentary Where Soldiers Come From. The workshop included topics on unconscious bias, the service member trajectory, health care disparities, and strategies for overcoming barriers to treating veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. The workshop engaged faculty in the following active-learning techniques: images in education; trigger video; critical thinking and reflective writing; think-pair-share; and large-group discussion. The workshop has been conducted at three locations with 46 health care professionals. Thirty-one of 37 (84%) participants who completed the workshop evaluation were VA employees. The evaluation results show 25/32 (78.1%) participants indicated the workshop activities changed their knowledge, attitudes, and/or skills; 22/34 (64.7%) stated they had a better understanding of how to develop a care plan for veterans; and 27/34 (79.4%) stated they gained a better understanding of how to prepare for issues around returning veterans. To address the issue of veteran-centered care education more broadly, the authors have developed a massive open online course for health professionals, using most of the content from this workshop, which will be offered in spring 2016. Another important next step will be to deliver this workshop to and collect evaluation data from non-VA providers.

  9. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  10. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  11. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  12. Documented family violence and risk of suicide attempt among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  14. The reality of war: wounded and fallen Norwegian soldiers in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkan, Geir; Iversen, Petter; Asak, Håkon; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Rolandsen, Bent-Åge

    2012-05-15

    Norway has been contributing military forces to Afghanistan since 2001. The following is an overview of all combat-related injuries and deaths among Norwegian soldiers in the period from 2002 to 2010. All medical records for Norwegian military personnel in Afghanistan in the period to January 2011 were reviewed and those who fell or were injured during combat were identified. The mechanism and anatomical region of the injury were registered and an injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS) and probability of survival score were calculated. Deaths were classified according to military trauma terminology and were additionally assessed as either "non-survivable" or "potentially survivable". There were 45 injury incidents with nine deaths among 42 soldiers. The injury mechanism behind seven of the deaths was an improvised explosive device (IED). All injuries resulting in deaths were "non-survivable". Seven soldiers were severely injured. The mechanisms were bullet wounds, IED, splinters from grenades and landmine explosions. Twenty nine incidents involving 28 soldiers resulted in minor injuries. The most frequent mechanism was ricochet or splinter injury from shooting or an exploding grenade. The majority of conflict-related injuries in Afghanistan were due to explosions. The mechanism and anatomical distribution of the injuries was the same among Norwegian soldiers as among allies. The deaths were due to extensive injuries that were non-survivable.

  15. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  18. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  19. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A structural model of burnout syndrome, coping behavior and personality traits in professional soldiers of the Slovene armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Serec

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.

  1. Extracting breathing rate information from a wearable reflectance pulse oximeter sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W S; Mendelson, Y

    2004-01-01

    The integration of multiple vital physiological measurements could help combat medics and field commanders to better predict a soldier's health condition and enhance their ability to perform remote triage procedures. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of extracting accurate breathing rate information from a photoplethysmographic signal that was recorded by a reflectance pulse oximeter sensor mounted on the forehead and subsequently processed by a simple time domain filtering and frequency domain Fourier analysis.

  2. Does political ideology moderate stress: the special case of soldiers conducting forced evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  4. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  6. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summaira Naz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction

  7. Prevalence of Pain Diagnoses and Burden of Pain Among Active Duty Soldiers, FY2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Sharon; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Ritter, Grant A; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2018-03-14

    Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations. Data are from the MHS Data Repository including outpatient MHS direct care encounters, claims for outpatient purchased care from civilian providers, and vital records, for all soldiers continuously enrolled in TRICARE and not deployed in FY 2012. Ten pain-related diagnostic categories were conceptually derived for this analysis and identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We report the FY 2012 prevalence at the soldier-level (N = 297,120) for each pain category as a primary diagnosis, as well as in any diagnostic position, and at the soldier-level for reported pain level, duration, and military duty limitations. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to analyses. Overall, 63% of soldiers had at least one pain diagnosis and 59% had a primary pain diagnosis during FY 2012. Back and neck pain (22%), non-traumatic joint disorders (28%), and other musculoskeletal pain (30%) were the most frequent categories for primary diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of soldiers had a primary pain diagnosis in more than one category, and 23% in four or more categories. Moderate or severe pain levels were reported at least once during the year by 55% of soldiers who had a primary pain diagnosis. In the subsample of soldiers with primary pain in the first quarter, duration and chronicity of pain diagnoses varied by pain category: the back and neck pain category was the most common for both persistent

  8. Risk factors for disability discharge in enlisted active duty Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Amanda L; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    The rate of permanent disability retirement in U.S. Army soldiers and the prevalence of combat-related disabilities have significantly increased over time. Prior research on risk factors associated with disability retirement included soldiers retired prior to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To identify risk factors for disability discharge among soldiers enlisted in the U.S. Army during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this case-control study, cases included active duty soldiers evaluated for disability discharge. Controls, randomly selected from soldiers with no history of disability evaluation, were matched to cases based on enlistment year and sex. Conditional logistic regression models calculated odds of disability discharge. Attributable fractions estimated burden of disability for specific pre-existing condition categories. Poisson regression models compared risk of disability discharge related to common disability types by deployment and combat status. Characteristics at military enlistment with increased odds of disability discharge included a pre-existing condition, increased age or body mass index, white race, and being divorced. Musculoskeletal conditions and overweight contributed the largest proportion of disabilities. Deployment was protective against disability discharge or receiving a musculoskeletal-related disability, but significantly increased the risk of disability related to a psychiatric or neurological condition. Soldiers with a pre-existing condition at enlistment, particularly a musculoskeletal condition, had increased odds of disability discharge. Risk of disability was dependent on condition category when stratified by deployment and combat status. Additional research examining conditions during pre-disability hospitalizations could provide insight on specific conditions that commonly lead to disability discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  10. SOLDIERS' CODES OF CONDUCT IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD. A COMPARATIVE OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice MOMPEYSSIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In all countries around the world, the duties of the soldier are codified in detail, but in very different ways, according to the various histories, and cultural backgrounds of the respective Nations. As this soldier has the right to legally use a powerful lethal force, a lot is required from him, which is normal. He is now most often a professional. He has mainly to master perfectly his weapons, to respect the Law of Armed Conflicts and to apply the principle of humanity. But his leaders have to guide him and his Nation to understand and support him.

  11. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0165 TITLE: “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 & 3”.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...27Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0165 “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2...Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics and the U.S. Army entitled “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury

  12. The Great Bravery of Croatian Soldier by Giuseppe Maria Mitelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Premerl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the iconography of two etchings with Croatian subject matter made by the Bolognese etcher Giuseppe Maria Mitelli in 1684. In the focus is the etching Great Bravery of Croatian soldier (Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. The author concludes, interpreting the explanatory text below the etching, that it depicts an event of the so-called Great Turkish War (1683-1699. The depicted hero belonged to the Croatian Regiment commanded by general James Leslie, and the depicted heroic act occurred, in all probability, during the battle of Virovitica in 1684. Also, the author points out to a model for Mitelli's etching as well as to the literary image of the simultaneous decapitation of both a horseman and a horse in the Croatian literature. In the same year, Mitelli also made the portrait of the Zagreb bishop and the politician Martin Borković. The existence of both etchings is associated with the Illyrian-Hungarian College in Bologna, governed by the Zagreb cathedral Chapter. L'articolo indaga l'iconografia di due incisioni con soggetto croato realizzate dall'incisore bolognese Giuseppe Maria Mitelli nel 1684. Il focus del saggio è l'incisione Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. Interpretando il testo esplicativo sotto l'acquaforte, l'autore ritiene che essa raffiguri un evento della cosiddetta Grande Guerra Turca (1683-1699. L'eroe raffigurato apparteneva al reggimento croato comandato dal generale James Leslie e l'atto eroico raffigurato avvenne, con ogni probabilità, durante la battaglia di Virovitica nel 1684. L'autore individua inoltre un modello per l'incisione di Mitelli e un riferimento a una fonte nella letteratura croata ove compare la decapitazione simultanea di un cavaliere e di un cavallo. Nello stesso anno Mitelli fece anche il ritratto del vescovo di Zagabria e del politico Martin Borković. L'esistenza di entrambe le acqueforti è associata al Collegio illirico-ungarico di Bologna, governato dal Capitolo della

  13. Plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol reflect the balance between cerebral production and hepatic metabolism and are inversely related to body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretillon, L; Lütjohann, D; Ståhle, L; Widhe, T; Bindl, L; Eggertsen, G; Diczfalusy, U; Björkhem, I

    2000-05-01

    We have previously presented evidence that most of the 24S-hydroxycholesterol present in the circulation originates from the brain and that most of the elimination of this oxysterol occurs in the liver. Plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels decline by a factor of about 5 during the first decades of life. The concentration of the enzyme cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase in the brain is, however, about constant from the first year of life, and reduced enzyme levels thus cannot explain the decreasing plasma levels during infancy. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that the plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol may reflect the size of the brain relative to the capacity of the liver to eliminate the substance. It is shown here that the age-dependent changes in absolute as well as cholesterol-related plasma level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol closely follow the changes in the ratio between estimated brain weight and estimated liver volume. The size of the brain is increased only about 50% whereas the size of the liver is increased by about 6-fold after the age of 1 year. Liver volume is known to be highly correlated to body surface, and in accordance with this the absolute as well as the cholesterol-related plasma level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol was found to be highly inversely correlated to body surface in 77 healthy subjects of varying ages (r(2) = 0.74). Two chondrodystrophic dwarves with normal size of the brain but with markedly reduced body area had increased levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol when related to age but normal levels when related to body surface. It is concluded that the balance between cerebral production and hepatic metabolism is a critical determinant for plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol at different ages and that endocrinological factors are less important. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility to use 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the circulation as a marker for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain.

  14. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  15. Multi-functional roles of a soldier-specific volatile as a worker arrestant, primer pheromone and an antimicrobial agent in a termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Mori, Naoki; Matsuura, Kenji

    2017-07-26

    Division of labour in eusocial insects is characterized by efficient communication systems based on pheromones. Among such insects, termites have evolved specialized sterile defenders, called soldiers. Because they are incapable of feeding themselves, it has been suggested that soldiers are sustained by workers and emit the pheromone arresting workers. However, such a soldier pheromone has not been identified in any termite species, and the details of the soldier-worker interaction remain to be explored. Here, we identified a soldier-specific volatile sesquiterpene as a worker arrestant, which also acts as a primer pheromone regulating soldier differentiation and fungistatic agent in a termite Reticulitermes speratus Chemical analyses revealed that (-)- β -elemene is the major component of soldier extract, and its authentic standard exhibited arrestant activity to workers and inhibited the differentiation from workers to soldiers. This compound also showed fungistatic activity against entomopathogenic fungi. These suggest that (-)- β -elemene secreted by soldiers acts not only as a worker arrestant but also as one component of inhibitory primer pheromone and an anti-pathogenic agent. Our study provides novel evidence supporting the multi-functionality of termite soldier pheromone and provides new insights into the role of soldiers and the evolutionary mechanisms of pheromone compounds. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. The Impact of Diet Protein and Carbohydrate on Select Life-History Traits of The Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-05-31

    This study examined the impact of diet protein and carbohydrate percentages as well as moisture on the immature development, survivorship, and resulting adult longevity and egg production of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Moisture impacted development and corresponding life-history traits more than protein:carbohydrate content; larvae were unable to develop on diets at 40% moisture. Larvae fed diets at 70% moisture developed faster, grew larger, and required less food than those reared on diets at 55% moisture. Larvae reared on the balanced diet (21% protein:21% carbohydrate) at 70% moisture developed the fastest on the least amount of food and had the greatest survivorship to the prepupal stage. Adult emergence and longevity were similar across treatments, indicating immature life-history traits were impacted the most. The control (Gainesville house fly) diet was superior to the artificial diets for all parameters tested. These differences could indicate that other constituents (e.g., associated microbes) serve a role in black soldier fly development. These data are valuable for industrialization of this insect as a "green" technology for recycling organic waste, which can be highly variable, to produce protein for use as feed in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, as well as for bioenergy production.

  17. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  18. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  19. Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands, control, and soldier indiscipline over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Salvi, Angela D; Adler, Amy B

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) suggests that under high levels of stress, employees are more prone to committing indiscipline. As few studies have examined this relationship over time, the authors conducted a six-wave longitudinal study examining the relationship of soldiers' indiscipline with work demands and control. The study included archival data collected quarterly over 2 years from 1,701 soldiers representing 10 units in garrison (Germany and Italy), in training rotations (Grafenwoehr, Germany), and on peacekeeping deployments (Kosovo, Kuwait). No main effects were found for work overload, and the findings for the moderating effects of control were contradictory. Within each time point, as work overload increased, soldiers who felt less control committed more indiscipline, supporting CRT. Over time, however, as work overload increased, soldiers who perceived less control 6 months earlier committed less indiscipline. Additionally, the authors found reverse causal effects for control such that prior perceptions of a lack of control were associated with indiscipline and prior incidents of indiscipline with less control. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Inequality in MINUSMA: African Soldiers are in the Firing Line in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Peter; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Haugegaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    African and European soldiers in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) work under very different conditions regarding levels of training, equipment, general support from their governments and the fact that African troops are deployed in the most dangerous areas. The UN should ...

  1. Short Report: High Incidence of Shigellosis Among Peruvian Soldiers Deployed in the Amazon River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franca R; Sanchez, Jose L; Meza, Rina; Batsel, Tanis M; Burga, Rosa; Canal, Enrique; Block, Karla; Perez, Juan; Bautista, Christian T; Escobedo, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    ...). Most (83 of 90; 92%) of the Shigella isolates were S. flexneri, of which 57 (69%) were serotype 2a. Seventy-six percent of Shigella isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Peruvian soldiers may be an excellent population in which to test the efficacy of S. flexneri vaccines in advanced development.

  2. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING FOR MILITARY SOLDIER AT ISKANDAR MUDA MILITARY COMMAND (A Theocentrical Humanism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the process of soldier's mental development in Iskandar Muda Military Command, both seen from the selection process to be soldier in educational institutions as well as in the unit assignment. This research is expected to find the development pattern in accordance with the challenging tasks for the National Military (TNI ahead. By using a qualitative approach, this research has achieved several findings: 1 in the selection process, a soldier was just demanded to fundamentally have religious understanding without a standard point for depth understanding of religion, 2 in the first stage of education, the subject matter of religion only a broad outline of religious teachings, 3 religious activities is not part of military trainings curriculum, but it is merely education administrators’ policy, 4 the soldiers in unit deemed to have knowledge of the religion and an unwavering faith. Despite the fact that soldiers’ religious knowledge is still very low, while the faith is generally used as the symbolic emphasis that is less discussed. As a result, it is feared that mentality weakness when facing a tough task, both faced with the sophistication of tools, strategies and mental demands in modern warfare in the future.

  3. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  4. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  5. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  7. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  8. Characterization of Foot-Strike Patterns: Lack of an Association With Injuries or Performance in Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Bradley J; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Goss, Donald L; Frykman, Peter N; Seay, Joseph F

    2015-07-01

    Characterize the distribution of foot-strike (FS) patterns in U.S. Army Soldiers and determine if FS patterns are related to self-reported running injuries and performance. 341 male Soldiers from a U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion ran at their training pace for 100 meters, and FSs were recorded in the sagittal plane. Participants also completed a survey related to training habits, injury history, and run times. Two researchers classified FS patterns as heel strike (HS) or nonheel strike (NHS, combination of midfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns). Two clinicians classified the musculoskeletal injuries as acute or overuse. The relationship of FS type with two-mile run time and running-related injury was analyzed (p ≤ 0.05). The Soldiers predominately landed with an HS (87%) and only 13% were characterized as NHS. Running-related injury was similar between HS (50.3%) and NHS (55.6%) patterns (p = 0.51). There was no difference (p = 0.14) between overuse injury rates between an HS pattern (31.8%) and an NHS pattern (31.0%). Two-mile run times were also similar, with both groups averaging 14:48 minutes. Soldiers were mostly heel strikers (87%) in this U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion. Neither FS pattern was advantageous for increased performance or decreased incidence of running-related injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Moral othering at the checkpoint: The case of Israeli soldiers and Palestinian civilians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassiani, E.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways the Palestinian civilian is the ultimate or significant ‘other' for the Israeli soldier serving in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). (S)he is the one who will be stopped, checked, controlled and at times arrested. (S)he is the one who negotiates, pleads, begs and sometimes

  10. A comparison between two methods of measuring total fat in the Iranian soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rahmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constant checkup and control of body fat mass is an important parameter for the health and efficiency of individuals in any society. This parameter is especially crucial in army soldiers since physical fitness is a key role in reaching high physical performance, health, and survival in war. Objective: This study was designed to compare two methods of measuring fat, the method of circumference-based military equations (CBEs to estimate body fat mass compared to the method of skinfold thickness-based equation (SBE in Iranian soldiers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 Iranian soldiers were recruited in Tehran (2016. Height, waist, and neck circumference were measured and the total body fat mass was calculated using CBEs. Then, the results of using Pierson’s correlation and Bland-Altman methods were compared with Jackson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness measurement. Findings: The total body fat mass of the soldiers using CBEs was 18.94±6.30% and using Jakson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness formula was 17.43±4.45%. The correlation between the two methods was r=0.984 and SEE was 1.1% (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more body fat makes the error waist circumference greater. The error is so much that don’t use this method to measure fat.

  11. Reasons for medical evacuations of soldiers serving in International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gregulski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a research study into the reasons for medical evacuations of Polish military personnel taking part in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2013. The authors have analysed medical records of 485 soldiers who were medically evacuated out of a combat zone in Afghanistan for battle injuries, non-battle injuries and diseases. Each medically evacuated Polish soldier was subjected to statistical analysis. The study population comprised 25,974 soldiers assigned to the Polish Military Contingent Afghanistan in the given period. From 2007 to 2013, 1.9% of the Polish military personnel (n = 485) participating in the ISAF operation in Afghanistan were evacuated for medical reasons before the scheduled termination of their contract. 40.6% of all medical evacuations were due to battle injuries, 32.4% due to non-battle injuries, and 27.0% due to diseases. ISAF is an example of a combat operation, in which battle injuries remain the leading health problem in mission participants. 3 of 4 Polish soldiers who were medically evacuated from Afghanistan were no longer fit for military service in the area of operations due to the traumas they had suffered.

  12. Warrior Heroes and Little Green Men: Soldiers, Military Training, and the Construction of Rural Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Examines military training in the United Kingdom; the construction of military masculinities, particularly the ideal type of the warrior hero; and the role of the countryside (as the training location) and rurality (as a social construction) in that process. Argues that becoming an infantry soldier means being molded to this hegemonic model of…

  13. Respiratory symptoms necessitating spirometry among soldiers with Iraq/Afghanistan war lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M; Salihi, Walid; Savary, Khalil; Chen, John J

    2011-09-01

    New-onset asthma rates are higher among US soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan than stateside, but overall respiratory symptom and spirometry rates among soldiers returning from Iraq/Afghanistan have not yet been addressed. We determined these rates in soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan versus troops stationed elsewhere. Retrospective review of active-duty soldiers (2004 to 2010) registered at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, New York, with Long Island/New York City zip codes. Subjects were examined by physicians or physicians' assistants. We counted number of spirometries, which required respiratory symptoms, and the provider was required to submit a diagnosis as part of the request process. Twenty-five percent of 7151 troops went to Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 1816) and 75% went elsewhere (n = 5335), with more smokers in the Iraq/Afghanistan group (16.1% vs 3.3%). Rates of symptoms and spirometry were 14.5% and 1.8%, for Iraq/Afghanistan, versus troops deployed elsewhere, respectively (P Afghanistan war lung injury is common and rates of symptoms leading to a diagnosis requiring spirometry are high. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  14. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  15. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P hand sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Social Welfare of Soldiers' Families in Yenisei Province (1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya M. Dolidovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.

  17. Technological evaluation of gesture and speech interfaces for enabling dismounted soldier-robot dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattoju, Ravi Kiran; Barber, Daniel J.; Abich, Julian; Harris, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing necessity for intuitive Soldier-robot communication in military operations and advancements in interactive technologies, autonomous robots have transitioned from assistance tools to functional and operational teammates able to service an array of military operations. Despite improvements in gesture and speech recognition technologies, their effectiveness in supporting Soldier-robot communication is still uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of gesture and speech interface technologies to facilitate Soldier-robot communication during a spatial-navigation task with an autonomous robot. Gesture and speech semantically based spatial-navigation commands leveraged existing lexicons for visual and verbal communication from the U.S Army field manual for visual signaling and a previously established Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV). Speech commands were recorded by a Lapel microphone and Microsoft Kinect, and classified by commercial off-the-shelf automatic speech recognition (ASR) software. Visual signals were captured and classified using a custom wireless gesture glove and software. Participants in the experiment commanded a robot to complete a simulated ISR mission in a scaled down urban scenario by delivering a sequence of gesture and speech commands, both individually and simultaneously, to the robot. Performance and reliability of gesture and speech hardware interfaces and recognition tools were analyzed and reported. Analysis of experimental results demonstrated the employed gesture technology has significant potential for enabling bidirectional Soldier-robot team dialogue based on the high classification accuracy and minimal training required to perform gesture commands.

  18. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Iris M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; de Jung, Peter J.

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of

  19. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  20. Sleep quality of German soldiers before, during and after deployment in Afghanistan-a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Sauter, Cornelia; Kowalski, Jens T; Kropp, Stefan; Ströhle, Andreas; Wesemann, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in the DG were already impaired during the predeployment training phase and remained at that level during the deployment phase, which clearly indicates the need for more attention on sleep in young soldiers, already at this early stage. The percentage of impaired sleepers decreased significantly after deployment. Programmes to teach techniques to improve sleep and reduce stress should be implemented prior to deployment to reduce sleep difficulties and excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent psychiatric disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Children of former child soldiers and never-conscripted civilians: a preliminary intergenerational study in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the

  2. Gait retraining as part of the treatment programme for soldiers with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gait retraining as part of a treatment programme for exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) was introduced in the sports medicine department of the Royal ... Conclusion: Soldiers with exercise-related leg pain (ERLP), among them patients with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome, respond well to a treatment programme ...

  3. Mental Health among Former Child Soldiers and Never-Abducted Children in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughetta Moscardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.

  4. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.

    1994-01-01

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  5. Gait retraining as part of the treatment programme for soldiers with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Gait retraining, as a treatment for overuse injuries of the lower extremities is ... pressure (N/cm2) on the heels at 317 days follow-up (average,. SD 108). ... The running style (type of strike) was .... findings on strike patterns among soldiers.

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SOLDIERS IN BATTLE UNIT OF SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.

  7. Chemistry and Anatomy of the Frontal Gland in Soldiers of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2012), s. 557-565 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * frontal gland of soldiers * chemical defense * Rhinotermitidae * Psammotermes hybostoma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  8. [The disease and treatment of the frontline soldiers in Han dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hookie

    2015-04-01

    This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest

  9. How to Dispel the Fog over the Past? Post-War Children, Their Fathers-Soldiers and Consequences of the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Lyubomirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the new aspects in the study of the history of post-war Germany, revealed in the book written by Sabine Bode «Post-war children - born in the 1950s, and their fathers-soldiers». It discusses the contribution made by Bode in the study of mental and psycho-emotional consequences of the Second World War and the «exclusion of the past», which is reflected in the fate of the post-war children and continues to have an impact on the socio-political life of the Federal Republic of Germany up to the present day. Nevertheless the article criticizes an excessive preoccupation of the monograph with the descriptions of the individual biographies to the detriment of analysis.

  10. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry

    2007-04-01

    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  11. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  12. Public-academic partnerships: working together to meet the needs of Army National Guard soldiers: an academic-military partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalack, Gregory W; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia; Gorman, Lisa; Spinner, Jane; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle; McDonough, Susan; Greden, John F; Ames, Barbara; Francisco, Burton; Anderson, James R; Bartolacci, James; Lagrou, Robert

    2010-11-01

    The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have greatly increased the number of veterans returning home with combat exposure, reintegration issues, and psychiatric symptoms. National Guard soldiers face additional challenges. Unlike active duty soldiers, they do not return to military installations with access to military health services or peers. The authors describe the formation and activities of a partnership among two large state universities in Michigan and the Michigan Army National Guard, established to assess and develop programming to meet the needs of returning soldiers. The process of forming the partnership and the challenges, opportunities, and benefits arising from it are described.

  13. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Problems Among Active and Reserve Component Soldiers Returning From the Iraq War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, CHarles S; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Hoge, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    Described the Department of Defense's (DoDs) screening efforts to identify mental health concerns among soldiers and Marines as they return from Iraq and Afghanistan using the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA...

  14. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  15. Warrior Transition Command Information Briefing to 2011 AMEDD Pre-Command Course: Soldier Success Through Focused Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    JTF CAPMED Veterans Affairs – Veterans Health Administration – Veterans Benefits Administration – Federal Recovery Coordinators – Polytrauma...investment of families is critical • Initial interview should reveal services that the Soldier and Family needs • Increased Social Workers exposure for...Soldier has his/her own unique set of challenges • Early involvement and investment of Families is critical • We cannot do enough for the Families of

  16. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  17. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  18. Design Considerations of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton System to Assist walking and Load-Carrying of Infantry Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seungnam; Han, Changsoo; Cho, Ilje

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a wearable exoskeleton system for the lower extremities of infantry soldiers and proposes appropriate design criteria based on existing case studies. Because infantry soldiers carry a variety of equipment, the interference with existing equipment and additional burden of the exoskeleton support system should be minimized. Recent studies have shown that a user only needs to be supported in the gravitational direction when walking on flat terrain; however...

  19. Towards an Understanding of the Social Aspects of Sustainability in Product Design: Teaching HE Students in the UK and Ireland through Reflection and Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a doctoral study, which investigated effective methods for teaching social sustainability within product design courses in British and Irish universities. This paper explores approaches for encouraging students to explore the social aspects of sustainable product design through workshops specifically designed to…

  20. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  1. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  2. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  3. Production sources and management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities. Works reporting from the reflection group 'tritium defense-in-depth'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report synthesizes current knowledge of tritium, its sources of tritium and its behavior in reactors and nuclear facilities. In addition, liquid and gaseous tritiated releases and the processes of separation and possible trapping of this radionuclide are displayed. This report also provides elements of reflection on the management of tritium produced today by these facilities, both in France and abroad. It presents insights on the relevance of current management modes of tritiated liquid and solid waste and also on the associated measures to reduce releases of tritium into the environment. (author)

  4. Efforts to Promote Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Traumatized Former Child Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ivelina I.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Willett, John B.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of caregivers in the reintegration of former child soldiers from Sierra Leone. Using data on 282 youth and their respective caregivers, our aim is to focus on the caregiver–child relationship after reintegration. We investigate the extent to which caregivers know about child soldiers' experiences of direct and indirect violence, as well as involvement in war activities. We further examine variables that might shape the degree of caregiver knowledge of child's war experiences. Finally, we examine if caregiver knowledge of war experiences is associated with child's psychosocial outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of developing thoughtful programs that consider the needs of the child in the context of the family and caregivers with whom he or she is reunified. PMID:29249893

  5. Serological markers for hepatitis types A and B among U.S. Arym soldiers, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J J; Smith, L

    1979-01-01

    Viral hepatitis rates among U.S. Army soldiers in Europe have been found to be two to three times higher than corresponding rates for soldiers stationed in the U.S. Sera from 89 per cent of a representative Army unit with 865 members and a known hepatitis problem were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HA. The prevalence of HB markers was 20 per cent, and hepatitis A antibody was present in 25 per cent. A six-month follow-up, conducted on 260 individuals initially negative for all four tests, revealed that 11 of these were now HB seropositive, whereas none had seroconverted to anti-HA positive. The HB virus was the principal agent responsible for hepatitis in the unit surveyed. PMID:228562

  6. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  7. Chiral Induction with Chiral Conformational Switches in the Limit of Low "Sergeants to Soldiers" Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...... molecules down to 3%. The microscopic mechanism for the observed chiral induction is suggested to involve nucleation of the intrinsically chiral seeds, allowing for effective transfer and amplification of chirality to large numbers of soldier target molecules....

  8. Squad-Level Soldier-Robot Dynamics: Exploring Future Concepts Involving Intelligent Autonomous Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    a Blue Force Tracker system with a computer keyboard for conveying the mission to the ASM. One Soldier said the operator should be able to verbally...The ASM is equipped with multiple cameras, acoustic sensors, and lasers . It has a cargo carrying capability for squad equipment and other...location in reference to its initial position? No, needs to remain in good spot to cover squad if need be or move to kill sniper. Roster Number 27

  9. Innovation in the Prevention of the Use of Child Soldiers: Women in the Security Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    committed to the Paris Principles defining a child soldiers as: any person below 18 years of age who is or has been recruited or used by an armed force or...armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children, boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies or for sexual ... age of women that make up security forces worldwide and the limited professional devel- opment opportunities that are made available to them. Despite

  10. Physical Training Programs in Light Infantry Units: Are They Preparing Soldiers for the Rigors of Combat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    selection is made which ensure further injury is not incurred during evacuation. As a result, the basic task identified is carry. Demanding Physical Tasks...greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort.3 An example, in very simple terms, would be an Olympic weightlifter ...Olympic weightlifters lift as much as possible in one lift. This requires a great amount of strength. A need for strength in light infantry soldiers is

  11. Anti-Jam GPS Antennas for Wearable Dismounted Soldier Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    GPS antenna, the Novatel GAJT-700M/ L CRPA is currently being considered, as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 6 A basic 7-element CRPA (right) compared with a...ARL-TR-7670 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Anti-Jam GPS Antennas for Wearable Dismounted Soldier Navigation Systems...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7670 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Anti-Jam GPS Antennas for

  12. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    the advantages and disadvantages of using the different assignment approaches. In order to better understand how initial military training policies...account. We did not evaluate the advantages or disadvantages of either accounting practice. Page 31 GAO-15-626 Army Reserve Components...coordinate on a mutually agreeable time. The Army Reserve and Army National Guard provided us individual soldier availability data from the five main

  13. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design Sebastian Karwaczynski Lead Restraint Development Engineer...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design 14...has to date not accounted for the Soldier gear burden. •Actual loads imparted onto the occupant in a representative military vehicle crash test

  14. Killing in Combat: Utilizing a Christian Perspective, When is a Soldier Justified in Taking a Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Vietnam War combat veterans suffering from PTSD, has to say concerning subjects such as grief, guilt , honor, suffering, and healing while investigating...Gray, who served as an intelligence 11 officer in World War I, offers his thoughts on death and killing while discussing the guilt Soldiers so...battlefield (1959, 104). Gray also discusses the need for hating one’s enemy while having pride in the number of kills on the battlefield as a necessity

  15. Evaluation of Reproductive Health Training of Soldiers at the First Army of Turkish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bakir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has aimed to evaluate results of reproductive health training in the First army as a part the Reproductive Health Program of Turkish Armed Forces (TAF. Hard copies of training results from the a sample of 9 reproductive health classrooms between November 2006 and February 2007 have been collected and analyzed after entering in a SPSS file. A Pre-test and a post-test included the same 25 questions on RH issues were given to the soldiers. Total mean scores and scores for 5 modules of Sexual Health, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs, Contraceptives, Safe Motherhood, and Gender, were estimated. By deciding 60 as cutting point, achievement of soldiers was also evaluated. Total Pre and posttest mean scores were compared between groups according to the achievement, hometown, and region of residency, educational level, and marital status. Furthermore, Relative efficiency, Efficiency attributed to training course and Efficiency Ratio has been also calculated. The mean pre-test score of soldiers is 60.4 ± 21.0 and it has been significantly increased up to 82.8 ± 14.5 after the training course (p<0.05. This significant increase was also found for each of sub dimensions similar to total score (p<0.05. While 52.5 % of soldiers have been successful on pretest, this percent has been rise up to 93.1% for the post test (p<0.05.. The relative efficiency of intervention as 6.9, efficiency attributed to training as 40.6%, and efficiency ratio as 85.5% have been estimated. Involving in reproductive health training has improved soldiers� awareness particularly on women�s health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 41-48

  16. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alliger-Horn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then. Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT. Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index. A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions.

  17. Optimizing The Scheduling Of Recruitment And Initial Training For Soldiers In The Australian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Positions versus Target Number of Positions .............24 Figure 5. Model 1 Number of Students Attending IET versus Days’ Wait between IET and ARTC...30 Figure 9. Model 2 Number of Students Attending IET versus Days’ Wait between IET and ARTC...never fill their corresponding IET positions. IET gaps made by the ARTC dropouts are often used for trade transfers, which occur when a soldier

  18. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  19. Family involvement in the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone:A critical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes have been an integral part of post-conflict reconstruction. This was especially true of Sierra Leone’s post-conflict reconstruction which has frequently been hailed a ‘multilateral success story’ by the international community. Nevertheless, within Western-authored DDR literature there is a widespread but little interrogated assertion that, in post-conflict contexts, resettling former child soldiers with their...

  20. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  1. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alliger-Horn, Christina; Zimmermann, Peter Lutz; Schmucker, Mervyn

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop...

  2. A Coaching Intervention to Promote Nutrition and Bone Health in Deployed Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-13

    statistically significant differences in calories, micronutrients, macronutrients , calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, vitamin C, vitamin K, or...Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (20-35%) 3 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) 4 Vitamin D: 15 ug/day = 600 IU As evident in Table 4, neither...encouraging TG soldiers to engage in weight-bearing, muscle-strengthening exercises. The most frequently reported sports included soccer

  3. A morphologically specialized soldier caste improves colony defense in a neotropical eusocial bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Menezes, Cristiano; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2012-01-24

    Division of labor among workers is common in insect societies and is thought to be important in their ecological success. In most species, division of labor is based on age (temporal castes), but workers in some ants and termites show morphological specialization for particular tasks (physical castes). Large-headed soldier ants and termites are well-known examples of this specialization. However, until now there has been no equivalent example of physical worker subcastes in social bees or wasps. Here we provide evidence for a physical soldier subcaste in a bee. In the neotropical stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, nest defense is performed by two groups of guards, one hovering near the nest entrance and the other standing on the wax entrance tube. We show that both types of guards are 30% heavier than foragers and of different shape; foragers have relatively larger heads, whereas guards have larger legs. Low variation within each subcaste results in negligible size overlap between guards and foragers, further indicating that they are distinct physical castes. In addition, workers that remove garbage from the nest are of intermediate size, suggesting that they might represent another unrecognized caste. Guards or soldiers are reared in low but sufficient numbers (1-2% of emerging workers), considering that bee Lestrimelitta limao, an important natural enemy, larger workers were able to fight for longer before being defeated by the much larger robber. This discovery opens up opportunities for the comparative study of physical castes in social insects, including the question of why soldiers appear to be so much rarer in bees than in ants or termites.

  4. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Vindevogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.

  5. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in Sobi barracks, Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N A; Akande, T M; Osagbemi, G K; Olasupo, S T; Salawu, K Y; Adebayo, E T

    2013-06-01

    There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements female-targetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the dominant fertility determinants. To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi Cantonment, Ilorin, Nigeria, with a view to instituting male-targeted contraceptive/family planning strategies. A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling technique and pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The respondents' approval of contraception (73.6%) and willingness to discuss it with their spouses/partners (71.6%) were high. Fear of wives/partner's sexual promiscuity (55.7%), cultural and religious beliefs (43.2%), fear of the side effects of contraceptives (29.5%) and the desire for more children (21.6%) were reported reasons for the non-approval of contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the respondents was low (12.3%). There was a significant relationship between the respondents' educational level and contraceptive use (pcontraception with their spouses/partners but low contraceptive use.

  6. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Wessells, Michael; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict. PMID:23346023

  7. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Predicting domestic and community violence by soldiers living in a conflict region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm

    2017-11-01

    Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Repeated evolution of soldier sub-castes suggests parasitism drives social complexity in stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Falcón, Tiago; von Zuben, Lucas; Bitondi, Márcia M G; Nascimento, Fabio S; Almeida, Eduardo A B

    2017-02-23

    The differentiation of workers into morphological castes represents an important evolutionary innovation that is thought to improve division of labor in insect societies. Given the potential benefits of task-related worker differentiation, it is puzzling that physical worker castes, such as soldiers, are extremely rare in social bees and absent in wasps. Following the recent discovery of soldiers in a stingless bee, we studied the occurrence of worker differentiation in 28 stingless bee species from Brazil and found that several species have specialized soldiers for colony defence. Our results reveal that worker differentiation evolved repeatedly during the last ~ 25 million years and coincided with the emergence of parasitic robber bees, a major threat to many stingless bee species. Furthermore, our data suggest that these robbers are a driving force behind the evolution of worker differentiation as targets of robber bees are four times more likely to have nest guards of increased size than non-targets. These findings reveal unexpected diversity in the social organization of stingless bees.Although common in ants and termites, worker differentiation into physical castes is rare in social bees and unknown in wasps. Here, Grüter and colleagues find a guard caste in ten species of stingless bees and show that the evolution of the guard caste is associated with parasitization by robber bees.

  10. Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infections in critically injured Canadian forces soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisebois Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military members, injured in Afghanistan or Iraq, have returned home with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The source of these infections is unknown. Methods Retrospective study of all Canadian soldiers who were injured in Afghanistan and who required mechanical ventilation from January 1 2006 to September 1 2006. Patients who developed A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP were identified. All A. baumannii isolates were retrieved for study patients and compared with A. baumannii isolates from environmental sources from the Kandahar military hospital using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results During the study period, six Canadian Forces (CF soldiers were injured in Afghanistan, required mechanical ventilation and were repatriated to Canadian hospitals. Four of these patients developed A. baumannii VAP. A. baumannii was also isolated from one environmental source in Kandahar – a ventilator air intake filter. Patient isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other and from the isolates cultured from the ventilator filter. These isolates were resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials including the carbapenems. Conclusion These results suggest that the source of A. baumannii infection for these four patients was an environmental source in the military field hospital in Kandahar. A causal linkage, however, was not established with the ventilator. This study suggests that infection control efforts and further research should be focused on the military field hospital environment to prevent further multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections in injured soldiers.

  11. Predictors of the relationships between nutritional supplement use and weight-modification goals of U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Krista G; Carvey, Christina E; Farina, Emily K; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-08-01

    U.S. Army Soldiers must meet body weight and composition standards and consequently may use nutritional supplements (NS) purported to assist in weight modification (WM). Nutritional supplements are dietary supplements (DS) and foods intended to supplement the diet. This study assessed relationships between NS use, demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and WM goals among U.S. Army personnel. Participants (N = 990) self-reported NS use, categorized as energy drinks, sport nutrition products, or DS, and WM goal (lose, gain, or maintain) was ascertained by survey. DS were subcategorized as health, weight-loss, weight-gain, or other DS. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess relationships between predictors, NS use, and WM goal. Most respondents (70.3% ± 1.7%) consumed some NS; however, overall NS use was not related to WM goal. Significant relationships were observed between predictors (tobacco use, age, body-mass index, fitness score, general health, and eating habits) and both WM goal and NS use. Respondents attempting to lose or maintain weight were less likely to consume energy drinks and weight-gain DS. WM goal is related to multiple health behaviors including tobacco use, physical fitness score, and self-perception of health and eating behavior. NS are consumed in this population regardless of WM goal.

  12. Leadership and post-traumatic stress disorder: are soldiers' perceptions of organizational justice during deployment protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrond, Andreas F; Høgh, Annie; Andersen, Søren B

    2018-01-01

    Background : Soldiers' perception of leadership during military deployment has gained research attention as a potentially modifiable factor to buffer against the development of postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within nonmilitary research, the organizational justice (OJ) framework, i.e. distributive justice, procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ), has been found to relate to mental health outcomes. Aspects of OJ may, therefore, be protective against PTSD. Objectives : We examined the prospective relationship between aspects of OJ, namely the perceptions of PJ and IJ by subordinate soldiers without leadership obligations in relationship to immediate superiors and PTSD. Method : Participants were soldiers ( n =  245) deployed to Helmand Province in Afghanistan in 2009. Logistic regression procedures were used. The primary analysis measured PTSD cases using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis-I Disorder (SCID) 2½ years after homecoming. PJ/IJ was measured during deployment with a 6-item composite measure ranging from 0 to 12. Supplementary primary analyses were performed with PJ/IJ measured before and immediately after deployment. A secondary PJ/IJ analysis also tested against four postdeployment measures with the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian (PCL-C) dichotomized at screening symptom levels. Results : Higher levels of perceived PJ/IJ for soldiers without leadership obligations during deployment had a prospective relation (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.98) with PTSD on the SCID 2½ years after homecoming after adjustment for factors including predeployment PTSD symptoms, trauma and combat exposure, and state affectivity. Similar results were found by measuring PJ/IJ before (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.95) but not immediately after homecoming (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.85-1.11). A relationship with PTSD symptoms at the screening level at the four measurements of PCL-C was found, but only

  13. Derivation of Land Surface Albedo at High Resolution by Combining HJ-1A/B Reflectance Observations with MODIS BRDF Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Jia, L.; Wang, T.X.

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a

  14. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  15. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  16. Soldiers at risk for individual readiness or morale problems during a six-month peacekeeping deployment to the Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, W R; Bell, D B

    2000-10-01

    Longitudinal data were examined to predict soldiers' morale, satisfaction with Army life, and the effects of family issues on performance of duties during an overseas deployment (Sinai peacekeeping force during the spring of 1995). Few variables were significant predictors of the outcome measures; however, rank, leaders' support for families, prior satisfaction with Army life and with information released about the deployment appeared to predict better outcomes during the deployment. Rank and leaders' support for families appeared to be more important for married soldiers while satisfaction with predeployment information seemed to be more important for single soldiers. Those who were worried about the effects of the deployment on their families also tended to report interference with their duty performance because of family concerns, but that effect was offset by perceived leaders' concern for families. In conclusion, it appears to the authors that the pre-existing factors studied had much less to do with deployment outcomes than did leadership success before and during the deployment. That's good news for Army leaders about their power to have a positive effect on soldiers' morale during overseas deployments but may be bad news for anyone hoping to find a "magic bullet" for pre-identification of soldiers most likely to retain high morale, regardless of their leadership's competence during an overseas deployment.

  17. Derivation of Land Surface Albedo at High Resolution by Combining HJ-1A/B Reflectance Observations with MODIS BRDF Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bo; Jia, Li; Wang, Tianxing

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a high spatio-temporal resolution is currently very scarce. This paper proposes a method for deriving land surface albedo with a high spatio-temporal resolution (space: 30 m and time: 2-4 days). The pr...

  18. The Influence of Combat Experience on Psychologically Healthy Soldiers' Attentiveness to Environmental Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranes, Bethany; Long, Chris P; Traynham, Stephanie; Hayes, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain. We predict that the intensity of one's combat experience positively influences Soldiers' attention to environmental threats. Participants included U. S. Army Soldiers with a score of 50 or below on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Participants completed the Combat Exposure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental prediction task we employed assesses the expectation of an intrusively loud white noise sound that occurred on three variable patterns in a pseudorandomized order. Each tone pattern was used 20 times over a total of 60 trials. The experimental prediction task included two neutral tones (700 and 1,300 Hz) that were presented in a repeated pattern along with a 100-dB burst of white noise (0.5-second duration). In each trial, one of three possible tone combinations was presented. To assess their attentiveness to threats, participants were asked to continuously rate their expectancy of the burst of white noise using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. VAS ratings were collected at controlled points throughout the task. None of the participants reported scores on any of the diagnostic surveys that met standards for clinical significance. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the overall effect of the three prediction conditions on participants' VAS ratings. There was a significant

  19. UK MOD research on H{sub 2} storage and generation methods for soldier-portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, D.J. [Defence Evaluation Research Agency, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The research which the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) has conducted on hydrogen storage and production methods was presented and their applicability to soldier portable applications was discussed. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the future power source for solider-portable equipment such as army radios. Advances in fuel cell technology has resulted in improvements in specific power and power density as well as reductions in Pt loading and cost. However, a viable in-service power source is still required. This fuel source is likely to be hydrogen because it has a high energy per unit weight and has a simple reaction with oxygen to produce water as the only by-product. In the future, methanol may be used as the fuel source but currently methanol fuel cells demonstrate poorer performance than those running on hydrogen. A vital part of a fuel cell system, therefore, is hydrogen storage, of which there are two basic types; physical and chemical storage. In addition to weight, other important factors to be considered in a storage system are cost, reliability and safety. This paper described each physical storage method including hydrogen stored as a compressed gas, as a cryogenic liquid, reversibly absorbed in intermetallic alloys and reversibly adsorbed onto carbon materials such as nonofibres. Liquid hydrogen storage is only feasible for larger scale applications such as electric vehicles and is not practical for portable applications. A man-portable fuel cell is likely to be either pressure cylinders or reversible metal hydrides. 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  20. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  1. Sickle Cell Trait, Rhabdomyolysis, and Mortality among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. Alan; Deuster, Patricia A.; Carter, Robert; Hill, Owen T.; Wolcott, Vickee L.; Kurina, Lianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that sickle cell trait elevates the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death. We conducted a study of sickle cell trait in relation to these outcomes, controlling for known risk factors for exertional rhabdomyolysis, in a large population of active persons who had undergone laboratory tests for hemoglobin AS (HbAS) and who were subject to exertional-injury precautions. Methods We used Cox proportional-hazards models to test whether the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death varied according to sickle cell trait status among 47,944 black soldiers who had undergone testing for HbAS and who were on active duty in the U.S. Army between January 2011 and December 2014. We used the Stanford Military Data Repository, which contains comprehensive medical and administrative data on all active-duty soldiers. Results There was no significant difference in the risk of death among soldiers with sickle cell trait, as compared with those without the trait (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 2.13; P = 0.97), but the trait was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.12; P = 0.008). This effect was similar in magnitude to that associated with tobacco use, as compared with no use (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.94; Prhabdomyolysis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.) PMID:27518662

  2. MR imaging findings of fatigue fractures of lower extremity in young soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Park, Yang Hee; Park, Jin Kyoon

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers. In 22 cases of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers proven by clinical findings and radiological follow up, the MRI findings were retrospectively evalvated. All patients were male and aged between 19 and 21 years. As seen on MRI, the bone marrow edema, intramedullary low signal intensity band, cortical fracture line, periosteal reaction, surrounding soft tissue edema, and enhancement pattern were analyzed and the site of involvement was determined in the axial plane. The locations of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity were the tibia (n=12), fibula (n=8), femur (n=1) and second metatarsus (n=1). All occurred in diaphyses: the junction of the proximal and middle (n=10), middle (n=9), proximal (n=2), and distal shaft (n=1). The sites of involvement were the posteromedial (n=6) and medial side (n=6) of the tibia, and the entire portion of the fibula(n=5) in the axial plane. MRI findings were bone marrow edema in 20 cases, intramedullary low signal intensity band in 14 (which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line), cortical fracture line in 13, and periosteal reaction and surrounding soft tissue edema in all. On gadolinium-enhanced images, enhancement was seen in the bone marrow in 19 cases, in the subperiosteal region in 18, and in the surrounding soft tissue in 22. In fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers, the main locations were the tibia and fibula, and characteristic MR imaging findings were intramedullary low signal intensity bands, which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line and often accompanied by bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction, and surrounding soft tissue edema

  3. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  4. Chondroprotective effects of a proanthocyanidin rich Amazonian genonutrient reflects direct inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and upregulation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Kalpana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Amazonian medicinal plant Sangre de grado (Croton palanostigma has traditional applications for the treatment of wound healing and inflammation. We sought to characterize two extracts (progrado and zangrado in terms of safety and oligomeric proanthocyanidin chain length. Additionally progrado was evaluated for antioxidant activity and possible chondroprotective actions. Methods Acute oral safety and toxicity was tested in rats according under OECD protocol number 420. The profile of proanthocyanidin oligomers was determined by HPLC and progrado's antioxidant activity quantified by the ORAC, NORAC and HORAC assays. Human cartilage explants, obtained from surgical specimens, were used to assess chondroproteciton with activity related to direct inhibitory effects on human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP, gelatinolytic activity using synovial fluid and chondrocytes activated with IL-1β (10 ng/ml. Additionally, progrado (2–10 μg/ml was tested for its ability to maintain optimal IGF-1 transcription and translation in cartilage explants and cultured chondrocytes. Results Both progrado and zangrado at doses up to 2000 mg/kg (po displayed no evidence of toxicity. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin content was high for both progrado (158 mg/kg and zangrado (124 mg/kg, with zangrado almost entirely composed of short oligomers ( Conclusion Progrado has a promising safety profile, significant chondroprotective and antioxidant actions, directly inhibits MMP activity and promotes the production of the cartilage repair factor, IGF-1. This suggests that progrado may offer therapeutic benefits in joint health, wound healing and inflammation.

  5. Dual-channel red/blue fluorescence dosimetry with broadband reflectance spectroscopic correction measures protoporphyrin IX production during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C.; Zhao, Yan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.; Pogue, Brian W.; Chapman, M. Shane

    2014-07-01

    Dosimetry for aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis was examined with an optimized fluorescence dosimeter to measure PpIX during treatment. While insufficient PpIX generation may be an indicator of incomplete response, there exists no standardized method to quantitate PpIX production at depths in the skin during clinical treatments. In this study, a spectrometer-based point probe dosimeter system was used to sample PpIX fluorescence from superficial (blue wavelength excitation) and deeper (red wavelength excitation) tissue layers. Broadband white light spectroscopy (WLS) was used to monitor aspects of vascular physiology and inform a correction of fluorescence for the background optical properties. Measurements in tissue phantoms showed accurate recovery of blood volume fraction and reduced scattering coefficient from WLS, and a linear response of PpIX fluorescence versus concentration down to 1.95 and 250 nM for blue and red excitations, respectively. A pilot clinical study of 19 patients receiving 1-h ALA incubation before treatment showed high intrinsic variance in PpIX fluorescence with a standard deviation/mean ratio of >0.9. PpIX fluorescence was significantly higher in patients reporting higher pain levels on a visual analog scale. These pilot data suggest that patient-specific PpIX quantitation may predict outcome response.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish soldiers 2.5 years after military deployment in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerup, Janne; Andersen, Søren Bo; Høgh (Hogh), Annie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N...... = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U...

  7. Militares galaicos en las cohortes pretorianas = Galician soldiers among praetorian cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Narciso Santos Yanguas

    2015-01-01

    Los galaicos que tomaron parte en las tropas asentadas en la capital del Imperio, como oficiales y simples pretorianos, contribuirían a reforzar el poder del emperador. Al parecer la mayoría de estos galaicos pretorianos desempeñarían su actividad militar en el siglo II. Se trataba de personas jóvenes, algunos de los cuales podían reengancharse en el servicio y protección de la figura imperial.The Galician among the imperial troops in the capital, either as officers or base soldiers, would ha...

  8. Association between baseline psychological attributes and mental health outcomes after soldiers returned from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Arkes, Jeremy; Lester, Paul B

    2017-10-05

    Psychological health is vital for effective employees, especially in stressful occupations like military and public safety sectors. Yet, until recently little empirical work has made the link between requisite psychological resources and important mental health outcomes across time in those sectors. In this study we explore the association between 14 baseline psychological health attributes (such as adaptability, coping ability, optimism) and mental health outcomes following exposure to combat deployment. Retrospective analysis of all U.S. Army soldiers who enlisted between 2009 and 2012 and took the Global Assessment Tools (GAT) before their first deployment (n = 63,186). We analyze whether a soldier screened positive for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after returning from deployment using logistic regressions. Our key independent variables are 14 psychological attributes based on GAT, and we control for relevant demographic and service characteristics. In addition, we generate a composite risk score for each soldier based on the predicted probabilities from the above multivariate model using just baseline psychological attributes and demographic information. Comparing those who scored in the bottom 5 percentile of each attribute to those in the top 95 percentile, the odds ratio of post-deployment depression symptoms ranges from 1.21 (95% CI 1.06, 1.40) for organizational trust to 1.73 (CI 1.52, 1.97) for baseline depression. The odds ratio of positive screening of PTSD symptoms ranges from 1.22 for family support (CI 1.08, 1.38) to 1.51 for baseline depression (CI 1.32, 1.73). The risk profile analysis shows that 31% of those who screened positive for depression and 27% of those who screened positive for PTSD were concentrated among the top 5% high risk population. A set of validated, self-reported questions administered early in a soldier's career can predict future mental health problems, and can be used to improve workforce fit and

  9. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  10. Helping Soldiers Leverage Army Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities in Civilian Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    soldiers by the end of fiscal year (FY) 2018 to reach a planned end strength of 450,000 ( Tan , 2015). This has increased the number of enlisted...Duration of Unemployment,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 165–172. Kiefer, Nicholas M., and George R. Neumann (1979). “An...1989). “Estimating a Simultaneous Search Model,” Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 348–369. Tan , Michelle (June 10, 2015). “Army Lays Out

  11. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

    2013-08-23

    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  12. PTSD Trajectory, Comorbidity, and Utilization of Mental Health Services Among National Guard Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Reserve), 45 years or older, divorced/separated or never married ( vs . married ), enlisted ( vs . officer), or living in a household with a total income...officers, and those who were married had a lower prevalence of anger than unmarried soldiers. Probable civilian-related PTSD was documented among 4.3% of...between the ages of 18 and 35 (59.9%), and married (53.1%). In our sample, the Army National Guard had the highest representation (43.4%) and the

  13. The prevalence of causative organisms of community-acquired urethritis in an age group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections in Korean Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, J K; Park, S C; Kim, Y G; Choi, H; Ko, J I; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Shin, Y S

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the causative organisms in young male soldiers with clinical signs and symptoms after sexual contact that suggests a diagnosis of urethritis. Between June 2012 and January 2015, male patients with urethritis symptoms that had resulted from sexual contact within 3 months participated in this study. All patients were evaluated using urinalysis and were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay in order to detect sexually transmitted infections (STI) or pathogens. A total of 436 male patients aged 18-28 years were included in the study. The median age was 22.0 years. The prevalence of STI pathogens were as follows: NG in 19.0%, CT in 36.6%, UU in 24.0%, MG in 21.5%, MH in 6.1%, HSV type II in 1.6%, TV in 0.2% and indeterminate STI pathogens in 9.4%. Coinfection of NG with non-NG was detected in 5.7% of the participants, while the coinfection rates for STI pathogens were: with CT in 3.4%, with UU in 2.7%, with MG in 0.2% and with MH in 0.2%. CT was the most prevalent STI pathogen and coinfections of NG with non-NG appeared less frequently. The young male soldiers with urethritis should be administered suitable antibiotics for STI pathogens that were found by mPCR results, rather than an experimental combination of antibiotics for coinfections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Research on deployed Danish soldiers: why is knowledge derived from a small, Nordic country relevant for other countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Soren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Danish military has deployed more than 40,000 soldiers to war zones, especially to the Balkans, Iraq, and Afghanistan. To the war in Afghanistan alone, the Danish Defense has to date deployed 9,918 unique soldiers with a total of 18,015 deployments. The total...... focusing on the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in this sample will be presented, and the relevance and generalizability of these findings to military populations from other countries will be discussed....

  15. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  16. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  17. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  18. Attitudes towards disclosing a mental illness among German soldiers and their comrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Rose, Carolyn; Holzhausen, Fabian; Mulfinger, Nadine; Krumm, Silvia; Corrigan, Patrick W; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Zimmermann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Many soldiers with mental illness (SWMIs) struggle with the decision whether to disclose their condition in or outside the military. This study therefore explored views on (self-)labeling as 'mentally ill', experiences of discrimination and coping, risks and benefits of (non-)disclosure, service use, disclosure decisions and consequences of disclosing. Active-duty SWMIs as well as soldiers without mental illness (commanding officers; enlisted ranks) and military social workers participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. SWMIs perceived negative stereotypes about their group (weakness, incompetence, blame, malingering) and saw stigma as a barrier to help-seeking. Being labeled 'mentally ill' was seen as harmful for one's career. Self-labeling led to poor self-esteem, greater need for help and feelings of weakness. Many SWMIs had experienced discrimination, such as gossip or inappropriate comments. Social isolation was a disadvantage of secrecy. Most SWMIs preferred selective disclosure and many did not disclose to their family. Military staff without mental illness expressed partly different views and described organizational challenges posed by SWMIs. Our findings suggest that disclosure decisions are personal and difficult and that stigma remains a barrier to re-integration and recovery of SWMIs in the military. Implications for interventions to support SWMIs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  20. Resilience training with soldiers during basic combat training: randomisation by platoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Williams, Jason; McGurk, Dennis; Moss, Andrew; Bliese, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Resilience Training has the potential to mitigate mental health symptoms when provided during initial military training. The present study examined the impact of Resilience Training on US soldier well-being and attitudes during Basic Combat Training. Platoons were randomly assigned to Resilience Training or Military History provided during the first few days of Basic Combat Training. Surveys were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The sample resulted in a total of 1,939 soldiers who completed at least the baseline and one follow-up survey. There were no significant differences between conditions in terms of depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or sleep problems. However, while anxiety decreased in both conditions, the rate of decrease was faster in the Resilience Training condition. In contrast, Resilience Training had a slower rate of increase in group cohesion over time than the Military History condition. In addition, Resilience Training was associated with greater confidence in helping others and received more positive ratings than Military History. Findings demonstrate that the brief Resilience Training studied here may have some utility in supporting mental health and peer support but may not benefit unit climate. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. A multimodal interface for real-time soldier-robot teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel J.; Howard, Thomas M.; Walter, Matthew R.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research and advances in robotics have led to the development of novel platforms leveraging new sensing capabilities for semantic navigation. As these systems becoming increasingly more robust, they support highly complex commands beyond direct teleoperation and waypoint finding facilitating a transition away from robots as tools to robots as teammates. Supporting future Soldier-Robot teaming requires communication capabilities on par with human-human teams for successful integration of robots. Therefore, as robots increase in functionality, it is equally important that the interface between the Soldier and robot advances as well. Multimodal communication (MMC) enables human-robot teaming through redundancy and levels of communications more robust than single mode interaction. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies released in recent years for smart-phones and gaming provide tools for the creation of portable interfaces incorporating MMC through the use of speech, gestures, and visual displays. However, for multimodal interfaces to be successfully used in the military domain, they must be able to classify speech, gestures, and process natural language in real-time with high accuracy. For the present study, a prototype multimodal interface supporting real-time interactions with an autonomous robot was developed. This device integrated COTS Automated Speech Recognition (ASR), a custom gesture recognition glove, and natural language understanding on a tablet. This paper presents performance results (e.g. response times, accuracy) of the integrated device when commanding an autonomous robot to perform reconnaissance and surveillance activities in an unknown outdoor environment.

  2. Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions

  3. Two war-torn soldiers: combat-related trauma through an intersubjective lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Russell B

    2013-01-01

    The author, himself an Iraq war veteran, presents a contemporary psychodynamic understanding, known as intersubjective therapy, of combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At the onset of this case example, the patient was highly suicidal and his PTSD symptoms had not responded to a first-line treatment: manualized cognitive processing therapy. Robert Stolorow's intersubjective, psychodynamic approach to traumatic emotional experiences was then selected for treatment, and illustrates how combat in Afghanistan shattered this soldier's world and self experience. Therapeutic action arises from this intersubjective perspective by providing a relational home so that unendurable emotions can be borne, processed, and integrated to achieve a more constant and individualized sense of self. Being a two-person model of therapy, the author also describes how his work with this traumatized soldier affected him, ultimately contributing to his own sense of authentic existing. The author discusses the need for therapists to recognize and acknowledge to traumatized patients their shared finitude and the ubiquity of trauma. In the Postscript, the patient describes what he felt was therapeutic and contrasts this to his previous experiences with manualized cognitive processing therapy.

  4. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan

    2017-06-01

    Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Wiemer, Dorothea F; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

  6. Dynamics of moral judgments in young soldiers during the period of military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevskiy D.S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an empirical study of the dynamics of the level of moral judgments in the military. Two groups of Missile Defense Force soldiers present the sample: preparing for demobilization (n=30 and new recruits (n=25. As the methods we used specially developed semi-structured interview modeling the situation of moral choice, and the questionnaire in order to assess the socio-psychological characteristics of the military and their attitude to service. The young soldiers have a positive trend in the development of moral judgments and a greater differentiation in the estimates. It is shown that the old-timers in comparison with newcomers have intensive development of group-oriented and prosocial moral reasoning. It presumably connected with successful adaptation to military service, following the manual, the ability to cope with aggressive impulses, flexibility and value assessments in decision-making. It is noted that educational work with young recruits should include measures to increase group cohesion in the army.

  7. Soldiers, Artisans, Cultivators and Revolutionaries: The Movement of Sikhs in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gera Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The geography of Punjab, a land-locked region divided between India and Pakistan, makes it an unlikely player in oceanic sojourns. But imperial interventions in Punjab in the middle of the 19th century triggered movements from Punjab that inserted this region in the littoral narrative of the Indian Ocean. Unlike the movements of lascars and traders, who have been central to the revisionist histories of the Indian Ocean, those from Punjab have not featured in oceanic dialogues. The absence of Sikhs in Indian Ocean studies is largely due to the silence of Sikh soldiers, skilled craftsmen and cultivators with largely rural roots who were uprooted to strange lands. The confusion of Sikhs with Hindus, Muslims and, even Afghans, in the colonial era, as well as the classification of Punjabi Muslims as Pakistani in the post-colonial, further problematizes the Sikh migration narrative. Drawing on a wide range of official and unofficial historical sources, this essay argues that twin developments in Punjab, namely the construction of Sikhs as ‘a martial race’ and their integration into the imperial capitalist economy, connects the movements of soldiers and policemen to Shanghai, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements and Kenya with those of skilled artisans to Mombasa and Uganda. Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity

  8. Genetics and Other Risk Factors for Past Concussions in Active-Duty Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-02-15

    Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.

  9. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Veysey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.

  10. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  11. The guiltless guilty: trauma-related guilt and psychopathology in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Reissmann, Sina; Voss, Catharina; Okello, James

    2015-04-01

    Child soldiers often experience complex trauma as victims and perpetrators, and feelings of guilt may affect their psychological health. The relationship between the children's traumatic experiences as victims or perpetrators, their perception of themselves as victim or perpetrator, guilt and psychopathology were investigated: of the 330 former child soldiers interviewed, 50.8 % perceived themselves as victims and 19.1 % as perpetrators. On psychopathology measures, scores within the clinical range were 33 % for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 36.4 % for major depressive disorder (MDD), and 26.1 % for externalizing problems. Low socio-economic status, traumatic experience as perpetrator, and guilt were significant predictors of PTSD. Significant predictors of MDD were low socio-economic status, traumatic experiences as victim, and guilt. A greater number of traumatic experiences as perpetrator and guilt were associated with externalizing problems. The current paper underscores the significance of guilt following traumatic experiences and has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children.

  12. "The Service I Rendered Was Just as True": African American Soldiers and Veterans as Activist Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jessica L

    2017-05-01

    In this article, I examine how African American soldiers and veterans experienced and shaped federally sponsored health care during and after World War I. Building on studies of the struggles of Black leaders and health care providers to win professional and public health advancement in the 1920s and 1930s, and of advocates to mobilize for health care rights in the mid-20th century, I focus primarily on the experiences and activism of patients in the interwar years. Private and government correspondence, congressional testimony, and reports from Black newspapers reveal that African American soldiers and veterans communicated directly with policymakers and bureaucrats regarding unequal treatment, assuming roles as "policy actors" who viewed health and medical care as "politics by other means." In the process, they drew attention to the paradoxes inherent in expanding government entitlements in the era of Jim Crow, and helped shape a veterans' health system that emerged in the 1920s and remained in place for the following century. They also laid the groundwork for the system's precedent-setting desegregation, referred to by advocates of the time as "a shining example to the rest of the country."

  13. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  14. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  16. A report of 3 soldiers returned to full duty after lumbar radiofrequency facet denervation in a theater of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovich, Anthony; Trainer, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    To provide the advanced interventional procedure of zygapophysial joint neurotomy to soldiers meeting the diagnostic criteria in a combat environment and thus reduce medical evacuations of soldiers from a theater of war. Retrospective chart review was performed on three consecutive soldiers who received neuroablation of the lumbar ZP joint. Patients received single MBB with 1 cc of 1% lidocaine at the b/l L3-L5 levels considered diagnostic if >50% analgesia was achieved concordant with duration of anesthetic.   All procedures were co-performed by the two authors at the Ibn Sina hospital in Baghdad, Iraq over a 3-month period. Three consecutive patients with >50% pain relief from diagnostic medial branch blocks were treated with radiofrequency ablation of the bilateral L3-L4 medial branch nerves and L5 posterior primary ramus. Sensory test stimulation at 50 Hz and motor stimulation at 2 Hz were performed at each level. The nerves were then lesioned at 80° Centigrade for 90 seconds after injection of lidocaine and methylprednisolone. Procedure was considered successful if patients were able to wear body armour without significant discomfort (at least 1 hour/day). Medical evacuation from Iraq was prevented and all soldiers returned to rigorous combat duties including the wearing of body armour daily. We believe to be the first to report on the use of RF nerve ablation in a war time setting and with this functional outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The use of immunoenzymatic method for detection of antibodies against zoonotic diseases in Czech soldiers returning from Afghanistan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Rudolf, Ivo; Pavlis, O.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2014), s. 67-72 ISSN 0372-7025 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ELISA method * zoonoses * soldiers * Afghanistan Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.mmsl.cz/archive/dl/266

  18. Assessing the Impact of Clothing and Individual Equipment (CIE) on Soldier Physical, Biomechanical, and Cognitive Performance Part 1: Test Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    29 during Soldier Equipment Configuration Impact on Performance: Establishing a Test Methodology for the...during ACSM’S resource manual for exercise testing and prescription Human Movement Science, 31(2), Proceedings of the 2016 American Biomechanics...Performance of Medium Rucksack Prototypes An investigation: Comparison of live-fire and weapon simulator test methodologies and the of three extremity armor

  19. 77 FR 6865 - Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and... Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing adjusted pricing for the 2012...-Spangled Banner Bicentennial Silver N/A 53.95 Dollar Set The introductory pricing period for the 2012...

  20. A Healthy Eating Identity is Associated with Healthier Food Choice Behaviors Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E

    2018-04-04

    Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.

  1. Soldier Satisfaction with Life in Restructured Units during Phase 1 of the Restructuring of the Heavy Division Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    working and living in their units during the estructuring of the Heavy Division test at Fort Hood, TX. The questionnaire -as administered to unit...to a control group of soldiers who did not estructure . Results of the study showed that immediately following DO ,’, 1473 EDITIONOF IOV SISO SOLFT

  2. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  4. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  5. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessanha, Sofia [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Luisa, E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro Fisica Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von [Institute for analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  6. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Becker, Maria; Bohlen, Alex von

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  7. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  8. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  9. War-related experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda: comparison with non-recruited youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.

  10. Sprawność fizyczna żołnierzy z województwa Zachodniopomorskiego = Physical fitness of soldiers from the province of Zachodniopomorskie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Stanisław Stankiewicz

    2016-12-01

    The study shows that the greatest level of physical fitness showed officers, who obtained the greatest number of very good grades in all four trials. In contrast, the lowest level of physical fitness showed a number. Respondents soldiers the best results obtained during the execution of the torso bends 2 minutes. While the worst performing subjects soldiers received during the slow-run 3000 meters, which indicates a low level of strength. Differentiation of ratings within each age group, present in all three bodies, proved that the age of the respondents soldiers and binding with it the standard requirements do not affect the achieved results.

  11. Commuting quantum traces: the case of reflection algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avan, Jean [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Modelization, University of Cergy, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, F-95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Doikou, Anastasia [Theoretical Physics Laboratory of Annecy-Le-Vieux, LAPTH, BP 110, Annecy-Le-Vieux, F-74941 (France)

    2004-02-06

    We formulate a systematic construction of commuting quantum traces for reflection algebras. This is achieved by introducing two dual sets of generalized reflection equations with associated consistent fusion procedures. Products of their respective solutions yield commuting quantum traces.

  12. Old soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the history of the spectrometer installed at the SLAC 20-GeV-linac and its use from the study of the electroproduction of resonances to the study of the EMC effect with electrons. (HSI).

  13. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290–740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment–2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes. - Highlights: • Our goals was visible surface reflectance for satellite trace gas measurements. • Captured the range of surface reflectance spectra through EOF analysis. • Used satellite surface reflectance products for each given scene to anchor EOFs. • Generated a climatology of time/geometry dependent surface reflectance spectra. • Demonstrated potential to

  14. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  15. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  16. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  17. Assessment of an alternative postdeployment reintegration strategy with soldiers returning from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M; Barnhart, Vincent J; Riviere, Lyndon A; Adler, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined behavioral health outcomes, risk behaviors, aggression, alcohol misuse, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward reintegration associated with an alternative, front-loaded reintegration strategy compared with a more standardized reintegration process in soldiers returning from combat deployments. The type of reintegration strategy used did not predict differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, aggression, and marital satisfaction, although slightly higher reports of risk behaviors were found in the unit using the standard reintegration approach even after controlling for demographic covariates and combat exposure. These findings may help guide leadership when making decisions regarding reintegration approaches in the future. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis in a Sickle Cell Trait Positive Active Duty Male Soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pulkit; Chavarria, Christopher; Thurlow, John

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a complication of sickle cell trait (SCT) likely first reported in the military population over 40 years ago. Although commonly a benign condition, numerous studies and case reports have identified SCT positive patients to be at increased risk for rhabdomyolysis, compartment syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report a recent case of an SCT positive African American active duty male Soldier who suffered exertional rhabdomyolysis following an Army Physical Fitness Test. His course was complicated by acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and he eventually recovered renal function. The diagnosis was significantly delayed despite a typical clinical presentation and available SCT screening results. The case highlights the importance of the recognition of SCT as a risk factor for severe rhabdomyolysis, and suggests more must be done for an effective SCT screening program for the active duty military population.

  19. Silhouettes of War: Technologies of U.S. Soldiering and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Behm

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper forwards a theory of silhouetting in relation to technological augmenta-tion in U.S. Military uniforms and suggests that the increasing utilization of metamaterials, nanotechnology, and surveillance technologies operates under a rhetoric of invisibility that complicates the technologies' visible destruction. Methodologically, the paper attends to three general technological developments in the evolution of the U.S. Army uniform: the design of the new Army Combat Uniform (ACU; the technological advances in the uniform, including embedded wearables, biometric identification devices, and 3D combat enhancement systems; and the bio-networking, GPS, and digital communication arrays that physically link digital uniforms to a larger geopolitical network of U.S. military strategy and surveillance. Throughout, the work traces the aforementioned theory of silhouet-ting in relation to select sociopolitical consequences of linking digitally enhanced soldiers into a transnational grid of surveillance.

  20. Paralysis as a Presenting Symptom of Hyperthyroidism in an Active Duty Soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennette, John; Tauferner, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an endocrine disorder presenting with proximal motor weakness, typically greatest in the lower extremities, hypokalemia, and signs or laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of TPP is highest in Asian males. This is a case report of a 30-year-old male active duty Soldier who presented to the emergency department complaining of several recent episodes of lower extremity paralysis. The patient underwent a workup which included serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and was found to be hypokalemic and hyperthyroid. Following consultation with neurology, the patient was admitted to the medicine service and treated for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with potassium replacement and treatment of his hyperthyroidism. Since achieving a euthyroid state, he has had no recurrences of TPP. This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems.

  1. Results of the reproductive health education program for soldiers and noncommissioned officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevig, Umit; Yilmaz, Senay; Başer, Mürüvvet; Taşci, Sultan

    2006-12-01

    The Turkish Armed Forces Commando Brigade has started a continuous and systematic education program, called the Patriotic Awareness Acquirement Project (PCAP), to inform soldiers who will be demobilized. Within the PCAP, topics such as Turkish history, the Armenian question, and manners/etiquette, as well as healthy living, reproductive health, family planning, general hygiene, and sexually transmitted diseases were included. The aim of Reproductive Health Education (RHE) conducted within the PCAP is to inform male individuals about reproductive health and to increase their knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity. In the RHE, the privates were provided with information regarding male and female reproductive organs, the menstruation mechanism, pregnancy, determination of gender, fertility-infertility, and sexually transmitted diseases. After the evaluation, it was reported that the privates indicated they were satisfied with RHE, were informed, took notice of the incorrect information, and, for postmilitary life, would visit health clinics for counseling.

  2. Comparing post-deployment mental health services utilization in soldiers deployed to Balkan, Iraq and Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T; Sadowa Vedtofte, M; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insight on how different missions have impacted rates of mental health service (MHS) utilization is unexplored. We compared postdeployment MHS utilization in a national cohort of first-time deployed to missions in Balkan, Iraq, and Afghanistan respectively. METHODS: A prospective...... national cohort study of 13 246 first-time deployed in the period 1996 through 2012 to missions in Balkan area, Iraq, or Afghanistan respectively. Soldiers 'MHS utilization was also compared with a 5:1 sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched never-deployed background population. Postdeployment utilization...... of psychotropics. RESULTS: Utilizing of psychiatric outpatient services and psychotropics was significantly higher in first-time deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan compared with deployed to Balkan. However, the rate of postdeployment admission to psychiatric hospital did not differ between missions. Postdeployment...

  3. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was

  4. Postdeployment Suicidal Ideations and Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Danish Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Karstoft, K. I.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Suicidal ideation in veterans is of great concern. The objective of this study is to examine how heterogeneous posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideation in veterans 2.5 years postdeployment to a combat zone in Afghanistan....... If PTSD trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideations, then the accumulative knowledge on what characterizes veterans falling into different PTSD trajectories may provide better opportunities for early identification of suicidal high-risk veterans. Method: In this prospective study...... of PTSD (measured by the PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version) and other mental and physical health variables, demographics, and social and combat-related factors. Suicidal ideation was measured by an item from the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule II. In a previous study based on soldiers from...

  5. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression in active soldiers and former combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Nandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.

  6. Psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between insomnia and cognitive problems in military soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-15

    There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfrová Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR and to emphasize the markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. Methods. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Results. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2. Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p < 0.001 was observed. All monitored anthropometric parameters in female professional soldiers were within normal limits. During the monitored period the proportion of overweight men gradually increased from 52% to 57.1% (p < 0.001. There were no

  8. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, Michael J.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention

  9. Effects of a Nutrient-Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing antioxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating in the U.S...

  10. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  11. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  12. Source Determination of Red Gel Pen Inks using Raman Spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy combined with Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Asri, Muhammad Naeim; Mat Desa, Wan Nur Syuhaila; Ismail, Dzulkiflee

    2018-01-01

    The potential combination of two nondestructive techniques, that is, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with Pearson's product moment correlation (PPMC) coefficient (r) and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the actual source of red gel pen ink used to write a simulated threatening note, was examined. Eighteen (18) red gel pens purchased from Japan and Malaysia from November to December 2014 where one of the pens was used to write a simulated threatening note were analyzed using RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The spectra of all the red gel pen inks including the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note gathered from the RS and ATR-FTIR analyses were subjected to PPMC coefficient (r) calculation and principal component analysis (PCA). The coefficients r = 0.9985 and r = 0.9912 for pairwise combination of RS and ATR-FTIR spectra respectively and similarities in terms of PC1 and PC2 scores of one of the inks to the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note substantiated the feasibility of combining RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with PPMC coefficient (r) and PCA for successful source determination of red gel pen inks. The development of pigment spectral library had allowed the ink deposited on the threatening note to be identified as XSL Poppy Red (CI Pigment Red 112). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Technology-Enabled Capability Demonstration 4A Sustainability and Logistics-Basing: Initial Quality of Life and Soldier Readiness User Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Eat (MRE), Meal Cold Weather/Long Range Patrol (MCW/LRP), Unitized Group Ration (UGR) Heat & Serve, UGR‐E...1000 PAX camp has the Soldiers receiving a hot meal (UGR‐A) for dinner in addition to breakfast. The 1000 PAX camp also has larger numbers of MWR...over AC in the TOC any day.” Figure 14: MWR Attribute Scores 3.1.3.5 Field Feeding The Soldiers prioritized breakfast rations slightly over dinner

  14. Efforts to Promote Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Traumatized Former Child Soldiers: Reintegration of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone: The Role of Caregivers and Their Awareness of the Violence Adolescents Experienced During the War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ivelina I; Betancourt, Theresa S; Willett, John B

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of caregivers in the reintegration of former child soldiers from Sierra Leone. Using data on 282 youth and their respective caregivers, our aim is to focus on the caregiver-child relationship after reintegration. We investigate the extent to which caregivers know about child soldiers' experiences of direct and indirect violence, as well as involvement in war activities. We further examine variables that might shape the degree of caregiver knowledge of child's war experiences. Finally, we examine if caregiver knowledge of war experiences is associated with child's psychosocial outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of developing thoughtful programs that consider the needs of the child in the context of the family and caregivers with whom he or she is reunified.

  15. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  16. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  17. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  18. ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance SWIR and ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance VNIR V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance is a multi-file product that contains atmospherically corrected data for both the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave...

  19. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  20. Moisture adsorption properties and shelf-life estimation of dried and pulverised edible house cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) and black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, E; Mutungi, C; Kinyuru, J; Imathiu, S; Tanga, C; Affognon, H; Ekesi, S; Nakimbugwe, D; Fiaboe, K K M

    2018-04-01

    Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products. The hydration properties of dried powders of edible house cricket and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) were studied with the aim of predicting shelf-life stability under typical packaging and storage temperatures experienced in the tropics. Moisture adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 25, 30 and 35 °C, over 0.11-0.97 water activity (a W ) range, and the data fitted to various models. Sorption isotherms were of type II according to Brunauer classification indicating monolayer-multilayer sorption behaviour. Cricket powder exhibited higher hydration capacity, and a W of this product was less sensitive to temperature variation as compared to BSFL powder. In the two products, water exhibited transitions from bound- to free- state at ~5 g/100 g moisture content. Based on Heiss-Eichner model, a shelf-life of 7 months at 25 °C can be achieved if the cricket and BSFL powders are dried to ca. 5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in 80 μm thick polyethylene films. At 35 °C the shelf-life of the cricket product is shortened three- to four-fold whereas the BSFL powder is unable to store. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sutherland models for complex reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampe, N.; Young, C.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    There are known to be integrable Sutherland models associated to every real root system, or, which is almost equivalent, to every real reflection group. Real reflection groups are special cases of complex reflection groups. In this paper we associate certain integrable Sutherland models to the classical family of complex reflection groups. Internal degrees of freedom are introduced, defining dynamical spin chains, and the freezing limit taken to obtain static chains of Haldane-Shastry type. By considering the relation of these models to the usual BC N case, we are led to systems with both real and complex reflection groups as symmetries. We demonstrate their integrability by means of new Dunkl operators, associated to wreath products of dihedral groups

  2. Psychological characteristics of Swedish mandatory enlisted soldiers volunteering and not volunteering for international missions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  3. Optical correction and quality of vision of the French soldiers stationed in the Republic of Djibouti in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, Rodolphe; Ollivier, Lénaïck

    2011-03-01

    To ensure vision readiness on the battlefield, the French military has been providing its soldiers with eyewear since World War I. A military refractive surgery program was initiated in 2008. A prospective questionnaire-based investigation on optical correction and quality of vision among active duty members with visual deficiencies stationed in Djibouti, Africa, was conducted in 2009. It revealed that 59.3% of the soldiers were wearing spectacles, 21.2% were wearing contact lenses--despite official recommendations--and 8.5% had undergone refractive surgery. Satisfaction rates were high with refractive surgery and contact lenses; 33.6% of eyeglass wearers were planning to have surgery. Eye dryness and night vision disturbances were the most reported symptoms following surgery. Military optical devices were under-prescribed before deployment. This suggests that additional and more effective studies on the use of military optical devices should be performed and policy supporting refractive surgery in military populations should be strengthened.

  4. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Design Considerations of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton System to Assist walking and Load-Carrying of Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a wearable exoskeleton system for the lower extremities of infantry soldiers and proposes appropriate design criteria based on existing case studies. Because infantry soldiers carry a variety of equipment, the interference with existing equipment and additional burden of the exoskeleton support system should be minimized. Recent studies have shown that a user only needs to be supported in the gravitational direction when walking on flat terrain; however, active joints are necessary to support walking over rough and sloped terrain such as mountains. Thus, an underactuated exoskeleton system was considered: passive joints are applied to the hip and ankle joints, and active joints are applied to the knee joints to exploit the dynamic coupling effect of the link structure and muscular activation patterns when the user is going up and down stairs. A prototype of the exoskeleton system was developed and validated through a simple stair-climbing experiment.

  6. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G

    2017-05-01

    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  7. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  8. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  9. Social Ecology of Child Soldiers: Child, Family, and Community Determinants of Mental Health, Psychosocial Wellbeing, and Reintegration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Perera, Em; Karki, Rohit; Koirala, Suraj; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2010-01-01

    This study employs social ecology to evaluate psychosocial wellbeing in a cross-sectional sample of 142 former child soldiers in Nepal. Outcome measures included the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale (CPSS), and locally developed measures of function impairment and reintegration. At the child level, traumatic exposures, especially torture, predicted poor outcomes, while education improved outcomes. At the family level, conflict-related death of a relative, ...

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  11. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  12. Not Only Soldiers Have Weapons: Evolution of the Frontal Gland in Imagoes of the Termite Families Rhinotermitidae and Serritermitidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, T.; Hanus, Robert; Sillam-Dusses, David; Pflegerová, Jitka; Weyda, František; Kutalová, Kateřina; Vytisková, B.; Roisin, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2010), e15761/1-e15761/7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : termites * imagoes * soldiers * Rhinotermitidae * Serritermitidae * frontal gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2010 www.plosone.org

  13. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers from 1990 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejdesgaard, Bo Andersen; Zøllner, Lilian; Jensen, Børge Frank; Jørgensen, Hans-Ole; Kähler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to identify risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers. Research on suicide among Danish veterans has only been conducted to a limited degree. The method applied was a questionnaire survey administered to a population of 1,264 Danish soldiers deployed from 1990 to 2009. The data were analyzed using backward logistic regression modeling in SAS 9.2. In the logistic regression analysis, the following were significant risk factors for suicidal ideation: drug abuse, a poor financial situation before deployment, a heavy workload and/or repatriation during deployment, and attending a poor athletic and recreation program after deployment. Significant protective factors against suicidal ideation were support from friends at home during deployment and appreciation by the general population after deployment. Significant risk factors for suicide attempts were an unhappy childhood and pointless tasks during deployment. No significant protective factors against suicide attempts were identified. On the basis of the results presented in this study, intervention against suicidal behavior would benefit from screening for certain childhood issues, drug abuse, and poor financial situation before deployment. During deployment, measures should be taken to minimize the amount of meaningless tasks and heavy workloads. At the same time, efficient ways of communicating with home should be ensured. After deployment, good athletic and recreation programs should be warranted for all military personnel-including repatriated soldiers. Finally, priority should be given to ensure public appreciation of what deployed soldiers accomplish. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Use of Body Armor Protection Levels with Squad Automatic Weapon Fighting Load Impacts Soldier Performance, Mobility, and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Industrial Security Manual , Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter IX. For Unclassified/Limited...accomplished using PSAW Statistics 18.0 ( SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Separate analyses were performed to test each of the three hypotheses stated. However...the Soldier and diminish his/her lethality or survivability , which may be an area of consideration for future research. 4.2 Consequences of Body Armor

  15. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment: Application of machine learning methods to a prospective study of Danish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B; Madsen, Trine; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R

    2015-09-15

    Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers by application of machine learning (ML) methods. ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. Robust pre- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross-validation. Together, these indicators forecasted long term posttraumatic stress responses with high accuracy (pre-deployment: AUC = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.81-0.87), post-deployment: AUC = 0.88 (95% CI = 0.85-0.91)). This study utilized a previously collected data set and was therefore not designed to exhaust the potential of ML methods. Further, the study relied solely on self-reported measures. Pre-deployment and early post-deployment identification of risk for long-term posttraumatic psychopathology are feasible and could greatly reduce the public health costs of war. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. United Nations Impact on Child Soldier Use in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: 1999-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    remained at large at the time of writing ( Malinowski 2008). Psychological Effects and Indoctrination Some works defined the psychological effect of...imprisonment. Biyoyo subsequently escaped from prison and remained at large at the time of writing ( Malinowski 2008). From a purely judicial...Armed Conflict on Children. Report of the expert of the Secretary General, New York: United Nations. Malinowski , Tom. 2008. Child Soldiers

  17. ISIS Child Soldiers in Syria: The Structural and Predatory Recruitment, Enlistment, Pre-Training Indoctrination, Training, and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Asaad Almohammad

    2018-01-01

    Research on the engagement of children with the so-called Islamic State (a.k.a. ISIS) relies heavily on the analysis of obtained ISIS documents and ISIS-disseminated propaganda, leaving major elements of the recruitment and deployment process uncovered. Such ambiguities hinder future efforts aimed at dealing with ISIS’ child soldiers. As such, an intensive effort to compile data using interviews and naturalistic observations across ISIS-held territories in Syria was made to exhaustively explo...

  18. The impact of an educational film on promoting knowledge and attitudes toward HIV in soldiers of the Serbian armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranin Željko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Millions of soldiers around the world represent one of the most vulnerable populations regarding exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The programs for HIV prevention remain the most viable approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection. Very few studies have tested the effectiveness of HIV preventive interventions undertaken in military population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational film to transfer knowledge about HIV infection to soldiers. Methods. We performed a quasi-experimental study among 102 soldiers of the Serbian Armed Forces. The experimental intervention consisted of the HIV knowledge pre-questionnaire, watching a film on HIV knowledge, then the post-HIV knowledge questionnaire. The results of pre-and post-HIV knowledge questionnaires were compared. Results. There were 23 questions in the test. The average total score on the questionnaire before watching the film was 18.23 and after watching it was 20.14, which was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusions. The results of the study show that viewing a film on HIV infection is an effective method of transferring knowledge about HIV to the Serbian military population.

  19. Early Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Mortuary Affairs Soldiers Postdeployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Investigation of army soldiers readiness about health actions in critical circumstances. Case study: Malek Ashtar Military Garrison’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah vosoughi niri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health related measures in emergencies are of the issues that, if taken properly, can reduce damages of a disaster effectively. To have this situation happened knowledge of health personnel, crisis staff, and military and other related groups has to improve. This study aimed to determine military staffs’ attitude and knowledge about health measures in emergencies. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted through a self-administrated questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was previously proven. The questionnaire included items on personal information and knowledge and attitude about health measures in emergencies. Using a multi-stage sampling, 190 soldiers of Malek Ashtar Military Garrison in Arak were selected. ANOVA, Kruskal- Wallis, Chi Square, Spearman rho’s coefficient correlation and T-test were used to analyze that data. Results: Findings showed that 43 percent of soldiers had good knowledge of health measures in emergencies. About 11 percent of staff had poor knowledge. Half of staff had an average attitude toward emergency health measures. Concerning the degree of knowledge, no significant difference was observed between soldiers with different levels of education. Regarding knowledge and attitude, there was no statistically significant difference between different age groups. Conclusion: Having a basic knowledge of health measures in emergencies is of salient importance. Considering lack of such basic knowledge among some military staff, provision of training on health related measures for those staff is recommended. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, health measures, military staff, crisis

  1. Effect of Schisandrae on stress system of soldiers undergone high-intensity military training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan XIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the changes in basic serum levels of hypothalamus-pituitrin-adrenal (HPA axis, hypothalamus-pituitrin-gonad (HPG axis and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in repeated acute stress caused by one-week intensive training, and study the effects of oral administration of Schisandrae, salidroside and Schisandrae compound on the contents of those stress hormones and cytokines mentioned above. Methods One hundred and twenty healthy soldiers chosen from junior infantry combat troops who had never received long-term amphibious training were randomly divided into four groups (30 each: group A (Schisandrae compound group, group B (Schisandrae group, group C (salidroside group and group D (control group. Each and every soldier of all the groups underwent high-intensity composite military training, 8 hours per day, for a week. Venous blood sampling was collected at 7:00-8:00 a.m. before and after the training, respectively. Levels of cortisol (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, testosterone (T, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in different groups were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The changes in the levels of all the above mentioned hormones and cytokines in every group were observed and compared. Results In group D, as compared with the pre-stress levels, no marked difference was found in the levels of serum CORT and ACTH (P>0.05, but the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group C, the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group A, the serum levels of CORT, ACTH, T, IL-1 and IL-6 significantly decreased, while that of IL-2 significantly increased (P<0.01. As compared with group D, the level of ACTH in group A and group B, the level of IL-2 in group C significantly decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions  Schisandrae and Schisandrae compound have a marked and lasting inhibitory effect on the activation of HPA axis and the elevation of serum CORT levels induced by stress, while the similar

  2. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  3. Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Pai, Anushka

    2012-11-01

    The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking. To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq. Prospective cohort study of 158 soldiers with no history of deployment to a war zone were recruited from the Texas Combat Stress Risk Study between April 2, 2007, and August 28, 2009. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate the association between emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge (assessed before deployment) and soldiers' reported symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression while deployed to Iraq. Growth curves of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety/stress symptoms showed a significant curvilinear relationship during the 16-month deployment period. War-zone stressors reported in theater were associated with symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression. Consistent with the prediction, soldiers' emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% CO(2)-enriched air before deployment significantly potentiated the effects of war-zone stressors on the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety/stress symptoms but not on the development of depression, even after accounting for the effects of trait anxiety and the presence of past or current Axis I mental disorders. Soldiers' emotional reactivity to a 35% CO(2) challenge may serve as a vulnerability

  4. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  5. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  6. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  7. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  8. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  9. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  10. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  11. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  12. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  13. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  14. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  15. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  16. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  17. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  18. Morphometric analysis of population samples of soldier caste of Odontotermes obesus (Rambur (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor, F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study morphometric variations in Odontotermes obesus (Rambur, samples from nineteen nests were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variability and confidence interval (95% and analysis of variance (Model II ANOVA, The mean values of the different population samples were compared with the student t-test, following the Minitab version and Sokal & Rohlf (1973. In the study of external characters, measurements form a very important component, particularly for identification of species. However, the reliability of the measurements depends on the extent of variability which the structures show within and between colonies. For each individual soldier, the following nine parameters were measured: i length of head; ii width of head at mandibles; iii width of head at the posterolateral ends of antennal carinae; iv maximum width of head; v length of left mandible; vi tooth of left mandible from tip; vii length of pronotum; viii width of pronotum; ix length of postmentum; and x width of postmentum.

  19. Effect of Parachute Jump in the Psychophysiological Response of Soldiers in Urban Combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2017-06-01

    The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver. We analyzed before and after the maneuver the rated perceived exertion, legs strength manifestation, blood lactate, cortical activation, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation and pressure, skin temperature, fine motor skills, and anxiety state. A tactical parachute simulated jump prior to an urban combat maneuver produce significantly (p jump situation in professional Army paratroopers. Independently of the parachute jump, an urban combat maneuver produces a significant increase in rated perceived exertion, blood lactate, heart rate, legs strength, sympathetic modulation and anxiety response as well as a significant decrease in blood oxygen saturation and parasympathetic modulation.

  20. Virtual stress testing of fracture stability in soldiers with severely comminuted tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petfield, Joseph L; Hayeck, Garry T; Kopperdahl, David L; Nesti, Leon J; Keaveny, Tony M; Hsu, Joseph R

    2017-04-01

    Virtual stress testing (VST) provides a non-invasive estimate of the strength of a healing bone through a biomechanical analysis of a patient's computed tomography (CT) scan. We asked whether VST could improve management of patients who had a tibia fracture treated with external fixation. In a retrospective case-control study of 65 soldier-patients who had tibia fractures treated with an external fixator, we performed VST utilizing CT scans acquired prior to fixator removal. The strength of the healing bone and the amount of tissue damage after application of an overload were computed for various virtual loading cases. Logistic regression identified computed outcomes with the strongest association to clinical events related to nonunion within 2 months after fixator removal. Clinical events (n = 9) were associated with a low tibial strength for compression loading (p fracture patients who can safely resume weight bearing. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:805-811, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Militares galaicos en las cohortes pretorianas = Galician soldiers among praetorian cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Santos Yanguas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los galaicos que tomaron parte en las tropas asentadas en la capital del Imperio, como oficiales y simples pretorianos, contribuirían a reforzar el poder del emperador. Al parecer la mayoría de estos galaicos pretorianos desempeñarían su actividad militar en el siglo II. Se trataba de personas jóvenes, algunos de los cuales podían reengancharse en el servicio y protección de la figura imperial.The Galician among the imperial troops in the capital, either as officers or base soldiers, would have contributed to strengthening imperial power. As it seems, the majority of these Praetorian Galicians carried out their duties during the second century AD. In most cases they were young, this being a fact that allowed some of them to re-enlist with the aim of protecting the emperor.

  3. Emergent runaway into an avoidance area in a swarm of soldier crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori; Nishiyama, Yuta; Moriyama, Toru; Niizato, Takayuki; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2014-01-01

    Emergent behavior that arises from a mass effect is one of the most striking aspects of collective animal groups. Investigating such behavior would be important in order to understand how individuals interact with their neighbors. Although there are many experiments that have used collective animals to investigate social learning or conflict between individuals and society such as that between a fish and a school, reports on mass effects are rare. In this study, we show that a swarm of soldier crabs could spontaneously enter a water pool, which are usually avoided, by forming densely populated part of a swarm at the edge of the water pool. Moreover, we show that the observed behavior can be explained by the model of collective behavior based on inherent noise that is individuals' different velocities in a directed group. Our results suggest that inherent noise, which is widely seen in collective animals, can contribute to formation and/or maintenance of a swarm and that the dense swarm can enter the pool by means of enhanced inherent noise.

  4. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  5. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as Animal Feed and Human Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shiang; Shelomi, Matan

    2017-10-18

    Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  6. Emergent runaway into an avoidance area in a swarm of soldier crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Murakami

    Full Text Available Emergent behavior that arises from a mass effect is one of the most striking aspects of collective animal groups. Investigating such behavior would be important in order to understand how individuals interact with their neighbors. Although there are many experiments that have used collective animals to investigate social learning or conflict between individuals and society such as that between a fish and a school, reports on mass effects are rare. In this study, we show that a swarm of soldier crabs could spontaneously enter a water pool, which are usually avoided, by forming densely populated part of a swarm at the edge of the water pool. Moreover, we show that the observed behavior can be explained by the model of collective behavior based on inherent noise that is individuals' different velocities in a directed group. Our results suggest that inherent noise, which is widely seen in collective animals, can contribute to formation and/or maintenance of a swarm and that the dense swarm can enter the pool by means of enhanced inherent noise.

  7. Wearable technologies for soldier first responder assessment and remote monitoring (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Embedded combat medical personnel require accurate and timely biometric data to ensure appropriate life saving measures. Injured warfighter's operating in remote environments require both assessment and monitoring often while still engaged with enemy forces. Small wearable devices that can be placed on injured personnel capable of collecting essential biometric data, including the capacity to remotely deliver collected data in real-time, would allow additional medical monitoring and triage that will greatly help the medic in the battlefield. These new capabilities will provide a force multiplier through remote assessment, increased survivability, and in freeing engaged warfighter's from direct monitoring thus improving combat effectiveness and increasing situational awareness. Key questions around what information does the medic require and how effective it can be relayed to support personnel are at their early stages of development. A low power biometric wearable device capable of reliable electrocardiogram (EKG) rhythm, temperature, pulse, and other vital data collection which can provide real-time remote monitoring are in development for the Soldier.

  8. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) Operational Environment on Soldier Health and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles; Tauson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness and performance of soldiers in the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Three different vehicle configurations were tested: oblique, (3 seats at a 20-degree angle from the direction of travel); perpendicular, (3 seats at a 90 degree angle); and 4-forward, (all seats faced forward). In all vehicles, the front seat faced forward. Sixteen men and eight women participated for 15 days: 2 days of classroom instruction; 12 days of field tests in the C2V, and 15 minutes of post-field test performance measures. Conditions for field tests were: an initial Park; four Moves (i.e., travel over a mixed terrain); and four Short-halts following movement. NASA task batteries, mood and symptom scales, and physiological data were collected during field tests. Motion sickness symptoms ranging from slight to severe were reported for all subjects. Conclusions were: (1) there was no difference between vehicle configurations; (2) there was a negative impact on crew performance and health when subjects attended to visual screens during vehicle movement; and (3) symptoms and performance degradation were not mitigated by intermittent short-halts.

  9. Determinants of compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis among French soldiers during missions in inter-tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradines Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known. Methods The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. "Correct compliance" was defined as "no missed doses" of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model. Results The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6%to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028, a medical history of clinical malaria (p Conclusions The identification of circumstances and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.

  10. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  12. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  13. A Structural Equation Modeling of the Relationships between Depression, Drug Abuse and Social Support with Suicidal Ideation among Soldiers in Iran in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Military service is a crucial period in the lives of young people and during this period soldier facing with multiple psychosocial problems. The present study aimed to explore structural analysis of the relationships between depression, drug abuse, social support and the risk of suicidal ideation among Military Medical University soldiers in Iran. In the present correlational research, a sample of 176 soldiers, from three units, was selected using randomly stratified sampling. Data were collected through the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and the Possibility of Drug Abuse Scale (LDAS). Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model, identify direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial correlates. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software (Verson22). out of the whole subjects, 28.4% had suicidal ideation and 65.3% had degrees of depression (mild to severe). A significant reverse relationship was observed between social support and suicidal ideation (pdrug abuse and suicidal ideation. The final structural model indicated that 74% of the variance in suicidal ideation was explained by the three examined variables of depression, social support and drug abuse. The overall results showed that the risk of suicidal ideation, depression and drug abuse are relatively significant in Military Medical University soldiers requiring taking serious actions by the authorities and other relevant organizations in order to improve the psychosocial health status of these soldiers.

  14. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  15. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  16. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  17. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  18. On automatic visual inspection of reflective surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmann, Lionel

    1995-01-01

    surfaces, providing new and exciting applications subject to automated visual inspection. Several contextual features have been surveyed along with introduction of novel methods to perform data-dependent enhancement of local surface appearance . Morphological methods have been described and utilized......This thesis descrbes different methods to perform automatic visual inspection of reflective manufactured products, with the aim of increasing productivity, reduce cost and improve the quality level of the production. We investigate two different systems performing automatic visual inspection....... The first is the inspection of highly reflective aluminum sheets, used by the Danish company Bang & Olufsen, as a part of the exterior design and general appearance of their audio and video products. The second is the inspection of IBM hard disk read/write heads for defects during manufacturing. We have...

  19. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  20. Atividade criadora, produção de conhecimentos e formação de pesquisadores: algumas reflexões Creator activity, knowledge production and researcher's training: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Vieira Zanella

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Criatividade é um desses temas que sempre esteve em voga, com maior visibilidade em alguns momentos históricos. Vivemos hoje um desses momentos, pois a demanda da sociedade capitalística, no que se refere ao mercado de trabalho, incide sobre sujeitos criativos, polivalentes, capazes de trabalhar em equipe e com iniciativa. Super sujeitos, na verdade, distantes em muito das condições sociais e educativas em que a maioria da população brasileira se encontra e que poderiam forjá-los. Criar é, portanto, palavra da moda, mas cuja presença e origem remonta a tempos difíceis de precisar, posto que caracteriza o ser humano e todas as suas produções, incluindo-se aí a produção de conhecimentos. Independente de como se objetiva, a atividade criadora funda-se em um olhar que rompe com o imediato e episódico. A constituição desse olhar, por sua vez, decorre de um processo, de intervenções deliberadas que objetivem romper com a explosão de imagens e mensagens desconexas que caracterizam a realidade atual, destituindo-a de sentidos voltados à crítica e sua transformação. Justifica-se, portanto, a necessidade de reflexões constantes e pesquisas sobre o tema, posto que a formação de educadores é condição para que novos olhares sejam forjados.Creativity is one of those topics that has always been in vogue, with larger visibility in some historical moments. We live today one of these moments, for the demand of the capitalistic society, regarding the work market, falls upon creative and pluralistics subjects who are able to work as a team and with initiative. "Super subjects", in fact, distant from the social and educational conditions in which most of Brazilian people are placed and that could forge them. Creating is, therefore, a fashion word, but its presence and origin take us back to difficult times to precise, even because it characterizes the human being and all his productions, including knowledge productions. Independently