WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar turbo electric

  1. Electric Turbo Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  2. PROGRAM ASTEC (ADVANCED SOLAR TURBO ELECTRIC CONCEPT). PART 1. CANDIDATE MATERIALS LABORATORY TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A space power system of the type envisioned by the ASTEC program requires the development of a lightweight solar collector of high reflectance...capable of withstanding the space environment for an extended period. A survey of the environment of interest for ASTEC purposes revealed 4 potential...developed by the solar-collector industry for use in the ASTEC program, and to test the effects of space environment on these materials. Of 6 material

  3. Design and Development of a 200-kW Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Kurt V.

    2017-01-01

    There a few NASA funded electric and hybrid electric projects from different NASA Centers, including the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) (Edwards, California). Each project identifies a specific technology gap that is currently inhibiting the growth and proliferation of relevant technologies in commercial aviation. This paper describes the design and development of a turbo-electric distributed propulsion (TeDP) hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation bench, which is a test bed for discovering turbo-electric control, distributed electric control, power management control, and integration competencies while providing risk mitigation for future turbo-electric flying demonstrators.

  4. Design and Development of a 200-kW Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathakis, Kurt V.; Kloesel, Kurt J.; Lin, Yohan; Clarke, Sean; Ediger, Jacob J.; Ginn, Starr

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) (Edwards, California) is developing a Hybrid-Electric Integrated Systems Testbed (HEIST) Testbed as part of the HEIST Project, to study power management and transition complexities, modular architectures, and flight control laws for turbo-electric distributed propulsion technologies using representative hardware and piloted simulations. Capabilities are being developed to assess the flight readiness of hybrid electric and distributed electric vehicle architectures. Additionally, NASA will leverage experience gained and assets developed from HEIST to assist in flight-test proposal development, flight-test vehicle design, and evaluation of hybrid electric and distributed electric concept vehicles for flight safety. The HEIST test equipment will include three trailers supporting a distributed electric propulsion wing, a battery system and turbogenerator, dynamometers, and supporting power and communication infrastructure, all connected to the AFRC Core simulation. Plans call for 18 high performance electric motors that will be powered by batteries and the turbogenerator, and commanded by a piloted simulation. Flight control algorithms will be developed on the turbo-electric distributed propulsion system.

  5. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  6. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  7. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  8. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willer, B.

    1993-01-01

    An electrical drive is an alternative to the present internal combustion engines. The electric car produces no exhaust gas where it is used and drives practically noiselessly. The energy required for driving is usually taken from an electro-chemical battery. The necessary electricity generation generates emission and CO 2 , depending on the primary energy used. An alternative is provided by electricity generation with the aid of regenerative energy. Apart from hydroelectric and wind energy, solar energy can make a considerable contribution in the future. (orig.) [de

  9. Solar electricity for Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naehr, Catrin [SMA Corporate Communication, Niestetal (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Eight off-grid PV power plants that supply households, schools and smaller businesses in southern Mali villages with electricity not only boost the rural electrification but also the local economy in the crisis-ridden country. (orig.)

  10. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.

  11. Solar island electricity supply at Flanitzhuette. Solare Inselstromversorgung Flanitzhuette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, U. (Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this research project is the planning, erection and operation of a permanent electricity supply independent of the grid based on photo-electrics for an isolated hamlet in the Bavarian Forest. Criteria for the development and optimisation of solar electricity supply concepts are to be obtained from practical experience. The investigation and exploitation of energ saving potential and an harmonious integration of the solar plant in the landscape are also important aspects. (orig.)

  12. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  13. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  14. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  15. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  16. Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Alexander, S. W.; Gilland, J. H.; Hack, K. J.; Lawrence, C.; Swartz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed.

  17. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  18. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  19. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  20. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. Stress corrosion cracking prevention using solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaaili, M.A; Mirani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Metallic structures exposed to soil and water naturally experience corrosion due to electrolytic action. These structures are also subjected to sustained tensile stresses. The combined effects of corrosion and stress results stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Removal of either of these i.e. stress or corrosion prevents SCC. The cathodic protection (CP) prevents corrosion, and hence prevents stress corrosion. Solar Photo voltaic (PV) generated electricity can be best external power source for CP systems especially in remote areas. This paper presents CP system using solar PV generated electricity as an external power source for prevention of SCC of metallic structures. The paper also compares CP systems using solar electricity with those of CP systems using conventional electricity. The paper concludes that a solar electricity power system provides a reliable solution for powering CP stations especially in remote areas, enables the placing of CP units in any location, and thus ensures optimal current distribution for the exact protection requirements. The paper also concludes that solar electricity CP systems are well suited for SCC protection of metallic structures especially in remote areas of an energy deficit country like Pakistan. (author)

  2. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  3. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  4. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  5. Realistic generation cost of solar photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet

    2010-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 cents /kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 cents /kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 cents /kWh in base year to 88.63 cents /kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 cents /kWh and not 28.92 cents /kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required

  6. Solar energy for electricity and fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Ingan?s, Olle; Sundstr?m, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorga...

  7. Sustained orderly development of the solar electric technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the need of electric utilities to support the commercialization of solar electric technologies now in order to have the technology available for future energy resources. The topics of the article include deteriorating opportunities, sustained orderly development of solar electric technologies, historical aspects, and market forces in the solar electric industry

  8. Solar electricity in Africa: a reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas van der, R.J.; Hankins, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work is based on a random sample survey of 410 solar electricity systems in eight districts in Kenya. Actual technical performance and the perception of the users were analyzed with a view to determine how real the option of solar electricity is, and what needs to be done to facilitate it further. The survey was carried out by Energy Alternatives Africa, a Kenyan NGO, and financed under the ESMAP 1 program of the World Bank. The article expresses the opinions of the authors and not of their institutions; The authors are solely responsible for the contents. (Author)

  9. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  10. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  11. NREL Achieves Solar-Electric Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar-Electric Record New Technology Could Spur Growth in Photovoltaic Panels For more information thin-film panels made from cadmium telluride. Benner said these and other plants may adopt all or part panels. Of the several materials that can be used for thin-film panels, cadmium telluride yields higher

  12. Market prices for solar electricity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ontario electricity supply is facing considerable challenges while demand is increasing due to a growing population and increased economic growth needs. In response to these challenges, the government of Ontario established the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) in 2004 to ensure adequate, reliable and secure electricity supply and resources in Ontario. The OPA has also engaged in activities to facilitate the diversification of sources of electricity supply by promoting the use of cleaner energy sources and technologies, including alternative energy sources and renewable energy. The purpose of this paper was to advance discussions regarding the contribution that solar PV can make to Ontario's supply mix. In particular, it determined the value of the electricity that would have been produced by a PV system located in Waterloo, Ontario under the following 4 pricing regimes: (1) the conventional small user tariff system currently in place in Ontario, (2) the time-of-use pricing system that is voluntarily available to those who have smart meters installed in their facilities, (3) the spot market, hourly prices, to which some of Ontario's largest electricity users are exposed, and (4) the recently-proposed rate for standard offer contracts for PV systems. The study showed that a solar PV system that produces 3,000 kWh of electricity over the course of a year would generate different revenue amounts, ranging from the smallest amount of approximately $174.00 to $1,260.00, depending on the pricing regime. The pricing regime that reflects real, time-of-day electricity prices appears to be most advantageous to solar PV systems. It was recommended that additional work is needed regarding the other benefits of solar PV, such as avoided capacity/generation needs, avoided transmission and distribution cost and losses, environmental benefits, and job creation. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Helium turbo-expander with an alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshitane

    1980-01-01

    Study was made on a helium turbo-expander, the heart of helium refrigerator systems, in order to develop a system which satisfies the required conditions. A helium turbo-expander with externally pressurized helium gas bearings at the temperature of liquid nitrogen and an alternator as a brake have been employed. The essential difference between a helium turbo-expander and a nitrogen turbo-expander was clarified. The gas bearing lubricated with nitrogen at room temperature and the gas bearing lubricated with helium at low temperature were tested. The flow rate of helium in a helium refrigerator for a large superconducting magnet is comparatively small, therefore a helium turbine must be small, but the standard for large turbine design can be applied to such small turbine. Using the alternator as a brake, the turbo-expander was easily controllable electrically. The prototype turbo-expander was made, and the liquefaction test with it and MHD power generation test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  14. NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companies | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian Electric Companies NREL Evaluates Advanced Solar Inverter Performance for Hawaiian performance and impacts of today's advanced solar inverters, as well as proprietary feedback to the inverter

  15. Test and development of a solar-hybrid vehicle prototype and turbo-compressor model for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Naddeo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    2014 - 2015 In last decade, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have emerged as real alternatives to engine-driven vehicles, in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.... [edited by author] XIV n.s.

  16. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  17. Electric solar wind sail mass budget model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The electric solar wind sail (E-sail is a new type of propellantless propulsion system for Solar System transportation, which uses the natural solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. The E-sail consists of thin centrifugally stretched tethers that are kept charged by an onboard electron gun and, as such, experience Coulomb drag through the high-speed solar wind plasma stream. This paper discusses a mass breakdown and a performance model for an E-sail spacecraft that hosts a mission-specific payload of prescribed mass. In particular, the model is able to estimate the total spacecraft mass and its propulsive acceleration as a function of various design parameters such as the number of tethers and their length. A number of subsystem masses are calculated assuming existing or near-term E-sail technology. In light of the obtained performance estimates, an E-sail represents a promising propulsion system for a variety of transportation needs in the Solar System.

  18. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  19. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Under the 10 th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels

  20. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  1. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  3. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  4. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  5. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  6. Solar flares through electric current interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental hypothesis by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) that solar flares are related to electrical currents in the solar chromosphere and low corona is investigated in the light of modern observations. The authors confirm the important role of currents in solar flares. There must be tens of such current loops (flux threads) in any flare, and this explains the hierarchy of bursts in flares. The authors summarize quantitative data on energies, numbers of particles involved and characteristic times. A special case is the high-energy flare: this one may originate in the same way as less energetic ones, but it occurs in regions with higher magnetic field strength. Because of the high particle energies involved their emission seats live only very briefly; hence the area of emission coincides virtually with the seat of the instability. These flares are therefore the best examples for studying the primary instability leading to the flare. Finally, the authors compare the merits of the original Alfven-Carlqvist idea (that flares originate by current interruption) with the one that they are due to interaction (reconnection) between two or more fluxthreads. The authors conclude that a final decision cannot yet by made, although the observed extremely short time constants of flare bursts seem to demand a reconnection-type instability rather than interruption of a circuit

  7. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Carl T [Denver, IA

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  8. Solar array technology evaluation program for SEPS (Solar Electrical Propulsion Stage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the technology and the development of a preliminary design for a 25 kilowatt solar array system for solar electric propulsion are discussed. The solar array has a power to weight ratio of 65 watts per kilogram. The solar array system is composed of two wings. Each wing consists of a solar array blanket, a blanket launch storage container, an extension/retraction mast assembly, a blanket tensioning system, an array electrical harness, and hardware for supporting the system for launch and in the operating position. The technology evaluation was performed to assess the applicable solar array state-of-the-art and to define supporting research necessary to achieve technology readiness for meeting the solar electric propulsion system solar array design requirements.

  9. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  10. Solar electricity potentials and optimal angles for mounting solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for harnessing solar energy using solar panels mounted at optimal inclination angles in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria is presented. The optimal angle for mounting solar panels as presented by Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS) ranges from 11º to 14º in the Southern zone and 13º to 16º ...

  11. Turbo FRMAC 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-11-30

    The Turbo FRMAC (TF) software program is the software implementation of the science and methodologies utilized in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The software automates the calculations described in volumes 1 of "The Federal Manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency" (2015 version). In the event of the intentional or accidental release of radioactive material, the software is used to guide and govern the response of the Federal, State, Local, and Tribal governments. The manual, upon which the software is based, is unclassified and freely available on the Internet.

  12. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  13. AN APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICAL PRODUCTION WITH SOLAR TOWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşat SELBAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of electric energy rises with increasing of the population and faster improvement demands. Energy necessity generally is provided by using fossil based fuel sources. In order to supply energy requirements, today, using alternative sources became necessary because of the problems such as decreasing of available fossil fuel sources and environment pollution from this fuel. The solar energy which has a wide range of application potential is the most hopeful and unlimited energy source without environment pollution in electric energy production. In this paper, the electric production methods from solar energy are studied and the most suitable method for solar energy plant is tried to find out. The selected method, known as Solar Tower in literature is an electric production method. In this study, technical and cost analysis of an application using this method are carried out.

  14. The LHCb Turbo stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, A., E-mail: albert.puig@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015–2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  15. Low-cost solar electric power

    CERN Document Server

    Fraas, Lewis M

    2014-01-01

    ?This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40? efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natura

  16. Study Of Solar Charging Facility For Electric Vehicles In Edinburgh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nassar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar power system decreases carbon dioxide CO2 emissions which are the lead cause of global warming. This paper presented a novel way to design a commercial solar photovoltaic PV farm to provide electricity for 10 of the Edinburgh domestic car fleet. The design is used for sizing of the solar system based on an excel spreadsheets. The results show that the proposed solar system reduces the CO2 emissions with around 95 less than the conventional energy system. Around 0.5TWh of electrical energy is required to meet Edinburgh domestic car fleet whenever converted to electrical vehicles. The PV solar panels at the investigated site has a capacity factor of around 12. The dynamic tilt angle is estimated for the investigated site while the fixed tilt angle is determined to be 49. Depending on dynamic solar panels leads to harvesting more solar energy than depending on fixed tilt angle around 14 higher energy. The meter square of land in Edinburgh receive some 950KWh per year based on the dynamic tilt angle. Around 218000 of solar panels are required to meet 10 of Edinburgh domestic car fleet.

  17. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  18. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  19. The induced electric field distribution in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rong; Yang Zhi-Liang; Deng Yuan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method of calculating the induced electric field is presented. The induced electric field in the solar atmosphere is derived by the time variation of the magnetic field when the accumulation of charged particles is neglected. In order to derive the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, several extrapolation methods are introduced. With observational data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory taken on 2010 May 20, we extrapolate the magnetic field from the photosphere to the upper atmosphere. By calculating the time variation of the magnetic field, we can get the induced electric field. The derived induced electric field can reach a value of 10 2 V cm −1 and the average electric field has a maximum point at the layer 360 km above the photosphere. The Monte Carlo method is used to compute the triple integration of the induced electric field.

  20. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  1. Turbo marketing through time compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, P; Stonich, P J

    1991-01-01

    A host of advantages will flow to companies that learn to make and deliver goods and services faster than their competitors. However, four key questions must be answered to determine if a turbo marketing approach is suitable for your company.

  2. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  3. Possibilities for application of solar electricity in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristov, M.; Peshevski, V.; Kocev, K.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper solar global irradiation in R. Macedonia is estimated and some favorable fields for photovoltaic application are emphasized. By means of Angstrom's equation and using solar hour duration data for seven locations, mean daily horizontal surface solar energy is calculated. Obtained average value on whole territory is 4,2 kWh/m 2 day. On fixed tilt active surface (β=35 0 ) solar flux would be increased approximately 15%. Possible fields for photovoltaic systems applications are: rural electrification, water pumping in mountain areas and supplying of Tv and radio relay station. In case of small village standard electrification, due to inevitable distribution network over sizing, the price of electricity is around 2,5 $/kWh. If photovoltaic system is used for the same purpose, the electricity would amount 35 c/kWh. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 1 ill

  4. Effects in atmospheric electricity daily variation controlled by solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsyna, N.G.; Tyasto, M.I.; Levitin, A.E.; Gromova, L.A.; Tuomi, T.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of fair weather atmospheric electricity, one of the environmental factors which affects the biosphere, is conducted. A distinct difference in the diurnal variation of atmospheric electric field at Helsinki is found between disturbed and extremely quiet conditions in the magnetosphere in winter before midnight. The comparison with the numerical model of the ionospheric electric field based on the solar wind parameters reveals that the maximum contribution of the magnetospheric-ionospheric generator to atmospheric electric field is about 100-150 v/m which assumes values of about 30% of the surface field. 8 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  6. Electrical Characterization of HIT type solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The silicon heterojunction solar cell (SHJ) has made rapid progress in reaching high efficiency and it is already developed as an industrially viable product. However, much of its progress has come through process development while there is scarce knowledge on the microscopic nature of the

  7. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070171

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  8. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  9. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  10. Solar and the future of Ontario's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential contribution of solar energy to Ontario's electricity supply was evaluated in this PowerPoint presentation. Only 3.5 per cent of Canada's photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to the electricity grid. However, 47 per cent of all homes in Ontario have the potential to install 3 kW PV arrays, and the solar industry has the potential to achieve growth rates of between 50 to 75 per cent, with medium term sustainable growth estimated at 30 to 40 per cent annually. The benefits of grid-connected solar energy include employment and wealth creation in Ontario; reductions in peak demand; and improved grid efficiency. It was noted that the price of solar PV is declining. Various market niches for solar energy technologies were outlined, and the targeting of early adopters was recommended as a first market for PV growth. An overview of the value of PV build-ups in California was presented, as well details of international tariffs and rates. A 10 year program leading to the installation of 15,000 PV systems or 40 MWp of installed capacity in Ontario by 2015 was outlined, as well as a plan for solar financing. It was concluded that priming the market now will mean that solar will be prepared to contribute to Ontario's supply during the 2015-2025 period, when its price will be competitive. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Mustamin [Department of Architecture, Khairun University, Ternate (Indonesia); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Yoshino, Jun; Yasuda, Takashi [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with observation results. Monthly average values of solar radiation are sufficiently good during March–September. Electrical energy generated by photovoltaic cells is almost proportional to the solar radiation amount. Effects of clouds on solar radiation can be removed by monthly averaging. The balance between supply and demand of electricity can be estimated using a standard curve obtained from the temporal average. When the amount of solar radiation every hour with average of more than 100 km radius area does not yield the standard curve, we can estimate the system of storage and auxiliary power necessary based on the evaluated results of imbalance between supply and demand.

  12. CISBAT 2007 - Solar collectors (heat and electricity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This is the third part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Building and urban integration of renewables the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Facade integration of solar thermal collectors: present and future', 'Long term experiences with a versatile PV in roof system', 'Development of a design and performance prediction tool for the ground source heat pump and underground thermal storage system', 'Hygrothermal performance of earth-to-air heat exchanger: long-term data evaluation and short-term simulation' as well as 'The real cost of heating your home: a comparative assessment of home energy systems with external costs'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage', 'Analysis of forced convection for evaporative air flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels', 'Renewable energy technology in Mali: constraints and options for a sustainable development', 'Effect of duct width in ducted photovoltaic facades', 'Design and actual measurement of a ground source heat pump system using steel foundation piles as ground heat exchangers', 'Development of an integrated water-water heat pump unit for low energy house and its application', 'PV effect in multilayer cells and blending of fullerene/poly (3-hexylthiophene) and phthalocyanine having NIR charge transfer absorption band', 'CdTe photovoltaic systems - an alternative energetic', 'Integration of renewable energy sources in a town, examples in Grenoble', 'A prospective analysis method for the conception of solar integration solutions in buildings' and 'Energy and aesthetic improvements for building integration of cost effective solar energy systems'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings

  13. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  14. Turning Sunlight into Electricity-Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Turning Sunlight into Electricity - Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond. A K Shukla. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1294-1302. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Solar thermal electric power generation - an attractive option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A

    1999-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy is being successfully used for production of electricity in few developed countries for more than 10 years. In solar Electric Generating Systems high temperature is generated by concentrating solar energy on black absorber pipe in evacuated glass tubes. This heat is absorbed and transported with the help of high temperature oil in to highly insulated heat exchanger storage tanks. They are subsequently used to produce steam that generates power through steam turbines as in standard thermal power plants. Various components involved in Solar thermal field have been developed at the Solar Systems Laboratory of College of EME, NUST Rawalpindi. It is considered as a cost effective alternate for power generation. The research has been partially sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology under its Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) in (1996-1998). Parabolic mirror design, fabrication, polishing, installation, solar tracking, absorber pipe, glass tubes, steam generation al have been developed. This paper will cover the details of indigenous technological break through made in this direction. (author)

  16. Solar wind power electric plant on Vis (Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A project of a solar photovoltaic electric power plant presented by the Republic of Croatia at the meeting of the E.P.I.A. Mission for photovoltaic technology of the Mediterranean countries, aroused a great interest of the representatives of the invited countries. However, the interest within Croatia in the project has disappeared although E.P.I.A. offered a financing of two thirds of costs. There are attempts to construct 1800 kw wind-driven generators at the same location not taking into consideration a possibility of building a hybrid solar-wind-power electric plant. The chance that the solar part is completely of domestic origin is not accepted but the preference is given to the building of imported wind-driven generators. (orig.)

  17. Nanosolar: Delivering Grid-Parity Solar Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, Brian [Nanosolar, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Nanosolar has developed proprietary technology based on Copper-Indium-Gallium-diSelenide (CIGS) absorber technology that allows the printing of this semiconductor material using a high-speed, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing process. A central challenge in cost-effectively constructing a large-area CIGS-based solar cell or module is that the elements of the CIGS layer must be within a narrow stoichiometric ratio on nano-, meso-, and macroscopic length scale in all three dimensions in order for the resulting cell or module to be highly efficient. Achieving precise stoichiometric composition over relatively large substrate areas is however difficult using traditional vacuum-based deposition processes. For example, it is difficult to uniformly deposit compounds and/or alloys containing more than one element by sputtering or evaporation. Both techniques rely on deposition approaches that are limited to line-of-sight and limited-area sources, tending to result in poor surface coverage. Line-of-sight trajectories and limited-area sources can result in non-uniform three-dimensional distribution of the elements in all three dimensions and/or poor film-thickness uniformity over large areas. These non-uniformities can occur over the nano-, meso-, and/or macroscopic scales. Such non-uniformity also alters the local stoichiometric ratios of the absorber layer, decreasing the potential power conversion efficiency of the complete cell or module. Nanosolar has overcome these challenges by printing nanoparticulate CIGS precursor materials onto low-cost metal foil substrates, and performing a rapid thermal processing to convert the nanoparticulate coating into a CIGS absorber layer By locking in the appropriate stochiometry into the nanoparticulate precursor material, spatial uniformity is ensured in the coated layers, while printing at high speed and throughput minimizes solar cell cost.

  18. Solar radiation for sea-water desalination and electric power generation via vacuum solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottinelli, L.; Reali, M.; El-Nashar, A.M.; Giusiano, F.; Vigotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present report concerns the energetic potential of vacuum solar which are rather versatile and efficient devices for converting solar energy into thermal energy. Two main energetic applications have been analysed: the first one for a solar sea water desalination plant which has been operated in Abu Dhabi for the past ten years, the other for a conceptual solar thermoelectric-power plant having a fair thermodynamic efficiency (15-20%). A simple technology for the manufacture of vacuum solar collectors in a standard mechanical shop is being developed in collaboration between ENEL Sp A (DSR-CRIS, Milano) and WED (Abu Dhabi). Such technology should have an important economy-saving potential per se and would also make repair and substitution operations simple enough for the actual operators of the vacuum solar collector system without any need of external assistance. The technic-operative-economical features of the Abu Dhabi solar desalination plant suggest that the use novel simplified vacuum solar collectors could have a considerable technic economical potential. The analysis of the conceptual solar thermo-electric-power plant focuses on its general layout and singles out key technological issues which ought to be addressed in an overall feasibility study. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Economic aspects of grid connected solar electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharabod, F.

    1993-01-01

    Experience gained with available solar thermal technologies enlighten on options for research and development on solar electricity generation. The proposed analysis of new solar technologies concerns market, costs and profit viewpoint: - Systems under development have to fit with consumers' needs and utilities' specifications, technology is not the only item to study. - Expense headings depend on technological options and operation procedures such as size of the plant, solar only or hybrid concept. - Anticipation of revenues highly depends on direct insolation quality and on local conditions for introducing the electric power generated into the network: daily direct insolation measurements and annual local load curve are prerequisite data. Strategic advantages regarding environment and sustainable development are to be pointed out, specially in industrialized countries or for projects including financing institutions. As far as generating electric power on the grid is a major challenge in the development of a number of countries in the sun belt, cooperation between industrialized and developing countries, under the auspices of international organization, has to be promoted. (Author) 12 refs

  20. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    The flat-plate solar cell array program which increases the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules used for terrestrial energy applications is discussed. The current-voltage response characteristics of the solar cells encapsulated in the modules degrade with service time and this degradation places a limitation on the useful lifetime of the modules. The most desirable flat-plate array system involves solar cells consisting of highly polarizable materials with similar electrochemical potentials where the cells are encapsulated in polymers in which ionic concentrations and mobilities are negligibly small. Another possible mechanism limiting the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules is the gradual loss of the electrical insulation characteristics of the polymer pottant due to water absorption or due to polymer degradation from light or heat effects. The mechanical properties of various polymer pottant materials and of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell material are as follows: (1) electrical and ionic resistivity; (2) water absorption kinetics and water solubility limits; and (3) corrosion characterization of various metallization systems used in solar cell construction.

  1. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  2. Application of resettable elements for electrical protection of solar batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonkoshkur A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The manifestation and formation of various defects in the process of exploitation in real photovoltaic cells and their compounds as well as their work in the regime of changing non-uniform illumination lead to the so-called series and parallel inconsistencies (differences of electrical characteristics between separate cells and their groups. This results in local overheating and intensifying of degradation processes. In some cases temporary disconnection (isolation of the corresponding elements of the solar batteries is more appropriate in order to increase their service life. In this work additional devices for insulation of overheating cells (and/or components of solar batteries such as «PolySwith» resettable fuses are proposed to be used as a perspective solution of such problems. These structures are polymer composites with nanosized carbon fillers. Electrical resistance of such a fuse increases abruptly by several orders of magnitude when certain threshold temperature is reached, and when the temperature decreases the fuse returns to its initial high-conductivity state. This study investigates the possibilities of using the specified type of fuses for electrical insulation of «overheated» photovoltaic cells. Particular attention is paid to the research of the effect of fuses on the working of the solar batteries in the operating temperature range and their functional applicability in emergency situations associated with overheating. The studies were carried out using a model structure of several series of parallel connected photovoltaic cells and specified fuses. Attention is paid to the influence of such factors as the ambient temperature and the drift of the fuses resistance in the conducting state in the process their multiple switching. It has been established that such protection elements do not influence the work of solar batteries in operating temperature range and are functionally applicable for the electrical isolation of local

  3. Electrically active defects in solar grade multicrystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen

    2013-01-01

    Shortage in high purity silicon feedstock, as a result of the formidable increased demand for solar cell devices during the last two decades, can be mitigated by the introduction of cheaper feedstock of solar grade (So-G) quality. Silicon produced through the metallurgical process route has shown...... the potential to be such a feedstock. However, this feedstock has only few years of active commercial history and the detailed understanding of the nature of structural defects in this material still has fundamental shortcomings. In this thesis the electrical activity of structural defects, commonly associated...

  4. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  5. Interleaver Design for Turbo Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Zyablov, Viktor

    1997-01-01

    By a combination of construction and random search based on a careful analysis of the low weight words and the distance properties of the component codes, it is possible to find interleavers for turbo coding with a high minimum distance. We have designed a block interleaver with permutations...

  6. Workplace Electric Vehicle Solar Smart Charging based on Solar Irradiance Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Almquist, Isabelle; Lindblom, Ellen; Birging, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to investigate different outcomes of the usage of photovoltaic (PV) power for electric vehicle (EV) charging adjacent to workplaces. In the investigated case, EV charging stations are assumed to be connected to photovoltaic systems as well as the electricity grid. The model used to simulate different scenarios is based on a goal of achieving constant power exchange with the grid by adjusting EV charging to a solar irradiance forecast. The model is implem...

  7. Development of practical solar-electric vehicle; Jitsuyo fukyugata solar denki jidosha no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S; Fujinaka, M [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on a Tokyo-Nagoya travel test on a practical spread type solar-electric vehicle, Solar-EV. A comparative study was made running the same type gasoline vehicle, GV. The measured power consumption amount of Solar-EV is 57.6 kWh. By converting it into Mcal unit, an energy consumption amount of 49.5 Mcal was obtained. Further, as to GV, the energy consumption amount of 316 Mcal was obtained using the amount of supply of gasoline (mean heating value: 8.4 Mcal/h) of 37.6 l and the fuel consumption of 16.2 km/l. Accordingly, the energy consumption amount of Solar-EV became a sixth of that of GV. In the cost comparison, the cost of Solar-EV was 1,440 yen (power source price: 25 yen/kWh), which is about a third of that of GV, 3760 yen (gasoline unit price: 100 yen/l). Monocrystal Si solar cells, 270W, installed on hood/roof are connected to the main 288V system (the auxiliary 12V system is amorphous Si), and generate power 4.4 kWh during travel. A total power consumption amount of Solar-EV in the total travel (Tokyo-Nagoya) is 79.9 kWh including the auxiliary system, approximately 6% of which was to be supplied from solar cells. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic study of the properties of various polymer pottant materials and of the electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell materials is required for advancing the technology of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. The items of specific concern in this sponsored research activity involve: (1) kinetics of plasticizer loss in PVB, (2) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in PVB, (3) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in EVA, (4) the electrical properties at PVB as a function of temperature and humidity, (5) the electrical properties of EVA as a function of temperature and humidity, (6) solar cell corrosion characteristics, (7) water absorption effects in PVB and EVA, and (8) ion implantation and radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  9. Prospects for solar thermal electricity generation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaquil, P.

    1991-01-01

    The future potential for solar thermal electric power plants is quite significant. The size of the renewable energy resource base for the United States of America alone is almost 500 times its current primary energy consumption. Unfortunately, the levels of current utilization are quite small. Why have these technologies not made a larger contribution to today's market? The answer is that significant barriers still exist. (orig.)

  10. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  11. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  12. Solar Electricity: The Power of Choice, Third Quarter 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnelten, K.; Moon, S.; Miller, J.

    2001-12-01

    Solar Electricity: The Power of Choice (formerly NREL PV Working With Industry) is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the photovoltaics (PV) research and development activities performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. This issue is devoted to coverage of the Program Review Meeting of the National Center for Photovoltaics, held in October, 2001. The editorialist for this issue is Kannan Ramanathan, chair of the Program Review and a research scientist with the National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL.

  13. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  14. Study of solar electric production potential in the Herault district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Anthony; Baldini, Florent; Bruant, Marc; Bouchet, Jean-Alain; Bouzige, Romain

    2010-06-01

    The first part of this report presents various contextual issues: general context (commitments in production with renewable energies, aspects related to the national electric production, electric production and consumption in the Languedoc-Roussillon region), analysis of techniques and sectors of solar electric production (inventory of available or being developed technical and industrial sectors, potential environmental impacts), economic analysis of photovoltaic techniques (purchase tariffs, other financing sources, grid parity, installation costs, application to case study), and regulatory and administrative procedures. The second part reports a regional approach of this study: characterisation of the raw solar resource, territorial sensitivity analysis (influence of various factors: technical, geological, hydro-geological, urban, environmental, related to landscape, heritage and natural environment), definition of a territorial sensitivity grid. The third part reports the definition of the solar production potential: on buildings, in man-made locations (mines, landfills, industrial wastelands), and in ordinary non-built spaces. Appendices propose detailed economic data for case studies, presentations of purchase tariffs in 2010, and presentations of existing installations

  15. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  16. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  17. A 220 MVA turbo-generator for the TCV tokamak power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.; Canay, I.M.; Simond, J.-J.; Morf, J.-J; Pahud, J.-D; Seysen, R.

    1989-01-01

    A new 220 MVA, 120 Hz, 4 pole turbo-generator will be used as a pulsed power source to supply the toroidal and poloidal power supplies of the TCV tokamak, which is being built at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland. The paper describes the particular requirements of the TCV poloidal power supplies and the main electrical and mechanical features of the turbo-generator and its principal auxillaries. (author). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  19. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  20. Improving the Energy Management of a Solar Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNESER, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solar electric vehicle (SEV is an electric vehicle (EV with onboard photovoltaic cells charging a set of batteries for extended driving range. This study aimed to improve the energy management system of a SEV, called YILDIZ, using a fuzzy logic control system (FLC. A MATLAB based simulation model of three basic components of a solar car: solar cell modules, batteries and motor drive system was performed. An original FLC was developed. For proving its applicability, the performances of the SEV were tested by simulation, in accordance with the standard test drive cycle ECE-15. The characteristics obtained with the original Proportional Integral Fuzzy Logic Control (PI-FLC were compared with those obtained with a classical Proportional Integral (PI controller. Using the designed model, we calculated the range of YILDIZ with and without PV feeding which gave us an opportunity to study and compare both SEV and EV models on real race-track situation. Then the optimum speed, at any time, which enabled the vehicle to reach a chosen destination as quickly as possible, while fully using the available energy, was calculated. Proposed solutions tested on YILDIZ. Results of simulations were compared with YILDIZ run on the Formula-G race track in Izmit, Turkey.

  1. Information campaign on solar heating for houses heated by electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.

    1995-09-01

    A number of NESA's (Danish electric power company) customers were offered the use of a solar water heating system for a short period of time. NESA was responsible for the marketing and consultancy service and worked in cooperation with local plumbers in connection with the delivery of the systems. The company contacted 450 households and its representatives visited 25 of these. 4 customers decided to purchase a solar heating system, fourteen decided to think about it, and four declared that they would not buy one. The company had reckoned with 25 purchases. It is concluded that the price of the solar heating systems was too high for prospective customers and the fact that they were not given a special offer had a negative effect. The economic aspect was absolutely the most important for them, especially the length of the payback period on the higher purchase system. Environmental protection aspects came second in their deliberations. NESA has a positive attitude to their customers' use of solar heating plants and recommends that households are offered very high quality consultancy services in connection with marketing. The project is described in detail. (AB)

  2. Invited article: Electric solar wind sail: toward test missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, P; Toivanen, P K; Polkko, J; Merikallio, S; Salminen, P; Haeggström, E; Seppänen, H; Kurppa, R; Ukkonen, J; Kiprich, S; Thornell, G; Kratz, H; Richter, L; Krömer, O; Rosta, R; Noorma, M; Envall, J; Lätt, S; Mengali, G; Quarta, A A; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O; Kalvas, T; Kauppinen, J; Nuottajärvi, A; Obraztsov, A

    2010-11-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a space propulsion concept that uses the natural solar wind dynamic pressure for producing spacecraft thrust. In its baseline form, the E-sail consists of a number of long, thin, conducting, and centrifugally stretched tethers, which are kept in a high positive potential by an onboard electron gun. The concept gains its efficiency from the fact that the effective sail area, i.e., the potential structure of the tethers, can be millions of times larger than the physical area of the thin tethers wires, which offsets the fact that the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is very weak. Indeed, according to the most recent published estimates, an E-sail of 1 N thrust and 100 kg mass could be built in the rather near future, providing a revolutionary level of propulsive performance (specific acceleration) for travel in the solar system. Here we give a review of the ongoing technical development work of the E-sail, covering tether construction, overall mechanical design alternatives, guidance and navigation strategies, and dynamical and orbital simulations.

  3. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, W.

    1993-01-01

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  4. S/EV 91: Solar and electric vehicle symposium, car and trade show. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    These proceedings cover the fundamentals of electric vehicles. Papers on the design, testing and performance of the power supplies, drive trains, and bodies of solar and non-solar powered electric vehicles are presented. Results from demonstrations and races are described. Public policy on the economics and environmental impacts of using electric powered vehicles is also presented.

  5. Fundamental characteristics on electric system of solar electric vehicle; Solar car no denki keito ni kansuru kiso tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, S; Sasaki, M; Kaga, T; Koyama, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The electric system of a solar vehicle was removed and the fundamental characteristics examined in order to carry out a basic experiment on the electric system. Using a basic circuit with panels, batteries and loads connected, the voltage and current were measured in the presence/absence of the trackers, batteries, etc., and then, their effects were examined. Simultaneously, the quantity of solar radiation was also measured. The lowering of the output voltage was somewhat relaxed with the use of the trackers. Further, with the trackers used, the output voltage of the panel was small in spite of a large quantity of solar radiation compared to the case without the trackers, which was due to the restriction of the output voltage by the trackers. When measured without batteries, the output voltage of the panel was such that the load current was also influenced by the variation of insolation, so that, with a large decrease in insolation, the load current was decreased with the supply of current suspended from the panel. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  7. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  8. International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen: Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.; Hayden, H.

    2005-05-01

    The International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen provides an opportunity to learn about current significant research on solar concentrators for generating electricity or hydrogen. The conference will emphasize in-depth technical discussions of recent achievements in technologies that convert concentrated solar radiation to electricity or hydrogen, with primary emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Very high-efficiency solar cells--above 37%--were recently developed, and are now widely used for powering satellites. This development demands that we take a fresh look at the potential of solar concentrators for generating low-cost electricity or hydrogen. Solar electric concentrators could dramatically overtake other PV technologies in the electric utility marketplace because of the low capital cost of concentrator manufacturing facilities and the larger module size of concentrators. Concentrating solar energy also has advantages for th e solar generation of hydrogen. Around the world, researchers and engineers are developing solar concentrator technologies for entry into the electricity generation market and several have explored the use of concentrators for hydrogen production. The last conference on the subject of solar electric concentrators was held in November of 2003 and proved to be an important opportunity for researchers and developers to share new and crucial information that is helping to stimulate projects in their countries.

  9. High-Efficiency, Multijunction Solar Cells for Large-Scale Solar Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    A solar cell with an infinite number of materials (matched to the solar spectrum) has a theoretical efficiency limit of 68%. If sunlight is concentrated, this limit increases to about 87%. These theoretical limits are calculated using basic physics and are independent of the details of the materials. In practice, the challenge of achieving high efficiency depends on identifying materials that can effectively use the solar spectrum. Impressive progress has been made with the current efficiency record being 39%. Today's solar market is also showing impressive progress, but is still hindered by high prices. One strategy for reducing cost is to use lenses or mirrors to focus the light on small solar cells. In this case, the system cost is dominated by the cost of the relatively inexpensive optics. The value of the optics increases with the efficiency of the solar cell. Thus, a concentrator system made with 35%- 40%-efficient solar cells is expected to deliver 50% more power at a similar cost when compare with a system using 25%-efficient cells. Today's markets are showing an opportunity for large concentrator systems that didn't exist 5-10 years ago. Efficiencies may soon pass 40% and ultimately may reach 50%, providing a pathway to improved performance and decreased cost. Many companies are currently investigating this technology for large-scale electricity generation. The presentation will cover the basic physics and more practical considerations to achieving high efficiency as well as describing the current status of the concentrator industry. This work has been authored by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute under Contract No. DE- AC36-99GO10337 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow

  10. Solar PV electricity and market characteristics: two Canadian case-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether solar electricity (that is, electricity generated by photovoltaics) is, on an average, more valuable - in market terms - than the electricity generated in power systems as a whole, this article investigates the extent to which solar resource availability in two Canadian locations is associated with peak electricity market demand and peak electricity market price. More specifically, solar radiation and electricity market data for the period 1 May 2002 to 30 April 2004 are examined for Calgary, Alta. and Guelph, Ont. A variety of visual and statistical investigations reveal that solar radiation values coincide closely with peak electricity market demand and, though to a somewhat lesser extent, peak electricity market prices during the summertime in each location. While more detailed investigation is needed in order to determine the specific impact of different levels of PV penetration upon provincial electricity markets, the article provides ample encouragement for further research. The article also shows how different techniques can be used-in any location-to investigate the relationship among solar electricity potential, system-wide demand and market prices. With electricity industries being restructured around the world, it continues to be important for solar energy proponents to participate in discussions regarding economic costs and benefits. Techniques used in this article can help them advance the solar electricity case more effectively and thus catalyse the deployment of photovoltaics in markets around the world. (author)

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  12. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  13. 3D Electric Waveforms of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Electric fields provide the major coupling between the turbulence of the solar wind and particles. A large part of the turbulent spectrum of fluctuations in the solar wind is thought to be kinetic Alfvén waves; however, whistlers have recently been found to be important. In this article, we attempt to determine the mode identification of individual waveforms using the three-dimensional antenna system of the SWaves experiments on the STEREO spacecraft. Samples are chosen using waveforms with an apparent periodic structure, selected visually. The short antennas of STEREO respond to density fluctuations and to electric fields. Measurement of four quantities using only three antennas presents a problem. Methods to overcome or to ignore this difficulty are presented. We attempt to decide whether the waveforms correspond to the whistler mode or the Alfvén mode by using the direction of rotation of the signal. Most of the waveforms are so oblique—nearly linearly polarized—that the direction cannot be determined. However, about one third of the waveforms can be identified, and whistlers and Alfvén waves are present in roughly equal numbers. The selected waveforms are very intense but intermittent and are orders of magnitude stronger than the average, yet their accumulated signal accounts for a large fraction of the average. The average, however, is supposed to be the result of a turbulent mixture of many waves, not short coherent events. This presents a puzzle for future work.

  14. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Durfee, Norman [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Overbey, Randall M [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data

  15. MobiCat - a solar-electrical passenger boat; MobiCat solar-elektrisches Passagierschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of the 'MobiCat' project which included the design, construction and operation of a solar-electric powered passenger ship for inland waterways. The vessel is of a catamaran with a length of 33 m and a width of 11 m. The electrical energy is produced by a 20 kW{sub p} array of photovoltaic panels and stored in two 480 V lead-acid battery blocks rated at 240 Ah each. The ship is powered by two 81 kW industrial AC drives. With a passenger capacity of 150 persons MobiCat is the largest solar-powered ship world-wide. The report discusses the generally positive operational experience and the wide interest both by the public and the media that the project has attracted. The MobiCat has become the most popular charter ship on the lake of Biel/Bienne in Switzerland. The author states that the ultimate goals of the project - to demonstrate the feasibility of large solar-powered passenger ships and to present new sustainable mobility solutions on inland waterways - have been fully reached.

  16. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  17. Solar Electricity Generation: Issues of Development and Impact on ICT Implementation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasen, Ikwaba Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss, in-depth, how solar electricity can be developed and used to tackle grid electricity-related problems in African countries suffering from unreliable and inadequate grid electricity. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses in depth the current status of grid electricity in…

  18. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  19. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-04

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Insulated Solar Electric Cooking – Tomorrow's healthy affordable stoves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Watkins

    Full Text Available We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater inside of a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking (SEC technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking (ISEC systems already cost competitive. We present a $100 prototype and preliminary results of two implementations in Uganda.

  1. Solar electricity for Africa: The case of Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plas, R.J. van der

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.

  2. Comet rendezvous mission design using Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, L. L.; Hastrup, R. C.; Yen, C.-W. L.; Wood, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    A dual comet (Halley Flyby/Tempel 2 Rendezvous) mission, which is planned to be the first to use the Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), is to be launched in 1985. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the mission design attempts to maximize science return while working within spacecraft and other constraints. Science requirements and desires are outlined and specific instruments are considered. Emphasis is on the strategy for operations in the vicinity of Tempel 2, for which a representative profile is described. The mission is planned to extend about one year past initial rendezvous. Because of the large uncertainty in the comet environment the Tempel 2 operations strategy must be highly adaptive.

  3. PV Solar Electricity: From a Niche Market to One of the Most Important Mainstream Markets for Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W.; Waldmann, L.

    PV solar electricity is seen as one of the few booming markets, today and in the coming decades. This market has grown globally at a rate of about 40% per year over the past 10 years. Related industries have realized a two-digit, billion-dollar (U.S.) turnover worldwide. PV solar electricity is a high-tech industry with high performance potential in the coming decades, leaving even the electronics industries behind and approaching the automotive industry.

  4. Solar electric power for instruments at remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Small photovoltaic (PV) systems are the preferred method to power instruments operating at permanent locations away from the electric power grid. The low-power PV power system consists of a solar panel or small array of panels, lead-acid batteries, and a charge controller. Even though the small PV power system is simple, the job of supplying power at a remote site can be very demanding. The equipment is often exposed to harsh conditions. The site may be inaccessible part of the year or difficult and expensive to reach at any time. Yet the system must provide uninterrupted power with minimum maintenance at low cost. This requires good design. Successful small PV systems often require modifications by a knowledgeable fieldworker to adapt to conditions at the site. Much information is available in many places about solar panels, lead-acid batteries, and charging systems but very little of it applies directly to low power instrument sites. The discussion here aims to close some of the gap. Each of the major components is described in terms of this application with particular attention paid to batteries. Site problems are investigated. Finally, maintenance and test procedures are given. This document assumes that the reader is engaged in planning or maintaining low-power PV sites and has basic electrical and electronic knowledge. The area covered by the discussion is broad. To help the reader with the many terms and acronyms used, they are shown in bold when first used and a glossary is provided at the end of the paper.

  5. COMPASS Final Report: Enceladus Solar Electric Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) internal Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage design are documented in this report (Figure 1.1). The SEP Stage was designed to deliver a science probe to Saturn (the probe design was performed separately by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC)). The SEP Stage delivers the 2444 kg probe on a Saturn trajectory with a hyperbolic arrival velocity of 5.4 km/s. The design carried 30 percent mass, 10 percent power, and 6 percent propellant margins. The SEP Stage relies on the probe for substantial guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), command and data handling (C&DH), and Communications functions. The stage is configured to carry the probe and to minimize the packaging interference between the probe and the stage. The propulsion system consisted of a 1+1 (one active, one spare) configuration of gimbaled 7 kW NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion thrusters with a throughput of 309 kg Xe propellant. Two 9350 W GaAs triple junction (at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU), includes 10 percent margin) ultra-flex solar arrays provided power to the stage, with Li-ion batteries for launch and contingency operations power. The base structure was an Al-Li hexagonal skin-stringer frame built to withstand launch loads. A passive thermal control system consisted of heat pipes to north and south radiator panels, multilayer insulation (MLI) and heaters for the Xe tank. All systems except tanks and solar arrays were designed to be single fault tolerant.

  6. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  7. Towards a greener tomorrow: the future for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, John

    1998-01-01

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) system consisting of an array of photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into DC electricity silently and without pollution is simple and reliable, easy to install and requires little maintenance and no refuelling. However, there are a number of technical, economic and structural problems to be overcome before photovoltaics achieve significant penetration in the energy market. The main technical barrier is the low energy density of sunlight and its uneven distribution. Furthermore, photovoltaics cannot produce electricity at night and although battery storage can be provided or PV systems can be connected to the grid, this adds to the cost. Cost is the major barrier to penetration of the market but this is continually being cut. Advances in solar cell design are discussed which are bringing down the cost of fabrication and this added to economics of scale as market share develops will eventually make PV systems more competitive. So far, PV systems have found their largest market in powering isolated devices and in the infrastructure of remote rural communities in developing countries but grid connected systems, both centralised power generation plants and building integrated systems, are expected to take over the largest share of the PV market by 2010. (UK)

  8. What’s Political about Solar Electric Technology? The User’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars in science and technology studies have debated the various ways in which technologies are (or are not political. Here, I examine how users themselves understand and articulate the politics of a specific technology—residential solar electric technology—and how understandings of politics interact with motivations to adopt. Based on interviews with 48 individuals in 36 households across the state of Wisconsin who have adopted residential solar electric technology, I consider the user’s perspective on the question: “What’s political about residential solar electric technology use?” These users were asked about the politics of this technology and how their understanding of the technology’s politics shaped their own motivation for adoption. These solar electric technology adopters saw solar electric technology as both imbued with political character based on the current national political scene and as inherently, innately political. They described how solar electric technology interacts with the politics of environmentalism, challenges “politics-as-usual” and can bring about decentralization and redistribution of wealth. In short, to the users of solar electric technology, this technological artifact is, indeed, political; it both interacts with, and offers an alternative to, current American political structures. Further, their perspectives on the politics of solar technology shaped their understandings of motivations for and limitations to adoption of this alternative technology.

  9. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 11: Electrical characteristics of 2 ohm-cm, 228 micron wraparound solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation. [for solar electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric characterization data on Spectrolab 2 by 4 cm, 2 ohm/cm, 228 micron thick wraparound cell, a candidate for the Solar Electric Propulsion Mission, are presented. These data consist of the electrical characteristics of the solar cell under a wide range of temperature and illumination intensity combinations of the type encountered in space applications.

  10. The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Half the world's population lives without access to electricity in the rural areas and villages of developing countries. In 1987, world population reached 5 billion and, according to World Bank projections, will increase to over 6 billion in the year 2000 and to over 8 billion in 2025. Such population growth is not uniformly distributed: developed countries have small or negative growth and account for a declining proportion of the world's population. Inasmuch as 95 per cent of the extra inhabitants added each year are in developing countries, rapid population growth in those countries raises serious questions about energy availability for basic human needs and, of course, more broadly about the environment's capacity to support that growth. The present report makes reference to one of the most comprehensively documented conservative scenarios for world energy demand in the year 2020, namely, Energy for a Sustainable World, which assumed that long-term world sustainability must entail constraints on (a) use of natural resources and (b) combustion of fossil fuels resulting in the greenhouse effect. Solar energy is abundant and could become a major source of electricity. Photovoltaics has three particular advantages. It accomplishes sunlight-to-electricity conversion entirely with solid-state electronic components, and with no moving parts required, thereby promising high equipment availability and very low operating and maintenance costs. PV also appears to have very limited environmental impact, with no emissions of the gaseous pollutants associated with fossil-fuel burning and few of the possible local problems associated with some other renewable energy technologies. Finally, the products of photovoltaic technology are modular in construction and can be built up on site in a flexible way, thus minimizing front-end financial risk and investment costs. Figs and tabs

  11. Thermic solar plants for the production of electricity in Mexico: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade, there are have been some important achievements in generating electricity using solar concentrators. The Instituto de Ingenieria, of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), has started the design and construction of solar thermic plants for generating electricity , capable of reaching 1 Kw and 10 Kw. The Instituto continues developing the research and testing of new materials, because this way of generating electricity has become economically feasible: besides, it constitutes a non polluting alternative. (Author)

  12. Moving an asteroid with electric solar wind sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikallio, S.; Janhunen, P.

    2010-12-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-Sail) is a new propulsion method for interplanetary travel which was invented in 2006 and is currently under development. The E-Sail uses charged tethers to extract momentum from the solar wind particles to obtain propulsive thrust. According to current estimates, the E-Sail is 2-3 orders of magnitude better than traditional propulsion methods (chemical rockets and ion engines) in terms of produced lifetime-integrated impulse per propulsion system mass. Here we analyze the problem of using the E-Sail for directly deflecting an Earth-threatening asteroid. The problem then culminates into how to attach the E-Sail device to the asteroid. We assess alternative attachment strategies, namely straightforward direct towing with a cable and the gravity tractor method which works for a wider variety of situations. We also consider possible techniques to scale up the E-Sail force beyond the baseline one Newton level to deal with more imminent or larger asteroid or cometary threats. As a baseline case we consider an asteroid of effective diameter of 140 m and mass of 3 million tons, which can be deflected with a baseline 1 N E-Sail within 10 years. With a 5 N E-Sail the deflection could be achieved in 5 years. Once developed, the E-Sail would appear to provide a safe and reasonably low-cost way of deflecting dangerous asteroids and other heavenly bodies in cases where the collision threat becomes known several years in advance.

  13. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsperman, M.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D. B.; Clifford, S. M.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances (including advances in autonomous operation and propulsion technology) to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow (Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Since the SAR and the notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would be huge data volume producers - to maximize the science return we are currently considering the usage of laser communications systems; this notional spacecraft represents one pathway to evaluate the utility of laser communications in planetary exploration while providing useful science return.. Mission Concept: Using a common space craft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. SEP provides the greatest payload advantage albeit at the sacrifice of mission time. Our concept involves using a SEP enabled space craft (Boeing 702SP) with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Our concept of operations is to launch on May 5, 2018 using a launch vehicle with 2000kg launch capacity with a C3 of 7.4. After reaching Mars it takes 145 days to spiral down to a 250 km orbit above the surface of Mars when Mars SAR operations begin. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute the baseline science mission and conduct necessary Mars Sample Return Technology Demonstrations in Mars orbit on the same mission. An

  14. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  15. Electrical design for origami solar panels and a small spacecraft test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, James; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Efficient power generation is crucial to the design of spacecraft. Mass, volume, and other limitations prevent the use of traditional spacecraft support structures from being suitable for the size of solar array required for some missions. Folding solar panel / panel array systems, however, present a number of design challenges. This paper considers the electrical design of an origami system. Specifically, it considers how to provide low impedance, durable channels for the generated power and the electrical aspects of the deployment system and procedure. The ability to dynamically reconfigure the electrical configuration of the solar cells is also discussed. Finally, a small satellite test mission to demonstrate the technology is proposed, before concluding.

  16. Solar electricity: An effective asset to supply urban loads in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Fabien Chidanand; Gopalan, Sundararaman

    2018-04-01

    While human population has been multiplied by four in the last hundred years, the world energy consumption was multiplied by ten. The common method of using fossil fuels to provide energy and electricity has dangerously disturbed nature's and climate's balance. It has become urgent and crucial to find sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to preserve a livable environment with unpolluted air and water. Renewable energy is the unique eco-friendly opportunity known today. The main challenge of using renewable energy is to ensure the constant balance of electricity demand and generation on the electrical grid. This paper investigates whether the solar electricity generation is correlated with the urban electricity consumption in hot climates. The solar generation and total consumption have been compared for three cities in Florida. The hourly solar generation has been found to be highly correlated with the consumption that occurs 6 h later, while the monthly solar generation is correlated with the monthly energy consumption. Producing 30% of the electricity using solar energy has been found to compensate partly for the monthly variation in the urban electricity demand. In addition, if 30% of the world electricity is produced using solar, global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 11.7% (14.6% for India). Thus, generating 30% solar electricity represents a valuable asset for urban areas situated in hot climates, reducing the need for electrical operating reserve, providing local supply with minimal transmission losses, but above all reducing the need for fossil fuel electricity and reducing global CO2 emission.

  17. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sims, Cianan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  18. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  19. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  20. Application of solar concentrators for combined production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    New specific concept is application of solar dish concentrators in a process which allows solar energy to be used for splitting water in hydrogen and oxygen, with electrical energy as a byproduct. This is performed in two stages: The first stage uses highly concentrated solar energy to split CO 2 Into CO and O 2 . The second stage uses water-gas shifts reaction to cause the CO to react with water and produced hydrogen and CO 2 , Carbon dioxide is then recycled back into the system, and the waste heat is used to produce electricity in a steam turbine, Efficiency of the process is 45% , totaling 20% in chemical energy (H 2 ), and 25% electricity. This solar system is 80% more efficient than other solar technologies which make energy much cheaper. The environmentally friendly and low cost hydrogen can become a prime mover of fuel cell development especially in automotive application. (Author)

  1. VALVE TURBO-ALTERNATOR AS ADDITIONAL HYBRID CAR DEVICE FOR THE HIGH-VOLTAGE BATTERY CHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the hybrid car, its drive components and method of the solution of the problem with moving period of the car on electric pulling by means of valve turbo-alternator is given in this article.

  2. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  3. Solar electric and thermal conversion system in close proximity to the consumer. [solar panels on house roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeer, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Solar cells may be used to convert sunlight directly into electrical energy and into lowgrade heat to be used for large-scale terrestrial solar-energy conversion. Both forms of energy can be utilized if such cells are deployed in close proximity to the consumer (rooftop). Cadmium-sulfide/copper-sulfide (CdS/Cu2S) solar cells are an example of cells which may be produced inexpensively enough to become economically attractive. Cell parameters relevant for combined solar conversion are presented. Critical issues, such as production yield, life expectancy, and stability of performance, are discussed. Systems-design parameters related to operating temperatures are analyzed. First results obtained on Solar One, the experimental house of the University of Delaware, are given. Economic aspects are discussed. Different modes of operation are discussed in respect to the power utility and consumer incentives.

  4. A distributed big data storage and data mining framework for solar-generated electricity quantity forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzong; Chen, Yanjun; Hua, Rui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jia

    2012-02-01

    Photovoltaic is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Due to the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. Solar photovoltaics are growing rapidly, albeit from a small base, to a total global capacity of 40,000 MW at the end of 2010. More than 100 countries use solar photovoltaics. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaic has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. Net metering and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity; have supported solar photovoltaics installations in many countries. However, the power that generated by solar photovoltaics is affected by the weather and other natural factors dramatically. To predict the photovoltaic energy accurately is of importance for the entire power intelligent dispatch in order to reduce the energy dissipation and maintain the security of power grid. In this paper, we have proposed a big data system--the Solar Photovoltaic Power Forecasting System, called SPPFS to calculate and predict the power according the real-time conditions. In this system, we utilized the distributed mixed database to speed up the rate of collecting, storing and analysis the meteorological data. In order to improve the accuracy of power prediction, the given neural network algorithm has been imported into SPPFS.By adopting abundant experiments, we shows that the framework can provide higher forecast accuracy-error rate less than 15% and obtain low latency of computing by deploying the mixed distributed database architecture for solar-generated electricity.

  5. Molecular monolayers for electrical passivation and functionalization of silicon-based solar energy devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J.; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based

  6. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  7. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters; Levantamento de custos associados a substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por aquecedores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UFEI), MG (Brazil); Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  8. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin-Ping

    2017-07-11

    Recent technological advances in conventional planar and microstructured solar cell architectures have significantly boosted the efficiencies of these devices near the corresponding theoretical values. Nanomaterials and nanostructures have promising potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However, at present the efficiency of nanostructured solar cells remains lower than that of conventional solar devices due to the accompanying losses associated with the employment of nanomaterials. The concurrent design of both optical and electrical components will presumably be an imperative route toward breaking the present-day limit of nanostructured solar cells. This review summarizes the losses in traditional solar cells, and then discusses recent advances in applications of nanotechnology to solar devices from both optical and electrical perspectives. Finally, a rule for nanostructured solar cells by concurrently engineering the optical and electrical design is devised. Following these guidelines should allow for exceeding the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency soon.

  9. The generation of pollution-free electrical power from solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Projections of the U.S. electrical power demands over the next 30 years indicate that the U.S. could be in grave danger from power shortages, undesirable effluence, and thermal pollution. An appraisal of nonconventional methods of producing electrical power is conducted, giving particular attention to the conversion of solar energy into commercial quantities of electrical power by solar cells. It is found that 1% of the land area of the 48 states could provide the total electrical power requirements of the U.S. in the year 1990. The ultimate method of generating vast quantities of electrical power would be from a series of synchronous satellites which beam microwave power back to earth to be used wherever needed. Present high manufacturing costs of solar cells could be substantially reduced by using massive automated techniques employing abundant low cost materials.

  10. A sealed turbo-alternator using any working-fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, Maurice.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealed turbo-alternator operating with a working fluid other than water. The turbo-alternator and the feed and lubricating pumps thereof are housed in a sealed casing. The latter constitutes, with the heat pump and the heat sink, a sealed enclosure containing the working and lubricating fluid. The alternator, which comprises neither collector nor brushes, is dipped in the working fluid vapor. Electric energy leaves the sealed enclosure through insulating sealed passager. In view of the absence of leakage it is possible to select (e.g. among freons) a working fluid well suited to the temperature differential between the heat source and the heat sink, and, accordingly to use temperature drops which could be too small in the case of steam. The various applications are as follows: recovery of calories at the exhaust of diesels and of gas turbines or in the cooling water of diesels; equipment of isotopic generators; recovery of calories from factory waste thrown into rivers (anti-pollution effect in view of the lowering of water temperature); non-polluting engine for special electrical vehicles [fr

  11. 77 FR 28618 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Draft Environmental... & Electric (SDG&E) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is... comments related to the SDG&E Ocotillo Sol Solar Project by any of the following methods: Web site: http...

  12. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  13. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  14. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  15. Development of a solar-powered electric bicycle in bike sharing transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisuwignjo, S.; Siradjuddin, I.; Rifa'i, M.; Putri, R. I.

    2017-06-01

    The increasing mobility has directly led to deteriorating traffic conditions, extra fuel consumption, increasing automobile exhaust emissions, air pollution and lowering quality of life. Apart from being clean, cheap and equitable mode of transport for short-distance journeys, cycling can potentially offer solutions to the problem of urban mobility. Many cities have tried promoting cycling particularly through the implementation of bike-sharing. Apparently the fourth generation bikesharing system has been promoted utilizing electric bicycles which considered as a clean technology implementation. Utilization of solar power is probably the development keys in the fourth generation bikesharing system and will become the standard in bikesharing system in the future. Electric bikes use batteries as a source of energy, thus they require a battery charger system which powered from the solar cells energy. This research aims to design and implement electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. It is necessary to develop an electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. The study was conducted by means of experimental method which includes the design, manufacture and testing controller systems. The designed fuzzy algorithm have been planted in EEPROM microcontroller ATmega8535. The charging current was set at 1.2 Amperes and the full charged battery voltage was observed to be 40 Volts. The results showed a fuzzy logic controller was able to maintain the charging current of 1.2 Ampere with an error rate of less than 5% around the set point. The process of charging electric bike lead acid batteries from empty to fully charged was 5 hours. In conclusion, the development of solar-powered electric bicycle controlled using fuzzy logic controller can keep the battery charging current in solar-powered electric bicycle to remain stable. This shows that the fuzzy algorithm can be used as

  16. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  17. Simulation study of solar wind push on a charged wire: basis of solar wind electric sail propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One possibility for propellantless propulsion in space is to use the momentum flux of the solar wind. A way to set up a solar wind sail is to have a set of thin long wires which are kept at high positive potential by an onboard electron gun so that the wires repel and deflect incident solar wind protons. The efficiency of this so-called electric sail depends on how large force a given solar wind exerts on a wire segment and how large electron current the wire segment draws from the solar wind plasma when kept at a given potential. We use 1-D and 2-D electrostatic plasma simulations to calculate the force and present a semitheoretical formula which captures the simulation results. We find that under average solar wind conditions at 1 AU the force per unit length is (5±1×10−8 N/m for 15 kV potential and that the electron current is accurately given by the well-known orbital motion limited (OML theory cylindrical Langmuir probe formula. Although the force may appear small, an analysis shows that because of the very low weight of a thin wire per unit length, quite high final speeds (over 50 km/s could be achieved by an electric sailing spacecraft using today's flight-proved components. It is possible that artificial electron heating of the plasma in the interaction region could increase the propulsive effect even further.

  18. Simulation study of solar wind push on a charged wire: basis of solar wind electric sail propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One possibility for propellantless propulsion in space is to use the momentum flux of the solar wind. A way to set up a solar wind sail is to have a set of thin long wires which are kept at high positive potential by an onboard electron gun so that the wires repel and deflect incident solar wind protons. The efficiency of this so-called electric sail depends on how large force a given solar wind exerts on a wire segment and how large electron current the wire segment draws from the solar wind plasma when kept at a given potential. We use 1-D and 2-D electrostatic plasma simulations to calculate the force and present a semitheoretical formula which captures the simulation results. We find that under average solar wind conditions at 1 AU the force per unit length is (5±1×10−8 N/m for 15 kV potential and that the electron current is accurately given by the well-known orbital motion limited (OML theory cylindrical Langmuir probe formula. Although the force may appear small, an analysis shows that because of the very low weight of a thin wire per unit length, quite high final speeds (over 50 km/s could be achieved by an electric sailing spacecraft using today's flight-proved components. It is possible that artificial electron heating of the plasma in the interaction region could increase the propulsive effect even further.

  19. Electrical equivalent model of intermediate band solar cell using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presents a structure of IBSC based on ZnTe:O. The proposed model uses irradiance and temperature as ... of solar cells. They are based on different processes and properties such as photon recycling, ... The MATLAB interface was used .... ioral model of an arbitrary solar cell to amend the PSPICE simulation performance.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    According to a report by the French Renewable Energy Syndicate (SER), France had an installed photovoltaic fleet of 180 MW in late 2008, a substantial increase from 2007 (75 MW). This growth is largely due to the government's market-supporting policy that implemented a tax and tariff policy which encourages individuals to invest in so-called 'building integrated' systems; the goal of this policy is to bring together innovation in the building industry and the development of renewable energy among the French energy mix. The key event for the future of renewable energy and the photovoltaic sector in France was the 'Grenelle of the Environment'. This government initiative, launched in late 2007, became the subject of public debate and afterwards led to a bill which set the conditions under which France wishes to grow solar power's share of its energy mix. Working committees that bring together representatives from government authorities and industrial and public renewable energy stakeholders have proposed benchmarks. A few proposals with particular significance for photovoltaic power have been adopted by the government: - objectives for PV cumulative installed capacity in France of 1 100 MW in 2012 and 5 400 MW in 2020; - confirmation until 2012 of the current feed-in tariffs and the creation of an additional one targeting installations on large buildings such as commercial and industrial sheds. This tariff shall be set approximately at 0,45 EUR per kWh; - a call for tenders for the construction by 2011 of at least one solar photovoltaic power plant in each French region, for a total installed capacity of 300 MW. The nationally initiated actions for growing the market are heavily relayed by public assistance to regional councils, general councils, communities of communes and communes themselves, in accordance with their own particular specifications. The incentive to purchase electricity produced by built-in installations has caused a

  1. Sensitivity of Solar Fossil Hybrid Electricity Technology Penetration to Price and Efficiency Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    With many aging coal and nuclear plants nearing retirement age, new electricity production capacity will need to be built over the next several decades. There are many methods of generating electricity, each with different benefits and drawbacks. While solar and wind generation a...

  2. Structural dynamics of turbo-machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rangwala, AS

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of structural vibration evaluation of turbo-machines. Starting with the fundamentals of the theory of vibration as related to various aspects of rotating machines, the dynamic analysis procedures of a broad spectrum of turbo-machines is covered. An in-depth procedure for analyzing the torsional and flexural oscillations of the components and of the rotor-bearing system is presented. The latest trends in design and analysis are presented, chief among them: Blade and coupled disk-blade mod

  3. Solar causes of the excitation of earth electric currents and of geomagnetic field disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, L.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the effects of solar activity on geomagnetic and geoelectric disturbances. Indexes are given showing changes in the magnetic field, the occurrence of calm geomagnetic days related to solar activity, proton solar flares and electrical currents in the high layers of the atmosphere in the polar region, powerfull solar activity and electric currents in the polar region, the time rise of shock waves in the development of proton flares and the boundaries of sector structures of the interplanetary magnetic field and its effect on the Earth. It is stated that the geoelectric and geomagnetic fields are affected by the discrete phenomena of solar activity and by the transition of the quasimagnetic sectors of interplanetary fields. (J.P.)

  4. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  5. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  6. The Assessment Of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity In ICT for Sustainability In Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivor, Kenneth; Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi

    2013-01-01

    Poor basic infrastructure and reliable electricity supply play a significant role in development of Information, Communication Technologies (ICT) industry and could eventually lead to attaining sustainable development. From research studies, quality electricity supply has been an integral part....... Unfortunately, electricity delivery in the third countries is so much appalling due to limited electricity generating capacity, poor distribution networks, etc. which is hindering effective development including the ICT industry in these countries. To address some of these challenges locally without recourse...... to importation of fossil fuel energy resources that will compromise sustainable development goals, it is important to that locally, abundantly and freely available energy source such as solar electricity are given priority by policy makers, researcher and industries in third world countries. Solar electricity...

  7. Application of Electric Double Layer Capacitor for Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 弘一; 岸, 純男; 仲森, 昌也; 荒賀, 浩一

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for efficient work of electrical energy, using DC-DC converter as insulate between battery and Electrical Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC). In case of constant-current charge to the EDLC, the efficiency of the electric power is higher, compared to the constant-voltage charge.

  8. Extra-Zodiacal-Cloud Astronomy via Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Oleson, Steven R.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Thronson, Harley A.; Vaughn, Frank J.; Fixsen, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is often considered as primary propulsion for robotic planetary missions, providing the opportunity to deliver more payload mass to difficult, high-delta-velocity destinations. However, SEP application to astrophysics has not been well studied. This research identifies and assesses a new application of SEP as primary propulsion for low-cost high-performance robotic astrophysics missions. The performance of an optical/infrared space observatory in Earth orbit or at the Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) is limited by background emission from the Zodiacal dust cloud that has a disk morphology along the ecliptic plane. By delivering an observatory to a inclined heliocentric orbit, most of this background emission can be avoided, resulting in a very substantial increase in science performance. This advantage enabled by SEP allows a small-aperture telescope to rival the performance of much larger telescopes located at SEL2. In this paper, we describe a novel mission architecture in which SEP technology is used to enable unprecedented telescope sensitivity performance per unit collecting area. This extra-zodiacal mission architecture will enable a new class of high-performance, short-development time, Explorer missions whose sensitivity and survey speed can rival flagship-class SEL2 facilities, thus providing new programmatic flexibility for NASA's astronomy mission portfolio. A mission concept study was conducted to evaluate this application of SEP. Trajectory analyses determined that a 700 kg-class science payload could be delivered in just over 2 years to a 2 AU mission orbit inclined 15 to the ecliptic using a 13 kW-class NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) SEP system. A mission architecture trade resulted in a SEP stage architecture, in which the science spacecraft separates from the stage after delivery to the mission orbit. The SEP stage and science spacecraft concepts were defined in collaborative engineering environment studies. The

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Jacquin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The overall power of installed PV systems in France in 2007 was 31,3 MW which represents a significant growth compared to 2006. This increase is mainly due to the national fiscal measures (new feed-in tariff and tax credit) launched in 2006. The implemented feed-in tariff model application supports building integration of photovoltaic generators with a much higher financial incentive than other type of photovoltaic installations. In the same way, local authorities like regional councils and departmental councils developed new policies to promote photovoltaics through specific grants. As the building integration of photovoltaic generators is encouraged by a feed-in tariff bonus, innovative products are appearing on the market or are under development. In parallel, actors like architects, designers, engineers are now paying attention to building integration of photovoltaic components (BIPV). New actors such as financial institutions, energy operators, and private investors have developed ambitious projects. With the increase of the market, new firms have been created including engineering, consultancies, electricity producers, PV products distributors and retailers, installation and maintenance companies. Photovoltaic industrial sector is getting stronger and large investments have been undertaken in order to develop a vertical integration of the photovoltaic value chain, from feedstock silicon production to final photovoltaic products. A new private-public consortium called 'PV Alliance Lab Fab' has been set up and an important R and D project under the name of 'Solar Nano Crystal' should start by the end of 2008. At the same time, R and D activities focus on photovoltaic silicon cells/modules conversion efficiency and long term reliability, production costs, new materials and device design, yield, environmental impact of industrial processes and optimisation of control and monitoring of photovoltaic systems. In addition to the ADEME and ANR

  10. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  11. Dispersed solar thermal generation employing parabolic dish-electric transport with field modulated generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of field modulated generator systems (FMGS) to dispersed solar-thermal-electric generation from a parabolic dish field with electric transport. Each solar generation unit is rated at 15 kWe and the power generated by an array of such units is electrically collected for insertion into an existing utility grid. Such an approach appears to be most suitable when the heat engine rotational speeds are high (greater than 6000 r/min) and, in particular, if they are operated in the variable speed mode and if utility-grade a.c. is required for direct insertion into the grid without an intermediate electric energy storage and reconversion system. Predictions of overall efficiencies based on conservative efficiency figures for the FMGS are in the range of 25 per cent and should be encouraging to those involved in the development of cost-effective dispersed solar thermal power systems.

  12. Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwani, S.S.

    1987-11-01

    As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  13. Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Solar Wind Electric, Magnetic Fields and Solar Energetic Particle time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, G. P.; Malandraki, O.; Khabarova, O.; Livadiotis, G.; Pavlos, E.; Karakatsanis, L. P.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Parisis, K.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study the non-extensivity of Solar Wind space plasma by using electric-magnetic field data obtained by in situ spacecraft observations at different dynamical states of solar wind system especially in interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), Interplanetary shocks, magnetic islands, or near the Earth Bow shock. Especially, we study the energetic particle non extensive fractional acceleration mechanism producing kappa distributions as well as the intermittent turbulence mechanism producing multifractal structures related with the Tsallis q-entropy principle. We present some new and significant results concerning the dynamics of ICMEs observed in the near Earth at L1 solar wind environment, as well as its effect in Earth's magnetosphere as well as magnetic islands. In-situ measurements of energetic particles at L1 are analyzed, in response to major solar eruptive events at the Sun (intense flares, fast CMEs). The statistical characteristics are obtained and compared for the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) originating at the Sun, the energetic particle enhancements associated with local acceleration during the CME-driven shock passage over the spacecraft (Energetic Particle Enhancements, ESPs) as well as the energetic particle signatures observed during the passage of the ICME. The results are referred to Tsallis non-extensive statistics and in particular to the estimation of Tsallis q-triplet, (qstat, qsen, qrel) of electric-magnetic field and the kappa distributions of solar energetic particles time series of the ICME, magnetic islands, resulting from the solar eruptive activity or the internal Solar Wind dynamics. Our results reveal significant differences in statistical and dynamical features, indicating important variations of the magnetic field dynamics both in time and space domains during the shock event, in terms of rate of entropy production, relaxation dynamics and non-equilibrium meta-stable stationary states.

  14. Turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding for transmission over fading channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, L; Yeap, B

    2002-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the emerging 3G wireless personal communications standards and broadband access network standard proposals, this volume covers a range of coding and transmission aspects for transmission over fading wireless channels. It presents the most important classic channel coding issues and also the exciting advances of the last decade, such as turbo coding, turbo equalisation and space-time coding. It endeavours to be the first book with explicit emphasis on channel coding for transmission over wireless channels. Divided into 4 parts: Part 1 - explains the necessary background for novices. It aims to be both an easy reading text book and a deep research monograph. Part 2 - provides detailed coverage of turbo conventional and turbo block coding considering the known decoding algorithms and their performance over Gaussian as well as narrowband and wideband fading channels. Part 3 - comprehensively discusses both space-time block and space-time trellis coding for the first time in literature. Par...

  15. Solar fired combined RO/MED desalination plant integrated with electrical power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrobaei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong demand for efficient seawater desalination plants, which can meet the tougher environment regulation and energy saving requirements. From this standpoint the present work was undertaken to include proposed scheme (solar Fired Combined Reverse Osmosis (ROY Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Seawater desalination Plant (SCDP) integrated with electrical power grid (EPG)) for repowering and modification of the conventional grid connected RO desalination plants. The model of SCDP during sunny periods may be applied to the following modes operation: *Full solar desalination (i.e. solar thermal and electrical power generation in solar plant is elivered to the desalination process and the surplus electricity is fed into EPG). *Hybrid solar desalination (I.e. a small share of the electrical power consumption for desalination process compensated by EPG). During cloudly periods and at night the SCDP operates as a conventional RO desalination plant. To establish the range, in which solar energy for seawater desalination would be competitive to fossil energy and investigates the potential effect of the proposed scheme on the repowering effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed. The repowered effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed.The repowered effectiveness in optaimizing model was characterized by the condition of attaining maximum fuel saving in the EPG. The study result shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme for modification and repowering the RO plant. For the case study. (SCDP with maual share of solar electrical power generation 67.4%) the economical effect amount 138.9 ton fuel/year for each MW design thermal energy of parabolic solar collectors array and the corresponding decrease in exhaust gases emission (Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) 0.55 ton/year.MW, carbon dioxides (CO2) 434.9 ton/year.MW). Moreover, implementation of combined RO/MED design for repowering and modification of conventional grid connected RO plant will

  16. 'Turbo' coding for deep space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the `turbo' coding scheme is measured and an error floor is discovered. These residual errors are corrected with an outer BCH code. The complexity of the system is discussed, and for low data rates a realizable system operating at Eb/N0 below 0.2 dB is presented...

  17. Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...

  18. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  19. The Flanitzhuette project - solar island electricity supply combined with comprehensive electricity saving measures; Projekt Flanitzhuette - solare Inselstromversorgung in Kombination mit umfassenden Stromsparmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eingartner, M. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Knapp, R. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kranz, U. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-10-02

    Since 1992, Bayernwerk AG has been operating a solar island network at Flanitzhuette in the Bavarian Forest, to supply a remote hamlet. The plant is based on a photo-electric system together with a battery and a gas unit. The plant was designed by the least cost planning (LCP) process, ie: The electricity demand was first reduced by economy measures on the customers` side (demand side management, DSM) and then largely coverd by photo-electric supply. In the case of the `Flanitzhuette solar island`, the application of LCP was able to contribute to minimising the supply costs. The authors report on the project and the results in the electricity generation and saving areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bayernwerk AG betreibt seit 1992 in Flanitzhuette im Bayerischen Wald ein solares Inselstromnetz zur Versorgung eines abgelegenen Weilers. Die Anlage basiert auf einem Photovoltaik-System in Verbindung mit einer Batterieanlage und einem Gasaggregat. Bei der Konzeption der Anlage wurde nach dem Verfahren des Least-Cost Planning (LCP) vorgegangen, d.h. der Strombedarf wurde zunaechst durch wirtschaftliche Massnahmen auf der Kundenseite (Demand-Side Management, DSM) reduziert und erst anschliessend weitgehend photovoltaisch gedeckt. Im Falle der `Solarinsel Flanitzhuette` konnte die Anwendung von LCP zu einer Minimierung der Versorgungskosten beitragen. Die Verfasser berichten ueber das Projekt und die Ergebnisse im Stromerzeugungs- und Stromsparbereich. (orig.)

  20. Development and tests of large nuclear turbo-generator welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombie, H.; Thiery, M.; Rotzinger, R.; Pelissou, C.; Tabacco, C.; Fernagut, V.

    2015-01-01

    Turbo-generators require large forgings for the rotor and it is a worldwide practice to manufacture turbo-generator rotor bodies as single piece forgings. Rotors for nuclear applications (4-pole rotors design, 1500/1800 rpm) require forgings of up to 2.0 m diameter and ultra large ingots with weight more than 500 tons. Nowadays only few forge masters can deliver such forgings in the world. Based on the large welding experience Alstom has gained over decades on steam and gas turbines and Alstom's multi piece shrunk turbo-generator rotors, it was suggested to manufacture 4-pole turbo-generator rotors by welding the shaft from aligned cylindrical forgings. Compared to turbine welded rotors, the shaft of a turbo-generator rotor presents differences linked to dimensions/weight, weld depth and electrical application. The manufacture of a 2 disc model allowed to prove through electrical and mechanical analysis the reliability of the concept as well as the reliability of the manufacturing processes through material tests, micro sections, electrical component tests, weld geometry, welding processes (TIG,SAW,...), weld inspection (Ultrasonic testing, radiographic inspection,...) weld heat treatments and machining. Then a full rotor able to replace a single forging rotor was manufactured in order to validate and prove to potential customers the validity of the welded rotor technology. During the first order from EDF of a welded 900 MW spare rotor, the procedure for the Non Destructive Test on a slotted rotor was developed upon EDF request in order to compare future Non Destructive Testing with the finger print of the new rotor. This complete rotor was delivered to EDF in January 2013. This rotor is in operation in a nuclear unit since November 2013. (authors)

  1. The enhanced efficiency of graphene-silicon solar cells by electric field doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Lifei; Lv, Qingmin; Xu, Mingsheng; Chen, Hongzheng; Yang, Deren

    2015-04-28

    The graphene-silicon (Gr-Si) Schottky junction solar cell has been recognized as one of the most low-cost candidates in photovoltaics due to its simple fabrication process. However, the low Gr-Si Schottky barrier height largely limits the power conversion efficiency of Gr-Si solar cells. Here, we demonstrate that electric field doping can be used to tune the work function of a Gr film and therefore improve the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell effectively. The electric field doping effects can be achieved either by connecting the Gr-Si solar cell to an external power supply or by polarizing a ferroelectric polymer layer integrated in the Gr-Si solar cell. Exploration of both of the device architecture designs showed that the power conversion efficiency of Gr-Si solar cells is more than twice of the control Gr-Si solar cells. Our study opens a new avenue for improving the performance of Gr-Si solar cells.

  2. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  3. Hybrid solar-hydraulic electric power supply systems; Sistemas de fornecimento de energia eletrica hibrido solar hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Doriana Marinho Novaes; Silva, Selenio Rocha; Alvim Filho, Aymore de Castro [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mails: doriana@cpdee.ufmg.br; selenios@eee.ufmg.br; aymore@cpdee.ufmg.br; Martinez, Carlos Barreira [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: martinez@cce.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study among the direct solar energy utilization options ,through solar panels, coupled to the frequency inverter. These system store energy through batteries or through a reversible and hybrid solar/hydraulic system, coupled to a rectifier and a frequency inverter. There are two basic configurations for the systems being the first one composed of solar panels linked to a battery system , delivering electric energy through a three phase inverter. The second one is composed of solar panels connected to a small battery system and to a water reservoir that has the goal of operating as a reversible system during at night, or during load peak periods. In this ,it is presented a methodology for the designing and economic analysis, comparing this hybrid alternative, to the inverter plus batteries options. This methodology to the correct Energy Conversion System,which is economically advantageous due to the availability of the region. At the end, it is presented a 'case study' where viability of use , for the hybrid solar/hydraulic system in an isolated area, is verified. (author)

  4. Molecular Monolayers for Electrical Passivation and Functionalization of Silicon-Based Solar Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, Rick; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-11

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based solar cells. Organic monolayers were coupled to silicon surfaces by hydrosilylation in order to avoid an insulating silicon oxide layer at the surface. Monolayers of 1-tetradecyne were shown to passivate silicon micropillar-based solar cells with radial junctions, by which the efficiency increased from 8.7% to 9.9% for n + /p junctions and from 7.8% to 8.8% for p + /n junctions. This electrical passivation of the surface, most likely by removal of dangling bonds, is reflected in a higher shunt resistance in the J-V measurements. Monolayers of 1,8-nonadiyne were still reactive for click chemistry with a model catalyst, thus enabling simultaneous passivation and future catalyst coupling.

  5. Sensitivity of portuguese electricity market prices to solar PV penetration : an analysis of 2016 prices

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro De Sousa, João

    2017-01-01

    The reduction in price of solar PV technology led, in the recent years, multiple investors to apply for installing new solar PV power plants in Portugal which would operate without subsidies or feed-in-tari s. In 2016 it was reported the approval of construction of such power plants and given the low variable cost of this technology it is expected that their penetration would reduce the electricity market prices. Hence, before doing the economic assessment of potential new sola...

  6. Solar Cogeneration of Electricity and Hot Water at DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    the cogeneration system displaces more energy (the impact is not 4-5X because the GHG intensity factors for offsetting electricity generation and...visibility to Army energy managers. Additional benefits of Cogenra’s solar cogeneration system are the engineering and design jobs at Cogenra’s...certification. Solar cogeneration can help earn LEED points in three areas: Optimizing Energy Efficiency Performance, On-Site Renewable Energy , and

  7. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  8. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  9. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs.

  10. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldes, N.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

  11. PHOBOS Exploration using Two Small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J. J.; Baker, J. D.; McElrath, T. P.; Piacentine, J. S.; Snyder, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Phobos Surveyor Mission concept provides an innovative low cost, highly reliable approach to exploring the inner solar system 1/16/2013 3 Dual manifest launch. Use only flight proven, well characterize commercial off-the-shelf components. Flexible mission architecture allows for a slew of unique measurements.

  12. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POWER STATION SCHEMES ON PHOTOELECTRIC MODULES FOR ELECTRIC CARS CHARGING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing schemes for building solar power stations on photoelectric modules with the revealing of their operation principles and functionality has been conducted. The specified technical characteristics of each of the analyzed schemes are given. The structural scheme of the solar charging station for electric cars with determining its functional capabilities and operation features is proposed. The practical application of this scheme will help to reduce the dependence on the general electric power supply network and will create conditions for its total rejection.

  14. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  15. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-09-01

    We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

  16. Pico-solar electric systems the earthscan expert guide to the technology and emerging market

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, John

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the technology behind the pico-solar revolution and offers guidance on how to test and choose quality products. The book also discusses how pioneering companies and initiatives are overcoming challenges to reach scale in the marketplace, from innovative distribution strategies to reach customers in rural India and Tanzania, to product development in Cambodia, product assembly in Mozambique and the introduction of 'pay as you go' technology in Kenya.Pico-solar is a new category of solar electric system which has the potential to transform the lives

  17. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  18. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  19. Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Heat and Solar Radiation to Electric Power

    OpenAIRE

    Meir, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion has long been a candidate to convert solar radiation and the combustion heat of fossil fuels into electricity at high efficiencies. However, the formation of electron space charges has prevented the widespread use of the principle since its was first suggested in 1915. In this work, a novel mechanism to suppress the effects of the space charge was investigated: the acceleration of electrons in a special configuration of electric and magnetic fields. This work d...

  20. For the definition of capacity effects of electricity generation from wind power and solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltschmitt, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is the objective of this contribution to define the calculable really available output of a fluctuating electricity generation from wind energy and solar radiation. Apart from that, the methods for determining the really available output are explained, as far as they are necessary for understanding the definitions. Exemplified on a simulated large-scale regenerative electricity generation in Germany, in addition, some defined values are calculated and discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  2. Solar and electric automobiles: An idea whose time has come; Automoviles solares y electricos: Una idea cuyo tiempo ha llegado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Beatriz [Academia de la Investigacion Cientifica, A. C., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Given the dependence of our transport system in combustible hydrocarbons that, besides generating serious pollution levels, eventually will become scarce, severely affecting the world economy- it is compulsory to develop non polluting transportation, capable of operating with alternative energies. In the avant-guard of this technological achievement are the competition solar automobiles, that have made great contributions (particularly for the rigorous application of the design for efficiency principles) in the development of the applicable technology to the electric vehicles. Tonatiuh is the first competition solar car built in Mexico. In 1993 Tonatiuh will compete in the Rally Formula Sol in Mexico and in the World Solar of Australia. A superficial comparison of electric vehicles with vehicles equipped with internal combustion motors, demonstrates the great advantages of the first ones, most of all at the light of the current technological advances propitiated by laws that demand them for the sale of electric vehicles. This incipient industry presents a great opportunity for Mexico, since the markets are not saturated and exist large areas of research and development. For improvement of the air quality in Mexico city, the electric vehicle would have a very positive impact, mostly applied to public transportation. [Espanol] Dada la dependencia de nuestro sistema de transporte en hidrocarburos combustibles que, ademas de generar graves niveles de contaminacion eventualmente escacearan, afectando severamente la economia mundial - es imperativo desarrollar transportes no contaminantes capaces de operar con energias alternativas. En la vanguardia de esta avanzada tecnologia se encuentran los autos solares de carreras, los cuales han hecho grandes aportaciones (particularmente por la aplicacion rigurosa de los principios del diseno para eficiencia) el desarrollo de tecnologia aplicable a vehiculos electricos. Tonatiuh es el primer auto solar de carreras que se

  3. Solar and electric automobiles: An idea whose time has come; Automoviles solares y electricos: Una idea cuyo tiempo ha llegado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Beatriz [Academia de la Investigacion Cientifica, A. C., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Given the dependence of our transport system in combustible hydrocarbons that, besides generating serious pollution levels, eventually will become scarce, severely affecting the world economy- it is compulsory to develop non polluting transportation, capable of operating with alternative energies. In the avant-guard of this technological achievement are the competition solar automobiles, that have made great contributions (particularly for the rigorous application of the design for efficiency principles) in the development of the applicable technology to the electric vehicles. Tonatiuh is the first competition solar car built in Mexico. In 1993 Tonatiuh will compete in the Rally Formula Sol in Mexico and in the World Solar of Australia. A superficial comparison of electric vehicles with vehicles equipped with internal combustion motors, demonstrates the great advantages of the first ones, most of all at the light of the current technological advances propitiated by laws that demand them for the sale of electric vehicles. This incipient industry presents a great opportunity for Mexico, since the markets are not saturated and exist large areas of research and development. For improvement of the air quality in Mexico city, the electric vehicle would have a very positive impact, mostly applied to public transportation. [Espanol] Dada la dependencia de nuestro sistema de transporte en hidrocarburos combustibles que, ademas de generar graves niveles de contaminacion eventualmente escacearan, afectando severamente la economia mundial - es imperativo desarrollar transportes no contaminantes capaces de operar con energias alternativas. En la vanguardia de esta avanzada tecnologia se encuentran los autos solares de carreras, los cuales han hecho grandes aportaciones (particularmente por la aplicacion rigurosa de los principios del diseno para eficiencia) el desarrollo de tecnologia aplicable a vehiculos electricos. Tonatiuh es el primer auto solar de carreras que se

  4. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity;Le Photovoltaique. Le solaire thermique. L'heliothermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURBO CODED OFDM SYSTEMS AND APPLICATION OF TURBO DECODING FOR IMPULSIVE CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the performance of hard and soft-decision turbo coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing systems with Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK and 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM is considered in the first section of this paper. The results show that the soft-decision method greatly outperforms the hard-decision method. The complexity of the demapper is reduced with the use of simplified algorithm for 16-QAM demapping. In the later part of the paper, we consider the transmission of data over additive white class A noise (AWAN channel, using turbo coded QPSK and 16-QAM systems. We propose a novel turbo decoding scheme for AWAN channel. Also we compare the performance of turbo coded systems with QPSK and 16-QAM on AWAN channel with two different channel values- one computed as per additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel conditions and the other as per AWAN channel conditions. The results show that the use of appropriate channel value in turbo decoding helps to combat the impulsive noise more effectively. The proposed model for AWAN channel exhibits comparable Bit error rate (BER performance as compared to AWGN channel.

  6. High latitude stratospheric electrical measurements in fair and foul weather under various solar conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzworth, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric electric field and conductivity measurements during a wide variety of weather and solar conditions are presented. These data are all from high latitude sites in the months of either April or August. The vector electric field is determined by orthogonal double probes connected through high impedance inputs to differential electrometers. The direct conductivity measurement involves determining the relaxation time constant of the medium after refloating a shorted pair of separated probes. Vertical electric field data from several balloon flights with average duration of 18 h at ceiling in fair weather are shown to be well modeled by a simple exponential altitude dependent equation. Examples of solar flare and magnetospheric effects on stratospheric electric fields are shown. Data collected over electrified clouds and thunderstorms are presented along with a discussion of the thunderstorm related electric currents. Lightning stroke signatures in the stratosphere during a large thunderstorm are identified in the electric field data. Current surges through the stratosphere due to DC currents as well as the sferic are calculated. In nearly 1000 h of balloon data no direct solar influence is identified in these data except during major flares. (author)

  7. 75 FR 63198 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS) Project located in San Bernardino County, California. The... FX0000 LVRWB09B2400 LLCAD09000] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System Project and Approved Plan Amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area...

  8. 78 FR 45268 - Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...] Notice of Availability of the San Diego Gas & Electric Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final Environmental...) Ocotillo Sol Solar Project in Imperial County, California, and by this notice is announcing its... Ocotillo Sol Solar Project Final EIS/Proposed CDCA Plan Amendment have been sent to affected Federal, State...

  9. Design and implementation of adaptive cruise control system for the TU/e solar powered electric car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaliouras, I.

    2016-01-01

    The technical report presents the design and implementation of Adaptive Cruise Control. (ACC) system for the “Stella Lux” solar powered electric car, which was built by Solar Team Eindhoven and won the World Solar Challenge in Australia in 2015. Initially, an over-view of the context of the project

  10. TurboTech Technical Evaluation Automated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Dorothy J.

    2009-01-01

    TurboTech software is a Web-based process that simplifies and semiautomates technical evaluation of NASA proposals for Contracting Officer's Technical Representatives (COTRs). At the time of this reporting, there have been no set standards or systems for training new COTRs in technical evaluations. This new process provides boilerplate text in response to interview style questions. This text is collected into a Microsoft Word document that can then be further edited to conform to specific cases. By providing technical language and a structured format, TurboTech allows the COTRs to concentrate more on the actual evaluation, and less on deciding what language would be most appropriate. Since the actual word choice is one of the more time-consuming parts of a COTRs job, this process should allow for an increase in quantity of proposals evaluated. TurboTech is applicable to composing technical evaluations of contractor proposals, task and delivery orders, change order modifications, requests for proposals, new work modifications, task assignments, as well as any changes to existing contracts.

  11. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, M.; Laurensse, S.; Simon, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [nl

  12. Hybrid power system (hydro, solar and wind) for rural electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahinda Kurukulasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Generation of affordable cheap electric energy for rural development by a hybrid power system (10-50 kW) of hydropower, solar and wind energies on self determining basis and computer application to determine its performance. In this paper the following topics were discussed, design of hybrid power system, its justification and economic analysis, manufacturing and installation of the system. (Author)

  13. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    reading Current transformer Regen and conditioner Continental Controls CTS-0750-30 1 % of reading Pyranometer Horizontal Campbell...indoor comfort conditions. A pyranometer was used to quantify the efficiency of the solar collector array. Two measurements of electric energy were

  14. On investigation of the antenna converters of solar energy into electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh.S.; Akhmedov, Kh.M.; Shakh, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the current-voltage characteristics of the diode on the base of organic semiconductor nickel phthalocyanine were investigated. The diode was built in the dipole antenna. Potentialities of fabrication of solar energy converters into electric power and the design of the rectennas on the base of spiral antennas were discussed

  15. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  16. Design of an axial-flux permanent magnet machine for a solar-powered electric vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, L.A.J.; Bastiaens, K.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Krop, D.C.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper concerns the design optimization of two axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machines, aimed to be used as a direct drive in-wheel motor for the propulsion of a solar-powered electric vehicle. The internal stator twin external rotor AFPM machine topology having either a distributed or

  17. System design for a solar powered electric vehicle charging station for workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of charging battery electric vehicles at workplace in Netherlands using solar energy. Data from the Dutch Meteorological Institute is used to determine the optimal orientation of PV panels for maximum energy yield in the Netherlands. The seasonal and diurnal

  18. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  19. Nanometer-Scale Electrical Potential Profiling Across Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Chuanxiao; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Ke, Weijun; Wang, Changlei; Gorman, Brian; Yan, Yanfa; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2016-11-21

    We used Kelvin probe force microscopy to study the potential distribution on cross-section of perovskite solar cells with different types of electron-transporting layers (ETLs). Our results explain the low open-circuit voltage and fill factor in ETL-free cells, and support the fact that intrinsic SnO2 as an alternative ETL material can make high-performance devices. Furthermore, the potential-profiling results indicate a reduction in junction-interface recombination by the optimized SnO2 layer and adding a fullerene layer, which is consistent with the improved device performance and current-voltage hysteresis.

  20. Restoration and construction (buildings). Solar electric power. How to complete a photovoltaic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene; Juniere, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook on the way to complete a solar photovoltaic project in the cases of the restoration or the construction of a building. After a presentation of solar energy, its transformation into electric power, and the installation of solar photovoltaic panels and equipment, the brochure exposes the various steps of a photovoltaic project: economic analysis (cost estimation, budgets, financing incentives, power prices, the choice between selling or using electric power, the contracts, etc.), the planning of the project, the administrative procedure, the selection of a professional installer, how to run the photovoltaic system, how to run the business, etc

  1. Experience with solar and electric cars. Erfahrungen mit Solar- und Elektroautomobilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissmueller, G [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience with electric vehicles is promising. It is desirable that innovative designers should produce a reasonably-priced safe small car orientated towards the demand, optimized for electric drive and which can be produced by mass-production, using new materials and fashionable design, so that the electric car will become the first vehicle in each family or in a car-sharing pool. Long distance traffic will be reserved for other vehicles until the distant future. (orig.)

  2. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated

  3. On the presence of electric currents in the solar atmosphere. I - A theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M.; Low, B. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1981-01-01

    The general magnetic field above the solar photosphere is divided by an elementary analysis based on Ampere's law into two parts: a potential field due to electric currents below the photosphere and a field produced by electric currents above the photosphere combined with the induced mirror currents. The latter, by symmetry, has a set of field lines lying in the plane taken to be the photosphere which may be constructed from given vector magnetograph measurements. These field lines also represent all the information on the electric currents above the photosphere that a magnetograph can provide. Theoretical illustrations are given, and implications for data analysis are discussed.

  4. An overview of turbo decoding on fading channels

    OpenAIRE

    ATILGAN, Doğan

    2009-01-01

    A review of turbo coding and decoding has been presented in the literature [1]. In that paper, turbo coding and decoding on AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channels has been elaborated. In wireless communications, a phenomennon called multipath fading is frequently encountered. Therefore, investigation of efficient techniques to tackle with the destructive effects of fading is essential. Turbo coding has been proven as an efficient channel coding technique for AWGN channels. Some of the ...

  5. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  6. Performance improvement of standard turbo-compressor; Han`yo turbo asshukuki no seino kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokari, T.; Hasegawa, K.; Ozaki, S.; Majima, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    Abradable materials are soft and cause no contact damage to the impeller of the turbo-compressor. Using such materials for the inlet casing facing to the impeller allows very small clearances between the impeller and inlet casing, thus improving the compressor efficiency by 10% over conventional types. Changing the area of abradable material applied to the inlet casing identified the optimum area in which decrease of the compressor surge margin is minimized and efficiency is improved by 10%. As a result, turbo-compressors have the best performance when the abradable materials are applied from the impeller outlet to two-thirds of the forward location of the inlet casing. (author)

  7. Stability of electric characteristics of solar cells for continuous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells working in hostile working conditions. Examined cells, produced by different innovative procedures, are available in the market. The goal was to investigate stability of electric characteristics of solar cells, which are used today in photovoltaic solar modules for charging rechargeable batteries which, coupled with batteries, supply various electronic systems such as radio repeaters on mountains tops, airplanes, mobile communication stations and other remote facilities. Charging of rechargeable batteries requires up to 25 % higher voltage compared to nominal output voltage of the battery. This paper presents results of research of solar cells, which also apply to cases in which continuous power supply is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 171007

  8. A Solar Atlas for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Electricity Resource Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    While photovoltaic energy gathers momentum as power costs increase and panel costs decrease, the total technical and economic potentials for building integrated solar energy in Denmark remain largely unidentified. The current net metering feed-in scheme is restricted to 6kW plant size, limiting...... large scale application. This paper presents a solar atlas based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of all 2.9 million buildings in the country, combined with a building register. The 1.6 m resolution DEM has been processed into global radiation input, solar energy output and production....... The continuous assessment of solar electricity generation potentials by marginal costs, ownership and plant type presented in the paper may be used for defining long term policies for the development of photovoltaic energy, as well as political instruments such as a multi-tier feed-in tariff....

  9. Evaluation of solar electric propulsion technologies for discovery class missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, David Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study examines the potential benefits that advanced electric propulsion (EP) technologies offer to the cost-capped missions in NASA's Discovery program. The study looks at potential cost and performance benefits provided by three EP technologies that are currently in development: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), an Enhanced NSTAR system, and a Low Power Hall effect thruster. These systems are analyzed on three straw man Discovery class missions and their performance is compared to a state of the art system using the NSTAR ion thruster. An electric propulsion subsystem cost model is used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for each option. The results show that each proposed technology offers a different degree of performance and/or cost benefit for Discovery class missions.

  10. Thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid design of a solar-thermoelectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, K.S.; Naghavi, M.S.; Lim, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar-thermoelectric system studied under outdoor conditions. • Electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30. • Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h. - Abstract: An evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector was fitted with four thermoelectric modules and four water cooling jackets on the condenser side to produce electricity and hot water simultaneously. Each cooling jacket had six mini water-flow channels inside it. Solar heat was absorbed and collected by the evaporator section. Experiments were conducted under outdoor environment with various water coolant flow rates. Once-through coolant water flow was adopted as a first step. Further investigations would be conducted to incorporate an insulated hot water storage tank to evaluate the system economic viability as a power producer and hot water generator. Temperatures were recorded along the evaporator and condenser sections of the heat pipe, thermoelectric junction temperatures and inlet/outlet water channels. This paper presents the experimental results obtained. Typical daily experimental results showed that electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30 before decreasing towards the evening. Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h.

  11. Dual shear plate power processor packaging design. [for Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, A. O.; Fredrickson, C. D.; Ross, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for spacecraft primary propulsion imposes an extreme range of operational and environmental design requirements associated with the diversity of missions for which solar electric primary propulsion is advantageous. One SEP element which is particularly sensitive to these environmental extremes is the power processor unit (PPU) which powers and controls the electric ion thruster. An improved power processor thermal-mechanical packaging approach, referred to as dual shear plate packaging, has been designed to accommodate these different requirements with minimum change to the power processor design. Details of this packaging design are presented together with test results obtained from thermal-vacuum and structural-vibration tests conducted with prototype hardware.

  12. The electrical power subsystem design for the high energy solar physics spacecraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Milind

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) requirements, architecture, design description, performance analysis, and heritage of the components for two spacecraft concepts for the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) Mission. It summarizes the mission requirements and the spacecraft subsystems and instrument power requirements, and it describes the EPS architecture for both options. A trade study performed on the selection of the solar cells - body mounted versus deployed panels - and the optimum number of panels is also presented. Solar cell manufacturing losses, array manufacturing losses, and the radiation and temperature effects on the GaAs/Ge and Si solar cells were considered part of the trade study and are included in this paper. Solar cell characteristics, cell circuit description, and the solar array area design are presented, as is battery sizing analysis performed based on the power requirements during launch and initial spacecraft operations. This paper discusses Earth occultation periods and the battery power requirements during this period as well as shunt control, battery conditioning, and bus regulation schemes. Design margins, redundancy philosophy, and predicted on-orbit battery and solar cell performance are summarized. Finally, the heritage of the components and technology risk assessment are provided.

  13. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaka, M [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  15. Study into solar thermal electricity export opportunities for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of the project described in this report were: to provide an assessment of the world-wide opportunities currently available for the development of high temperature solar thermal (H-TSTh) technology; to identify United Kingdom companies and expertise which could benefit from the exploitation of export markets for H-TSTh; to estimate the potential benefits to the UK of such exploitation; and to review the current status of H-TSTh technology. Despite limited involvement at present, it is concluded that the UK would be well placed with respect to longer term market opportunities if current developments by UK companies in fixed bowl technology and Stirling engines for dish Stirling system are successful. Opportunities also exist for turbine supply, civil contractors, insurance, finance and operation, but discussions with relevant UK companies has revealed only limited interest. (Author)

  16. The World Solar Summit Process. The solar electricity highway for peace and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, B.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the growth of the world, energy demand will continue to increase. The question of providing additional energy is discussed by the World Solar Summit Process (WSSP). The actions, plans, recommendations and possible prospects of WSSP are discussed. (R.P.)

  17. The Turbo-Fuel-Cell 1.0 - family concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, H. P.; Himmelberg, A.; Lehmann, M.; Dückershoff, R.; Neumann, M.

    2018-01-01

    The “Turbo-Fuel-Cell-Technology” has been described as a MGT-SOFC hybrid system consisting of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) process with an embedded solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) subsystem. SOFC stacks are connected to “SOFC stack grapes” and are equipped with the so called HEXAR-Module. This module is composed of a high-temperature heat exchanger (HEX), an afterburner (A) and a steam reformer (R). The MGT-concept is based on a generator driven directly by the turbomachine and a recuperator, which returns the exhaust heat to the pressurized compressor outlet air. This provides the necessary base for a highly effective, pure MGT process and the “MGT-SOFC-high-efficiency process”. This paper describes the concept and the thermodynamic background of a highly effective and compact design of the “Turbo-Fuel-Cell 1.0-Family” in the electrical performance class from 100 to 500 kW. The technological state of the system is shown and a rating of the system with comparative parameters is discussed. It becomes visible that all necessary basic technologies should be available and that the technology (for stationary applications) can have the “entry into services (E.I.S.)” in the next 10 years. The MGT-SOFC performance map under different operation conditions is discussed. This article also provides an overview of the research on MGT-SOFC-Systems and the scenario of an energy supply network and a mobile energy conversion of the future introduction.

  18. Generation of Electric Energy and Desalinating Water from Solar Energy and the Oceans Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfikky, Niazi

    Brief.All warnings and fears about the environment in our Earth planet due to the serious effects of the industrial revolution were certainly predicted early. But the eager contest and the powerful desire for more profits beside the human interest for welfare and development closed all minds about the expected severe destuctive impacts on our earth planet. Also, we have to remember that the majority of the African, Asian and Latin American countries are still in the first stage of their development and if they will be left to generate all their demand of energy by the conventional machine e.g (Fossil Fuel, Biofuel and Nuclear Fuel), then our Earth planet will confront an endless and ceasless severe destructive impacts due to the encroach of the released hot Carbon Doxide and hot vapours of Acids which will never forgive any fruitful aspect in our Earth Planet from destruction. 1. Importance of the New Project. Building the Extra cheap, clean Power plants with safe and smooth Operation in addition to the long life time in service for generating enough and plentiful electric energy the sustainable renwable resources will invigorate the foresaking of all Nuclear, Fossil and Biofuel power plants to avoide the nuclear hazards and stop releasing the hot carbon doxide, hot acids for the recovery of our ill environment. Also, the main sustainable, renewable, and cheap resources for generating the bulky capacity of the electric energy in our project are the Sun and the Oceans in addition to all Seas Surrounding all Continents in our Earth planet. Therefore, our recourses are so much enormous plentiful, clean, and renewable. 2. .Generation of Electricity from Solar Energy by Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs) or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). Characteristics of Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs). It is working only by Sun's Light (Light photons) and its efficiency will decrease as the Solar Thermal Radiation will increase, i.e. as the temerature of the Solar Voltiac will increase, its output

  19. AnalysisThe Availability of Using Concentrated Solar Power (CSP as Electricity Source in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Shamkhi Jaber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The needing of using clean energy increases every year because of the negative impact of emissions from electricity power plant and to reduce the costs of generating power by using natural energies like solar, wind, and other sources. The availability of using solar energy as source of producing electricity in Al-Hilla city by using Concentrating Solar Power (CSP was investigated in this research. The major parameters in this study were the city position, and the annually amount of solar received, also, number of charts related to solar parameters for the management of CSP were derived and showed in this research. The using of CSP as electricity power can be important solution to force the problem of high cost of electricity power fuel needed and the lack of power produced because of increasing of power consumed specially in summer season.

  20. Solar cooling - comparative study between thermal and electrical use in industrial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, N.; Badea, G. V.; Epureanu, A.; Frumuşanu, G.

    2016-08-01

    The increase in the share of renewable energy sources together with the emphasis on the need for energy security bring to a spotlight the field of trigeneration autonomous microsystems, as a solution to cover the energy consumptions, not only for isolated industrial buildings, but also for industrial buildings located in urban areas. The use of solar energy for cooling has been taken into account to offer a cooling comfort in the building. Cooling and air- conditioned production are current applications promoting the use of solar energy technologies. Solar cooling systems can be classified, depending on the used energy, in electrical systems using mechanical compression chillers and systems using thermal compression by absorption or adsorption. This comparative study presents the main strengths and weaknesses of solar cooling obtained: i) through the transformation of heat resulted from thermal solar panels combined with adsorption chillers, and ii) through the multiple conversion of electricity - photovoltaic panels - battery - inverter - combined with mechanical compression chillers. Both solutions are analyzed from the standpoints of energy efficiency, dynamic performances (demand response), and costs sizes. At the end of the paper, experimental results obtained in the climatic condition of Galafi city, Romania, are presented.

  1. Snow melting system with electric heating using photovoltaic power generation; Solar yusetsuko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M; Fujita, S; Kaga, T; Koyama, N [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper clarifies the solar characteristics in Hachinohe district, to investigate a possibility of the snow melting system with electric heating using solar energy. Power demand for snow melting, power generated by the photovoltaic (PV) array, area of PV array, and working conditions of the system, as to temperature, precipitation and snowfall, were investigated. The percentage of sunshine is 44% in Hachinohe district, which has more fortunate natural condition for utilizing solar radiation compared with that of 20% in Aomori prefecture. The intensity of solar radiation in winter from December to March is around 500 W/m{sup 2} in average, which is equivalent to the quantity of solar radiation, around 2 kWh/m{sup 2} a day. When assuming that snow on the road surface is frozen at the snowfall under the air temperature below -3{degree}C, the occurrence frequency is 50% during January and February in Hachinohe district, which means one frozen day for two days and is equivalent to the occurrence frequency of frozen days, 34% in average during winter. The electric application ratio is 0.34 at the maximum in winter. That is, days of 34% for one month are required for snow melting. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Modelling of electric characteristics of 150-watt peak solar panel using Boltzmann sigmoid function under various temperature and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapteka, A. A. N. G.; Narottama, A. A. N. M.; Winarta, A.; Amerta Yasa, K.; Priambodo, P. S.; Putra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy utilized with solar panel is a renewable energy that needs to be studied further. The site nearest to the equator, it is not surprising, receives the highest solar energy. In this paper, a modelling of electrical characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panels using Boltzmann sigmoid function under various temperature and irradiance is reported. Current, voltage, temperature and irradiance data in Denpasar, a city located at just south of equator, was collected. Solar power meter is used to measure irradiance level, meanwhile digital thermometer is used to measure temperature of front and back panels. Short circuit current and open circuit voltage data was also collected at different temperature and irradiance level. Statistically, the electrical characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panel can be modelled using Boltzmann sigmoid function with good fit. Therefore, it can be concluded that Boltzmann sigmoid function might be used to determine current and voltage characteristics of 150-Watt peak solar panel under various temperature and irradiance.

  3. Performance analysis of a solar-powered solid state heat engine for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Rui; Li, Baode; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system consisting of a CPC (compound parabolic collector) system, a SOE (solid oxide electrolyzer) system and a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system was proposed to harvest solar energy. And a sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the system performance. The impacts of operating temperatures of the SOE and PEMFC system, and the direct irradiation intensity of the sun on the performance characteristics were systematically analyzed. Results revealed that there exists an optimal SOE operating temperature leading to the maximum power output and maximum electrical efficiency simultaneously. Larger operating temperature of the PEMFC resulted in larger power output and higher efficiency. There also existed optimal direct irradiation intensities leading to the maximum power output and maximum electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed solar energy harvesting system for practical use in real-life was also simulated. This may serve a clean technology for electricity generation. - Highlights: • A hybrid system consisting of CPC, SOE and PEMFC is proposed to harvest solar energy. • A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the system performance. • Power output and electrical efficiency have maximum values. • Performance of the proposed hybrid system for practical use was simulated.

  4. Generation of electrical power under human skin by subdermal solar cell arrays for implantable bioelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwangsun; Han, Jung Hyun; Yang, Hyung Chae; Nam, Kwang Il; Lee, Jongho

    2017-06-15

    Medical electronic implants can significantly improve people's health and quality of life. These implants are typically powered by batteries, which usually have a finite lifetime and therefore must be replaced periodically using surgical procedures. Recently, subdermal solar cells that can generate electricity by absorbing light transmitted through skin have been proposed as a sustainable electricity source to power medical electronic implants in bodies. However, the results to date have been obtained with animal models. To apply the technology to human beings, electrical performance should be characterized using human skin covering the subdermal solar cells. In this paper, we present electrical performance results (up to 9.05mW/cm 2 ) of the implantable solar cell array under 59 human skin samples isolated from 10 cadavers. The results indicate that the power densities depend on the thickness and tone of the human skin, e.g., higher power was generated under thinner and brighter skin. The generated power density is high enough to operate currently available medical electronic implants such as pacemakers that require tens of microwatt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The German Market for photovoltaic (solar-produced electricity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    In preparation for reducing the CO2 emission and in so living up to the Kyoto-protocol with the succeeding changes, renewable energy has - including photovoltaic - got an increasing importance in the world over - especially in Germany. If the technical potentials in Germany are utilized optimally, then 75% of the total German electricity production with photovoltaic are covered. At the moment it is only about 1 per thousand. There is a political will to promote photovoltaic in Germany, which results in high account prices and different plant supporting programmes. In the coming 6 years the official aim is that a minimum of 100.000 photovoltaic power plants are installed with an average capacitate for 3 kWp. The competition for the market is hard. There are many national and international suppliers, so the co-operations between the large German producers seem to be obvious. (EHS)

  6. Solar electricity imports from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, Franz; Schillings, Christoph; Pregger, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The huge solar resources in the MENA countries (Middle East and North Africa), significant improvements in concentrating solar power (CSP) technology and in power transmission technologies, and the urgent need to remove carbon emissions from the European (EU) energy system lead to an increased interest in an EU-MENA electricity grid interconnection. As contribution to the current discussions about DESERTEC, MedGrid and other initiatives this article describes the approach and results of an analysis of possible solar electricity import corridors from MENA to Europe including Turkey. The study is based on solar energy potentials of the MENA countries identified by remote sensing, reviewed performance and cost data of generation and transmission technologies, and geographic data and information systems (GIS) for the spatial analysis. CSP plants combined with high temperature heat storage and high voltage direct current (HVDC) overhead lines and sea cables represent the key technologies for implementing this promising option for renewable energy import/export. The total technical solar power generation potential from remote sensing analysis in the seven MENA countries considered was calculated to about 538,000 TWh/yr. This huge potential implies that less than 0.2% of the land suitable for CSP plants would be enough to supply 15% of the electricity demand expected in Europe in the year 2050. A GIS analysis of potential future HVDC corridors led to the description and characterization of 33 possible import routes to main European centers of demand. - Highlights: ► Concentrating Solar Power in the Mediterranean Region (MED-CSP 2005) (www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp). ► Trans-Mediterranean Interconnection for Concentrating Solar Power (TRANS-CSP 2006) (www.dlr.de/tt/trans-csp). ► Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination (AQUA-CSP 2007) (www.dlr.de/tt/aqua-csp). ► Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security (REACCESS 2009) (http

  7. The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives and Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2015-01-01

    With dramatic declines in the cost of solar PV technology over the last 5 years, the electricity industry is in the midst of discussions about whether to use this low-polluting renewable energy source in grid-scale generation or in distributed generation (DG), mostly with rooftop solar PV. California has led the growth in DG solar in the U.S. I use 2007 to early 2014 residential data from Pacific Gas & Electric – the utility with largest number of residential solar customers in the U.S. – to ...

  8. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  9. The Potential of hybrid solar-wind electricity generation in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibiru, Ayirewura Vitus

    2013-07-01

    In this work the potential of harnessing electricity from solar and wind sources in Ghana is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this regard solar, wind and other relevant data were collected (over a period of one year) from various parts of Ghana. Detailed assessment of the capacity or potential of power production from hybrid solar-wind sources is done with the use of empirical mathematical formulae and the PRO VITUS model incorporated in the 'ENERGY X' software. The various characteristics of wind, solar and available energy resources for the five locations over a one year period have been studied too. The annual mean wind speed at a height of 10 m above ground level for five locations namely Accra, Kumasi, Takoradi, Sunyani and Tamale are 2.38 ms"-"1 ± 0.05, 2.39 ms"-"1 ± 0.05, 2.38 ms"-"1 ± 0.06, 2.18 ms"-"1 ± 0.05 and 2.47 ± ms"-"1 respectively and their corresponding annual mean solar radiations are 228.71 Wm"-"2 ± 9.81, 187.69 Wm"-"2 ± 9.60, 236.58 Wm"-"2 ± 10.39, 200.99 Wm"-"2 ± 9.88 and 231.63 Wm"-"2 . Thus, the five sites hold potential for hybrid solar-wind energy exploitation. (au)

  10. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  11. Torsional vibration analysis in turbo-generator shaft due to mal-synchronization fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangunde, Abhishek; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Rajeev; Jain, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    A rotor of turbo-generator shafting is many times subjected to torsional vibrations during its lifespan. The reasons behind these vibrations are three-Phase fault, two-phase fault, line to ground fault, faulty-mal synchronization etc. Sometimes these vibrations can cause complete failure of turbo-generator shafting system. To calculate moment variation during these faults on the shafting system vibration analysis is done using Finite Elements Methods to calculate mass and stiffness matrix. The electrical disturbance caused during Mal-synchronization is put on generator section, and corresponding second order equations are solved by using “Duhamel Integral”. From the moment variation plots at four sections critically loaded sections are identified.

  12. Global solar energy radiation in relation with electricity supply in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most viable source of renewable energy being both clean and nonpolluting. Spiraling energy use and other human activities have led to measurable effects upon the global environment and climatic changes. There is increasing international concern particularly in the areas of global warming owing to the increase of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere and of other greenhouse gases as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrogen sulfide H 2 S, diethyl sulfide (DMS), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane CH 4 , as well in the effect of depletion of ozone (O 3 ) layer in the stratosphere. Climatological and global solar radiation analysis for some Romanian zones with great solar energy potential are presented. Remote sensing data provided by satellites are used for radiative fluxes monitoring and solar energy mapping as well as for solar energy use assessment. The realistic technical potential for solar energy applications in Romania is substantial, over 40000 TJyear -1 . As average energy global solar radiation in horizontal plane lies between 1100 and 1300 kWhm -2 year -1 , solar energy using for electrical power supply being a reliable alternative. More than one half of Romania's area has a range of insolation period between 1200 and 1500 hours year -1 , at an overall average daily irradiation of 1000 - 1200 kWh m -2 . The most favorable area in Romania is the North - Western part of Black Sea coast with an insolation period above 2300 hours year -1 . A small part 140 TJyear -1 are used profitably and almost 10% of the installed 10 6 m 2 of collector area, is still in operation. (author)

  13. Solar activity and transformer failures in the Greek national electric grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zois Ioannis Panayiotis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We study both the short term and long term effects of solar activity on the large transformers (150 kV and 400 kV of the Greek national electric grid. Methods: We use data analysis and various statistical methods and models. Results: Contrary to common belief in PPC Greece, we see that there are considerable both short term (immediate and long term effects of solar activity onto large transformers in a mid-latitude country like Greece. Our results can be summarised as follows: For the short term effects: During 1989–2010 there were 43 “stormy days” (namely days with for example Ap ≥ 100 and we had 19 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 3 days and 51 failures occurring during a stormy day plus or minus 7 days. All these failures can be directly related to Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs. Explicit cases are briefly presented. For the long term effects, again for the same period 1989–2010, we have two main results: The annual number of transformer failures seems to follow the solar activity pattern. Yet the maximum number of transformer failures occurs about half a solar cycle after the maximum of solar activity. There is statistical correlation between solar activity expressed using various newly defined long term solar activity indices and the annual number of transformer failures. These new long term solar activity indices were defined using both local (from the geomagnetic station in Greece and global (planetary averages geomagnetic data. Applying both linear and non-linear statistical regression we compute the regression equations and the corresponding coefficients of determination.

  14. FENCH-analysis of electricity generation greenhouse gas emissions from solar and wind power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of energy supply systems with regard to the influence on climate change requires not only the quantification of direct emissions caused by the operation of a power plant. It also has to take into account indirect emissions resulting from e.g. construction and dismounting of the power plant. Processes like manufacturing the materials for building the plant, the transportation of components and the construction and maintenance of the power plant are included. A tool to determine and assess the energy and mass flows is the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) which allows the assessment of environmental impacts related to a product or service. In this paper a FENCH (Full Energy Chain)-analysis based on a LCA of electricity production from wind and solar power plants under operation conditions typical for application its Germany is presented. The FENCH-analysis is based on two methods, Process Chain Analysis (PCA) and Input-Output-Analysis (IOA) which are illustrated by the example of an electricity generation from a wind power plant. The calculated results are shown for the cumulated (indirect and direct) Greenhouse-Gas (GHG)-emissions for an electricity production from wind and solar power plants. A comparison of the results to the electricity production from a coal fired power plant is performed. At last a comparison of 1 kWh electricity from renewable energy to 1 kWh from fossil energy carrier has to be done, because the benefits of 1 kWh electricity from various types of power plants are different. Electricity from wind energy depends on the meteorological conditions while electricity from a fossil fired power plant is able to follow the power requirements of the consumers nearly all the time. By considering the comparison of the different benefit provided the GHG-Emissions are presented. (author)

  15. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, Åsa Grytli; Bolkesjø, Torjus Folsland; Martinsen, Thomas; Hvarnes, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  16. ELECTRON ACCELERATION BY CASCADING RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. RESISTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.; Gan, W.; Liu, S. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Büchner, J.; Bárta, M., E-mail: zhou@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: buechner@mps.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-08-20

    We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics. Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.

  17. Combined Solar Charging Stations and Energy Storage Units Allocation for Electric Vehicles by Considering Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a key feature of smart grids. EVs will be embedded in the smart grids as a mobile load-storage with probabilistic behavior. In order to manage EVs as flexible loads, charging stations (CSs) have essential roles. In this paper, a new method for optimal sitting...... are considered based on time-of-use (TOU) demand response programs (DRPs). In order to solve the optimization problem considering uncertainty of load growth, electricity price, initial state of charge of batteries and solar power generation, genetic algorithm method using Monte-Carlo simulation is used...

  18. Possibilities of electricity generation from solar and other renewable resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper begins by reviewing the conventional power generation in the country. Increasing power demand due to rapid industrialization as well as the environmental consequences of power generation will be discussed. The potential of renewable energy resources including solar, biomass, wind, and wave and their role in the power generation will be pointed out. Among the strong alternatives are thermal power plants, and rural electricity production by photovoltaic and by small wind machines. Finally, the technical economic difficulties in adapting renewable electricity generation systems for the conditions of the country will be discussed. (Author) 22 refs

  19. Solar photovoltaic: 25 per cent of world low carbon electricity by 2050. Situation and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Nicolas; Cohen, Marion; Grandjean, Alain; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Ballif, Ch.; Barbaro, X.; Brewster, M.; Burtin, A.; Chaperon, A.; Cuomo, A.; Danielo, O.; Broglie, G. de; Deblois, L.; Deprest, I.; Dupre La Tour, S.; Gauly, N.; Lascaud, S.; Lemaignan, B.; Lincot, D.; Malbranche, P.; Marchal, D.; Mine, A.; Paquier, O.; Philibert, C.; Prieto, Pedro A.; Roesch, A.; Roudil, JP.; Scotto, E.; Sharma, R.; Sidat, P.; Tarascon, J.M.; Vermot Desroches, G.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study has been to assess to which extent solar photovoltaic energy will represent a significant part of world electric power consumption by 2050, while notably taking the economic dimension, resource availability and problems related to intermittency management into account. After a recall of the relative correlation between solar radiation and human settlement, of the involved fundamental physical concepts, and of the different technologies and applications of photovoltaic energy production, the authors propose an overview of the present situation and perspectives for the development of photovoltaic energy production (evolution and emergence of a competitive industry in several countries, recent and future evolutions of photovoltaic cell costs, needs of investments in massive electric power production). Then, they address the intermittency issue: integration into networks, consumption steering, perspective of a revolution in storage. They examine whether industrials are ready to face potential future revolutions

  20. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  1. Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

  2. Design of deterministic interleaver for turbo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.A.; Sheikh, N.M.; Sheikh, A.U.H.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of suitable interleaver for turbo codes can improve the performance considerably. For long block lengths, random interleavers perform well, but for some applications it is desirable to keep the block length shorter to avoid latency. For such applications deterministic interleavers perform better. The performance and design of a deterministic interleaver for short frame turbo codes is considered in this paper. The main characteristic of this class of deterministic interleaver is that their algebraic design selects the best permutation generator such that the points in smaller subsets of the interleaved output are uniformly spread over the entire range of the information data frame. It is observed that the interleaver designed in this manner improves the minimum distance or reduces the multiplicity of first few spectral lines of minimum distance spectrum. Finally we introduce a circular shift in the permutation function to reduce the correlation between the parity bits corresponding to the original and interleaved data frames to improve the decoding capability of MAP (Maximum A Posteriori) probability decoder. Our solution to design a deterministic interleaver outperforms the semi-random interleavers and the deterministic interleavers reported in the literature. (author)

  3. Maximizing the short circuit current of organic solar cells by partial decoupling of electrical and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarony, Wayesh; Hossain, Mohammad I.; Jovanov, Vladislav; Knipp, Dietmar; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2018-03-01

    The partial decoupling of electronic and optical properties of organic solar cells allows for realizing solar cells with increased short circuit current and energy conversion efficiency. The proposed device consists of an organic solar cell conformally prepared on the surface of an array of single and double textured pyramids. The device geometry allows for increasing the optical thickness of the organic solar cell, while the electrical thickness is equal to the nominal thickness of the solar cell. By increasing the optical thickness of the solar cell, the short circuit current is distinctly increased. The quantum efficiency and short circuit current are determined using finite-difference time-domain simulations of the 3D solar cell structure. The influence of different solar cell designs on the quantum efficiency and short circuit current is discussed and optimal device dimensions are proposed.

  4. Identifying Accessible Near-Earth Objects For Crewed Missions With Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Stijn De; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Aziz, Jonathan; Barbee, Brent W.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the expansion of the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) with Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). The research investigates the existence of new launch seasons that would have been impossible to achieve using only chemical propulsion. Furthermore, this paper shows that SEP can be used to significantly reduce the launch mass and in some cases the flight time of potential missions as compared to the current, purely chemical trajectories identified by the NHATS project.

  5. Public Support of Solar Electricity and its Impact on Households - Prosumers

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermannová Jarmila; Pawliczek Adam; Čermák Petr

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Currently, the idea of households - prosumers is broadly discussed in public governments, mainly in connection with both the energy security issues and the environmental issues. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to present new agent model of household - prosumer and to compare two scenarios – “off grid household” and “on grid household”. The additional goal is to evaluate the impact of public support of solar electricity on the economic efficiency of household ...

  6. Environmental aspects of electricity generation from a nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greijer, Helena; Karlson, Lennart; Lindquist, Sten-Eric; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2001-01-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, of a nanocrystalline dye sensitised solar cell (ncDSC) system has been performed, according to the ISO14040 standard. In brief, LCA is a tool to analyse the total environment impact of a product or system from cradle to grave. Six different weighing methods were used to rank and select the significant environmental aspects to study further. The most significant environmental aspects according to the weighing methods are emission of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide emission was selected as the environmental indicator depending on the growing attention on the global warming effect. In an environmental comparison of electricity generation from a ncDSC system and a natural gas/combined cycle power plant, the gas power plant would result in 450 g CO 2 /kWh and the ncDSC system in between 19-47 g CO 2 /wWh. The latter can be compared with 42 g CO 2 /kWh, according to van Brummelen et al. 'Life Cycle Assessment of Roof Integrated Solar Cell Systems, (Report: Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, The Netherlands, 1994)' for another thin film solar cell system made of amorphous silicon. The most significant activity/component contributing to environmental impact over the life cycle of the ncDSC system is the process energy for producing the solar cell module. Secondly comes the components; glass substrate, frame and junction box. The main improvement from an environmental point of view of the current technology would be an increase in the conversion efficiency from solar radiation to electricity generation and still use low energy demanding production technologies. Also the amount of material in the solar cell system should be minimised and designed to maximise recycling. (Author)

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Equer, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The activity in France during the year 2006 is summarized according to five items: installed PV power, costs and prices, PV production, budgets and energy policy. The overall power of the systems installed in France in 2006, was estimated at 10,9 MW of which 9,4 MW are connected to the grid. A 55 % increase compared to the previous year (7,0 MW total and 5,9 MW grid-connected). Operational photovoltaic capacity at the end of 2006 is 43,9 MW. This accounts for the annual production of around 44 GWh in electrical energy. System prices continue to decrease with an 8,12 EUR/W for roof added-on PV. Some grid-connected systems with power larger than 10 kW were proposed at the turnkey price of 5 EUR/W. Prices of equipment followed trends of European market. PV modules prices (imported) increased by 20 % due to a demand greater than the offer and increase in feedstock silicon price. Concerning manufacturers of materials, cells and modules, direct production costs decreased due to the increase in volume production and introduction of innovations in the manufacturing processes thanks to R and D results transferred to production. Production of photovoltaic cells and modules by Photowatt International Company was of 33 MW in 2006 and has almost reached full production capacity. The Emix production of multi-crystalline silicon ingots using the cold crucible continuous electromagnetic casting process has reached 35 tons (3 MW equivalent) with one furnace (10 MW equivalent capacity). Tenesol is operating a 15 MW capacity PV modules manufacturing line in its subsidiary Tenesol Technologies. Another subsidiary, located in South Africa can produce up to 35 MW modules. Both factories rely upon crystalline silicon technology. Thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon PV modules on glass substrate, are produced by Free Energy at a nearly constant 0,5 MW per year. The French national R and D budget on PV, as estimated by the Ministry of Research, amounts to 24,2 MEUR including the ADEME

  8. Opto-electrical magnetic-field studies on solar silicon; Optoelektrische Magnetfelduntersuchungen an Solarsilizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchwald, Rajko

    2010-05-21

    In the framework of this thesis opto-electrical studies on polycrystalline (pc) solar cells and solar materials have been performed. For this by magnetic-field topographical measurements the current distributions of the silicon samples were determined. For this the new, highly position-resolving magnetic-field measuring method CAIC has been developed and applied. The arrangement, the measurement principle, and the particularities of the method are explained. The results of the CAIC measurements have been compared with results of optical and electrical characterization methods, like the IR transmission-light microscopy, the LBIC, and the LIT method and evaluated. Special grain boundaries in the pc silicon samples with and without pn junction show photocurrent fluxes to the grain boundaries. On the base of the performed studies and the assumption of the existence of a grain-boundary decoration the current-flow model of an electrically active grain boundary is shown for a sample with pn junction as well as for a sample without pn junction. Furthermore macroscopical SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} precipitations in pc silicon were studied. By means of CAIC measurements hereby the position and the orientation of the conducting and near-surface precipitations could be determined. A current-flow model for macroscopic precipitations in silicon samples without pn junction is presented. Furthermore cell microcracks, failures in the contact structure and layout differences of the contact structure are uniquely detected by CAIC measurements on solar cells.

  9. Grid parity. Holy Grail or hype? Photovoltaic solar electricity on its way to competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2009-05-01

    Solar energy has a huge global and European potential for sustainable generation of electricity, heat and fuels. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) are the two options for electricity generation. In the longer term they may also be used to generate sustainable fuel, especially hydrogen, if that would turn out to be useful in the total energy mix. Because of the different nature of the PV and CSP conversion processes and the related distinctive features, they can be considered largely complementary Clearly, the combination of the two absolutely makes a winning team and may form (or even has to form) the basis of our future sustainable energy system. Grid parity is a rather simplified indicator of the competitiveness of PV. It is nevertheless very useful since it assumes the viewpoint of a potential investor in a PV system and has thus helped to define potential markets. Moreover the concept does roughly illustrate how long it takes PV to reach competitiveness in different segments of the electricity market. It may not be the Holy Grail but it is certainly no hype either. When used with care it is one key to the success of PV.

  10. New Turbo Compound Systems in Automotive Industry for Internal Combustion Engine to Recover Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, R.; Chiru, A.; Condrea, O.

    2017-10-01

    The large amount of heat is scattered in the internal combustion engine through exhaust gas, coolant, convective and radiant heat transfer. Of all these residual heat sources, exhaust gases have the potential to recover using various modern heat recovery techniques. Waste heat recovery from an engine could directly reduce fuel consumption, increase available electrical power and improve overall system efficiency and if it would be used a turbochargers that can also produce energy. This solution is called turbo aggregation and has other ways to develop it in other areas of research like the electrical field. [1-3

  11. Evaluation of solar-assisted, electric and gas golf carts, Bathurst Glen golf course, Richmond Hill, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    Municipalities try to limit air pollution resulting from the use of small gasoline engines. Indeed, these engines participate in the smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and they present operating costs more important than electric equivalents. The potential positive impacts of the use of electric or solar electric golf carts instead of gasoline carts are analyzed through a study that compares two solar-assisted electric golf carts, two standard electric golf carts and two gas-powered golf carts. The energy use and related Co2 emissions, the dependability, and the relative costs were evaluated and Golfer preference was also considered thanks to a feedback survey. The comparison between the solar-assisted and the standard electric carts was made on the basis of electricity measures at three points: alternating current (AC) electricity taken from the grid, direct current (DC) electricity flowing into and out of the batteries, and DC electricity generated by the solar panels. The data collected during this study suggested that other factors associated with cart condition or driver behaviours can be more important than the solar panels in determining overall energy consumption. Choosing an area with full sun exposure to install the solar panel and connecting directly to the grid would also maximize generation potential. The comparison of performance between electric carts and gas carts showed the most considerable positive findings. Indeed, fuel costs and emissions are significantly lower in the case of the electric carts, which also present a better fuel efficiency. Switching the 20 percent of gas-powered carts counted within a 100 km radius of Toronto with electric carts could be comparable to removing 155 mid-sized gasoline cars of the road. The electric golf carts present many important financial and environmental benefits when compared to gas carts. The performance is marginally enhanced with the use of solar panels on electric carts and the date collected from

  12. Solar set asides and renewable electricity certificates: Early lessons from North Carolina's experience with its renewable portfolio standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, Chip; Carley, Sanya

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the market developments in North Carolina's solar energy industry following the state's adoption of a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). It first reviews how solar renewable electricity certificates (SRECs) are intended to act as a support mechanism for the installation and financing of solar power in North Carolina's RPS compliance market. The paper then analyzes why SRECs have not precipitated growth in the solar industry thus far. Instead of attracting a diversity of solar installation and SREC trading businesses to create a competitive market to North Carolina, the RPS has only enabled a few large solar power producers to compete with utility companies to finance, install, and operate solar generating systems. A comparison between the SREC markets in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey reveals that transparency in prices and volumes of SRECs, limits on utility company self-ownership of solar generators, and more aggressive solar set-aside targets are required to create a competitive market environment that will attract a sustainable and growing solar industry. - Highlights: ► Assesses developments in NC's solar industry from renewable portfolio standard. ► Comparisons between the SREC markets in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. ► Transparency in prices and limits on utility self-ownership are necessary. ► More aggressive solar set-aside targets would also help develop the solar market.

  13. The exposure of CIGS solar cells to different electrical biases in a damp-heat illumination environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Steijvers, H.; Bakker, K.; Vink, J.; Mortazavi, S.; Mulder, A.; Barreau, N.; Roosen, D.; Haverkamp, E.

    2016-01-01

    Two hybrid degradation setups, allowing exposure of solar cells and modules to elevated temperatures and humidity as well as illumination have been built. CIGS solar cells were placed in the degradation setups, allowing real time monitoring of their electrical properties. Under open circuit

  14. The effect of damp heat-illumination exposure on CIGS solar cells: A combined XRD and electrical characterization study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.; Hendrikx, R.; Barreau, N.; Steijvers, H.; Böttger, A.

    2016-01-01

    Unencapsulated CIGS solar cells were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. In-situ monitoring of their electrical parameters demonstrated a rapid decrease of the efficiency, mainly driven by changes in the series and shunt resistances. The non-degraded and degraded solar cells were

  15. High-Fidelity Solar Power Income Modeling for Solar-Electric UAVs: Development and Flight Test Based Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Oettershagen, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Solar power models are a crucial element of solar-powered UAV design and performance analysis. During the conceptual design phase, their accuracy directly relates to the accuracy of the predicted performance metrics and thus the final design characteristics of the solar-powered UAV. Likewise, during the operations phase of a solar-powered UAV accurate solar power income models are required to predict and assess the solar power system performance. However, the existing literature on solar-powe...

  16. Comparing electricity transitions: A historical analysis of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Vinichenko, Vadim; Jewell, Jessica; Suzuki, Masahiro; Antal, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to understanding national variations in using low-carbon electricity sources by comparing the evolution of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan. It develops and applies a framework for analyzing low-carbon electricity transitions based on interplay of techno-economic, political and socio-technical processes. We explain why in the 1970s–1980s, the energy paths of the two countries were remarkably similar, but since the 1990s Germany has become a leader in renewables while phasing out nuclear energy, whereas Japan has deployed less renewables while becoming a leader in nuclear power. We link these differences to the faster growth of electricity demand and energy insecurity in Japan, the easier diffusion of onshore wind power technology and the weakening of the nuclear power regime induced by stagnation and competition from coal and renewables in Germany. We show how these changes involve the interplay of five distinct mechanisms which may also play a role in other energy transitions. - Highlights: • We identify five mechanisms which play a role in national low-carbon electricity transitions. • Use of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan diverged in the 1990s. • Wind power diffused to Germany from Denmark but different geography stalled it in Japan. • Demand growth and energy insecurity prompted nuclear power expansion in Japan. • Competition with domestic coal and wind led to the demise of nuclear power in Germany.

  17. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  18. Simplified and quick electrical modeling for dye sensitized solar cells: An experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rocelito Lopes; de Oliveira, Matheus Costa; Kohlrausch, Emerson Cristofer; Santos, Marcos José Leite

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a new and simple method for determining IPH (current source dependent on luminance), I0 (reverse saturation current), n (ideality factor), RP and RS, (parallel and series resistance) to build an electrical model for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrical circuit parameters used in the simulation and to generate theoretical curves for the single diode electrical model were extracted from I-V curves of assembled DSSCs. Model validation was performed by assembling five different types of DSSCs and evaluating the following parameters: effect of a TiO2 blocking/adhesive layer, thickness of the TiO2 layer and the presence of a light scattering layer. In addition, irradiance, temperature, series and parallel resistance, ideality factor and reverse saturation current were simulated.

  19. The effects of interfacial recombination and injection barrier on the electrical characteristics of perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xing Shi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Charge carrier recombination in the perovskite solar cells (PSCs has a deep influence on the electrical performance, such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor and ultimately power conversion efficiency. The impacts of injection barrier, recombination channels, doping properties of carrier transport layers and light intensity on the performance of PSCs are theoretically investigated by drift-diffusion model in this work. The results indicate that due to the injection barrier at the interfaces of perovskite and carrier transport layer, the accumulated carriers modify the electric field distribution throughout the PSCs. Thus, a zero electric field is generated at a specific applied voltage, with greatly increases the interfacial recombination, resulting in a local kink of current density-voltage (J-V curve. This work provides an effective strategy to improve the efficiency of PSCs by pertinently reducing both the injection barrier and interfacial recombination.

  20. The photochemical conversion of solar energy into electrical energy: Eosin-Arabinose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangotri, K.M. [Department of Chemistry, Solar Energy Laboratory, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 033, Rajasthan (India); Bhimwal, Mukesh Kumar [Solar Energy Laboratory, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 033, Rajasthan (India)

    2010-12-15

    A photosensitizer -Eosin and a reductant- Arabinose have been used in the photogalvanic cell for photochemical conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. The generated photopotential and photocurrent are 679.0 mV and 240.0 {mu}A respectively. The maximum power of the cell is 162.96 {mu}W whereas the observed power at power point is 73.08 {mu}W. The conversion efficiency is 0.7026% and the fill factor is 0.2856 at the power point of the photogalvanic cell. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 85.0 min in dark if it is irradiated for 140.0 min i.e. the storage capacity of photogalvanic cell is 60.71%. The effects of different parameters on the electrical output of the photogalvanic cell have been observed. A mechanism has also been proposed for the photogeneration of electrical energy. (author)

  1. Study to adapt solar electric propulsion to the Pioneer F and G spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The addition of an electric thrust subsystem to the spin-stabilized Pioneer F and G spacecraft to improve performance capability for certain missions is discussed. The evaluation was performed for the Atlas and Titan launch vehicles with Centaur and TE-364-4 stages and for electric thrust stages of 8- and 5-kw with three 30- and five 15-cm thrusters respectively. The combination of a spinning spacecraft with electric propulsion is a concept only recently evaluated and the penalty from spinning over three-axis stabilized is not as significant as might initally be thought. There are major gains in weight, cost, and reliability, the disadvantages being lower data rate during the thrust phase and less efficient pointing. A variety of missions were evaluated from a solar approach mission into 0.14 AU to a flyby mission of Neptune at approximately 30 AU. Performance improvements were present for all missions evaluated.

  2. Educational benefits from solar technology-Access to solar electric services and changes in children's study routines, experiences from eastern province Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    Solar technology is diffused in many parts of the world with the ambition to improve the situation in rural areas. One claimed benefit of solar power at household level is improved situation for studies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impacts that access to solar electric services can have on education in a rural setting. The results presented concern the use of solar home systems related to children's possibilities to study at night and their exposure to TVs and radios are based on two surveys. Children are reported to spend more time studying after getting solar services than prior. They do not complain to the same extent about the light as the children living in houses without solar electric light. TV and radio cassette players are found in many households. Most households served have at least one household member with a formal income, a typical occupation is teacher. A number of schools also have access to solar services through the ESCO-project. The possibility to arrange evening classes is appreciated. Targeting schools serves as a possibility to improve the educational services offered in the rural setting, benefiting all students and not only those that can afford solar at home

  3. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions

  4. Turbo-machine deployment of HTR-10 GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shutang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zhengming; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    As a testing project of gas turbine modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), HTR-10GT has been studied and developed by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University after the success of HTR-10 with steam turbine cycle. The main purposes of this project are to demonstrate the gas turbine modular HTGR, to optimize the deployment of Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and to verify the techniques of turbo-machine, operating modes and controlling measures. HTR-10GT is concentrated on the PCU design and the turbo-machine deployment. Possible turbo-machine deployments have been investigated and two of them are introduced in this paper. The preliminary design for the turbo-machine of HTR-10GT is single-shaft of vertical layout, arranged by the side of the reactor and the turbo-compressor rotary speed was selected to be 250 s -1 (15000 r/min) by considering the efficiency of turbo-compressor blade systems, the strength conditions and the mass and size characteristics of the turbo-compressor. The rotor system will be supported by electromagnetic bearings (EMBs) to curb the possible pollutions of the primary loop. Of all the components in this design, the high speed turbo-generator seems to be a world-wide technical nut. As an alternative design, a gearbox complex is used to reduce the rotary speed from the turbo-compressor 250 s -1 to 50 s -1 so that the ordinary generator can be used. (authors)

  5. Lower electricity prices and greenhouse gas emissions due to rooftop solar: empirical results for Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Vaid, Devina

    2016-01-01

    Monthly and hourly correlations among photovoltaic (PV) capacity utilization, electricity prices, electricity consumption, and the thermal efficiency of power plants in Massachusetts reduce electricity prices and carbon emissions beyond average calculations. PV utilization rates are highest when the thermal efficiencies of natural gas fired power plants are lowest, which reduces emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 by 0.3% relative to the annual average emission rate. There is a positive correlation between PV utilization rates and electricity prices, which raises the implied price of PV electricity by up to 10% relative to the annual average price, such that the average MWh reduces electricity prices by $0.26–$1.86 per MWh. These price reductions save Massachusetts rate-payers $184 million between 2010 and 2012. The current and net present values of these savings are greater than the cost of solar renewable energy credits which is the policy instrument that is used to accelerate the installation of PV capacity. Together, these results suggest that rooftop PV is an economically viable source of power in Massachusetts even though it has not reached socket parity. - Highlights: •Implied price of PV up to 10% greater than the annual average price. •PV saves Massachusetts rate-payers $184 million in 2010–2012. •Annual savings are greater than the cost of solar renewable energy credits. •Savings rise longer lifetime of PV systems and pay period for SREC's shortened. •PV reduces emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 by 0.3% relative to the annual average.

  6. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  7. Peak shifting and cross-class subsidization: The impacts of solar PV on changes in electricity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Erik; Beppler, Ross; Blackburn, Chris; Staver, Benjamin; Brown, Marilyn; Matisoff, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of distributed solar necessitates additional research into the impacts on both utilities and their customers. In this paper we use New Jersey solar data, PJM market data, and demand profiles from a PJM utility to investigate rate and bill impacts of large-scale solar penetration. In addition to the subsidization of solar adopters by non-participants, we highlight the channels through which cross-subsidization of rate classes can arise in practice. The results of our study indicate that the fear of a utility “death spiral” may be exaggerated. Significant solar can be incorporated with only a 2% increase in non-participant bills. At high levels of penetration, distributed solar has the potential to alter the system peak hour which affects the allocation of costs across rate-classes. As the peak hour shifts to the evening when solar production diminishes, residential customers face higher distribution costs. Policy makers and utilities need to be aware of these challenges in designing the next generation of rates that are better aligned with cost causality. - Highlights: • We develop a model of electricity costs with large amounts of solar adoption. • Solar adoption leads to cost redistribution across customer classes. • Costs are redistributed partially because peak utility load shifts later in the day. • Residential distributed solar generation affects electricity bills the most. • We confirm the subsidy of participants by non-participants in net metering programs.

  8. Pre-Flight Dark Forward Electrical Testing of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. After final assembly in Russia, the MCSA was shipped to the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the summer of 1995 and launched to Mir in November 1995. Program managers were concerned of the potential for MCSA damage during the transatlantic shipment and the associated handling operations. To address this concern, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) developed an innovative dark-forward electrical test program to assess the gross electrical condition of each generator following shipment from Russia. The use of dark test techniques, which allow the array to remain in the stowed configuration, greatly simplifies the checkout of large area solar arrays. MCSA dark electrical testing was successfully performed at KSC in July 1995 following transatlantic shipment. Data from this testing enabled engineers to quantify the effects of potential MCSA physical damage that would degrade on-orbit electrical performance. In this paper, an overview of the principles and heritage of photovoltaic array dark testing is given. The specific MCSA dark test program is also described including the hardware, software, testing procedures and test results. The current-voltage (4) response of both solar cell circuitry and by-pass diode circuitry was obtained. To guide the development of dark test hardware, software and procedures, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the dark 4 responses of generators with a variety of feasible damage modes. By comparing the actual test data with the predictions, the physical condition of the generator could be inferred. Based on this data analysis, no electrical short-circuits or open-circuits were detected. This suggested the MCSA did not sustain physical damage that affected electrical performance during handling and shipment from Russia to the US. Good

  9. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  10. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation sensors, a differential amplifier, and two servomotors. The hot side of the TEGs at midday has a temperature of around 200°C, and the cold side is approximately 50°C. The thermosiphon cooling system was designed to absorb the heat passing through the TEGs and provide optimal working conditions. The system generates 20 W of electrical energy and 200 W of thermal energy stored in water with a temperature of around 50°C. The hybrid system studied can be considered as an alternative to photovoltaic/thermal systems, especially in countries with abundant solar radiation, such as Mexico, China, and India.

  11. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  12. Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power Generating Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Hooper, H C; Sias, G G; Mezei, G; Hung, P; Kavet, R

    2015-01-01

    The southwest region of the United States is expected to experience an expansion of commercial solar photovoltaic generation facilities over the next 25 years. A solar facility converts direct current generated by the solar panels to three-phase 60-Hz power that is fed to the grid. This conversion involves sequential processing of the direct current through an inverter that produces low-voltage three-phase power, which is stepped up to distribution voltage (∼12 kV) through a transformer. This study characterized magnetic and electric fields between the frequencies of 0 Hz and 3 GHz at two facilities operated by the Southern California Edison Company in Porterville, CA and San Bernardino, CA. Static magnetic fields were very small compared to exposure limits established by IEEE and ICNIRP. The highest 60-Hz magnetic fields were measured adjacent to transformers and inverters, and radiofrequency fields from 5-100 kHz were associated with the inverters. The fields measured complied in every case with IEEE controlled and ICNIRP occupational exposure limits. In all cases, electric fields were negligible compared to IEEE and ICNIRP limits across the spectrum measured and when compared to the FCC limits (≥0.3 MHz).

  13. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC; Amini, Rashied; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; /Caltech, JPL; Bennett, Gary L.; /Metaspace Enterprises; Brophy, John R.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ervin, Joan; /Caltech, JPL; Fernandez, Yan R.; /Central Florida U.; Grundy, Will; /Lowell Observ.; Khan, Mohammed Omair; /Caltech, JPL; King, David Q.; /Aerojet; Lang, Jared; /Caltech, JPL; Meech, Karen J.; /Hawaii U.; Newhouse, Alan; Oleson, Steven R.; Schmidt, George R.; /GRC; Spilker, Thomas; West, John L.; /Caltech, JPL

    2010-05-26

    Today, our questions and hypotheses about the Solar System's origin have surpassed our ability to deliver scientific instruments to deep space. The moons of the outer planets, the Trojan and Centaur minor planets, the trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), and distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) hold a wealth of information about the primordial conditions that led to the formation of our Solar System. Robotic missions to these objects are needed to make the discoveries, but the lack of deep-space propulsion is impeding this science. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) will revolutionize the way we do deep-space planetary science with robotic vehicles, giving them unprecedented mobility. Radioisotope electric generators and lightweight ion thrusters are being developed today which will make possible REP systems with specific power in the range of 5 to 10 W/kg. Studies have shown that this specific power range is sufficient to perform fast rendezvous missions from Earth to the outer Solar System and fast sample return missions. This whitepaper discusses how mobility provided by REP opens up entirely new science opportunities for robotic missions to distant primitive bodies. We also give an overview of REP technology developments and the required next steps to realize REP.

  14. Envisaging feed-in tariffs for solar photovoltaic electricity: European lessons for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    While it is widely agreed that support schemes need to be put in place to promote the use of renewable electricity, there is less consensus as to what are the best kinds of strategies to use. What is attracting increasing attention in Canada is a system of renewable portfolio standards. In this, all power suppliers are under an obligation to ensure that a certain percentage of the electricity they generate is from renewable resources. They can either generate that electricity themselves or purchase 'green certificates' from those who have used renewables to generate electricity. Recent experience from Europe, however, suggests that a whole-hearted commitment to this single strategy could be premature and potentially damaging for the development of all kinds of renewable electricity in Canada, solar photovoltaics included. On the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the use of so-called 'feed-in tariffs' (that is, an obligation for utilities to purchase, at a set price, the electricity generated by any renewable energy resource) is widely credited with accelerating the development of renewable electricity in many countries. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon this European experience with feed-in tariffs, to stimulate discussions regarding what promise they might hold for the development of solar photovoltaic electricity in Canada. The article is divided into three main sections. In the first section, policies to promote renewable electricity, presently in place in different parts of Canada, are reviewed. Attention is then focused, more specifically, in the second section of this article, upon 'feed-in tariffs'. After defining and describing this alternative system, experiences in the countries of the European Union are reviewed. The main strengths and weaknesses of feed-in tariffs - in the European experience - are also examined. The focus then moves back to Canada in the third section of the article. In this, a system of feed-in tariffs is proposed for the

  15. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  16. Grid-connected solar electricity in France : the example of Martinique, a French overseas department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melle, Y. [Tenesol (France)

    2006-07-01

    Tenesol has specialized in photovoltaic (PV) solar energy since 1983 with experience in grid connections, professional applications, decentralized rural electrification and solar pumping. The company's operations include the manufacture of solar panels, system design and turnkey installations backed by a comprehensive after sales service through a global network of subsidiaries. Half of Tenesol's group shareholdings belong to Electricite de France and half belong to Total. The 2 specialized subsidiaries of Tenesol are Tenesa Manufacturing and Tenesol Technologies. This presentation focused Tenesol's operations in Martinique and its financial environment of grid-connected photovoltaics. It presented Tenesol's approach for technical and economic validation of roof suitability in terms of the disc orientation of PV panels. The key figures of installing a 300 square metre 40 kWp PV system were presented along with photographs of installations in Martinique. The installations have a total installed capacity of 2.5 MWp and an annual solar electricity production of 3,375,000 kWhs, resulting in a reduction of 3,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually. figs.

  17. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 7: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab HEWAC BSF, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 225 micron solar cells as a function of intensity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab HEWAC BSF, textured, 10 ohm cm, 225 micron solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature.

  18. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 12: Electrical characteristics of Solarex BSF, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron solar cells (1978 pilot line) as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Solarex back-surface-field, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and irradiation.

  19. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  20. The influence of local electric fields on photoinduced absorption in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, Ute B; Feldt, Sandra M; Schöneboom, Jan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2010-07-07

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) challenges conventional photovoltaics with its potential for low-cost production and its flexibility in terms of color and design. Transient absorption spectroscopy is widely used to unravel the working mechanism of DSCs. A surprising, unexplained feature observed in these studies is an apparent bleach of the ground-state absorption of the dye, under conditions where the dye is in the ground state. Here, we demonstrate that this feature can be attributed to a change of the local electric field affecting the absorption spectrum of the dye, an effect related to the Stark effect first reported in 1913. We present a method for measuring the effect of an externally applied electric field on the absorption of dye monolayers adsorbed on flat TiO(2) substrates. The measured signal has the shape of the first derivative of the absorption spectra of the dyes and reverses sign along with the reversion of the direction of the change in dipole moment upon excitation relative to the TiO(2) surface. A very similar signal is observed in photoinduced absorption spectra of dye-sensitized TiO(2) electrodes under solar cell conditions, demonstrating that the electric field across the dye molecules changes upon illumination. This result has important implications for the analysis of transient absorption spectra of DSCs and other molecular optoelectronic devices and challenges the interpretation of many previously published results.

  1. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the main, general-perspective themes of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's leadership and long and varied work are: the effect of present and future nuclear energy projects on society, not only in the United States but throughout the world; analysis, comparison, and combination of various sources of energy; extensive multiple use of nuclear energy complexes (so-called NUPLEX, for nuclear complex) for various areas of the world; and use of ''Big Technology'' and ''Big Science'' for solving, or helping to solve, political problems. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production is discussed, as well as two other energy-related engineering projects. Some of the projects originated or were inspired by work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the leadership of Dr. Alvin Weinberg. Also reported are the technical characteristics and interrelationships of the three components of the envisaged hydronuclear-solar project

  2. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  3. Electric field in the magnetotail depending on the geomagnetic activity level and intensity Esub(y) in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Osipov, V.V.; Shukhtina, M.A.; Zajtseva, S.A.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok. Dal'nevostochnyh Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-01-01

    The value of the large-scale electric field in the near magnetotail on AE-index variations delay in relation to interplanetary electric field variations is estimated. It is obtained that the electric field value in a tail increases with magnetic activity level. The solar wind electric field under strong magnetic disturbance penetrates into the magnetosphere practically without weakening and is essentially weakened in magneto-quit conditions. Calculated values of the electric field magnitude in the magnetotail (0.01-1mBm) are in agreement with those obtained earlier [ru

  4. Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-Ling Chien, John; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it a good utility-scale power option, especially in the economically underdeveloped Western regions, (3) while CST power is currently more expensive than coal-fired electricity on a nominal basis, when costs of externalities are accounted for, CST, at 11.4 US cents/kWh, can become 57% cheaper than scrubbed coal and 29% cheaper than nuclear power, (4) CST power continues dropping in cost due to economies of scale and technological improvements and can potentially realize a levelized electricity cost of around 4 cents/kWh within ten years, (5) it would significantly rise in competitiveness if and when China completes the extensive smart grid for connecting its solar-abundant western regions with the high-demand eastern regions, (6) CST has the potential to positively impact Western China's economy, but proper policy and deal structure must be in place to ensure that the local community shares the benefit. - Highlights: ► We analyze inclusion of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power in China. ► We find that CST needs emphasis in China's renewable energy plan. ► The analysis shows that CST is competitive with coal if externalities are considered. ► We recommend a policy that would develop CST power generation in western regions. ► This would be of significant benefit to Western China's economy and to China.

  5. Progress of High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor Simulations Using TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Beach, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional, time-accurate, and phase-lagged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor (HECC) stage were generated using the TURBO solver. Changes to the TURBO Parallel Version 4 source code were made in order to properly model the no-slip boundary condition along the spinning hub region for centrifugal impellers. A startup procedure was developed to generate a converged flow field in TURBO. This procedure initialized computations on a coarsened mesh generated by the Turbomachinery Gridding System (TGS) and relied on a method of systematically increasing wheel speed and backpressure. Baseline design-speed TURBO results generally overpredicted total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency, and the choking flow rate of the HECC stage as compared with the design-intent CFD results of Code Leo. Including diffuser fillet geometry in the TURBO computation resulted in a 0.6 percent reduction in the choking flow rate and led to a better match with design-intent CFD. Diffuser fillets reduced annulus cross-sectional area but also reduced corner separation, and thus blockage, in the diffuser passage. It was found that the TURBO computations are somewhat insensitive to inlet total pressure changing from the TURBO default inlet pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (101.35 kilopascals) down to 11.0 pounds per square inch (75.83 kilopascals), the inlet pressure of the component test. Off-design tip clearance was modeled in TURBO in two computations: one in which the blade tip geometry was trimmed by 12 mils (0.3048 millimeters), and another in which the hub flow path was moved to reflect a 12-mil axial shift in the impeller hub, creating a step at the hub. The one-dimensional results of these two computations indicate non-negligible differences between the two modeling approaches.

  6. The Possibility of Functioning at Maximum Power for Solar Photovoltaic - Electric Battery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the functioning of a solar photovoltaic module(PVM that debits direct to on electric battery (EB. By a good adaptingof PVM to EB, so that the no load voltage of the two components (PVMand EB are well suited, during a day the energy value can be reachednear to the maximum possible value, when the PVM functions in themaximum power point (MPP. The proposed solution is much moreeconomic than the classical: PVM + DC – DC + EB because the directcurrent - direct current power converter, is not necessary (DC - DC.

  7. Thrust calculation of electric solar wind sail by particle-in-cell simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Kento [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Sustainable Humanosphere; Muranaka, Takanobu [Chukyo Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2016-07-01

    In this study, thrust characteristics of an electric solar wind sail were numerically evaluated using full threedimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The thrust obtained from the PIC simulation was lower than the thrust estimations obtained in previous studies. The PIC simulation indicated that ambient electrons strongly shield the electrostatic potential of the tether of the sail, and the strong shield effect causes a greater thrust reduction than has been obtained in previous studies. Additionally, previous expressions of the thrust estimation were modified by using the shielded potential structure derived from the present simulation results. The modified thrust estimation agreed very well with the thrust obtained from the PIC simulation.

  8. Public Support of Solar Electricity and its Impact on Households - Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermannová Jarmila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Currently, the idea of households - prosumers is broadly discussed in public governments, mainly in connection with both the energy security issues and the environmental issues. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to present new agent model of household - prosumer and to compare two scenarios – “off grid household” and “on grid household”. The additional goal is to evaluate the impact of public support of solar electricity on the economic efficiency of household – prosumer projects (systems.

  9. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Systems for SMD Mission Needs. Technology Infusion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David

    2014-01-01

    Two presentations for SBAG and OPAG meetings: 1) Solar Electric Propulsion Systems for SMD Missions, and 2) Technology Infusion Study - Draft Findings Recommendation Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) meeting is January 9th in Washington D.C., and the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) meeting is January 23-14 in Tucson, AZ. NASA sponsors these assessment groups, through the NRC, for the science community to assess and provide advice. These talks are to provide a status of 2 NASA activities, and to seek feedback from the respective science communities.

  10. Thrust calculation of electric solar wind sail by particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Kento; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Muranaka, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, thrust characteristics of an electric solar wind sail were numerically evaluated using full threedimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The thrust obtained from the PIC simulation was lower than the thrust estimations obtained in previous studies. The PIC simulation indicated that ambient electrons strongly shield the electrostatic potential of the tether of the sail, and the strong shield effect causes a greater thrust reduction than has been obtained in previous studies. Additionally, previous expressions of the thrust estimation were modified by using the shielded potential structure derived from the present simulation results. The modified thrust estimation agreed very well with the thrust obtained from the PIC simulation.

  11. Experimental evaluation of noise spectral density to investigate structure defects and electrical behavior of solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashur, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work current voltage characteristics and voltage spectral density, in both forward and reverse bias operations were evaluated for a group of mono- crystalline silicon solar cells. The cells were tested for the sake of device quality evaluation and identification of failure modes and mechanisms. Experimental results showed transport characteristics with varying slopes. In addition, electrical noise density versus frequency response, for the constant voltage mode, showed an extremum of noise voltage spectral density at zero D.C. frequency. It decreased with increasing frequency and revealed spikes of the noise voltage density at certain frequencies. (author)

  12. First national colloquium on photovoltaic self-consumption. To produce and consume one's own solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Virginie; Bour, Daniel; Brottier, Laetitia; Kubista, Marek; Charton, Franck; Lafforgue, Alain; Bubel, Genevieve; Bechu, Olivier; Lextrait, Herve; Gelle, Alexis; Glachant, Jean-Michel; Moretti, Florent; Contreau, Regis; Damian, Jean; Gravier, Emmanuel; Mas, Pierre; Puaud, Teddy; Lebreton, Francois; Coutant, Francoise; Perrin, Gautier; Cereuil, Edouard; Dehaese, Olivier; Mingant, Sylvie; Roesner, Sven; Communal, Serge; Djahel, Thierry; Hu, Zukui; Perez, Yannick; Marchal, David; Laffaille, Didier; Claustre, Raphael; Joffre, Andre

    2016-05-01

    After some introductory speeches, this publication reports contributions presented during several round tables which respectively proposed comments and discussions on the results of a survey on the relationship between French people and self-consumption; on the relationships and stakes of the electricity grid regulatory framework with positive or zero energy building; on an overview of emerging market offers by professionals; on a return on experience and on the role of local communities (region, TEPOS or positive energy territories, energy syndicates, authorities for distribution organisation); on the situation and perspectives of stationary storage and solar electro-mobility; and on prospective visions (2018/2023) for photovoltaic self-consumption in France

  13. Planetary mission requirements, technology and design considerations for a solar electric propulsion stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, M. J.; Hastrup, R. C.; Menard, W. A.; Olson, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    High energy planetary missions such as comet rendezvous, Saturn orbiter and asteroid rendezvous require development of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) for augmentation of the Shuttle-IUS. Performance and functional requirements placed on the SEPS are presented. These requirements will be used in evolution of the SEPS design, which must be highly interactive with both the spacecraft and the mission design. Previous design studies have identified critical SEPS technology areas and some specific design solutions which are also presented in the paper.

  14. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  15. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena-Sanchez, Raul; Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Perez-Alonso, Jose; Carreno-Ortega, Angel [University of Almeria, Depto. de Ingenieia Rural, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: acallejo@ual.es

    2012-07-15

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv Daniela). This study was undertaken in a commercial raspa y amagado greenhouse, typical of the Almeria region (Spain). Tomato plantlets were planted at a density of 0.75 plants m{sup -2}. The flexible solar panels were mounted on two parts of the roof in different arrangements (T1 and T2), each blacking out 9.8 % of its surface area. A control area (T0 arrangement) was fitted with no panels. No difference was found in terms of total or marketable production under these three arrangements, although fruit mean mass and maximum diameter of T0 were significantly greater than T1 and T2. Fruit in T0 matured earlier with more intense color compared with those in T1 and T2. However, these differences had no effect on price as the tomatoes produced under three conditions fell into the same commercial class (G class; diameter 67-81 mm). Solar panels covering 9.8 % roof area of the greenhouse did not affect yield and price of tomatoes despite of their negative effect on fruit size and color. (author)

  16. Performance of JPEG Image Transmission Using Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Mohammad Umar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of a simulation study on the performance of JPEG image transmission over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels using typical and proposed asymmetric turbo codes for error control coding. The baseline JPEG algorithm is used to compress a QCIF ( "Suzie" image. The recursive systematic convolutional (RSC encoder with generator polynomials , that is, (13/11 in decimal, and 3G interleaver are used for the typical WCDMA and CDMA2000 turbo codes. The proposed asymmetric turbo code uses generator polynomials , that is, (13/11; 13/9 in decimal, and a code-matched interleaver. The effect of interleaver in the proposed asymmetric turbo code is studied using weight distribution and simulation. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code for the frame length , code rate with Log-MAP decoder over AWGN channel are compared with the typical system. From the simulation results, it is observed that the image transmission using proposed asymmetric turbo code performs better than that with the typical system.

  17. A highly efficient electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    N-cetylpyridinium iodide (N-CPI) as a new electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was studied.It showed high efficiency for enhancing both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current density of DSSC when the suitable amount of N-CPI as 0.02 M was added in liquid electrolyte.The energy conversion effi- ciency of DSSC increased from 4.429% to 6.535%,with 47.55% enhancement.Therefore,it is a highly efficient electric addi- tive for DSSC.The intrinsic reason is owing to the special molecular structure of N-CPI,which contains two different polarity groups.As a surfactant,N-CPI could form ordered arrangement in liquid electrolyte,which affects the diffusing ability and the redox reaction of I-/I3-,and further affects the photovoltaic performance of DSSC.

  18. Electric Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric response to an external periodic voltage of small amplitude of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs made up with an alternative architecture has been investigated. DSCs have been fabricated with a reversible sealing structure, based on microfluidic concepts, with a precise control on the geometric parameters of the active chamber. Cells with different electrolyte thicknesses have been characterized, without varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer, both under illumination and in dark conditions. Measurements of the electric impedance have been performed in the presence of an external bias ranging from 0 V to 0.8 V. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a transmission line model, with two transport channels. The results show that the photovoltaic performances of the microfluidic cell are comparable with those obtained in irreversibly sealed structures, actually demonstrating the reliability of the proposed device.

  19. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  20. Realization of Quasi-Omnidirectional Solar Cells with Superior Electrical Performance by All-Solution-Processed Si Nanopyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Tan, Miao; Zhuang, Yufeng; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale (156 mm × 156 mm) quasi-omnidirectional solar cells are successfully realized and featured by keeping high cell performance over broad incident angles (θ), via employing Si nanopyramids (SiNPs) as surface texture. SiNPs are produced by the proposed metal-assisted alkaline etching method, which is an all-solution-processed method and highly simple together with cost-effective. Interestingly, compared to the conventional Si micropyramids (SiMPs)-textured solar cells, the SiNPs-textured solar cells possess lower carrier recombination and thus superior electrical performances, showing notable distinctions from other Si nanostructures-textured solar cells. Furthermore, SiNPs-textured solar cells have very little drop of quantum efficiency with increasing θ, demonstrating the quasi-omnidirectional characteristic. As an overall result, both the SiNPs-textured homojunction and heterojunction solar cells possess higher daily electric energy production with a maximum relative enhancement approaching 2.5%, when compared to their SiMPs-textured counterparts. The quasi-omnidirectional solar cell opens a new opportunity for photovoltaics to produce more electric energy with a low cost.

  1. The energetic implications of curtailing versus storing wind- and solar-generated electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, C. J.; Dale, M.; Brandt, A. R.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid deployment of power generation technologies harnessing wind and solar resources continues to reduce the carbon intensity of the power grid. But as these technologies comprise a larger fraction of power supply, their variable, weather-dependent nature poses challenges to power grid operation. Today, during times of power oversupply or unfavorable market conditions, power grid operators curtail these resources. Rates of curtailment are expected to increase with increased renewable electricity production. That is unless technologies are implemented that can provide grid flexibility to balance power supply with power demand. Curtailment is an obvious forfeiture of energy and it decreases the profitability of electricity from curtailed generators. What are less obvious are the energetic costs for technologies that provide grid flexibility. We present a theoretical framework to calculate how storage affects the energy return on energy investment (EROI) ratios of wind and solar resources. Our methods identify conditions under which it is more energetically favorable to store energy than it is to simply curtail electricity production. Electrochemically based storage technologies result in much smaller EROI ratios than large-scale geologically based storage technologies like compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS). All storage technologies paired with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation yield EROI ratios that are greater than curtailment. Due to their low energy stored on electrical energy invested (ESOIe) ratios, conventional battery technologies reduce the EROI ratios of wind generation below curtailment EROI ratios. To yield a greater net energy return than curtailment, battery storage technologies paired with wind generation need an ESOIe>80. We identify improvements in cycle life as the most feasible way to increase battery ESOIe. Depending upon the battery's embodied energy requirement, an increase of cycle life to 10

  2. The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeh Elias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator. Hydraulic power plants are systems that produce electrical energy with high investment costs. In order to fulfil their goals, investments should create conditions for a safe production of energy in a long lasting and reliable way, and with the required power and quality. These goals are possible to reach by an optional control process linked to a systematic monitoring of the operating machinery state, using the method of vibration diagnostics. Lately, there has been an increase of noise level in the hydraulic power plants.

  3. Electricity savings with pellet stoves and solar heating in electrically heated houses; Elbesparing med pelletkaminer och solvaerme i direktelvaermda smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas [Hoegskolan Dalarna, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how electrically heated houses can be converted to using wood pellet and solar heating. There are a large number of wood pellet stoves on the market. Many stoves have a water jacket, which gives an opportunity to distribute the heat to domestic hot water and a radiator heating system. Three typical Swedish houses with electric resistance heating have been studied. Fourteen different system concepts using wood pellet stoves and solar heating systems have been evaluated. The systems and the houses have been simulated in detail using TRNSYS. The houses have been divided in up to 10 different zones and heat transfer by air circulation through doorways and open doors have been simulated. The pellet stoves were simulated using a recently developed TRNSYS component, which models the start- and stop phases, emissions and the dynamic behaviour of the stoves. The model also calculates the CO-emissions. Simulations were made with one stove without a water jacket and two stoves with different fractions of the generated heat distributed in the water circuit. Simulations show that the electricity savings using a pellet stove are greatly affected by the house plan, the system choice, if the internal doors are open or closed and the desired level of comfort. Installing a stove with a water-jacket connected to a radiator system and a hot water storage has the advantage that heat can be transferred to domestic hot water and be distributed to other rooms. Such systems lead to greater electricity savings, especially in houses having a traditional layout. It was found that not all rooms needed radiators and that it was more effective in most cases to use a stove with a higher fraction of the heat distributed by the water circuit. The economic investigation shows that installing a wood pellet stove without a water jacket gives the lowest total energy- and capital costs in the house with an open plan (for today's energy prices and the

  4. High resolution in-operando microimaging of solar cells with pulsed electrically-detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Itai; Fehr, Matthias; Schnegg, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    The in-operando detection and high resolution spatial imaging of paramagnetic defects, impurities, and states becomes increasingly important for understanding loss mechanisms in solid-state electronic devices. Electron spin resonance (ESR), commonly employed for observing these species, cannot meet this challenge since it suffers from limited sensitivity and spatial resolution. An alternative and much more sensitive method, called electrically-detected magnetic resonance (EDMR), detects the species through their magnetic fingerprint, which can be traced in the device's electrical current. However, until now it could not obtain high resolution images in operating electronic devices. In this work, the first spatially-resolved electrically-detected magnetic resonance images (EDMRI) of paramagnetic states in an operating real-world electronic device are provided. The presented method is based on a novel microwave pulse sequence allowing for the coherent electrical detection of spin echoes in combination with powerful pulsed magnetic-field gradients. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on a device-grade 1-μm-thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell and an identical device that was degraded locally by an electron beam. The degraded areas with increased concentrations of paramagnetic defects lead to a local increase in recombination that is mapped by EDMRI with ∼20-μm-scale pixel resolution. The novel approach presented here can be widely used in the nondestructive in-operando three-dimensional characterization of solid-state electronic devices with a resolution potential of less than 100 nm.

  5. The Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics and Control of Electric Sail in Displaced Solar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced solar orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated. Since the propulsive thrust is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric-sail-based spacecraft are coupled and required to be investigated together. However, the coupled dynamics and control of electric sails have not been discussed in most published literatures. In this paper, the equilibrium point of the coupled dynamical system in displaced orbit is obtained, and its stability is analyzed through a linearization. The results of stability analysis show that only some of the orbits are marginally stable. For unstable displaced orbits, linear quadratic regulator is employed to control the coupled attitude-orbit system. Numerical simulations show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system and a small torque can stabilize both the attitude and orbit. In order to generate the control force and torque, the voltage distribution problem is studied in an optimal framework. The numerical results show that the control force and torque of electric sail can be realized by adjusting the voltage distribution of charged tethers.

  6. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  7. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant's electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant's protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well

  8. Electricity generation comparison of food waste-based bioenergy with wind and solar powers: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Bao Dung Thi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The food waste treatment-based anaerobic digestion has been proven to play a primary role in electricity industry with high potentially economic benefits, which could reduce electricity prices in comparison with other renewable energy resources such as wind and solar power. The levelized costs of electricity were reported to be 65, 190, 130 and 204 US$ MWh−1 for food waste treatment in anaerobic landfill, anaerobic digestion biogas, solar power, and wind power, respectively. As examples, the approaches of food waste treatment via anaerobic digestion to provide a partial energy supply for many countries in future were estimated as 42.9 TWh yr−1 in China (sharing 0.87% of total electricity generation, 7.04 TWh yr−1 in Japan (0.64% of total electricity generation and 13.3 TWh yr−1 in the US (0.31% of total electricity generation. Electricity generation by treating food waste is promised to play an important role in renewable energy management. Comparing with wind and solar powers, converting food waste to bioenergy provides the lowest investment costs (500 US$ kW−1 and low operation cost (0.1 US$ kWh−1. With some limits in geography and season of other renewable powers, using food waste for electricity generation is supposedly to be a suitable solution for balancing energy demand in many countries.

  9. From passive to active about solar electricity: innovation decision process and photovoltaic interest generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Electric utility managers are accustomed to technology choices, both in day-to-day load dispatching decisions and in the selection of new innovation to support utility operations. Conventional innovation management decision models may no longer apply in a confusing world of resource scarcity and industry deregulation. This research addresses the implications of a likely scenario: utilities will inevitably shift to a renewable base for electricity generation. How will managers become interested in solar energy? Does the conventional adoption decision model provide a solid foundation for understanding the factors that influence their interest? This study suggests not. Building on a national survey of utility managers in the US, a path analysis demonstrates the inadequacy of technical knowledge as a sufficient precursor to adoption interest. Three additional variables - motivation, experience, and familiarity - are offered as critical influences of interest in photovoltaics, the most ready innovation in the spectrum of renewable technologies. These findings have significant implications for commercialization efforts, as well as for management of utility operations. Through small wins, experimentation, and groping along, solar power can be diffused far more effectively and with far greater ultimate success than is expected through the conventional wisdom of large-scale research and development. (author)

  10. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties.

  11. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abermann S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  12. Turbo Pascal Computer Code for PIXE Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono

    2002-01-01

    To optimal utilization of the 150 kV ion accelerator facilities and to govern the analysis technique using ion accelerator, the research and development of low energy PIXE technology has been done. The R and D for hardware of the low energy PIXE installation in P3TM have been carried on since year 2000. To support the R and D of PIXE accelerator facilities in harmonize with the R and D of the PIXE hardware, the development of PIXE software for analysis is also needed. The development of database of PIXE software for analysis using turbo Pascal computer code is reported in this paper. This computer code computes the ionization cross-section, the fluorescence yield, and the stopping power of elements also it computes the coefficient attenuation of X- rays energy. The computer code is named PIXEDASIS and it is part of big computer code planed for PIXE analysis that will be constructed in the near future. PIXEDASIS is designed to be communicative with the user. It has the input from the keyboard. The output shows in the PC monitor, which also can be printed. The performance test of the PIXEDASIS shows that it can be operated well and it can provide data agreement with data form other literatures. (author)

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery, electrical heater and solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Özyoğurtçu, Gamze; Mobedi, Moghtada; Özerdem, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The energy consumed to condition fresh air is considerable, particularly for the buildings such as cinema, theatre or gymnasium saloons. The aim of the present study is to design a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery unit, electrical heater and stored solar energy, then to make an economical analysis based on life cycle cost (LCC) to find out its payback period. The system is able to recover thermal energy of exhaust air, store solar energy during the sunlight period an...

  14. Conversion of NIR-radiation to Electric Power in a Solar Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, P. J.; Swinkels, G. L. A. M.; Bot, G. P. A.; Flamand, G.

    2007-02-01

    The scope of this investigation is the development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures. As a first measure, the spectral selective cover material, which prevents the entrance of NIR radiation, is investigated. The special spectral selective reflectivity of these materials has to block up to 50% of the solar energy outside the greenhouse, which will reduce the needed cooling capacity. The second measure is the integration of a solar energy system. When the NIR reflecting coating is designed as a parabolic or circular shaped reflector integrated in the greenhouse, the reflected solar energy of a PV cell in the focus point delivers electric energy. With a ray tracing computer program the geometry of the reflector was optimally designed with respect to the maximum power level. The PV or TPV cells mounted in the focal point require cooling due to the high heat load of the concentrated radiation (concentration factor of 40-80). The properties of different materials, Ge, GaSb, CIS and Si cells were investigated to find the optimal cell for this application. For the second option a tubular collector is placed in the focus of the reflector. The collector contains thermal oil, which is heated up to a temperature of 400°C. This hot oil can be used for heating a Stirling motor or an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The typical efficiencies and economic achievement of these systems including the tube collector are compared with the efficiencies of the TPV cells.

  15. Turbo-Electric Compressor/Generator Using Halbach Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloesel, Kurt J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a turbojet design that integrates power generation into the turbojet itself, rather than use separate generators attached to the turbojet for power generation. By integrating the power generation within the jet engine, the weight of the overall system is significantly reduced, increasing system efficiency. Also, by integrating the power generating elements of the system within the air flow of the jet engine, the present invention can use the heat generated by the power generating elements (which is simply expelled waste heat in current designs) to increase the engine performance.

  16. Construction of Tungsten Halogen, Pulsed LED, and Combined Tungsten Halogen-LED Solar Simulators for Solar Cell I-V Characterization and Electrical Parameters Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Namin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I-V characterization of solar cells is generally done under natural sunlight or solar simulators operating in either a continuous mode or a pulse mode. Simulators are classified on three features of irradiance, namely, spectral match with respect to air mass 1.5, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. Commercial solar simulators use Xenon lamps and halogen lamps, whereas LED-based solar simulators are being developed. In this work, we build and test seven simulators for solar cell characterization, namely, one tungsten halogen simulator, four monochromatic (red, green, blue, and white LED simulators, one multicolor LED simulator, and one tungsten halogen-blue LED simulator. The seven simulators provide testing at nonstandard test condition. High irradiance from simulators is obtained by employing elevated supply voltage to tungsten halogen lamps and high pulsing voltages to LEDs. This new approach leads to higher irradiance not previously obtained from tungsten halogen lamps and LEDs. From I-V curves, electrical parameters of solar cell are made and corrected based on methods recommended in the IEC 60891 Standards. Corrected values obtained from non-STC measurements are in good agreement with those obtained from Class AAA solar simulator.

  17. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  18. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  19. Impacts of Post-metallisation Processes on the Electrical and Photovoltaic Properties of Si Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Dawei; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Gentle, Angus; Kim, Dong-Ho; Hao, Xiaojing; Shi, Lei; Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin A

    2010-08-01

    As an important step towards the realisation of silicon-based tandem solar cells using silicon quantum dots embedded in a silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) matrix, single-junction silicon quantum dot (Si QD) solar cells on quartz substrates have been fabricated. The total thickness of the solar cell material is 420 nm. The cells contain 4 nm diameter Si quantum dots. The impacts of post-metallisation treatments such as phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) etching, nitrogen (N(2)) gas anneal and forming gas (Ar: H(2)) anneal on the cells' electrical and photovoltaic properties are investigated. The Si QD solar cells studied in this work have achieved an open circuit voltage of 410 mV after various processes. Parameters extracted from dark I-V, light I-V and circular transfer length measurement (CTLM) suggest limiting mechanism in the Si QD solar cell operation and possible approaches for further improvement.

  20. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  1. Optimization of low temperature solar thermal electric generation with Organic Rankine Cycle in different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Li; Gang, Pei; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    The presented low temperature solar thermal electric generation system mainly consists of compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) and the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) working with HCFC-123. A novel design is proposed to reduce heat transfer irreversibility between conduction oil and HCFC-123 in the heat exchangers while maintaining the stability of electricity output. Mathematical formulations are developed to study the heat transfer and energy conversion processes and the numerical simulation is carried out based on distributed parameters. Annual performances of the proposed system in different areas of Canberra, Singapore, Bombay, Lhasa, Sacramento and Berlin are simulated. The influences of the collector tilt angle adjustment, the connection between the heat exchangers and the CPC collectors, and the ORC evaporation temperature on the system performance are investigated. The results indicate that the three factors have a major impact on the annual electricity output and should be the key points of optimization. And the optimized system shows that: (1) The annual received direct irradiance can be significantly increased by two or three times optimal adjustments even when the CPC concentration ratio is smaller than 3.0. (2) Compared with the traditional single-stage collectors, two-stage collectors connected with the heat exchangers by two thermal oil cycles can improve the collector efficiency by 8.1-20.9% in the simultaneous processes of heat collection and power generation. (3) On the use of the market available collectors the optimal ORC evaporation temperatures in most of the simulated areas are around 120 C. (author)

  2. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  3. Engineering & Performance of DuoTurbo: Microturbine with Counter-Rotating Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biner, D.; Hasmatuchi, V.; Violante, D.; Richard, S.; Chevailler, S.; Andolfatto, L.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.

    2016-11-01

    Considering the nuclear phase-out strategy of several European countries and the future tendency to promote renewable energies, the exploitation of small hydropower sites (industrial partners. The modular in-line “plug & play” technology requires low investment, reaching economic feasibility with an available power between 5 kW and 25 kW. One stage of the microturbine consists of two axial counter-rotating runners that form a compact independent unit. Each runner of the turbine holds its own rim generator, the DuoTurbo-configuration involving that each hydraulic runner is integral with each electrical rotor. The possibility of stacking several stages in series enables covering quite a wide range of hydraulic power and, thus, recovering a maximum of energy dissipated in release valves of water supply systems. The present work introduces the global concept of the implemented prototype of the DuoTurbo-microturbine, to target a maximal injected power of 5 kW for a discharge of 9 l/s and a head of 24.5 m per stage. The main features of the hydraulic, the mechanical, the electrical and the electronic design are presented. The hydraulic performance is, then, assessed using CFD simulations for the expected operating range. Finally, the performance measurements of the single-stage prototype installed in the hydraulic test rig of the HES-SO Valais//Wallis are presented.

  4. Electric power generation using photovoltaic solar cells for low income rural population; Geracao de energia eletrica com celula solar fotovoltaica para populacao rural de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, Andre Fava; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    With the growing electric energy use demand and almost not expansion of the energy mesh (basically composed by hydroelectric plants) existing in the country, several others methods of alternative energy generation may be necessary. Beyond that, the usually employed energy is becoming much more costly, rarer and politically more impracticable like burn fuels as oil and coal. The use of renewable approaches of energy, that are 'infinite' energies (as the wind and the light of the sun, for example), can become an excellent alternative. In this new energy group, the solar energy transformed by the use of photo voltage cells is becoming very important. The 'clear' solar radiation tends to be a more intelligent and practical option, and the future technology of energy storage will be able to solve the problem of the regions that have less sunny days. Its main advantages on the other alternative sources of energy are the trustworthiness and the previsibility. Its biggest disadvantage consists on the fact that technical limitations can not allow a solar energy generator to distribute electricity for a city. It is interesting to notice that with the development of projects as this in alternative energy, isolated areas that does not access electricity distribution network (as some far regions), it has become the most viable option of generation of electric energy. Another point is that even with the distribution network it has to be checked if it is possible to use this electricity consulting the company credential that work at those localities of consumption. Moreover, many regions of the country already installed the solar energy system for water heating, confirming that, the existing structure allows the installation of a a solar cells generation energy system without many problems. In this project, we introduce a method for electric energy generation by solar cells for rural population of low gains. This option uses low cost materials but with a good

  5. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of $13.1 billion (95% CI: $0.6 billion, $43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  6. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of 13.1 billion (95% CI: 0.6 billion, 43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  7. Utilization of photovoltaic solar energy technology for rural electricity supply at Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noh Dalimin

    1996-01-01

    The conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using photovoltaic systems for lighting, water pumping, telecommunications and vaccine refrigeration are already proven, commercially available and in many, are economically viable. More and more houses in rural areas of Sabah are connected to solar powered infra structural development needs such as street lights, radio repeater station, telecommunication and high-voltage beacons. To meet the infra structural and environmental challenges, especially in remote locations and with prospects of greater economic competitiveness, central and distributed grid connected photovoltaic systems are now being evaluated in Mandahan, Papar and in Marak Parak, Kota Marudu. This paper reports on the progress with the application of the technology and the prospects for wider dissemination

  8. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  9. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2011-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  10. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic Missions in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John

    2007-01-01

    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science and robotic exploration, and planetary science. These missions span SEP power range from 10 kWe to about 100 kWe. A SEP design compatible with small inexpensive launch vehicles, and capable of lunar science missions, is presented. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  11. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  12. Probing Temperature-Dependent Recombination Kinetics in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells by Electric Noise Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Landi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solvent additives on the temperature behavior of both charge carrier transport and recombination kinetics in bulk heterojunction solar cells has been investigated by electric noise spectroscopy. The observed differences in charge carrier lifetime and mobility are attributed to a different film ordering and donor-acceptor phase segregation in the blend. The measured temperature dependence indicates that bimolecular recombination is the dominant loss mechanism in the active layer, affecting the device performance. Blend devices prepared with a high-boiling-point solvent additive show a decreased recombination rate at the donor-acceptor interface as compared to the ones prepared with the reference solvent. A clear correlation between the device performance and the morphological properties is discussed in terms of the temperature dependence of the mobility-lifetime product.

  13. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  14. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  15. Leak detection in turbo group condensers using helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cores, C.; Lloret, J.

    1997-01-01

    This method allows a rapid location of leaks (small or not) in the pipelines of a turbo group condenser, before opening the condenser boxes and no need of stooping the turbo group operation. This operation can last two hours maximum depending on the volume of the box or semi box. The technique consists of injecting helium into the water side and detecting it in the steam side, in the outlet of not condensable gases of the ejector. In the same way, probable air inlet to the condenser can be proved (auxiliary systems, turbo group joints to the condenser, etc.) in order to improve the vacuum and/or reduce the quantity of oxygen dissolved in the water of the steam side. (author) [es

  16. Joint research for innovative turbo machines in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedermann, Alexander [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany). AG Turbo; Jeschke, Peter [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). AG Turbo; Goldschmidt, Dirk [SIEMENS AG, Muelheim a.d. Ruhr (Germany). AG Turbo

    2013-04-01

    AG Turbo, established about 25 years ago, is a platform where pre-competitive, application-oriented turbo machinery research in Germany is agreed and coordinated. Focus of the research is on turbo machines which are responsible for energy conversion in conventional fossil-fired or combined cycle power plants (CCGT), as well as compressor trains for capturing and transporting the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. At all stages of the technical process - from gas compression through combustion in gas turbine combustors to expansion in the turbine - innovations are needed to actually meet the targets for efficiency, reliability, as well as protection of the climate and environment. Research results achieved will be presented using selected examples and an outlook at future activities will be given.

  17. On Possibility of Direct Asteroid Deflection by Electric Solar Wind Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikallio, Sini; Janhunen, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    The Electric Solar Wind Sail (E-sail) is a new propulsion method for interplanetary travel which was invented in 2006 and is currently under development. The E-sail uses charged tethers to extract momentum from the solar wind particles to obtain propulsive thrust. According to current estimates, the E-sail is 2-3 orders of magnitude better than traditional propulsion methods (chemical rockets and ion engines) in terms of produced lifetime-integrated impulse per propulsion system mass. Here we analyze the problem of using the E-sail for directly deflecting an Earth-threatening asteroid. The problem then culminates into how to attach the E-sail device to the asteroid. We assess a number of alternative attachment strategies and arrive at a recommendation of using the gravity tractor method because of its workability for a wide variety of asteroid types. We also consider possible techniques to scale up the E-sail force beyond the baseline one Newton level to deal with more imminent or larger asteroid or cometary threats. As a baseline case we consider a 3 million ton asteroid which can be deflected with a baseline 1 N E-sail in 5-10 years. Once developed, the E-sail would appear to provide a safe and reasonably low-cost way of deflecting dangerous asteroids and other heavenly bodies in cases where the collision threat becomes known several years in advance.

  18. Effect of cell thickness on the electrical and optical properties of thin film silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A. A.; El-Amin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work Electrical and optical properties of silicon thin films with different thickness were measured. The thickness of the Si films varied from 100 to 800 μm. The optical properties of the cell were studied at different thickness. A maximum achievable current density (MACD) generated by a planar solar cell, was measured for different values of the cell thickness which was performed by using photovoltaic (PV) optics method. It was found that reducing the values of the cell thickness improves the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cell. The optical properties were measured for thin film Si (TF-Si) at different thickness by using the double beam UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-2000 nm. Some of optical parameters such as refractive index with dispersion relation, the dispersion energy, the oscillator energy, optical band gap energy were calculated by using the spectra for the TF-Si with different thickness.

  19. Artificial Neural Network Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodore Amissah OCRAN; CAO Junyi; CAO Binggang; SUN Xinghua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural network maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for solar electric vehicles. The MPPT is based on a highly efficient boost converter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power switch. The reference voltage for MPPT is obtained by artificial neural network (ANN) with gradient descent momentum algorithm. The tracking algorithm changes the duty-cycle of the converter so that the PV-module voltage equals the voltage corresponding to the MPPT at any given insolation, temperature, and load conditions. For fast response, the system is implemented using digital signal processor (DSP). The overall system stability is improved by including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which is also used to match the reference and battery voltage levels. The controller, based on the information supplied by the ANN, generates the boost converter duty-cycle. The energy obtained is used to charge the lithium ion battery stack for the solar vehicle. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient.

  20. Light induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca i Cabarrocas P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on light-induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H PIN solar cells. To explain the particular light-soaking behavior of such cells – namely an increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc and a rapid drop of the short circuit current density (Jsc – we correlate these effects to changes in hydrogen incorporation and structural properties in the layers of the cells. Numerous techniques such as current-voltage characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen exodiffusion, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to study the light-induced changes from microscopic to macroscopic scales (up to tens of microns. Such comprehensive use of complementary techniques lead us to suggest that light-soaking produces the diffusion of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen accumulation at p-layer/substrate interface and localized delamination of the interface. Based on these results we propose that light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells has to be addressed from not only as a material issue, but also a device point of view. In particular we bring experimental evidence that localized delamination at the interface between the p-layer and SnO2 substrate by light-induced hydrogen motion causes the rapid drop of Jsc.

  1. Linking optical and electrical small amplitude perturbation techniques for dynamic performance characterization of dye solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Janne

    2011-07-21

    This paper unifies the analytical models used widely but thus far mostly separately for electrical and optical small amplitude perturbation measurements of nanostructured electrochemical dye solar cells (DSC): electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS). The models are linked by expressing the kinetic boundary condition used for solving the time-dependent continuity equation of electrons in IMPS and IMVS analysis in terms of the series and parallel impedance components found in the complete equivalent circuit impedance model of DSC. As a result, analytical expressions are derived for potentiostatic IMPS and galvanostatic IMVS transfer functions of complete DSCs that are applicable at any operating point along the solar cell current-voltage (IV) curve. In agreement with the theory, impedance spectrum calculated as a ratio of IMVS and IMPS transfer functions measured near the maximum power point matches exactly with the impedance spectrum measured directly with EIS. Consequently, both IMPS-IMVS and EIS yield equal estimates for the electron diffusion length. The role of the chemical capacitance of the nanostructured semiconductor photoelectrode in the interpretation of the so-called RC attenuation of the IMPS response is clarified, as well as the capacitive frequency dispersion in IMPS and IMVS. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  2. Survey of solar thermal energy storage subsystems for thermal/electric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C. L.

    1978-08-01

    A survey of the current technology and estimated costs of subsystems for storing the thermal energy produced by solar collectors is presented. The systems considered were capable of producing both electricity and space conditioning for three types of loads: a single-family detached residence, an apartment complex of 100 units, and a city of 30,000 residents, containing both single-family residences and apartments. Collector temperatures will be in four ranges: (1) 100 to 250/sup 0/F (used for space heating and single-cycle air conditioners and organic Rankine low-temperature turbines); (2) 300 to 400/sup 0/F (used for dual-cycle air conditioners and low-temperature turbines); (3) 400 to 600/sup 0/F (using fluids from parabolic trough collectors to run Rankine turbines); (4) 800 to 1000/sup 0/F (using fluids from heliostats to run closed-cycle gas turbines and steam Rankine turbines). The solar thermal energy subsystems will require from 60 to 36 x 10/sup 5/ kWhr (2.05 x 10/sup 5/ to 1.23 x 10/sup 10/ Btu) of thermal storage capacity. In addition to sensible heat and latent heat storage materials, several other media were investigated as potential thermal energy storage materials, including the clathrate and semiclathrate hydrates, various metal hydrides, and heat storage based on inorganic chemical reactions.

  3. NON-NEUTRALIZED ELECTRIC CURRENT PATTERNS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: ORIGIN OF THE SHEAR-GENERATING LORENTZ FORCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Mikić, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Using solar vector magnetograms of the highest available spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, we perform a detailed study of electric current patterns in two solar active regions (ARs): a flaring/eruptive and a flare-quiet one. We aim to determine whether ARs inject non-neutralized (net) electric currents in the solar atmosphere, responding to a debate initiated nearly two decades ago that remains inconclusive. We find that well-formed, intense magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) within ARs are the only photospheric magnetic structures that support significant net current. More intense PILs seem to imply stronger non-neutralized current patterns per polarity. This finding revises previous works that claim frequent injections of intense non-neutralized currents by most ARs appearing in the solar disk but also works that altogether rule out injection of non-neutralized currents. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that magnetically isolated ARs remain globally current-balanced. In addition, we confirm and quantify the preference of a given magnetic polarity to follow a given sense of electric currents, indicating a dominant sense of twist in ARs. This coherence effect is more pronounced in more compact ARs with stronger PILs and must be of sub-photospheric origin. Our results yield a natural explanation of the Lorentz force, invariably generating velocity and magnetic shear along strong PILs, thus setting a physical context for the observed pre-eruption evolution in solar ARs.

  4. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  5. Ultrashort turbo spinecho versus turbo spinecho in the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, M.; Kontaxis, G.; Fleischmann, D.; Rand, T.H.; Imhof, H.; Trattnig, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrashort turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE) has the advantage of shorter scan times, minimizing motion artifacts, but has the disadvantage of a lower signal-to-noise ratio and suffers from different artifacts. T2-weighted ultrashort TSE (echo train 24) and TSE (echo train 11) were compared in degenerative lesions of the spine (n=9) and ligamentous lesions associated with sprained ankle injuries (n=5). The imaging quality of ultrashort TSE was very similar to TSE. There was no difference in diagnostic reliability with ultrashort TSE compared to TSE in the spine or ankle. With regard to contrast properties a higher signal intensity of fatty bone marrow was obtained with ultrashort TSE, with consecutive lower contrast between fluid and edema on the one hand and fatty tissue on the other. (orig.) [de

  6. LHCb Turbo++ Slimming: Inclusive B Hadron Decay Product Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Bogensberger, David

    2016-01-01

    My summer student project focused on reducing the turbo++ output bandwidth for B meson decays at LHCb. The aim is to discard as many of the background tracks as possible, while still retaining almost all of the signal events. I analysed the ability to distinguish signal from background tracks, by considering four different B meson decays, while using signal definitions for just one particular decay, as well as for a general type of decay. I added tracks to a triggered turbo candidate, to reconstruct the B meson. I used a boosted decision tree and an artificial neural network to classify events, and compared the resulting ROC curves.

  7. Turbo decoder architecture for beyond-4G applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Cheng-Chi

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the most recent techniques for turbo decoder implementation, especially for 4G and beyond 4G applications. The authors reveal techniques for the design of high-throughput decoders for future telecommunication systems, enabling designers to reduce hardware cost and shorten processing time. Coverage includes an explanation of VLSI implementation of the turbo decoder, from basic functional units to advanced parallel architecture. The authors discuss both hardware architecture techniques and experimental results, showing the variations in area/throughput/performance with respec

  8. Generation of electrical defects in ion beam assisted deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, H.; Puttnins, S.; Daume, F.; Rahm, A.; Otte, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorber layers for thin film solar cells have been manufactured on polyimide foil in a low temperature, ion beam assisted co-evaporation process. In the present work a set of CIGS thin films was produced with varying selenium ion energy. Solar cell devices have been manufactured from the films and characterized via admittance spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage profiling to determine the influence of the selenium ion energy on the electric parameters of the solar cells. It is shown that the impact of energetic selenium ions in the CIGS deposition process leads to a change in the activation energy and defect density and also in the spatial distribution of electrically active defects. For the interpretation of the results two defect models are taken into account.

  9. A comparison of photospheric electric current and ultraviolet and X-ray emission in a solar active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, B. M.; Bruner, M. E.; Hagyard, M. J.; Bonnet, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive set of coordinated observations of a solar active region, taking into account spectroheliograms obtained with the aid of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument, SMM soft X-ray polychromator (XRP) raster maps, and high spatial resolution ultraviolet images of the sun in Lyman-alpha and in the 1600 A continuum. These data span together the upper solar atmosphere from the temperature minimum to the corona. The data are compared to maps of the inferred photospheric electric current derived from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph observations. Some empirical correlation is found between regions of inferred electric current density and the brightest features in the ultraviolet continuum and to a lesser extent those seen in Lyman-alpha within an active region.

  10. Comparison of photospheric electric current and ultraviolet and x-ray emission in a solar active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisch, B.M.; Bruner, M.E.; Hagyard, M.J.; Bonnet, R.M.; NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; ESA, Paris, France)

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive set of coordinated observations of a solar active region, taking into account spectroheliograms obtained with the aid of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument, SMM soft x-ray polychromator (XRP) raster maps, and high spatial resolution ultraviolet images of the sun in Lyman-alpha and in the 1600 A continuum. These data span together the upper solar atmosphere from the temperature minimum to the corona. The data are compared to maps of the inferred photospheric electric current derived from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph observations. Some empirical correlation is found between regions of inferred electric current density and the brightest features in the ultraviolet continuum and to a lesser extent those seen in Lyman-alpha within an active region. 29 references

  11. Flight times to the heliopause using a combination of solar and radioisotope electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohndorf, Andreas [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany); Dachwald, Bernd [FH Univ. of Applied Sciences, Aachen (Germany); Seboldt, Wolfgang [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany); Loeb, Horst W.; Schartner, Karl-Heinz [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the interplanetary flight of a low-thrust space probe to the heliopause, located at a distance of about 200 AU from the Sun. Our goal was to reach this distance within the 25 years postulated by ESA for such a mission (which is less ambitious than the 15-year goal set by NASA). Contrary to solar sail concepts and combinations of ballistic and electrically propelled flight legs, we have investigated whether the set flight time limit could also be kept with a combination of solar-electric propulsion and a second, RTG-powered upper stage. The used ion engine type was the RIT-22 for the first stage and the RIT-10 for the second stage. Trajectory optimization was carried out with the low-thrust optimization program InTrance, which implements the method of Evolutionary Neurocontrol, using Artificial Neural Networks for spacecraft steering and Evolutionary Algorithms to optimize the Neural Networks' parameter set. Based on a parameter space study, in which the number of thrust units, the unit's specific impulse, and the relative size of the solar power generator were varied, we have chosen one configuration as reference. The transfer time of this reference configuration was 29.6 years and the fastest one, which is technically more challenging, still required 28.3 years. As all flight times of this parameter study were longer than 25 years, we further shortened the transfer time by applying a launcher-provided hyperbolic excess energy up to 49 km{sup 2}/s{sup 2}. The resulting minimal flight time for the reference configuration was then 27.8 years. The following, more precise optimization to a launch with the European Ariane 5 ECA rocket reduced the transfer time to 27.5 years. This is the fastest mission design of our study that is flexible enough to allow a launch every year. The inclusion of a fly-by at Jupiter finally resulted in a flight time of 23.8 years, which is below the set transfer-time limit. However, compared to the 27.5-year transfer

  12. Electricity and heat from solar panels. What is the perspective for solar heat and power?; Stroom en warmte uit zonnepanelen. Wat is het perspectief voor zonnewarmtekracht?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebregt, R.

    2012-10-15

    PV thermal solar panels can get the maximum amount of energy from the available roof area. The electrical efficiency improves because panels are cooled by collector fluid. When the demand for warm water is permanently high and roof area is scarce, this technique can offer a solution. In California, a Stirling engine converts bundled sunlight in electricity [Dutch] Met pv-thermische zonnepanelen haal je een maximale hoeveelheid energie van het beschikbare dakoppervlak. Het elektrische rendement verbetert doordat de panelen worden gekoeld door de collectorvloeistof. Wanneer de vraag naar warm water continu hoog is en het dakoppervlak schaars, is deze techniek een uitkomst. In California zet een stirlingmotor gebundeld zonlicht om in elektriciteit.

  13. Electrical-optical characterization of multijunction solar cells under 2000X concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Gaetano; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Candia, Roberto; Cannas, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Dentici, Ignazio; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Paredes, Filippo; Sciortino, Luisa

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of the FAE "Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza" ("High Efficiency Photovoltaic") Research Project (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1), we have performed electrical and optical characterizations of commercial InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells (1 cm2) mounted on a prototype HCPV module, installed in Palermo (Italy). This system uses a reflective optics based on rectangular off-axis parabolic mirror with aperture 45×45 cm2 leading to a geometrical concentration ratio of 2025. In this study, we report the I-V curve measured under incident power of about 700 W/m2 resulting in an electrical power at maximum point (PMP) of 41.4 W. We also investigated the optical properties by the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the top (InGaP) and middle (InGaAs) subcells. From the analysis of the experimental data we extracted the bandgap energies of these III-V semiconductors in the range 305÷385 K.

  14. Electric properties and carrier multiplication in breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneemann, Matthias; Carius, Reinhard; Rau, Uwe [IEK5-Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Kirchartz, Thomas, E-mail: t.kirchartz@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, Duisburg 47057 (Germany)

    2015-05-28

    This paper studies the effective electrical size and carrier multiplication of breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. The local series resistance limits the current of each breakdown site and is thereby linearizing the current-voltage characteristic. This fact allows the estimation of the effective electrical diameters to be as low as 100 nm. Using a laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurement with a high spatial resolution, we find carrier multiplication factors on the order of 30 (Zener-type breakdown) and 100 (avalanche breakdown) as new lower limits. Hence, we prove that also the so-called Zener-type breakdown is followed by avalanche multiplication. We explain that previous measurements of the carrier multiplication using thermography yield results higher than unity, only if the spatial defect density is high enough, and the illumination intensity is lower than what was used for the LBIC method. The individual series resistances of the breakdown sites limit the current through these breakdown sites. Therefore, the measured multiplication factors depend on the applied voltage as well as on the injected photocurrent. Both dependencies are successfully simulated using a series-resistance-limited diode model.

  15. Electrical and optical characterizations of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Im Sik; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Su; Noh, Sam Kyu; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Honggyun; Kim, Deok-Kee; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-03-01

    The electrical and optical characterizations of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) were investigated by frequency dependent capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements and photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The C- V results confirmed that the frequency dependent junction capacitance ( C j) of QDSC is sensitive to the carrier exhaustion process through trapping and recapturing in the strain-induced defects and QD states caused by the interface strain between InAs and GaAs materials. As a result, at a low frequency (≤ 200 kHz), the C j of the QDSCs decreased with increasing InAs deposition thickness ( θ), leading to the decrease in carrier concentration ( N d) of the n-GaAs absorber layer due to the carrier losses processes caused by the trapping and re-capturing in the defects and the relatively large QDs. At θ ≤ 2.0 ML, the p-n junction electric field strength ( F pn) of the QDSCs which was evaluated by PR spectra decreased with increasing excitation photon intensity ( I ex) due to the typical field screening effect in the SC structure. On the other hand, the F pn of QDSCs with θ ≥ 2.5 ML approached a constant value with a relatively high I ex, which suggests that the decrease in photo-generated carriers in the QDSC was caused by the re-capturing and trapping process.

  16. Electric solar-wind sail for asteroid touring missions and planetary protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, P.

    2014-07-01

    The electric solar-wind sail (electric sail, E-sail [1,2]) is a relatively new concept for moving around in the solar system without consuming propellant and by using the thrust provided by the natural solar wind to produce propulsion. The E-sail is based on deploying, using the centrifugal force, a set of long, thin metallic tethers and charging them to high positive voltage by actively removing negative charge from the system by an electron gun. To make the tethers resistant towards inevitable wire cuts by micrometeoroids, they must be made by bonding from multiple (typically 4) thin (25--50 μ m) aluminium wires. Production of the tethers was a technical challenge which was recently overcome. According to present numerical estimates, the E-sail could produce up to 1 N of propellantless thrust out of less than 200 kg package which is enough to give characteristic acceleration of 1 mm/s^2 to a spacecraft weighing 1 tonne, thus producing 30 km/s of delta-v per year. The thrust scales as ˜ 1/r where r is the solar distance. There are ways to control and vector the thrust enough to enable inward and outward spiralling missions in the solar system. The E-sail working principle has been indirectly measured in a laboratory, and ESTCube-1 CubeSat experiment is underway in orbit (in late March 2014 it was waiting to be started) to measure the E-sail thrust acting on a short 10-m long tether. A full-scale mission requires ˜ 1000 km of tether altogether (weighing ˜10 kg). The production of a 1-km piece of tether has been demonstrated in laboratory [3]. If the E-sail holds up its present promise, it would be ideally suited for asteroid missions because it enables production of similar level of thrust than ion engines, but needs only a small fraction of the electric power and never runs out of propellant because it does not use any (the ''propellant'' being the natural solar-wind plasma flow). Here we consider especially a mission which would tour the asteroid belt for a

  17. Fort Huachuca to Benefit from New Solar Technology: Dish-Stirling System Couples Solar Power with Engine to Generate Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... in partnership with industry. A prototype dish-Stirling solar system, which consists of a large dish of solar concentrators and a Stirling heat engine, will be installed at Fort Huachuca in July and should be in operation about two weeks later...

  18. Questionnaire Study for The Use of Solar Energy and Wind Energy for The Generation of Electricity in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarawneh, Sultan; Rireh, Mohmd; Al-Razzi, Met'eb

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the acceptance of real management of designing electrical generation plants that work using solar energy and wind energy, to explain the benefits for the decision makers of the use of the solar energy and wind energy, and to define the most important obstacles that hinder the use of solar energy in generating electricity in spite of fulfilling the environmental conditions as clean energy and renewing energy contribute to sustainability of natural resources. The descriptive methodology was used by going back to reference material including books, and scientific journals and periodicals as well as scientific researches to identify the real management and design of electrical plant generation using solar energy and wind energy. A questionnaire was distributed among the study sample that was composed of the engineers working in energy field and electrical generation plants, the general institute for environment, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, and Kuwait Society of Engineers. 203 responses were received from the study sample. Results of the study showed the presence of obstacles and special problems related to the use of solar energy that face the decision makers with regard to the ability for acquiring important advanced technology and the huge financial support and the partnership of the private sector and training of unskilled human resources. And it was declared that there is a huge focus and attention in generation electrical energy from fossil fuel because of its presence and sustainability in investment in this field and the ability to fulfill the needs of the local market from energy.(author)

  19. Simulations of momentum transfer process between solar wind plasma and bias voltage tethers of electric sail thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guangqing; Han, Yajie; Chen, Liuwei; Wei, Yanming; Yu, Yang; Chen, Maolin

    2018-06-01

    The interaction between the solar wind plasma and the bias voltage of long tethers is the basic mechanism of the electric sail thruster. The momentum transfer process between the solar wind plasma and electric tethers was investigated using a 2D full particle PIC method. The coupled electric field distribution and deflected ion trajectory under different bias voltages were compared, and the influence of bias voltage on momentum transfer process was analyzed. The results show that the high potential of the bias voltage of long tethers will slow down, stagnate, reflect and deflect a large number of ions, so that ion cavities are formed in the vicinity of the tether, and the ions will transmit the axial momentum to the sail tethers to produce the thrust. Compared to the singe tether, double tethers show a better thrust performance.

  20. Performance Evaluation of HARQ Technique with UMTS Turbo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Brkić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid automatic repeat request technique (HARQ represents the error control principle which combines an error correcting code and automatic repeat request procedure (ARQ, within the same transmission system. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulation process, the characteristics of HARQ technique are determined, for the case of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS turbo code.

  1. Aeroderivative Gas Turbo engine in CHP Plant. Compatibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities to develop Combined Cycle Units based onaeroderivative Gas Turbo engines and on existing Steam Turbines. The specific compatibilityproblems of these components and the thermodynamic performances of the analyzed Combined CycleUnits are also presented.

  2. Turbo-Gallager Codes: The Emergence of an Intelligent Coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, both turbo codes and low-density parity-check codes are largely superior to other code families and are being used in an increasing number of modern communication systems including 3G standards, satellite and deep space communications. However, the two codes have certain distinctive characteristics that ...

  3. Performance test of a ceramic turbo-viscous pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tetsuya; Hiroki, Seiji; Murakami, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Shigeyuki; Totoura, Sadayuki; Ohtaki, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    In the special fields of nuclear fusion facilities and semiconductor production installation, the development of new vacuum pumps which can cope with strong magnetic fields, high temperature gas and corrosive gas is demanded. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. has advanced the development of ceramic turbo-molecular pumps and ceramic turbo-viscous pumps, which use ceramic rotors and gas bearings since 1985. The evaluation test of the ceramic turbo-viscous vacuum pump CT-3000H which can evacuate from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum with one pump was carried out, and the experimental results on the performance and the reliability were obtained, therefore, those are reported in this paper. The structure, specification and features of the CT-3000H are shown. The exhaust performance test of the pump was carried out in conformity with the standard of the Vacuum Society of Japan, JVIS 005 'Method of performance test for turbo-molecular pumps'. The gases used were nitrogen and helium. The results are shown. The exhaust test from atmospheric pressure was carried out by two methods, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  4. The reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod Turbo coronatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological methods were used to determine the reproductive cycle of Turbo coronatus. Ovarian development was assessed from the relative proportions of mature and immature oocytes in sectioned material. Testicular tissues ware subjectively given a maturity index based on the relative proportions of the various ...

  5. The Green Electricity: The Potential of Using Solar Pv Panel for The Royal Malaysian Police (RMP Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yasin Md Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the year 2020 approaches, Malaysia aims to be self-sufficient and independence in finding resources to fuel its development, especially in energy sector. To achieve this aims, Malaysia need to strengthen its energy sustainability aspect and have a clear foresight in handling energy security issue. In coming decades, energy crisis due the existence of the significant energy threat may cause power interruptions and lead to many interrelated problems, especially safety and security issues. Issues such as unstable political and economic situation in Middle East country, Spratly issue, South China Sea territorial issue, war and terrorist may lead to unstable safety and security environment for Malaysia. The most significant organization to keep the safety and security of Malaysia is The Royal Malaysian Police (RMP. However, at the moment, this organization is fully-reliant on centralized electricity supply that may interrupt due to the future energy threat. Therefore, it is important for this organization to have an independence and self-sufficient electricity supply in order to remain their operation in any circumstances .The solar energy, through Photovoltaic (PV panel, has been identified as the significant resources to achieve this purposes. With constant solar irradiance, Malaysia has great potential in solar energy harvesting. The energy is clean, environmental-friendly, reliable and readily-accessible throughout the year. This paper will review the potential of green electricity through solar PV in being the power supply for RMP in order to maintain the security and safety of Malaysia

  6. Kinetic-Scale Electric and Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the Solar Wind at 1 AU: THEMIS/ARTEMIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, C. S.; Hanson, E.; Bonnell, J. W.; Chaston, C. C.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.

    2017-12-01

    We present here an analysis of kinetic-scale electromagnetic fluctuations in the solar wind using data from THEMIS and ARTEMIS spacecraft. We use high-time resolution electric and magnetic field measurements, as well as density fluctuations, up to 128 samples per second, as well as particle burst plasma data during carefully selected solar wind intervals. We focus our analysis on a few such intervals spanning different values of plasma beta and angles between the local magnetic field and the radial Sun-Earth direction. We discuss the careful analysis process of characterizing and removing the different instrumental effects and noise sources affecting the electric and magnetic field data at those scales, above 0.1 Hz or so, above the breakpoint marking the start of the so-called dissipation range of solar wind turbulence. We compute parameters such as the electric to magnetic field ratio, the magnetic compressibility, magnetic helicity, and other relevant quantities in order to diagnose the nature of the fluctuations at those scales between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies, extracting information on the dominant modes composing the fluctuations. We also discuss the presence and role of coherent structures in the measured fluctuations. The nature of the fluctuations in the dissipation or dispersive scales of solar wind turbulence is still debated. This observational study is also highly relevant to the current Turbulent Dissipation Challenge.

  7. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  8. Stirling engines for low-temperature solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    der Minassians, Artin

    This dissertation discusses the design and development of a distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation system that combines solar-thermal technology with a moderate-temperature Stirling engine to generate electricity. The conceived system incorporates low-cost materials and utilizes simple manufacturing processes. This technology is expected to achieve manufacturing cost of less than $1/W. Since solar-thermal technology is mature, the analysis, design, and experimental assessment of moderate-temperature Stirling engines is the main focus of this thesis. The design, fabrication, and test of a single-phase free-piston Stirling engine prototype is discussed. This low-power prototype is designed and fabricated as a test rig to provide a clear understanding of the Stirling cycle operation, to identify the key components and the major causes of irreversibility, and to verify corresponding theoretical models. As a component, the design of a very low-loss resonant displacer piston subsystem is discussed. The displacer piston is part of a magnetic circuit that provides both a required stiffness and actuation forces. The stillness is provided by a magnetic spring, which incorporates an array of permanent magnets and has a very linear stiffness characteristic that facilitates the frequency tuning. In this prototype, the power piston is not mechanically linked to the displacer piston and forms a mass-spring resonating subsystem with the engine chamber gas spring and has resonant frequency matched to that of the displacer. The fabricated engine prototype is successfully tested and the experimental results are presented and discussed. Extensive experimentation on individual component subsystems confirms the theoretical models and design considerations, providing a sound basis for higher power Stirling engine designs for residential or commercial deployments. Multi-phase Stirling engine systems are also considered and analyzed. The modal analysis of these machines proves

  9. Visibility and Visual Characteristics of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System Power Tower Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to document the visibility and visual characteristics of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), a utility-scale solar power tower facility located on land administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management in southern California. Study activities consisted of field observations of the ISEGS facility and comparison of the observations made in the field with the visual contrast assessments and visual simulations in the ISEGS Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) and supporting documents created prior to ISEGS construction. Field observations of ISEGS were made from 19 locations within 35 mi (56 km) of the facility in the course of one week in September 2014. The study results established that reflected sunlight from the receivers was the primary source of visual contrast from the operating ISEGS facility. The ISEGS facility was found to be a major source of visual contrast for all observations up to 20 mi (32 km), and was easily visible at 35 mi. Glare from individual heliostats was frequently visible, and often brighter than the reflected light from the receivers. Heliostat glare caused discomfort for one or more viewers at distances up to 20 mi. The ISEGS power blocks were brightly lit at night, and were conspicuous at the observation distance of approximately 6 mi (10 km). The facility is substantially brighter and is seen more clearly in the field than in photographs of the facility or in the prepared simulations, which were based on photographs. The simulations of the ISEGS facility in the Final EIS, which were evaluated as part of this study, sometimes lacked spatial accuracy and realism. The evaluated simulations generally under-represented the actual visual contrast from the project, and some of the contrast ratings in the Final EIS predicted substantially lower levels of visual contrast than were actually observed for the operating facility.

  10. A simulation study on the electrical structure of interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-eun; Kim, Soo Min; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a simulation for interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cells was performed by using Silvaco TCAD ATLAS to investigate the cell's electrical properties. The impacts of various parameters, including the depth of the front surface field(FSF), the FSF peak doping concentration, the depths of the emitter and the back surface field(BSF), the peak doping concentrations of the emitter and BSF, the base doping, and the bulk lifetime on the output characteristics like the light current-voltage curves and the internal quantum efficiency of the IBC solar cell, were investigated. The light absorption was determined by adjusting the antireflection coating and the Al thickness. The FSF must be thin and have a low doping concentration for high-efficiency IBC cells. If the conversion efficiency is to be improved, a thick emitter and a high doping concentration are needed. Because of the low resistivity of the Si substrate, the series resistance was reduced, but recombination was increased. With a high-resistivity Si substrate, the opposite trends were observed. By counter-balancing the series resistance and the recombination, we determined by simulation that the optimized resistivity for the IBC cells was 1 Ω·cm. Because all metal electrodes in the IBC cells are located on the back side, a higher minority carrier lifetime showed a higher efficiency. After the various parameters had been optimized, texturing and surface recombination were added into the simulation. The simulated IBC cells showed a short-circuit current density of 42.89 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 714.8 mV, a fill factor of 84.04%, and a conversion efficiency of 25.77%.

  11. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  12. Optical and electrical properties of electron-irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Y.; Warasawa, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Takakura, K. [Department of Information, Communication and Electrical Engineering, Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Kimura, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Chichibu, S.F. [CANTech, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ohyama, H. [Department of Information, Communication and Electrical Engineering, Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Sugiyama, M., E-mail: mutsumi@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-08-31

    The optical and electrical properties of electron-irradiated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells and the thin films that composed the CIGS solar cell structure were investigated. The transmittance of indium tin oxide (ITO), ZnO:Al, ZnO:Ga, undoped ZnO, and CdS thin films did not change for a fluence of up to 1.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. However, the resistivity of ZnO:Al and ZnO:Ga, which are generally used as window layers for CIGS solar cells, increased with increasing irradiation fluence. For CIGS thin films, the photoluminescence peak intensity due to Cu-related point defects, which do not significantly affect solar cell performance, increased with increasing electron irradiation. In CIGS solar cells, decreasing J{sub SC} and increasing R{sub s} reflected the influence of irradiated ZnO:Al, and decreasing V{sub OC} and increasing R{sub sh} mainly tended to reflect the pn-interface properties. These results may indicate that the surface ZnO:Al thin film and several heterojunctions tend to degrade easily by electron irradiation as compared with the bulk of semiconductor-composed solar cells.

  13. On the evolution, over four generations of paraboloidal dish solar thermal electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1993-01-01

    After a decade of supplying useful power, the White Cliffs Paraboloidal Dish Solar Thermal Power Station (1100 km west of Sydney) is still operational and has provided major lessons and experience for subsequent developments; particularly for the Molokai/Alburquerque unit built jointly with Power Kinetics Inc (of Troy, USA) for the US Department of Energy. This has, in turn, given valuable guidance for the third generation system now nearing completion in Canberra and employing new collector concepts refined for commercial production and viability. Unlike much dish-oriented R and D, we consider systems of dish arrays supplying central plant as a more attractive proposition than assemblies of dish/engine units, for all but very small systems (<2 MWe). Development has recently commerce on the fourth generation technology which result in a 2 MWe dish system within 2 years, expected to be followed closely by a system of 10 to 20 MWe, preparatory to still larger systems, as the technology evolves and experience is gained. The rationale in this progression in based on the achievement of commercial cost-effectiveness in competition with other energy sources. The direction of evolution is becoming clear and application of the technology to broader spheres than electricity generation is likely. Because of the nature of production methods employed and the ease of installation, system implementation can be rapid. (Author) 29 refs

  14. Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

  15. Design and Development of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Keys; Burns, Michael; Kercheval, Bradford

    2009-01-01

    The SDO spacecraft was designed to help us understand the Sun's influence on Earth and Near-Earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and time and in many wavelengths simultaneously. It will perform its operations in a geosynchronous orbit of the earth. This paper will present background on the SDO mission, an overview of the design and development activities associated specifically with the SDO electrical power system (EPS), as well as the major driving requirements behind the mission design. The primary coverage of the paper will be devoted to some of the challenges faced during the design and development phase. This will include the challenges associated with development of a compatible CompactPCI (cPCI) interface within the Power System Electronics (PSE) in order to utilize a "common" processor card, implementation of new solid state power controllers (SSPC) for primary load distribution switching and over current protection in the PSE, and the design approach adopted to meet single fault tolerance requirements for all of the SDO EPS functions.

  16. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  17. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  18. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A High Power Solar Electric Propulsion - Chemical Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura M.; Martini, Michael C.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) as a main propulsion system has been investigated as an option to support manned space missions to near-Earth destinations for the NASA Gateway spacecraft. High efficiency SEP systems are able to reduce the amount of propellant long duration chemical missions require, ultimately reducing the required mass delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by a launch vehicle. However, for long duration interplanetary Mars missions, using SEP as the sole propulsion source alone may not be feasible due to the long trip times to reach and insert into the destination orbit. By combining an SEP propulsion system with a chemical propulsion system the mission is able to utilize the high-efficiency SEP for sustained vehicle acceleration and deceleration in heliocentric space and the chemical system for orbit insertion maneuvers and trans-earth injection, eliminating the need for long duration spirals. By capturing chemically instead of with low-thrust SEP, Mars stay time increases by nearly 200 days. Additionally, the size the of chemical propulsion system can be significantly reduced from that of a standard Mars mission because the SEP system greatly decreases the Mars arrival and departure hyperbolic excess velocities (V(sub infinity)).

  20. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Performance of a Solar Powered Organic Rankine Cycle with Electric Energy Storage in Different Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis to determine the economic, energetic, and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-power organic Rankine cycle (ORC with electric energy storage (EES to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufficient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time. Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES is also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large office, the small office and the restaurant, respectively.

  1. Cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue method for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation and maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  2. Study of solar electric production potential in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur - Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    While mainly proposing tables, graphs and maps, this report proposes a synthesis of a study performed to assess the potential production of solar electric energy in the PACA region. It briefly presents stakes of solar electric power development in the PACA region, outlines its potential benefits, briefly comments an assessment of existing photovoltaic installations in 2008 with an indication of the evolution since 2007, proposes an analysis of the different stakes related to the development of ground-based and of roof-based installations, an assessment of roof-based potential production and of ground-based potential production, an assessment of connection capacities for this potential production, and an assessment of PACA potential production by 2030

  3. End-to-End Trajectory for Conjunction Class Mars Missions Using Hybrid Solar-Electric/Chemical Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and solar-electric propulsion systems are used to deliver crew and cargo to exploration destinations. By combining chemical and solar-electric propulsion into a single spacecraft and applying each where it is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel efficient than an all chemical propulsion architecture without significant increases to trip time. The architecture calls for the aggregation of exploration assets in cislunar space prior to departure for Mars and utilizes high energy lunar-distant high Earth orbits for the final staging prior to departure. This paper presents the detailed analysis of various cislunar operations for the EMC Hybrid architecture as well as the result of the higher fidelity end-to-end trajectory analysis to understand the implications of the design choices on the Mars exploration campaign.

  4. Performance Evaluation of an Active Solar Dryer Equipped with an Auxilliary Electrical Heater and Heat Recovery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourghasemi Ranjbar, M.; Alavi Naeini, N.; Mortezapour, H.

    2016-01-01

    Drying is a very sophisticated process which consumes a large amount of energy. Solar energy can be used as an alternative or supplementary energy source to fossil fuels. Solar dryers are common ways for saving fossil fuel consumption during agricultural products drying. In this study, the performance of an active solar dryer equipped with an energy recovery system was investigated at three levels of drying air temperature. The results showed that the energy recovery system was able to increase inlet air temperature by 16.8, 18.5 and 18.9 ° C at drying temperatures of 55, 65 and 75 ℃, respectively. Meanwhile 47.8, 42.9 and 40.9 percents of the dryer exhaust air energy were recovered respectively at these conditions which subsequently led to a reduction of 30.7, 19.2 and 14.7 percents in electrical heater energy consumption.

  5. Modeling and simulations of a 30 MWe solar electric generating system using parabolic trough collectors in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, Yasemin [Anyl Asansor Ltd (Turkey)], email: syusta@gmail.com; Baker, Derek [Middle East Technical University (Turkey)], email: dbaker@metu.edu.tr; Kaftanoglu, Bilgin [Atilim University (Turkey)], email: bilgink@atilim.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing concerns about climate change, the interest in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems is growing in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to develop a model of a CSP system using a field of parabolic trough collectors and to assess the predicted performance of the system. A model was developed for a 30MWe solar generating system in Antalya, Turkey, using TRNSYS software, the solar thermal electric components library and information on an existing system in Kramer Junction, California, United States. Annual simulations were then performed for both systems in Antalya and California using weather data. It was found that the predictions were in good agreement with published data. In addition results showed that Antalya's system would generate 30% less than Kramer Junction's system on an annual basis. This paper provides useful information on modeling and simulation of CSP systems.

  6. System for electric power generation with photovoltaic solar modules for charging the batteries of an electric wheelchair; Sistema de geracao de energia eletrica com modulos solares fotovoltaicos para o carregamento de baterias de uma cadeira de rodas eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratinguta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: pimentamesquita@gmail.com, teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy is all kind of energy produced from a natural source that not diminish because its utilization is 'renewable'. More and more renewable energy resources are used, because they offer multiple advantages such as the energy output facility in small scale and because they are entirely compatible with the environment. The renewable energy used in this project is the photovoltaic solar energy, obtained by the direct conversion of the solar energy in electric energy through the use of solar cells, that can be of several kinds, being the most common of silicon. The main advantage of photovoltaic system is the generation of clean electric energy, or either, generates energy without emitting pollutant and without destroying the environment, moreover is an inexhaustible source of energy. The main disadvantage is, nowadays, the high cost and its low efficiency, so to continue developing it is necessary establish capable mechanisms to make it possible. The search of these mechanisms of incentive becomes-itself a lot important, because the renewable energy and not conventional do not produce a financial return to the investor properly said, but brings lots of benefits to the community, the society and to the environment. This project has the purpose of create an electric energy generation system through solar photovoltaic modules to carry batteries of a motorized wheelchair. An electric wheelchair is moved by electric motors of direct current that are feed by batteries, permitting a medium autonomy of 10 km by load. The batteries are recharged by a battery supplier. This operation should be carried out daily in a space of 6 to 8 hours. According to the Demographic Census realized in 2000 carried out by the IBGE, Brazil has around 1.416.060 physical deficient, which 861.196 are men and 554.864 are women. From a request of a user of electric wheelchair the idea of this project was shown up. The user complained that he stayed a long time carrying his seat

  7. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 6: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, BSR, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 50 micron advanced OAST solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical parametric data are presented on BSF, BSR, textured 10 ohm cm, 50 micron advanced OAST cells in graphical and tabular form as functions of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and 1 MeV electron fluence.

  8. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem i...

  9. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Remeš, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility ofholes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugatedpolymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazolebased conjugated copolymer (PBDTTHD − DTBTff......) was studied and benchmarkedagainst the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT).We employed,respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work functionmeasurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage(CELIV) measurements and diffusion length...

  10. A novel design of DC-AC electrical machine rotary converter for hybrid solar and wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, K G; Ramli, A Q; Amirulddin, U A U

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes the design of a new bi-directional DC-AC rotary converter machine to convert a d.c. voltage to three-phase voltage and vice-versa using a two-stage energy conversion machine. The rotary converter consists of two main stages which are combined into single frame. These two stages are constructed from three main electromagnetic components. The first inner electromagnetic component represents the input stage that enables the DC power generated by solar energy from photo-voltaic cells to be transformed by the second and third components electro-magnetically to produce multi-phase voltages at the output stage. At the same time, extra kinetic energy from wind, which is sufficiently available, can be added to existing torque on the second electromagnetic component. Both of these input energies will add up to the final energy generated at the output terminals. Therefore, the machine will be able to convert solar and wind energies to the output terminals simultaneously. If the solar energy is low, the available wind energy will be able to provide energy to the output terminals and at the same time charges the batteries which are connected as backup system. At this moment, the machine behaves as wind turbine. The energy output from the machine benefits from two energy sources which are solar and wind. At night when the solar energy is not available and also the load is low, the wind energy is able to charge the batteries and at the same time provides output electrical power to the remaining the load. Therefore, the proposed system will have high usage of available renewable energy as compared to separated wind or solar systems. MATLAB codes are used to calculate the required dimensions, the magnetic and electrical circuits parameters to design of the new bi-directional rotary converter machine.

  11. A hybrid solar photovoltaic-wind turbine-Rankine cycle for electricity generation in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy demand model by designing a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power generation system of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a promising substitute for the expensive battery banks. The study models the future energy demand of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus based on the IPCC emissions scenario A1B and A2 by designing a new hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system that satisfies the current and future requirements of firm capacity during peak periods. The study suggests an improvement in a hybrid solar-wind-thermal power system performance by predicting reliable outputs that can integrate renewable energy technologies to conventional power generation. The energy consumption prediction model emphasizes the energy requirement that has a growing demand from 300 to 400 GWh in scenario A1B and 150–450 GWh in scenario A2 from 2010 to 2050. The proposed design can meet 400 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A1B and 450 GWh of electricity demand in TRNC based on IPCC scenario A2. The percentage contribution of solar, wind and thermal energy for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 are presented along with CO2 emissions and water consumption for each of the years.

  12. [The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, C

    1999-03-01

    The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher.

  13. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  14. Photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincik, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Fujiwara, N.; Brunner, R.; Gleskova, H.; Jergel, M.; Muellerova, J.; Kucera, M.; Falcony, C.; Ortega, L.; Rusnak, J.; Mikula, M.; Zahoran, M.; Jurani, R.; Kral, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of chemically passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding thin film solar cells. The structures were chemically passivated in three types of KCN and HCN solutions containing MeOH and/or with water. The photoluminescence measurements were performed at 6 K using Ar laser and lock-in signal recording device containing Ge and Si photodetectors. Optically determined band gap related photoluminescence signals were observed between 1.1 and 1.7 eV. The electrical properties were measured by a high-sensitive charge version of deep level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS). The evolution of three basic groups of defects was observed. The structural studies were realized by the standard X-ray diffraction analysis. The cyanide treatment improved significantly the electrical characteristics of both corresponding MOS structures and solar cells due to the passivation of some parts of the dangling bonds by CN group. Particularly, the passivation of the defects at interfaces in MOS or solar cell multilayer structures was achieved which is of primary practical importance

  15. Some problems raised by the operation of large nuclear turbo-generator sets. Automatic control system for steam turbo-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconi, F.

    1976-01-01

    The design of an appropriate automatic system was found to be useful to improve the control of large size turbo-generator units so as to provide easy and efficient control and monitoring. The experience of the manufacturer of these turbo-generator units allowed a system well suited for this function to be designed [fr

  16. Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Applications to Advanced Concepts for Solar Photon Conversion to Electricity and Solar Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozik, Arthur J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beard, Matthew C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-06

    The challenge of photoconversion research is to produce photovoltaic electricity at costs much less than those based on fossil fuels. Novel photoactive semiconductors and molecules of various types and structures are discussed for this purpose.

  17. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    OpenAIRE

    Grbić, Maja; Antić, Radoslav; Ponoćko, Jelena; Mikulović, Jovan; Đurišić, Željko

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an eco...

  18. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Tomislav M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia. Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown that fixed PV solar plant power of 1 MW, solar modules of monocrystalline silicon yield 1130000 kWh power output, one-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1420000 kWh, and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant yields 1450000 kWh of electricity. Electricity generated by the fixed PV solar plant could satisfy 86% of the annual needs for the electricity of the „Zdravljak“ hotel and the special „Novi stacionar“ hospital in Soko banja.

  19. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  20. The history of re-connection and the concept of the solar wind plasma with relatively small electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    Petschek's 're-connection' model, aspiring to be universal, treated as a boundary problem meets unresolvable difficulties connected with impossibility to specify correctly boundary and initial conditions. This problem was incorrectly formulated. Hence, ineradicable logarithmic singularities occurred on the boundary surfaces. Attempts to eliminate them by incorporating the finite electrical conductivity are incorrect. This should lead to the change in the equation type, boundary condition type and in consequence to the change in solutions. Besides, the slow mode shocks cannot be driven by small internal source. As an alternative a new plasma concept is suggested. The state of fully ionized plasma in space depends completely on the entropy of the plasma heating source and on the process in which plasma is involved. The presumptive source of the solar wind creation - the induction electric field of the solar origin - has very low entropy. The state of plasma should be very far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. Debye's screening is not complete. The excitation of the powerful resonant self-consistent electric fields in plasma provides low electric conductivity. The MHD problems should be treated in frameworks of dissipative theories.

  1. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final Report. Volume II: Silicon material

    OpenAIRE

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the FSA Project, was to develop and ...

  2. Performance of Turbo Interference Cancellation Receivers in Space-Time Block Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Oluremi Bejide

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of turbo interference cancellation receivers in the space time block coded (STBC direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA system. Depending on the concatenation scheme used, we divide these receivers into the partitioned approach (PA and the iterative approach (IA receivers. The performance of both the PA and IA receivers is evaluated in Rayleigh fading channels for the uplink scenario. Numerical results show that the MMSE front-end turbo space-time iterative approach receiver (IA effectively combats the mixture of MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI. To further investigate the possible achievable data rates in the turbo interference cancellation receivers, we introduce the puncturing of the turbo code through the use of rate compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCs. Simulation results suggest that combining interference cancellation, turbo decoding, STBC, and RCPTC can significantly improve the achievable data rates for a synchronous DS-CDMA system for the uplink in Rayleigh flat fading channels.

  3. A Theoretical Framework for Soft-Information-Based Synchronization in Iterative (Turbo Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lottici Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution considers turbo synchronization, that is to say, the use of soft data information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency, or timing offsets of a modulated signal within an iterative data demodulator. In turbo synchronization, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide a reliable estimate of some signal parameters. The aim of our paper is to show that such "turbo-estimation" approach can be regarded as a special case of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. This leads to a general theoretical framework for turbo synchronization that allows to derive parameter estimation procedures for carrier phase and frequency offset, as well as for timing offset and signal amplitude. The proposed mathematical framework is illustrated by simulation results reported for the particular case of carrier phase and frequency offsets estimation of a turbo-coded 16-QAM signal.

  4. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  5. Development of an economical model to determine an appropriate feed-in tariff for grid-connected solar PV electricity in all states of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a country with a vast amount of natural resources including sun and wind. Australia lies between latitude of 10-45 S and longitude of 112-152 E, with a daily solar exposure of between less than 3 MJ/(m 2 day) in winter and more than 30 MJ/(m 2 day) in summer. Global solar radiation in Australia varies between minimum of 3285 MJ/(m 2 year) in Hobart to 8760 MJ/(m 2 year) in Northern Territory. As a result of this wide range of radiation level there will be a big difference between costs of solar PV electricity in different locations. A study we have recently conducted on the solar PV electricity price in all states of Australia. For this purpose we have developed an economical model and a computer simulation to determine the accurate unit price of grid-connected roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity in A$/kWh for all state of Australia. The benefit of this computer simulation is that we can accurately determine the most appropriate feed-in tariff of grid-connected solar PV energy system. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of this study. A further objective of this paper is to present the details of the unit price of solar PV electricity in the state of Victoria in each month and then to compare with electricity price from conventional power systems, which is currently applied to this state. The state Victoria is located south of Australia and in terms of sun radiation is second lowest compared with the other Australian states. The computer simulation developed for this study makes it possible to determine the cost of grid-connected solar PV electricity at any location in any country based on availability of average daily solar exposure of each month as well as economical factors of the country. (author)

  6. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  7. A brief report on the statistical study of net electric current in solar active regions with longitudinal fields of opposite polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes occurring in solar active regions are dominated by the solar magnetic field. As of now, observations using a solar magnetograph have supplied us with the vector components of a solar photospheric magnetic field. The two transverse components of a photospheric magnetic field allow us to compute the amount of electric current. We found that the electric current in areas with positive (negative) polarity due to the longitudinal magnetic field have both positive and negative signs in an active region, however, the net current is found to be an order-of-magnitude less than the mean absolute magnitude and has a preferred sign. In particular, we have statistically found that there is a systematic net electric current from areas with negative (positive) polarity to areas with positive (negative) polarity in solar active regions in the northern (southern) hemisphere, but during the solar minimum this tendency is reversed over time at some latitudes. The result indicates that there is weak net electric current in areas of solar active regions with opposite polarity, thus providing further details about the hemispheric helicity rule found in a series of previous studies.

  8. Solar electricity power station building. A preliminary project investigation for “PIRIN TEX LTD.” – Gotze Delchgev using

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Boyko; Todorieva, Vanja

    2009-01-01

    The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exa joules (EJ=1018 J) per year. In 2005, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined. Natural gas crisis such as this from January 2009 in Bulgaria turn into the best investments the development of technology for renewable energy sources using especially solar energy using for electricity production and water heating. The aims of this article are: To develop a preliminary project for solar electricity power station build-ing; To estimate the profits of solar energy used for electricity production and water heating. Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar energy accumulation, solar electricity power station, natural gas crisis

  9. Who's hot, who's not? Effects of concentrating solar power heliostats on soil temperature at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System, Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, S.; Hernandez, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Solar energy development may function as a contemporary, anthropogenic driver of disturbance when sited in natural ecosystems. Orientation and density of solar modules, including heliostats at concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities, may affect soils via shading and altered surface-water flow. Meanwhile, soil attributes like temperature and moisture may affect nutrient cycling, plant germination and growth, and soil biota. We tested effects of CSP heliostats on soil temperature at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS) in the Mojave Desert, USA. We implemented experimental treatments based on preconstruction rare plant [e.g., Mojave milkweed (Asclepias nyctaginifolia)] protection areas (hereafter "halos"), site preparation activities, and heliostat density throughout three, replicated CSP blocks (i.e., tower and associated heliostats), including: (1) No Halos (Bladed) - high site preparation intensity, high heliostat density immediately surrounding towers; (2) No Halos (Mowed) - moderate site preparation intensity, moderate to low heliostat density as distance increases from towers; and (3) Halos - no site preparation, no heliostats. We also established control sites within 1,600 km of ISEGS in undisturbed desert. We observed significant differences in soil temperature across treatments. We recorded significantly lower soil temperatures in the No Halos (Bladed) treatments (26.7°C) and No Halos (Mowed) treatments (29.9°C) than in the Halos treatments (32.9°C) and controls (32.1°C). We also determined that soil temperatures in the Halos treatments and controls did not significantly differ. Our results indicated that shading from high-density heliostat configuration significantly reduced soil temperature relative to low-density heliostat configuration and areas without CSP. Shading from heliostats and consequential fluctuation in soil temperatures may affect local-scale distribution of flora and fauna, leading to altered "bottom-up" ecological

  10. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  11. Dependence of InGaN solar cell performance on polarization-induced electric field and carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Zhao De-Gang; Jiang De-Sheng; Liu Zong-Shun; Chen Ping; Li Liang; Wu Liang-Liang; Le Ling-Cong; Li Xiao-Jing; He Xiao-Guang; Yang Hui; Wang Hui; Zhu Jian-Jun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Zhang Bao-Shun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Mg-induced net acceptor doping concentration and carrier lifetime on the performance of a p—i—n InGaN solar cell are investigated. It is found that the electric field induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in the i-region could be totally shielded when the Mg-induced net acceptor doping concentration is sufficiently high. The polarization-induced potential barriers are reduced and the short circuit current density is remarkably increased from 0.21 mA/cm 2 to 0.95 mA/cm 2 by elevating the Mg doping concentration. The carrier lifetime determined by defect density of i-InGaN also plays an important role in determining the photovoltaic properties of solar cell. The short circuit current density severely degrades, and the performance of InGaN solar cell becomes more sensitive to the polarization when carrier lifetime is lower than the transit time. This study demonstrates that the crystal quality of InGaN absorption layer is one of the most important challenges in realizing high efficiency InGaN solar cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. A study on the electric properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells under the combined radiation of low-energy protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huijie; Wu Yiyong; Xiao Jingdong; He Shiyu; Yang Dezhuang; Sun Yanzheng; Sun Qiang; Lv Wei; Xiao Zhibin; Huang Caiyong

    2008-01-01

    Displacement damage induced by charged particle radiation is the main cause of degradation of orbital-service solar cells, while the radiation-induced ionization shows no permanent damage effect on their electrical properties. It is reported that in single crystal silicon solar cells, low-energy electron radiation does not exert permanent degradation of their properties, but the fluence of electron radiation exerts an influence on the damage magnitude under the combined radiation of protons and electrons. The electrical properties of the single-junction GaAs/Ge solar cells were investigated after irradiation by sequential and synchronous electron and proton beams. Low-energy electron radiation showed no effects on the change of the solar cell properties during sequential or synchronous irradiation, implying ionization during particle radiation could not exert influence on the displacement damage process to the solar cells under the experimental conditions

  13. Study of interface layer effect in organic solar cells by electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Dai; Sumiyoshi, Ryota; Chen, Xiangyu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp

    2014-03-03

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the effect of the use of bathocuproine (BCP) interface layer. The EFISHG measurements of indium–zinc–oxide (IZO)/C{sub 60}/Al diodes showed that the BCP layer inserted between C{sub 60} and Al formed an electrostatic field |E{sub i}| = 2.5 × 10{sup 4} V/cm in the C{sub 60} layer, pointing in a direction from the Al to the IZO. Accordingly, in the IZO/pentacene/C{sub 60}/BCP/Al organic solar cells (OSCs), holes (electrons) move to the IZO (Al) electrode, enhancing the short-circuit current. The EFISHG measurement is capable of directly probing internal fields in the layers used for OSCs, and is helpful for studying the contribution of the interface layer in OSCs. - Highlights: • Internal field in organic solar cells (OSCs) were directly probed. • Interface layer formed internal electric field, enhancing the OSC performance. • Maxwell–Wagner effect accounts for the internal electric field formation.

  14. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Tang, Libin; Chang, Hung Chih; Tai, Shih Hsiang; Yang, Po Kang; Lau, Shu Ping; Chen, Lih Juann; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  15. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  16. Si Hybrid Solar Cells with 13% Efficiency via Concurrent Improvement in Optical and Electrical Properties by Employing Graphene Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng Lin

    2015-12-18

    By employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in PEDOT:PSS, we have achieved an efficiency of 13.22% in Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The efficiency enhancement is based on concurrent improvement in optical and electrical properties by the photon downconversion process and the improved conductivity of PEDOT:PSS via appropriate incorporation of GQDs. After introducing GQDs into PEDOT:PSS, the short circuit current and the fill factor of rear-contact optimized hybrid cells are increased from 32.11 to 36.26 mA/cm and 62.85% to 63.87%, respectively. The organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell obtained herein holds the promise for developing photon-managing, low-cost, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices.

  17. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F; Sanchez, A [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  18. Influence of the pH value of anthocyanins on the electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Juhász Junger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the harvesting of renewable energies became of great importance. This led to a rapid development of dye-sensitized solar cells which can be produced from low-purity materials. The best electrical properties are provided by cells prepared using synthetical, ruthenium based dyes. Unfortunately, most of them are toxic and expensive. The anthocyanins extracted for example from hibiscus flowers yield a more cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to toxic dyes, however, with a loss of solar cell efficiency. In this article the possibility of improvement of the conversion efficiency by modification of the pH value of the dye is investigated. By decrease of the pH value, an increase of efficiency by a factor of two was achieved.

  19. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  20. Charging electric vehicles from solar energy : Power converter, charging algorithm and system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles are only sustainable if the electricity used to charge them comes from renewable sources and not from fossil fuel based power plants. The goal of this PhD thesis is to develop a highly efficient, V2G-enabled smart charging system for electric vehicles at

  1. Solar Electric Propulsion Triple-Satellite-Aided Capture With Mars Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Sean

    Triple-Satellite-aided-capture sequences use gravity-assists at three of Jupiter's four massive Galilean moons to reduce the DeltaV required to enter into Jupiter orbit. A triple-satellite-aided capture at Callisto, Ganymede, and Io is proposed to capture a SEP spacecraft into Jupiter orbit from an interplanetary Earth-Jupiter trajectory that employs low-thrust maneuvers. The principal advantage of this method is that it combines the ISP efficiency of ion propulsion with nearly impulsive but propellant-free gravity assists. For this thesis, two main chapters are devoted to the exploration of low-thrust triple-flyby capture trajectories. Specifically, the design and optimization of these trajectories are explored heavily. The first chapter explores the design of two solar electric propulsion (SEP), low-thrust trajectories developed using the JPL's MALTO software. The two trajectories combined represent a full Earth to Jupiter capture split into a heliocentric Earth to Jupiter Sphere of Influence (SOI) trajectory and a Joviocentric capture trajectory. The Joviocentric trajectory makes use of gravity assist flybys of Callisto, Ganymede, and Io to capture into Jupiter orbit with a period of 106.3 days. Following this, in chapter two, three more SEP low-thrust trajectories were developed based upon those in chapter one. These trajectories, devised using the high-fidelity Mystic software, also developed by JPL, improve upon the original trajectories developed in chapter one. Here, the developed trajectories are each three separate, full Earth to Jupiter capture orbits. As in chapter one, a Mars gravity assist is used to augment the heliocentric trajectories. Gravity-assist flybys of Callisto, Ganymede, and Io or Europa are used to capture into Jupiter Orbit. With between 89.8 and 137.2-day periods, the orbits developed in chapters one and two are shorter than most Jupiter capture orbits achieved using low-thrust propulsion techniques. Finally, chapter 3 presents an

  2. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  3. The electrical conductivity and energy band gap of ‘bunga belimbing buluh’/tio2 nanocrystals as hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, N. H.; Salleh, H.; Ghazali, M. S. M.; Ghazali, S. M.; Ahmad, Z.

    2018-05-01

    This research intends to explore the effect of thickness of inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials and Averrhoe bilimbi’s flower towards the electrical conductivity. Averrhoe bilimbi’s flower or also known as ‘bunga belimbing buluh’ was used for the first time as a natural dye in hybrid solar cells. The performance of electrical conductivity can be improved in bilayer heterojunction hybrid solar cell (HCS). The TiO2 NCs was deposited on the ITO substrate using Electrochemistry method at room temperature. The dye extracted from Averrhoe bilimbi’s flower was deposited on the top of TiO2 NCs layered using the same method. The electrical conductivity can be recorded using Four Point Probe (FPP) under dark and light radiation (range of 0 Wm-2 to 200Wm-2). From the results, electrical conductivity was increased by the increment light intensity and suitable for further solar cell fabrications.

  4. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 10: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 300 micron cells as a function of intensity, temperature and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of textured, back surface field, 10 ohm cm, 300 micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, and temperature.

  5. Model study of the influence of solar wind parameters on electric currents and fields in middle atmosphere at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, P.; Velinov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The electric currents and fields in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere are a result mainly of tropospheric electrical generators (thunderstorms and electrified clouds) which principally determine their global distributions and magnitudes. There are, however, additional sources, e.g. the solar wind (SW), whose contribution to these currents and fields is realized by SW-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This last causes creation of large trans-polar electric potential difference VPC in each polar cap of ∼ 30–140 kV and of horizontal scale ∼ 3000 km which is realized through field-aligned currents (FAC) and is controlled by SW parameters. The potential difference VPC forces formation of closure currents in the dynamo-region. Our study by simulation shows that much smaller currents penetrate into the lower atmospheric regions and influence characteristics of the global atmospheric electrical circuit (GEC). Also, the downward mapping of the horizontal electric fields due to the potential difference VPC leads to creation of very small, but non-negligible vertical electric fields at sea level. They have been demonstrated experimentally as significant (up to few tens of per cent) SW-controlled modifications of the GEC electric characteristics at the ground, at polar latitudes. Our model, based on simulation of Maxwell’s equations in the region 0–160 km under steady-state conditions show that similar but relatively much larger SW-dominated modifications of GEC characteristics take place in the strato/mesosphere and lower ionosphere at polar and high latitudes

  6. E6 based mechanism for the generation of fermion electric dipole moments: An application to the solar neutrino puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grifols, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the electric dipole moments (EDM) of fermions generated by CP-violating phases associated to the new Yukawa couplings involving heavy matter E 6 fields predicted in the framework of superstring theories. While for neutron and electron it is not strictly necessary to resort to a superstring scenario to get a substantial EDM, in the neutrino case a sizeable EDM is a distinctive feature of the superstring. We thus focus on the neutrino EDM and discuss its relevance for the solution of the solar neutrino problem. (orig.)

  7. Efficiency of the hybrid solar-wind systems for electricity supply to the stand-alone sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, D.A.; Isaev, R.I.

    2000-01-01

    The features of stand-alone sites and principles of their electricity supply is described there is going observation of the works about conditions of production and efficiency of using autonomy wind turbines and photovoltaics. Their unsufficiency is estimated. The advantages of hybrid systems and their realization schemes is described. The advantage of hybrid solar-wind Battery system (HSWBS) on the basis of own researches and the facts of other authors are given. The conception overall discounting cost is developed on HSWBS case. (Author)

  8. Optical band gap tuning and electrical properties of polyaniline and its nanocomposites for hybrid solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Choudhary, R. B.; Kandulna, R.

    2018-05-01

    Hcl doped conducting polyaniline-CdS nanocomposite has been prepared via In-situ polymerization in which cadmium nitrate was used as a source for cadmium. The structural morphology was investigated using FESEM and the presence of fibrous polyaniline and CdS nanoparticles. The synthesis of CdS and polyaniline was confirmed using the XRD analysis. I-V characteristic was used to explore the electrical behavior of PANI and its nanocoposites. Optical properties were studied and minimum band gap with highest band absorbance was found for synergistic concentration PANI-CdS (10%) for solar cells application.

  9. Electrical characterization of fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer – a promising material for high-performance solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toušek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of electrical conductivity, electron work function, carrier mobility of holes and the diffusion length of excitons were performed on samples of conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells. A state of the art fluorinated benzothiadiazole based conjugated copolymer (PBDTTHD − DTBTff was studied and benchmarked against the reference polymer poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. We employed, respectively, four electrode conductivity measurements, Kelvin probe work function measurements, carrier mobility using charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV measurements and diffusion length determinaton using surface photovoltage measurements.

  10. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin-Ping; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However

  11. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-01-06

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  12. Evaluation of the annual electric energy output of an a-Si:H solar cellin various regions of the CIS countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchenko, Yu.V.; Sachenko, A.V.; Bobyl, A.V.; Kostylyov, V.P.; Sokolovskyi, I.O.; Terukov, E.I.; Tokmoldin, N.; Tokmoldin, S. Zh.; Smirnov, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated annual (i.e., for each day of the year) daytime dependences of the electric power output per unit area of an a-Si:H solar cell (SC) at latitudes 45°N, 50°N, 55°N, 60°N and at certain geographical points of Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. The calculations were based on a rigorous theoretical model, which allows to determine photoconversion efficiency, optimal electric power output and other photovoltaic electrical characteristics at arbitrary angles of solar irradiance incidence on an a-Si:H-based SC. Parameters of the a-Si:H SC under consideration provide photoconversion efficiency of 10% at 12:00 noon on equinox day at the 45°N latitude despite small total thickness of 0.7 µm of the a-Si:H SC structure up to the rear contact. Normalization of the obtained results by maximal values enables one to infer respective time dependencies for other types of SCs. In combination with the data on average numbers of sunny days per year (or average annual sunshine hours) for certain geographical regions, this provides a way for understanding the feasibility of solar electricity generation in these regions. Based on this study, we identify regions of Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, for which electricity generation exceeds the average values by over 30%. - Highlights: • We model solar power generation from an amorphous silicon solar cell at moderate latitudes from 45°N to 60°N. • We model solar power generation from an amorphous silicon solar cell as applied to Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. • The calculations are based on our rigorous model taking into account atmospheric conditions at a given location. • Annual time-dependency of power output and optimal values of solar energy generated at the various locations are determined

  13. Solar wind energy and electric field transfer to the Earth's magnetosphere VIA magnetopause reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Some general expressions for the convection and parallel electric fields as well as for the energy transfer, due to magnetopause reconnection, are derived using a nose-reconnection model that takes into account the presence of the clefts. For the case of equal geomagnetic and magnetosheath field amplitudes, the expression for the power dissipated by the convection electric field reduces to the substorm parameter e widely discussed in the recent literature. This result suggests that magnetopause reconnection is defined at the nose with a tilted reconnection line, but that the convection electric field is related only to the dawn-dusk component of the reconnection electric field, as defined at high latitudes

  14. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem is formulated to rapidly and efficiently optimize both the control decision and parameters of the home battery energy storage system (BESS). Considering different time horizons of optimization, home BESS prices, types and control modes of PEVs, the parameters of home BESS and electric cost are systematically investigated. Based on the developed CP control law in home to vehicle (H2V) mode and vehicle to home (V2H) mode, the home with BESS does not buy electric energy from the grid during the electric price's peak periods.

  15. Effect of the depth base along the vertical on the electrical parameters of a vertical parallel silicon solar cell in open and short circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Gokhan; Kerimli, Genber

    2018-03-01

    This article presented a modeling study of effect of the depth base initiating on vertical parallel silicon solar cell's photovoltaic conversion efficiency. After the resolution of the continuity equation of excess minority carriers, we calculated the electrical parameters such as the photocurrent density, the photovoltage, series resistance and shunt resistances, diffusion capacitance, electric power, fill factor and the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. We determined the maximum electric power, the operating point of the solar cell and photovoltaic conversion efficiency according to the depth z in the base. We showed that the photocurrent density decreases with the depth z. The photovoltage decreased when the depth base increases. Series and shunt resistances were deduced from electrical model and were influenced and the applied the depth base. The capacity decreased with the depth z of the base. We had studied the influence of the variation of the depth z on the electrical parameters in the base.

  16. Homotopy Analysis Method for Boundary-Value Problem of Turbo Warrant Pricing under Stochastic Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Ying Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbo warrants are liquidly traded financial derivative securities in over-the-counter and exchange markets in Asia and Europe. The structure of turbo warrants is similar to barrier options, but a lookback rebate will be paid if the barrier is crossed by the underlying asset price. Therefore, the turbo warrant price satisfies a partial differential equation (PDE with a boundary condition that depends on another boundary-value problem (BVP of PDE. Due to the highly complicated structure of turbo warrants, their valuation presents a challenging problem in the field of financial mathematics. This paper applies the homotopy analysis method to construct an analytic pricing formula for turbo warrants under stochastic volatility in a PDE framework.

  17. Thermal analysis of electric power generation with solar collectors at how low temperature; Analisis termico de plantas de generacion de energia electrica con la integraacion de colectores solares trabajando a bajas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monne, C.; Salina, P.; Leithner, R.; Aronis, N.

    2004-07-01

    The main focus of this article is how low temperature heat sources can be used for electric power generation. The paper will focus on solar energy in particular. The article shows simulation of five different cycles, with solar energy integration, by means ENBIPRO program (ENergie-BIlanz-PROgramm), that at the moment it is being developed by Institut Warme und Brennstofftechnik, Technische Universitat Braunschweig (Germany). (Author)

  18. Validation of an hourly resolved global aerosol model in answer to solar electricity generation information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schroedter-Homscheidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications need global aerosol optical depth (AOD information to derive historic surface solar irradiance databases from geostationary meteorological satellites reaching back to the 1980's. This paper validates the MATCH/DLR model originating in the climate community against AERONET ground measurements. Hourly or daily mean AOD model output is evaluated individually for all stations in Europe, Africa and the Middle East – an area highly interesting for solar energy applications being partly dominated by high aerosol loads. Overall, a bias of 0.02 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE of 0.23 are found for daily mean AOD values, while the RMSE increases to 0.28 for hourly mean AOD values. Large differences between various regions and stations are found providing a feedback loop for the aerosol modelling community. The difference in using daily means versus hourly resolved modelling with respect to hourly resolved observations is evaluated. Nowadays state-of-the-art in solar resource assessment relies on monthly turbidity or AOD climatologies while at least hourly resolved irradiance time series are needed by the solar sector. Therefore, the contribution of higher temporally modelled AOD is evaluated.

  19. Balance of optical, structural, and electrical properties of textured liquid phase crystallized Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preidel, V., E-mail: veit.preidel@helmholtz-berlin.de; Amkreutz, D.; Haschke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Rech, B.; Becker, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Division Renewable Energy, Kekuléstr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-14

    Liquid phase crystallized Si thin-film solar cells on nanoimprint textured glass substrates exhibiting two characteristic, but distinct different surface structures are presented. The impact of the substrate texture on light absorption, the structural Si material properties, and the resulting solar cell performance is analyzed. A pronounced periodic substrate texture with a vertical feature size of about 1 μm enables excellent light scattering and light trapping. However, it also gives rise to an enhanced Si crystal defect formation deteriorating the solar cell performance. In contrast, a random pattern with a low surface roughness of 45 nm allows for the growth of Si thin films being comparable to Si layers on planar reference substrates. Amorphous Si/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the low-roughness texture exhibit a maximum open circuit voltage of 616 mV and internal quantum efficiency peak values exceeding 90%, resulting in an efficiency potential of 13.2%. This demonstrates that high quality crystalline Si thin films can be realized on nanoimprint patterned glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization inspiring the implementation of tailor-made nanophotonic light harvesting concepts into future liquid phase crystallized Si thin film solar cells on glass.

  20. Concurrent improvement in optical and electrical characteristics by using inverted pyramidal array structures toward efficient Si heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin Ping

    2016-03-02

    The Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell is presently the most popular design in the crystalline Si (c-Si) photovoltaics due to the high open-circuit voltages (V). Photon management by surface structuring techniques to control the light entering the devices is critical for boosting cell efficiency although it usually comes with the V loss caused by severe surface recombination. For the first time, the periodic inverted pyramid (IP) structure fabricated by photolithography and anisotropic etching processes was employed for SHJ solar cells, demonstrating concurrent improvement in optical and electrical characteristics (i.e., short-circuit current density (J) and V). Periodic IP structures show superior light-harvesting properties as most of the incident rays bounce three times on the walls of the IPs but only twice between conventional random upright pyramids (UPs). The high minority carrier lifetime of the IP structures after a-Si:H passivation results in an enhanced V by 28 mV, showing improved carrier collection efficiency due to the superior passivation of the IP structure over the random UP structures. The superior antireflective (AR) ability and passivation results demonstrate that the IP structure has the potential to replace conventional UP structures to further boost the efficiency in solar cell applications.

  1. Energy and exergy analysis of the turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive on LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrzljak, Vedran; Poljak, Igor; Mrakovčić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two low-power steam turbines in the LNG carrier propulsion plant were investigated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of both steam turbines vary between 46% and 62%. • The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines. • The maximum efficiencies area of both turbines was investigated. • A method for increasing the turbo-generator efficiencies by 1–3% is presented. - Abstract: Nowadays, marine propulsion systems are mainly based on internal combustion diesel engines. Despite this fact, a number of LNG carriers have steam propulsion plants. In such plants, steam turbines are used not only for ship propulsion, but also for electrical power generation and main feed water pump drive. Marine turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were investigated on the analyzed LNG carrier with steam propulsion plant. The measurements of various operating parameters were performed and obtained data were used for energy and exergy analysis. All the measurements and calculations were performed during the ship acceleration. The analysis shows that the energy and exergy efficiencies of both analyzed low-power turbines vary between 46% and 62% what is significantly lower in comparison with the high-power steam turbines. The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines (change in ambient temperature for 10 °C causes less than 1% change in exergy efficiency). The highest exergy efficiencies were achieved at the lowest observed ambient temperature. Also, the highest efficiencies were achieved at 71.5% of maximum developed turbo-generator power while the highest efficiencies of steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were achieved at maximum turbine developed power. Replacing the existing steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive with an electric motor would increase the turbo-generator energy and exergy efficiencies for at least 1–3% in all analyzed

  2. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  3. Electroplating of electrical circuitry on optoelectronic windows for thin film solar cells on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Peter, M.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    In many flexible electronic devices transparent conductive oxide (TCO) window layers are used for current collection. The trade-off between the electrical resistance and optical transmission of TCOs results in power losses. Increasing the electrical conductivity by combining metallic grids with TCOs

  4. Measurements on a solar greenhouse combining cooling and electrical energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Tuijl; Piet Sonneveld; H. Janssen; J. van Campen; G. Bot; Gert-Jan Swinkels

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  5. Performance results of a solar greenhouse combining electrical and thermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Campen, J.B.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance results are given of a new type of greenhouse, which combines reflection of near infrared radiation (NIR) with electrical power generation using hybrid photovoltaic cell/thermal collector modules. Besides the generation of electrical and thermal energy, the reflection of the NIR will

  6. Harnessing the sun. The economics of solar photovoltaic electricity in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondraczek, Janosch

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and

  7. Harnessing the sun. The economics of solar photovoltaic electricity in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondraczek, Janosch

    2014-08-29

    In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and

  8. Concept definition study of small Brayton cycle engines for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Ashe, T. L.; Dobler, F. X.; Elkins, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Three first-generation Brayton cycle engine types were studied for solar application: a near-term open cycle (configuration A), a near-term closed cycle (configuration B), and a longer-term open cycle (configuration C). A parametric performance analysis was carried out to select engine designs for the three configurations. The interface requirements for the Brayton cycle engine/generator and solar receivers were determined. A technology assessment was then carried out to define production costs, durability, and growth potential for the selected engine types.

  9. General Electric Company proposed test and evaluation plan, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The general requirements and methods for instrumenting, testing, and evaluating solar HVAC systems forming a part of ERDA's ''Commercial Demonstration Program'' commensurate with ERDA 23A and the Proposed Management Plan 75SDS4270 are defined. Design requirements are specified for the performance of components and subsystems comprising the instrumentation and data gathering system, as well as the support functions required to perform the diagnostic measurements, collection and processing of data, and documentation of reports on solar HVAC system performance, including economic and societal evaluations.

  10. Research Update: Physical and electrical characteristics of lead halide perovskites for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Bretschneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of thin-film photovoltaics has been recently enriched by the introduction of lead halide perovskites as absorber materials, which allow low-cost synthesis of solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16%. The exact impact of the perovskite crystal structure and composition on the optoelectronic properties of the material are not fully understood. Our progress report highlights the knowledge gained about lead halide perovskites with a focus on physical and optoelectronic properties. We discuss the crystal and band structure of perovskite materials currently implemented in solar cells and the impact of the crystal properties on ferroelectricity, ambipolarity, and the properties of excitons.

  11. Study into the Potential and Feasibility of a Standalone Solar-Wind Hybrid Electric Energy Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekele, Getachew

    2009-12-15

    The tendency to use renewable energy resources has grown continuously over the past few decades, be it due to fear over warnings of global warming or because of the depletion and short life of fossil fuels or even as a result of the interest which has developed among researchers doing scientific research into it. This work can be considered as joining any of these groups with an objective of giving electric light to the poor population living in one of the poorest nations in the world. The aim of the work is to investigate supplying electric energy from solar-wind hybrid resources to remotely located communities detached from the main grid line in Ethiopia. The communities in mind are one of two types; the first is the majority of the poor population residing in the country-side; and the other is people relocated by the Government from the over-used and dry regions to relatively productive and fertile ones in line with the long-term poverty reduction plan. The work was begun by investigating wind energy and solar energy potentials at four geographically different locations in Ethiopia by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The locations are Addis Ababa (09:02N, 038:42E), Mekele (13:33N,39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 039:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E). The results related to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly Average wind speed, the wind speed probability density function (PDF), the wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), the wind speed duration curve (DC), and power density plots for all four selected sites. According to the results obtained through the analysis, the wind energy potential, even if it is not exceptional, is irrefutably high enough to be exploited for generating electric energy. The solar energy potential, based on sunshine duration data collected over a period of 7 - 11 years and radiation data obtained from different sources, has been calculated using regression coefficients

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  14. Assessing current and future techno-economic potential of concentrated solar power and photovoltaic electricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köberle, Alexandre C.; Gernaat, David E H J; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    CSP and PV technologies represent energy sources with large potentials. We present cost-supply curves for both technologies using a consistent methodology for 26 regions, based on geoexplicit information on solar radiation, land cover type and slope, exploring individual potential and

  15. Concept of the solar-pumped laser-photovoltaics combined system and its application to laser beam power feeding to electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikesue, Akio; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Kazuo; Ichiki, Akihisa; Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Tadashi; Yamada, Noboru; Nath Luitel, Hom; Kajino, Tsutomu; Terazawa, Hidetaka; Takimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kemmei

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a compact solar-pumped laser (µSPL) employing an off-axis parabolic mirror with an aperture of 76.2 mm diameter and an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic rod of φ1 mm × 10 mm doped with 1% Nd and 0.1% Cr as a laser medium. The laser oscillation wavelength of 1.06 µm, just below the optical absorption edge of Si cells, is suitable for photoelectric conversion with minimal thermal loss. The concept of laser beam power feeding to an electric vehicle equipped with a photovoltaic panel on the roof was proposed by Ueda in 2010, in which the electricity generated by solar panels over the road is utilized to drive a semiconductor laser located on each traffic signal along the road. By substituting this solar-electricity-driven semiconductor laser with a solar-pumped laser, the energy loss of over 50% in converting the solar electricity to a laser beam can be eliminated. The overall feasibility of this system in an urban area such as Tokyo was investigated.

  16. Comparison and assessment of electricity generation capacity for different types of PV solar plants of 1MW in Soko banja, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Tomislav M.; Milosavljević Dragana D.; Radivojević Aleksandar R.; Pavlović Mila A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives the results of the electricity generated by the fixed, one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant of 1 MW with flat PV panels made of monocrystalline silicon which is to be built in the area of Soko banja (spa in Serbia). Further on follows a description of the functioning of the fixed and one-axis and dual-axis tracking PV solar plant. For the calculation of the electricity generated by these plants PVGIS program from the Internet was used. Calculations have shown ...

  17. Analysis of technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the technical-economic requirements for the construction of a solar power plant on the roof of the business building of the Electrical Engineering Institute 'Nikola Tesla' in Belgrade. Calculation of solar irradiation is performed and the conceptual design of the disposition of solar panels on the roof of the building is shown as well as their connections to the inverters. Conditions for connecting the plant to the distribution network are checked and an economic analysis of the project is performed.

  18. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  19. Design of electric vehicle charging station based on wind and solar complementary power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Electric vehicles have become a major trend in the development of the automobile industry. Green energy saving is an important feature of their development. At the same time, the related charging facilities construction is also critical. If we improve the charging measures to adapt to its green energy-saving features, it will be to a greater extent to promote its further development. This article will propose a highly efficient green energy-saving charging station designed for the electric vehicles.

  20. High efficiency thermal to electric energy conversion using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1500 K. Depending on the nature of parasitic losses, overall thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies greater than 20 percent are feasible.

  1. Impact of Alternative Rate Structures on Distributed Solar Customer Electricity Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Electric utilities are increasingly proposing changes to residential rate structures, in order to address concerns about their inability to recover fixed system costs from customers with grid connected distributed generation. The most common proposals have been to increase fixed charges, set minimum bills or instigate residential demand charges. This presentation provides results of an analysis to explore how these rate design alternatives impact electricity bills for PV and non-PV customers.

  2. Advantages of variable-speed operation of hydraulic turbo-engines; Vorteile durch den drehzahlvariablen Betrieb von hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbort, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    The performance of current hydraulic turbo-engines in the variable speed sector is monitored and judged. The study covers radial and axial engines as well as Pelton turbines. Variable-speed operation of hydraulic turbo-engines can be realized by means of different combinations of electrical rotating machines and frequency converters. The operating range of the frequency converter plays an important role in the optimization of performance and is taken into account. The smoothness of run of reaction turbines and their cavitation performance can be enhanced by speed regulation. But above all, efficiency is more or less substantially enhanced during partial load or in the case of greatly varying heights of drop. The latter holds true also of Pelton turbines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Betriebsverhalten der gaengigen hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschinen wird in Hinblick auf den drehzahlvariablen Betrieb erfasst und beurteilt. Die Untersuchung erfolgt fuer Radialmaschinen, Axialmaschinen und Peltonturbinen. Der drehzahlvariable Betrieb hydraulischer Stroemungsmaschinen kann mit verschiedenen Kombinationen von elektrischen Maschinen und Frequenzumrichtern realisiert werden. Der Arbeitsbereich des Frequenzumrichters spielt eine wichtige Rolle fuer die Optimierung des Betriebsverhaltens und wird beruecksichtigt. Bei Ueberdruckturbinen kann man durch Drehzahlregelung eine groessere Laufruhe sowie ein guenstigeres Kavitationsverhalten erreichen. Vor allem aber sind im Teillastbereich oder bei stark schwankenden Fallhoehen mehr oder weniger grosse Wirkungsgradgewinne erzielbar. Das letztere gilt auch fuer Peltonturbinen. (orig.)

  3. Flight Plasma Diagnostics for High-Power, Solar-Electric Deep-Space Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Conroy, David; Lobbia, Robert; Huang, Wensheng; Choi, Maria; Sekerak, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) project plans included a set of plasma and space environment instruments, the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), to fulfill ARRM requirements for technology extensibility to future missions. The PDP objectives were divided into the classes of 1) Plasma thruster dynamics, 2) Solar array-specific environmental effects, 3) Plasma environmental spacecraft effects, and 4) Energetic particle spacecraft environment. A reference design approach and interface requirements for ARRM's PDP was generated by the PDP team at JPL and GRC. The reference design consisted of redundant single-string avionics located on the ARRM spacecraft bus as well as solar array, driving and processing signals from multiple copies of several types of plasma, effects, and environments sensors distributed over the spacecraft and array. The reference design sensor types were derived in part from sensors previously developed for USAF Research Laboratory (AFRL) plasma effects campaigns such as those aboard TacSat-2 in 2007 and AEHF-2 in 2012.

  4. Electric power supply with solar cells. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koethe, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the development of photovoltaic systems the engineer has to try to keep costs as low as possible while maintaining safety standard. This is easily said, but done it can be only with solid know-how. The know-how is to be conveyed by this book. The author has long-term specialized experience ranging from the energy source ''solar radiation'' up to applicable photovoltaic systems. It is demonstrated how the properties of solar cells, storage devices, and electronic components have to be already considered in systems design optimization, and which possibilities the engineer has in subsequently constructing the system. The components needed are described in detail, and information is presented for their selection and application. A number of established systems conclude the contribution. (orig./ORU) With 260 figs., 34 tabs [de

  5. The most intense electric currents in turbulent high speed solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that dissipation of turbulent energy in collisionless astrophysical plasmas occurs most rapidly in spatial regions where the current density is most intense. To advance understanding of plasma heating by turbulent dissipation in the solar corona and solar wind, it is of interest to characterize the properties of plasma regions where the current density takes exceptionally large values and to identify the operative dissipation processes. In the solar wind, the curl of the magnetic field cannot be measured using data from a single spacecraft, however, a suitable proxy for this quantity can be constructed from the spatial derivative of the magnetic field along the flow direction of the plasma. This new approach is used to study the properties of the most intense current carrying structures in a high speed solar wind stream near 1 AU. In this study, based on 11 Hz magnetometer data from the WIND spacecraft, the spatial resolution of the proxy technique is approximately equal to the proton inertial length. Intense current sheets or current carrying structures were identified as events where the magnitude of the current density exceeds μ+5σ, where μ and σ are the mean and standard deviation of the magnitude of the current density (or its proxy), respectively. Statistical studies show (1) the average size of these 5σ events is close to the smallest resolvable scale in the data set, the proton inertial length; (2) the linear distance between neighboring events follows a power law distribution; and (3) the average peak current density of 5σ events is around 1 pA/cm2. The analysis techniques used in these studies have been validated using simulated spacecraft data from three dimensional hybrid simulations which show that results based on the analysis of the proxy are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to results based on the analysis of the true current density.

  6. Demands For Solar Electricity From The BRICS Countries In The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    BRICS countries are presently among the leading the economic powers globally, but their increasing demands for energy and sustainable future requires renewed technical progress on implementation of renewable energy (e.g., solar energy) and a sustainable solution rather than extracting finite natural resources. BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) face both social and environmental pressures as their economy keeps growing. The rapid development of technology in BRICS inevitably altered their culture and behavior, as reflected by education, gender equality, health, and other demographic/socio-economic indicators. These changes coupled with land use/land cover change have altered ecosystem services, as reflected by NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Global climatic changes also drives the demand for sustainable energy. With a focus on solar energy, we analyzed time series of energy consuming behaviors, government policies, and the ecosystem services. Structural equation modeling was applied to confirm the relationships among societal transition, ecosystem services, and climate change. We compared the energy consumption patterns for the five countries and forecasted the changes through 2025. We found that government policies significantly influenced energy consumption behaviors for BRICS and that solar energy usage would continue to increase to 2025 and beyond.

  7. Geometry Analysis and Effect of Turbulence Model on the Radial Rotor Turbo-Expander Design for Small Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is one of the most promising technology for small electric power generations. The geometry analysis and the effect of turbulence model on the radial turbo-expanders design for small ORC power generation systems were discussed in this paper. The rotor blades and performance were calculated using several working fluids such as R134a, R143a, R245fa, n-Pentane, and R123. Subsequently, a numerical study was carried out in the fluid flow area with R134a and R123 as the working fluids. Analyses were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD ANSYS Multiphysics on two real gas models, with the k-epsilon and SST (shear stress transport turbulence models. The result shows the distribution of Mach number, pressure, velocity and temperature along the rotor blade of the radial turbo-expanders and estimation of performance at various operating conditions. The operating conditions are as follow: 250,000 grid mesh flow area, real gas model SST at steady state condition, 0.4 kg/s of mass flow rate, 15,000 rpm rotor speed, 5 bar inlet pressure, and 373K inlet temperature. By using those conditions, CFD analysis shows that the turbo-expander able to produce 6.7 kW and 5.5 kW of power when using R134a and R123, respectively.

  8. Generation of superDreicer electric fields in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kronshtadtov, P. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The electric field generation at the front of the current pulse, which originates in a coronal magnetic loop owing to the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor magnetic instability at loop footpoints, has been considered. During the τA ≈ l/V A ≈ 5-25 s time (where l is the plasma plume height entering a magnetic loop as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability), a disturbance related to the magnetic field tension B ϕ( r,t), "escapes" the instability region with the Alfvén velocity in this case. As a result, an electric current pulse Iz( z - V A t), at the front of which an induction magnetic field E z, which is directed along the magnetic tube axis and can therefore accelerate particles, starts propagating along a magnetic loop with a characteristic scale of Δξ ≈ l. In the case of sufficiently large currents, when B ϕ 2/8π > p, an electric current pulse propagates nonlinearly, and a relatively large longitudinal electric field originates E z ≈ 2 I z 3 V A/ c 4a2Bz 2l, which can be larger than the Dreicer field, depending on the electric current value.

  9. SYMBOL LEVEL DECODING FOR DUO-BINARY TURBO CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Beeharry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of three different symbol level decoding algorithms for Duo-Binary Turbo codes. Explicit details of the computations involved in the three decoding techniques, and a computational complexity analysis are given. Simulation results with different couple lengths, code-rates, and QPSK modulation reveal that the symbol level decoding with bit-level information outperforms the symbol level decoding by 0.1 dB on average in the error floor region. Moreover, a complexity analysis reveals that symbol level decoding with bit-level information reduces the decoding complexity by 19.6 % in terms of the total number of computations required for each half-iteration as compared to symbol level decoding.

  10. Study of a hybrid solar-electric oven to the curing composite materials used in aeronautics; Estudio de un horno hibrido solar-electrico para el curado de materiales compuestos utilizados en aeronautica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A.; Pineda Pinon, J.; Sanchez Sanchez, A. [CICATA - Unidad Queretaro, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: mhernandezr0900@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    The study covers the curing of advanced composites in a hybrid solar electric oven. The furnace uses electricity from the grid power and solar energy provided by the heliostat concentrator system. The materials used in the experiments will be composite materials such as prepreg. The prepreg are fiberglass and carbon fiber. The resin used in the pre-impregnate will be epoxy resin. The work temperatures inside the furnace will be maximum 300 degrees Celsius. The obtained results will be useful to characterize the use of the solar energy and the characterize of the curing chamber. [Spanish] Se presenta el alcance para el estudio, el cual abarca el curado de materiales compuestos avanzados dentro de un horno hibrido solar electrico. El horno utilizara energia electrica suministrada por la red y energia solar suministrada por el sistema heliostato concentrador. Los materiales utilizados en los experimentos seran materiales compuestos tipo prepreg. Los prepreg seran de fibra de vidrio y de fibra de carbono. La resina utilizada en el preimpregando sera resina epoxica. Las temperaturas de trabajo dentro del horno seran como maximo de 300 grados centigrados. Los resultados obtenidos serviran para caracterizar el uso y aprovechamiento de la energia solar y la caracterizacion de la camara de curado.

  11. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Program SEPSIM (solar electric propulsion stage simulation). [in FORTRAN: space tug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    Program SEPSIM is a FORTRAN program which performs deployment, servicing, and retrieval missions to synchronous equatorial orbit using a space tug with a continuous low thrust upper stage known as a solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS). The SEPS ferries payloads back and forth between an intermediate orbit and synchronous orbit, and performs the necessary servicing maneuvers in synchronous orbit. The tug carries payloads between the orbiter and the intermediate orbit, deploys fully fueled SEPS vehicles, and retrieves exhausted SEPS vehicles when, and if, required. The program is presently contained in subroutine form in the Logistical On-orbit VEhicle Servicing (LOVES) Program, but can also be run independently with the addition of a simple driver program.

  12. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  13. Hierarchically interconnected porous scaffolds for phase change materials with improved thermal conductivity and efficient solar-to-electric energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Peng; Tang, Li-Sheng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Ying; Yang, Ming-Bo; Yang, Wei

    2017-11-23

    An ice-templating self-assembly strategy and a vacuum impregnation method were used to fabricate polyethylene glycol (PEG)/hierarchical porous scaffold composite phase change materials (PCMs). Hierarchically interconnected porous scaffolds of boron nitride (BN), with the aid of a small amount of graphene oxide (GO), endow the composite PCMs with high thermal conductivity, excellent shape-stability and efficient solar-to-electric energy conversion. The formation of a three-dimensional (3D) thermally conductive pathway in the composites contributes to improving the thermal conductivity up to 2.36 W m -1 K -1 at a relatively low content of BN (ca. 23 wt%). This work provides a route for thermally conductive and shape-stabilized composite PCMs used as energy storage materials.

  14. Junction Quality of SnO2-Based Perovskite Solar Cells Investigated by Nanometer-Scale Electrical Potential Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chuanxiao; Wang, Changlei; Ke, Weijun; Gorman, Brian P; Ye, Jichun; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Yanfa; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M

    2017-11-08

    Electron-selective layers (ESLs) and hole-selective layers (HSLs) are critical in high-efficiency organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite (PS) solar cells for charge-carrier transport, separation, and collection. We developed a procedure to assess the quality of the ESL/PS junction by measuring potential distribution on the cross section of SnO 2 -based PS solar cells using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Using the potential profiling, we compared three types of cells made of different ESLs but otherwise having an identical device structure: (1) cells with PS deposited directly on bare fluorine-doped SnO 2 (FTO)-coated glass; (2) cells with an intrinsic SnO 2 thin layer on the top of FTO as an effective ESL; and (3) cells with the SnO 2 ESL and adding a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of fullerene. The results reveal two major potential drops or electric fields at the ESL/PS and PS/HSL interfaces. The electric-field ratio between the ESL/PS and PS/HSL interfaces increased in devices as follows: FTO ESL ESL cells may result from the reduction in voltage loss at the PS/HSL back interface and the improvement of V oc from the prevention of hole recombination at the ESL/PS front interface. The further improvements with adding an SAM is caused by the defect passivation at the ESL/PS interface, and hence, improvement of the junction quality. These nanoelectrical findings suggest possibilities for improving the device performance by further optimizing the SnO 2 -based ESL material quality and the ESL/PS interface.

  15. Effect of Rubidium Incorporation on the Structural, Electrical, and Photovoltaic Properties of Methylammonium Lead Iodide-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ik Jae; Seo, Seongrok; Park, Min Ah; Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Dong Hoe; Zhu, Kai; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-12-06

    We report the electrical properties of rubidium-incorporated methylammonium lead iodide ((Rb x MA 1-x )PbI 3 ) films and the photovoltaic performance of (Rb x MA 1-x )PbI 3 film-based p-i-n-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The incorporation of a small amount of Rb + (x = 0.05) increases both the open circuit voltage (V oc ) and the short circuit photocurrent density (J sc ) of the PSCs, leading to an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, a high fraction of Rb + incorporation (x = 0.1 and 0.2) decreases the J sc and thus the PCE, which is attributed to the phase segregation of the single tetragonal perovskite phase to a MA-rich tetragonal perovskite phase and a RbPbI 3 orthorhombic phase at high Rb fractions. Conductive atomic force microscopic and admittance spectroscopic analyses reveal that the single-phase (Rb 0.05 MA 0.95 )PbI 3 film has a high electrical conductivity because of a reduced deep-level trap density. We also found that Rb substitution enhances the diode characteristics of the PSC, as evidenced by the reduced reverse saturation current (J 0 ). The optimized (Rb x MA 1-x )PbI 3 PSCs exhibited a PCE of 18.8% with negligible hysteresis in the photocurrent-voltage curve. The results from this work enhance the understanding of the effect of Rb incorporation into organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites and enable the exploration of Rb-incorporated mixed perovskites for various applications, such as solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes.

  16. Performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic hybrid system for electricity generation and simultaneous water disinfection of wild bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichel, N.; Vivar, M.; Fuentes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid solar water disinfection and energy generation system was designed and tested. • SOLWAT comprises a water disinfection reactor and a PV module fully integrated into a single unit. • Natural water with wild strains of E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and C. perfringens were studied. • The water disinfection reactor located above the PV module did not affect the final energy output. • The SOLWAT disinfection results were always higher than conventional PET bottles. - Abstract: A hybrid solar water disinfection and energy generation system for meeting the needs of safe drinking water and electricity was designed and tested in Alcalá de Henares (Spain) under summer climatic conditions to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. Natural water sources with wild strains of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens (including spores) were studied. Results showed that SOLWAT disinfection efficiency was higher than conventional PET bottles and that the water disinfection reactor located above the PV module did not affect the total energy output produced by the hybrid system in comparison to the single PV module, achieving the same power losses over the 6 h of sun exposure in relation to their power at standard test conditions (STC).

  17. Assessment of levelized cost of electricity for a 10-MW solar chimney power plant in Yinchuan China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Penghua; Zhai, Yaxin; Xu, Xinhai; Li, Jingyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An unsteady model is proposed for annual power generation prediction of SCPPs. • LCOE of a 10-MW SCPP in China is estimated through a cost benefit analysis. • Cost advantage and concessional loan under conditions in China are considered. • SCPP is proven to be economically feasible under favorable conditions in China. - Abstract: Solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a promising renewable energy technology that needs policy support and market cultivation at the early stage of its development. An accurate prediction of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be used as basis for crafting effective support policies. This study presents an unsteady theoretical model that considers hourly meteorological data and soil heat storage in estimating the annual power generation of an SCPP. A cost benefit model is adopted to calculate the LCOE of a 10-MW SCPP in Yinchuan, a representative geographical location in the Northwestern region of China. By considering the cost advantage of China, the concessional loan, as well as the low operation and maintenance cost, the LCOE of the SCPP is estimated to be 0.4178 Yuan/kWh, which can compete with those of wind power and solar PV in China. This work lays a good foundation for the accurate prediction of power generation and provides a reference for the Chinese government in crafting effective support policies for SCPPs.

  18. Electrical properties improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells using a combination of porous silicon and vanadium oxide treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbali, L.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we will report the enhancement of the conversion efficiency of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after coating the front surface with a porous silicon layer treated with vanadium oxide. The incorporation of vanadium oxide into the porous silicon (PS) structure, followed by a thermal treatment under oxygen ambient, leads to an important decrease of the surface reflectivity, a significant enhancement of the effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) and a significant enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) of the PS structure. We Obtained a noticeable increase of (τ eff ) from 3.11 μs to 134.74 μs and the surface recombination velocity (S eff ) have decreased from 8441 cm s −1 to 195 cm s −1 . The reflectivity spectra of obtained films, performed in the 300–1200 nm wavelength range, show an important decrease of the average reflectivity from 40% to 5%. We notice a significant improvement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) in the used multicrystalline silicon substrates. Results are analyzed and compared to those carried out on a reference (untreated) sample. The electrical properties of the treated silicon solar cells were improved noticeably as regard to the reference (untreated) sample.

  19. The market of new electric energies. Wind, solar, biomass, hydroelectricity: which perspectives by 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report highlights the consequences of the modification of the energy economic environment, the main trends of the sector, and predictable evolutions. A first part presents the situation of the French market of new electric energy sources in 2011 and its perspectives by 2015 for hydroelectricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, and biomass-based energy (production capacities, installations to be connected, electricity production and its share in electricity consumption), and discusses the main challenges faced by the profession. The second part proposes a comparison between these new energies and nuclear energy in terms of economic structure (number of companies, staff, turnover, public investment, and so on), synthetic sheets of the different renewable sectors, and an overview of the World and European markets of new electric energies. The third part identifies the existing actors. The fourth part analyses growth brakes and drivers (French energy policy, economic context for the 2011-2015 period, other factors which have influence on the market). The fifth part proposes a large set of economic and financial indicators for 200 actors of the sector

  20. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and the northamerican electric company Arizona Public Service (APS), made an agreement of collaboration to develop a project of generating electricity with the use of renewable resources. The premises that where agreed on are the following: 1. Focus the project a rural community. 2. The cost of the whole project should be lower than compared to the interconnection to a conventional system. 3. Acceptance of the community, and the governmental authorities. 4. Sustentability of the operation of the system. Several technical and economical analysis where done, such as the evaluation of the solar and eolic resources, study of the environmental impact, negotiation agreements so it would be possible to obtain de economical resources from Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), and the USAID, all of this thru the supervising of the Sandia National Laboratories. After the anemometric and solar radiation measures where made, it was considered that the community of San Juanico, en Baja California Sur, Mexico, was the most feasible one, it was necessary also to consider the aspects of logistics, socials, size of the community and as a detonator for the economic activities of tourism and fishing. The APS formulated the executive project in accordance with the recommendations of the different areas of CFE. The project consists basically in the installation of 10 wind generators of 10 Kw, a battery bank for 432 KWh, plus a diesel generator for emergencies of 80 Kw. Besides the civil and electromechanical installation. It was necessary to involve the community in the knowledge and followup of the project form it's, considering that this factor would be essential, so it could be successful. Lamps of low consumption where installed on the houses and street lightning, to optimize the system. The patronato that is a civil association of the community, is in charge of the administration of the system, it receives support from personnel of CFE. The income