WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar transmittance values

  1. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  2. Suomi NPP VIIRS solar diffuser screen transmittance model and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mcintire, Jeff

    2017-11-01

    The visible infrared imaging radiometer suite on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite calibrates its reflective solar bands through observations of a sunlit solar diffuser (SD) panel. Sunlight passes through a perforated plate, referred to as the SD screen, before reaching the SD. It is critical to know whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate. Several factors such as misalignments of the SD panel and the measurement apparatus could lead to errors in the measured transmittance and thus adversely impact on-orbit calibration quality through the SD. We develop a mathematical model to describe the transmittance as a function of the angles that incident light makes with the SD screen, and apply the model to fit the prelaunch measured transmittance. The results reveal that the model does not reproduce the measured transmittance unless the size of the apertures in the SD screen is quite different from the design value. We attribute the difference to the orientation alignment errors for the SD panel and the measurement apparatus. We model the alignment errors and apply our transmittance model to fit the prelaunch transmittance to retrieve the "true" transmittance. To use this model correctly, we also examine the finite source size effect on the transmittance. Furthermore, we compare the product of the retrieved "true" transmittance and the prelaunch SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value to the value derived from on-orbit data to determine whether the prelaunch SD BRDF value is relatively accurate. The model is significant in that it can evaluate whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate and help retrieve the true transmittance from the transmittance with measurement errors, consequently resulting in a more accurate sensor data product by the same amount.

  3. Observations of the transmittance in two solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Bryant, M.C.

    1983-11-01

    A NaCl salt gradient solar pond has been in continuous operation at the University of New Mexico since the fall of 1975; a smaller pond, using KNO/sub 3/ to produce the salinity gradient, was commissioned in the fall of 1981. The distribution of absorbed radiation in the ponds is of key importance in the determination of their efficiencies for collecting and storing solar energy. The absorption coefficient of light in an aqueous solution is very dependent upon wavelength; the spectral distribution of sunlight shifts toward the blue and the amount of solar energy absorbed per unit length of path declines with depth of penetration. The presence of suspended solids and bioforms further complicate the transmittance of sun light through the pond, specially since this contamination tends to vary strongly with depth. Because of its importance to the phytoplankton population , considerable work has been done by oceanographers on the absorption and scattering of light for different wavelengths. However, in a solar pond the big question is the amount of energy reaching the lower convective layer (storage). Several attempts have been made to measure the transmittance in solar ponds, mainly NaCl but the problem is to find a temperature-insensitive submersible pyranometer. Convenient formulas have been offered for the attenuation of solar radiation in pond water by considering it to be divided into spectral bands, or by fitting simple analytical functions, or specifying the extintion coefficient. (For the first method, it is necessary to know the absorption and scattering of light for different lambda.) In this paper some measurements of transmittance in the UNM ponds, are presented thereby exhibiting a simple procedure which may be of interest to others in this field.

  4. Directional and hemispherical solar energy transmittance of single and double glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugot-Le Goff, le A; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and visual light transmittance, color appearance, thermal emissivity, and other optical properties of architectural glazing are in general angular dependent. Realistic computation of solar properties, therefore, requires the angular behavior to be known. Determination of these properties for

  5. Community Solar Value Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, John T [Extensible Energy; Cliburn, Jill [Cliburn and Associates

    2017-11-30

    The Community Solar Value Project (CSVP) is designed to assist electric utilities in designing better community solar programs. Better programs seek new sources of value to promote “win-win” solutions between utilities and their customers. The CSVP focused on five “challenge areas” in identifying new sources of value: - Strategic solar design for community solar projects (including technology choices, siting, orientation, and related issues) - Market research and targeted marketing approaches (for program design and for customer recruitment) - Procurement and financing (for establishing best practices that can bring economies of scale and economies of expertise) - Integration of “companion measures” (such as storage and demand-response options that can benefit customer and utility net load shapes) - Pricing in program design (including best practices for integration of identified value in program prices or credits) The CSVP directly engaged the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), and more than a dozen other utilities to develop improved community solar program designs. The outcomes include a plan at SMUD for over 100 MW or more of community and shared solar and support for new or expanded programs at 15 other utilities so far. Resulting best-practice solutions have not only informed program applications, but also have generated discussion among experts and industry associations about the new opportunities and challenges CSVP has brought forth. In these ways, the CSVP has impacted community solar programs and DER plans, competitive innovations and policies nationwide. The CSVP team has been led by Extensible Energy under John Powers, President and CEO. Jill Cliburn, of Santa Fe, NM-based Cliburn and Associates, has served as Principal Investigator. The team also benefitted from expertise from Navigant, Olivine Inc. and Millennium Energy, LLC, in addition to the collaborative and cost

  6. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  7. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  8. Standard Test Method for Solar Photometric Transmittance of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar photometric transmittance of materials in sheet form. Solar photometric transmittance is measured using a photometer (illuminance meter) in an enclosure with the sun and sky as the source of radiation. The enclosure and method of test is specified in Test Method E 1175 (or Test Method E 1084). 1.2 The purpose of this test method is to specify a photometric sensor to be used with the procedure for measuring the solar photometric transmittance of sheet materials containing inhomogeneities in their optical properties. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Comparison of selective transmitters for solar thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha; DeJarnette, Drew; Otanicar, Todd P

    2016-05-10

    Solar thermal collectors are radiative heat exchangers. Their efficacy is dictated predominantly by their absorption of short wavelength solar radiation and, importantly, by their emission of long wavelength thermal radiation. In conventional collector designs, the receiver is coated with a selectively absorbing surface (Black Chrome, TiNOx, etc.), which serves both of these aims. As the leading commercial absorber, TiNOx consists of several thin, vapor deposited layers (of metals and ceramics) on a metal substrate. In this technology, the solar absorption to thermal emission ratio can exceed 20. If a solar system requires an analogous transparent component-one which transmits the full AM1.5 solar spectrum, but reflects long wavelength thermal emission-the technology is much less developed. Bespoke "heat mirrors" are available from optics suppliers at high cost, but the closest mass-produced commercial technology is low-e glass. Low-e glasses are designed for visible light transmission and, as such, they reflect up to 50% of available solar energy. To address this technical gap, this study investigated selected combinations of thin films that could be deposited to serve as transparent, selective solar covers. A comparative numerical analysis of feasible materials and configurations was investigated using a nondimensional metric termed the efficiency factor for selectivity (EFS). This metric is dependent on the operation temperature and solar concentration ratio of the system, so our analysis covered the practical range for these parameters. It was found that thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) and ZnS-Ag-ZnS provided the highest EFS. Of these, ITO represents the more commercially viable solution for large-scale development. Based on these optimized designs, proof-of-concept ITO depositions were fabricated and compared to commercial depositions. Overall, this study presents a systematic guide for creating a new class of selective, transparent optics for solar

  10. Toward maximum transmittance into absorption layers in solar cells: investigation of lossy-film-induced mismatches between reflectance and transmittance extrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Lai, Chi-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    The mismatch in film thickness and incident angle between reflectance and transmittance extrema due to the presence of lossy film(s) is investigated toward the maximum transmittance design in the active region of solar cells. Using a planar air/lossy film/silicon double-interface geometry illustrates important and quite opposite mismatch behaviors associated with TE and TM waves. In a typical thin-film CIGS solar cell, mismatches contributed by TM waves in general dominate. The angular mismatch is at least 10° in about 37%-53% of the spectrum, depending on the thickness combination of all lossy interlayers. The largest thickness mismatch of a specific interlayer generally increases with the thickness of the layer itself. Antireflection coating designs for solar cells should therefore be optimized in terms of the maximum transmittance into the active region, even if the corresponding reflectance is not at its minimum.

  11. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar transmittance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form by using a pyranometer, an enclosure, and the sun as the energy source. 1.2 This test method also allows measurement of solar transmittance at angles other than normal incidence. 1.3 This test method is applicable to sheet materials that are transparent, translucent, textured, or patterned. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. UV-vis light transmittance through tinted contact lenses and the effect of color on values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2014-06-01

    To assess the transmittance, in the 200-700nm electromagnetic radiation spectrum, by popularly used tinted soft contact lenses (CLs). The spectra transmittances of ultraviolet (UV)-blocking (I Day Acuvue Define, Freshlook ONE DAY) and non-UV-blocking (Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo) tinted soft CLs were tested. The transmittance of each lens, including nine different colors of Freshlook CL was recorded on spectrophotometer, and the data used to also calculate a UV protection factor (PF) for each lens brand tested, with a higher value indicating a higher level of protection. The UV-blocking CLs significantly reduced UVC, UVB & UVA transmission and thereby meet the American National Standards Institution standard for class 2 UV blockers: a maximum of 30% transmittance of UVA and 5% transmittance of UVB wavelengths. In contrast, the Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo CLs demonstrated negligible UV-blockage. The Acuvue Define CL offered the greatest protection from UVC (PF=69) and UVB (PF=55), but with only 35% luminous transmittance, while the Freshlook CL (especially gemstone green) offered the best protection from UVA (PF=24) and showed about 55% translucency. Overall, the UV-blocking CLs performed equally well across the UV spectrum. Different colors of Freshlook CL transmitted statistically and clinically significantly different amounts of visible light but similar amounts of UVR. Freshlook and Acuvue Define CLs which are designated as UV-blockers significantly reduced UVR transmission to safe levels whereas Tutti, NeoCosmo and Durasoft 3 did not. Transmission within the Freshlook CL family was more dependent on color in the visible light spectrum, but not in the UV-spectrum, where the gemstone green performing best among the tested colors. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the solar transmittance for the translucent shutter with PCM in liquid and solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerska, Anna; Ksionek, Dariusz; Rosiński, Marian

    2017-11-01

    This article presents results of the energy performance of an external translucent shading component integrated with a phase change material. A proposed technology is able to accumulate considerable amounts of energy in the latent heat by absorbing solar energy. Due to selective optical properties, much of the visible light is still transmitted through the facade. Experimental measurements were carried out in a laboratory set-up - testing thermal chamber, located in the Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. The main result of the experimental study was the evaluation of the average solar transmittance in the whole measured spectrum, as well as in the infrared and visible light. Since the shift in optical properties was observed when the material was undergoing a phase transition, the average spectral transmittances were measured for different states of matter of the PCM material. The tested shutter showed abilities to reduce and modulate daylight and solar heat gains in the indoor environment, which could contribute to considerable energy savings.

  15. Determination of the solar transmittance for the translucent shutter with PCM in liquid and solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komerska Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the energy performance of an external translucent shading component integrated with a phase change material. A proposed technology is able to accumulate considerable amounts of energy in the latent heat by absorbing solar energy. Due to selective optical properties, much of the visible light is still transmitted through the facade. Experimental measurements were carried out in a laboratory set–up – testing thermal chamber, located in the Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. The main result of the experimental study was the evaluation of the average solar transmittance in the whole measured spectrum, as well as in the infrared and visible light. Since the shift in optical properties was observed when the material was undergoing a phase transition, the average spectral transmittances were measured for different states of matter of the PCM material. The tested shutter showed abilities to reduce and modulate daylight and solar heat gains in the indoor environment, which could contribute to considerable energy savings.

  16. Atmospheric turbidity and transmittance of solar radiation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

    During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.

  17. Standard Practice for Calculation of Photometric Transmittance and Reflectance of Materials to Solar Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1988-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the calculation of luminous (photometric) transmittance and reflectance of materials from spectral radiant transmittance and reflectance data obtained from Test Method E 903. 1.2 Determination of luminous transmittance by this practice is preferred over measurement of photometric transmittance by methods using the sun as a source and a photometer as detector except for transmitting sheet materials that are inhomogeneous, patterned, or corrugated. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework.

  19. An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, F. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: frank.hase@imk.fzk.de; Demoulin, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, allee du VI aout, 17, batiment B5a, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Sauval, A.J. [Observatoire Royal de Belgique, avenue circulaire, 3, B-1180, Bruxelles (Belgium); Toon, G.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bernath, P.F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L3G1 (Canada); Goldman, A. [Department of Physics, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hannigan, J.W. [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Rinsland, C.P. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum is presented. The model can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes to allow fast calculation of all relevant emission and absorption features in the solar spectrum in the mid-infrared region from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}. The transmittance is modelled as a function of the diameter of the field-of-view centered on the solar disk: the line broadening due to solar rotation as well as center-to-limb variations in strength and width are taken into account for stronger lines. Applications of the model presented here are in the fields of terrestrial remote sensing in the mid-infrared spectral region when the sun is used as radiation source or scattered solar radiation contributes to the measured signal and in the fields of atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms which compute the propagation of infrared solar radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere.

  20. High efficiency of transmittance and electrical conductivity of V doped ZnO used in solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boujnah, M., E-mail: boujnah.mourad@gmail.com [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Boumdyan, M. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Naji, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ibb University, Ibb (Yemen); Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.; Loulidi, M. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-06-25

    The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) based on the density functional theory (DFT) and Boltzmann's Transport theory, are employed to investigate theoretically the electronic structure, optical and electrical properties of vanadium -doped wurtzite ZnO with different concentrations (3.125%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%). The FP-LAPW based on the new potential approximation known as the Tran-Blaha modified Becke–Johnson exchange potential approximation (mBJ) was also applied with the primary goal of improving the electronic structure description specially the band gap energy. The calculated band structure and density of states (DOS) exhibit a band gap of pure ZnO (3.3 eV) closer to the experimental one. As well, our results indicate that the average transmittance in the 400–1000 nm wavelength region was 93%. We found that Zn{sub 96.875}V{sub 3.125}O is the optimized composition of the V doped ZnO, which has the highest conductivity (3.2 × 10{sup 3} (Ωcm){sup −1}) and transmittance. The high transmittance and electrical conductivity indicate that hexagonal V:ZnO system is a potential as material for solar energy applications. - Highlights: • We investigate theoretically the physical properties of V-doped wurtzite ZnO. • We used density functional calculations (DFT) and Boltzmann's Transport theory. • We examined the optical and electrical properties of different percentage of V doped ZnO.

  1. Trial manufacture of simple integrated tube-type pyranometer by phycoerythrin and measurements of transmittance of solar radiation in crop canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Honjo, H.; Kamota, F.; Suzuki, Y.; Hayakawa, S.

    1998-01-01

    We tried to construct a simple integrated tube-type pyranometer using phycoerythrin from seaweed pigment. The maximum sensitive wavehand of phycoerythrin was 550 nm - 560 nm, and this waveband was in the photosynthetically active radiation range. The acrylic tubes (outside diameter, 22 mm, length, 100 cm) were spread with white paints except for a strip 15 mm in width, and phycoerythrin was put into the acrylic tube. In the results from the outdoor measurements, the tube-type pyranometer showed a positive correlation between the transmittance of phycoerythrin (%) and the measured accumulated solar radiation (MJ n(-2)), but the slope of the linear equation was different in summer and winter. In an artificial climate room, the relationship between the transmissions of phycoerythrin and the accumulated solar radiation could be approximated by a quadratic equation at every temperature. In the measurements made outdoors, the accumulated solar radiation could be estimated using the transmittance of phycoerythrin and the mean air temperature during measurements

  2. Analysis of Solar Census Remote Solar Access Value Calculation Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Geet, O. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The costs of photovoltaic (PV) system hardware (PV panels, inverters, racking, etc.) have fallen dramatically over the past few years. Nonhardware (soft) costs, however, have failed to keep pace with the decrease in hardware costs, and soft costs have become a major driver of U.S. PV system prices. Upfront or 'sunken' customer acquisition costs make up a portion of an installation's soft costs and can be addressed through software solutions that aim to streamline sales and system design aspects of customer acquisition. One of the key soft costs associated with sales and system design is collecting information on solar access for a particular site. Solar access, reported in solar access values (SAVs), is a measurement of the available clear sky over a site and is used to characterize the impacts of local shading objects. Historically, onsite shading studies have been required to characterize the SAV of the proposed array and determine the potential energy production of a photovoltaic system.

  3. Facile and Low-Temperature Fabrication of Thermochromic Cr2O3/VO2 Smart Coatings: Enhanced Solar Modulation Ability, High Luminous Transmittance and UV-Shielding Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianci; Cao, Xun; Li, Ning; Long, Shiwei; Gao, Xiang; Dedon, Liv R; Sun, Guangyao; Luo, Hongjie; Jin, Ping

    2017-08-09

    In the pursuit of energy efficient materials, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) based smart coatings have gained much attention in recent years. For smart window applications, VO 2 thin films should be fabricated at low temperature to reduce the cost in commercial fabrication and solve compatibility problems. Meanwhile, thermochromic performance with high luminous transmittance and solar modulation ability, as well as effective UV shielding function has become the most important developing strategy for ideal smart windows. In this work, facile Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 bilayer coatings on quartz glasses were designed and fabricated by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures ranging from 250 to 350 °C as compared with typical high growth temperatures (>450 °C). The bottom Cr 2 O 3 layer not only provides a structural template for the growth of VO 2 (R), but also serves as an antireflection layer for improving the luminous transmittance. It was found that the deposition of Cr 2 O 3 layer resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the solar modulation ability (56.4%) and improvement of luminous transmittance (26.4%) when compared to single-layer VO 2 coating. According to optical measurements, the Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 bilayer structure exhibits excellent optical performances with an enhanced solar modulation ability (ΔT sol = 12.2%) and a high luminous transmittance (T lum,lt = 46.0%), which makes a good balance between ΔT sol and T lum for smart windows applications. As for UV-shielding properties, more than 95.8% UV radiation (250-400 nm) can be blocked out by the Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 structure. In addition, the visualized energy-efficient effect was modeled by heating a beaker of water using infrared imaging method with/without a Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 coating glass.

  4. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  5. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  6. A New Metre for Cheap, Quick, Reliable and Simple Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) Measurements in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2017-09-03

    This paper deals with the thermal transmittance measurement focused on buildings and specifically in building energy retrofitting. Today, if many thermal transmittance measurements in a short time are needed, the current devices, based on the measurement of the heat flow through the wall, cannot carry out them, except if a great amount of devices are used at once along with intensive and tedious post-processing and analysis work. In this paper, from well-known physical laws, authors develop a methodology based on three temperatures measurements, which is implemented by a novel thermal transmittance metre. The paper shows its development step by step. As a result the developed device is modular, scalable, and fully wireless; it is capable of taking as many measurements at once as user needs. The developed system is compared working together on a same test to the currently used one based on heat flow. The results show that the developed metre allows carrying out thermal transmittance measurements in buildings in a cheap, quick, reliable and simple way.

  7. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  8. Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

  9. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, D.; Kengatharan, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 m...

  10. Estimation of Transmittance of Solar Radiation in the Visible Domain Based on Remote Sensing: Evaluation of Models Using In Situ Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffoli, M. Laura; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Lin, Junfang; Kovach, Charles; Wei, Jianwei; Lewis, Marlon

    2017-11-01

    The transmittance of solar radiation in the oceanic water column plays an important role in heat transfer and photosynthesis, with implications for the global carbon cycle, global circulation, and climate. Globally, the transmittance of solar radiation in the visible domain (˜400-700 nm) (TRVIS) through the water column, which determines the vertical distribution of visible light, has to be based on remote sensing products. There are models centered on chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration or Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) as both can be derived from ocean color measurements. We present evaluations of both schemes with field data from clear oceanic and from coastal waters. Here five models were evaluated: (1) Morel and Antoine (1994) (MA94), (2) Ohlmann and Siegel (2000) (OS00), (3) Murtugudde et al. (2002) (MU02), (4) Manizza et al. (2005) (MA05), and (5) Lee et al. ([Lee, Z., 2005]) (IOPs05), where the first four are Chl-based and the last one is IOPs-based, with all inputs derived from remote sensing reflectance. It is found that the best performing model is the IOPs05, with Unbiased Absolute Percent Difference (UAPD) ˜23%, while Chl-based models show higher uncertainties (UAPD for MA94: ˜54%, OS00: ˜133%, MU02: ˜56%, and MA05: ˜39%). The IOPs-based model was insensitive to the type of water, allowing it to be applied in most marine environments; whereas some of the Chl-based models (MU02 and MA05) show much higher sensitivities in coastal turbid waters (higher Chl waters). These results highlight the applicablity of using IOPs products for such applications.

  11. pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan for receptors stimulated by neuronally released transmitter in the epididymal portion of rat isolated vas deferens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D; Kengatharan, M

    1994-01-01

    1. A new method has been used to measure pKI values of prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter in the epididymal portion of the rat isolated vas deferens. The most reproducible results were obtained with a prolonged antagonist equilibration time (1 h). 2. Under these conditions the pKI of prazosin was practically unaffected by addition of alpha, beta-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (10 microM) to desensitize purinoceptors. Addition of desmethylimipramine (DMI) (0.3 microM) produced a small, but statistically non-significant, reduction. 3. The same method has been used to measure the pKI of prazosin against exogenous noradrenaline. In the latter case addition of DMI (0.3 microM) and corticosterone (30 microM) together produced a statistically significant reduction in the apparent pKI of prazosin. 4. The new method for estimating pKI values shows that DMI itself acts either pseudo-irreversibly or non-competitively and may be reducing the apparent pKI of prazosin. 5. The pKI values obtained for prazosin and idazoxan against neuronally-released transmitter are in good agreement with those obtained by other workers for the actions of these drugs on alpha-adrenoceptors.

  12. Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.72, 0.82, and 0.94 Micrometer Absorption Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, T.; Schmid, B.; Maetzler, C.; Demoulin, P.; Kaempfer, N.

    2000-01-01

    A Sun photometer (18 channels between 300 and 1024 nm) has been used for measuring the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor (CWV) by solar transmittance measurements in absorption bands with channels centered at 719, 817, and 946 nm. The observable is the band-weighted transmittance function defined by the spectral absorption of water vapor and the spectral features of solar irradiance and system response. The transmittance function is approximated by a three-parameter model. Its parameters are determined from MODTRAN and LBLRTM simulations or empirical approaches using CWV data of a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) or a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Data acquired over a 2-year period during 1996-1998 at two different sites in Switzerland, Bern (560 m above sea level (asl)) and Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl) were compared to MWR, radiosonde (RS), and FTS retrievals. At the low-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 15 mm the LBLRTM approach (based on recently corrected line intensities) leads to negligible biases at 719 and 946 nm if compared to an average of MWR, RS, and GPS retrievals. However, at 817 nm an overestimate of 2.7 to 4.3 mm (18-29%) remains. At the high-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 1.4 mm the LBLRTM approaches overestimate the CWV by 1.0, 1.4. and 0.1 mm (58, 76, and 3%) at 719, 817, and 946 nm, compared to the ITS instrument. At the low-altitude station, CWV estimates, based on empirical approaches, agree with the MWR within 0.4 mm (2.5% of the mean); at the high-altitude site with a factor of 10 less water vapor the agreement of the sun photometers (SPM) with the ITS is 0.0 to 0.2 mm (1 to 9% of the mean CWV there). Sensitivity analyses show that for the conditions met at the two stations with CWV ranging from 0.2 to 30 mm, the retrieval errors are smallest if the 946 nm channel is used.

  13. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  14. Empirical analysis of the solar incentive policy for Tennessee solar value chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Rapinder; Thakur, Kaveri; Venkatesan, Bharadwaj; Ji, Shuguang; Upreti, Girish; Sanseverino, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tennessee solar value chain (TNSVC) is modeled to analyze effect of policy on demand. • TNSVC model replicates realistic scenarios to gauge the economic impact on state. • Simulation study determines that the TNSVC capacity is greater than demand. • Direct cash incentives have greater impact on demand than indirect incentives. • The model portrays a holistic approach to assist strategic energy policy analysis. - Abstract: The market for solar energy in the US has grown exponentially due to increased consumer demand resulting from price reduction via economies of scale, technological progress, and a variety of incentives from federal and state governments as well as utility companies. The installation of solar power in Tennessee has more than doubled each year from 2009 to 2011. In this paper, we focus on the behavior of the Tennessee Solar Value Chain (TNSVC) to study the factors that influence growth of solar industry in the state. The impact of existing incentives on the TNSVC is analyzed. The TNSVC is simulated based on inputs from on-site survey to estimate economic impact in terms of the number of jobs added and the tax revenue generated in the state. In addition, a sensitivity analysis for the impact on the TNSVC under different policies those may be adopted by the state of Tennessee in the future is conducted. This paper employs a holistic model which can predict PV installation demand, understand solar value chain capacity, and estimate the revenue generation. It should be noted that the method employed in this study is not unique to the solar energy industry in Tennessee. The data utilized in this study is a combination of public domain information and surveys of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and installers. This makes the model in this paper flexible enough to be applied to assess the solar value chain in other state or country

  15. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) markets are relatively non-transparent: PV price and product information is not readily available, searching for this information is costly (in terms of time and effort), and customers are mostly unfamiliar with the new technology. Quote aggregation, where third-party companies collect PV quotes on behalf of customers, may be one way to increase PV market transparency. In this paper, quote aggregation data are analyzed to study the value of transparency for distributed solar PV markets. The results suggest that easier access to more quotes results in lower prices. We find that installers tend to offer lower prices in more competitive market environments. We supplement the empirical analysis with key findings from interviews of residential PV installers.

  16. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  17. NOMINAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SOLAR AND PLANETARY QUANTITIES: IAU 2015 RESOLUTION B3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prša, Andrej; Harmanec, Petr; Torres, Guillermo; Mamajek, Eric; Asplund, Martin; Capitaine, Nicole; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Depagne, Éric; Haberreiter, Margit; Hekker, Saskia; Hilton, James; Kopp, Greg

    2016-01-01

    In this brief communication we provide the rationale for and the outcome of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution vote at the XXIXth General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2015, on recommended nominal conversion constants for selected solar and planetary properties. The problem addressed by the resolution is a lack of established conversion constants between solar and planetary values and SI units: a missing standard has caused a proliferation of solar values (e.g., solar radius, solar irradiance, solar luminosity, solar effective temperature, and solar mass parameter) in the literature, with cited solar values typically based on best estimates at the time of paper writing. As precision of observations increases, a set of consistent values becomes increasingly important. To address this, an IAU Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy formed in 2011, uniting experts from the solar, stellar, planetary, exoplanetary, and fundamental astronomy, as well as from general standards fields to converge on optimal values for nominal conversion constants. The effort resulted in the IAU 2015 Resolution B3, passed at the IAU General Assembly by a large majority. The resolution recommends the use of nominal solar and planetary values, which are by definition exact and are expressed in SI units. These nominal values should be understood as conversion factors only, not as the true solar/planetary properties or current best estimates. Authors and journal editors are urged to join in using the standard values set forth by this resolution in future work and publications to help minimize further confusion.

  18. NOMINAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SOLAR AND PLANETARY QUANTITIES: IAU 2015 RESOLUTION B3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prša, Andrej [Villanova University, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Harmanec, Petr [Astronomical Institute of the Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mamajek, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Asplund, Martin [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Capitaine, Nicole [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, LNE, 61 avenue de lObservatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Depagne, Éric [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Haberreiter, Margit [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, Dorfstrasse 33, Davos (Switzerland); Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hilton, James [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Kopp, Greg [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303-7814 (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    In this brief communication we provide the rationale for and the outcome of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution vote at the XXIXth General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 2015, on recommended nominal conversion constants for selected solar and planetary properties. The problem addressed by the resolution is a lack of established conversion constants between solar and planetary values and SI units: a missing standard has caused a proliferation of solar values (e.g., solar radius, solar irradiance, solar luminosity, solar effective temperature, and solar mass parameter) in the literature, with cited solar values typically based on best estimates at the time of paper writing. As precision of observations increases, a set of consistent values becomes increasingly important. To address this, an IAU Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy formed in 2011, uniting experts from the solar, stellar, planetary, exoplanetary, and fundamental astronomy, as well as from general standards fields to converge on optimal values for nominal conversion constants. The effort resulted in the IAU 2015 Resolution B3, passed at the IAU General Assembly by a large majority. The resolution recommends the use of nominal solar and planetary values, which are by definition exact and are expressed in SI units. These nominal values should be understood as conversion factors only, not as the true solar/planetary properties or current best estimates. Authors and journal editors are urged to join in using the standard values set forth by this resolution in future work and publications to help minimize further confusion.

  19. Value of Solar. Program Design and Implementation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mike [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidovich, Ted [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sterling, John [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States); Makhyoun, Miriam [Solar Electric Power Association, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present an analysis that assesses the potential market type that might form in the United States under a VOS rate, given current national average solar costs and various incentive scenarios, for the most populous city in each state. Three hypothetical VOS tariffs were developed, based on assumptions of avoided fuel costs, avoided capacity, environmental benefits, and line losses, to represent a of range of possible VOS rates. The levelized cost of solar in 50 locations is calculated using NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM) using input assumptions regarding system size, resource quality, avoided capacity (aka capacity factor) and a variety of incentives. Comparing the solar costs with the hypothetical VOS rates illustrates the various market types that may form under a VOS program, in different locations.

  20. TWT transmitter fault prediction based on ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Li, Junshan; Li, Shuangshuang; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Fault prediction is an important component of health management, and plays an important role in the reliability guarantee of complex electronic equipments. Transmitter is a unit with high failure rate. The cathode performance of TWT is a common fault of transmitter. In this dissertation, a model based on a set of key parameters of TWT is proposed. By choosing proper parameters and applying adaptive neural network training model, this method, combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), has a certain reference value for the overall health judgment of TWT transmitters.

  1. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat

    2015-08-05

    Accurate solar power forecasting allows utilities to get the most out of the solar resources on their systems. To truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods can provide, it is important to first develop (or determine) baseline and target solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims to develop baseline and target values for solar forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output. forecasting metrics. These were informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of solar power output.

  2. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  3. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  4. Laser transmitter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A laser transmitter system is disclosed which utilizes mechanical energy for generating an output pulse. The laser system includes a current developing device such as a piezoelectric crystal which charges a storage device such as a capacitor in response to a mechanical input signal. The capacitor is coupled to a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). The switching device is coupled to a laser transmitter such as a GaAs laser diode, which provides an output signal in response to the capacitor being discharged

  5. Oxygen transmittance correction for solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measured on proximal sensing: application to the NASA-GSFC fusion tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since oxygen (O2) absorption of light becomes more pronounced at higher pressure levels, even a few meters distance between the target and the sensor can strongly affect canopy leaving Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) retrievals. This study was conducted to quantify the consequent error ...

  6. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  7. The value of solar: Prices and output from distributed photovoltaic generation in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maine, Tony; Chapman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Australian government's Solar Cities Program sees great value in so-called 'cost-reflective pricing', code for valuing solar at pool prices. We test that proposition in South Australia where pool prices and insolation are often high and we show that there were few days in 2004 when the pool price gives better outcomes than if the solar is valued at the regulated and fixed, so-called standing contract price. We also find that the illustrative day used in the Solar Cities Program literature to promote the notion of cost-reflective pricing is highly atypical. Finally, we consider ways in which the incentive to install distributed photovoltaic generation might be improved

  8. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  9. Value of solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants to Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company has performed a study using historical solar radiation and system load data to (1) estimate the effects of six types of solar generation on system reliability, (2) estimate the central station value of each to its system, (3) and to assess the potential of each of those technologies to provide bulk power to its system in the 2000 time frame. Technologies included three solar thermal (central receiver, dish Stirling, and parabolic trough) and three flat plate photovoltaic plants (fixed position, one axis, and two axis tracking)

  10. Transmittance measurements at DIRT-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.

    1980-07-01

    This is a report on the NRL experiments at the DIRT-II tests sponsored by the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory at the White Sands Missile Range in July 1970. The NRL experiment was designed to measure spectral transmittance through smoke and dust clouds generated by detonations of various explosive charges and also by impact of artillery rounds. Spectral transmission data as a function of time for 0.55 micrometers, 1.06 micrometers, and 10.37 micrometers were obtained for 63 events comprised of static detonations and artillery rounds. Transmission data for 1.06 micrometers, in most cases were similar and equal to 0.55 micrometers. In dry soil conditions the 10.37 micrometers channel showed higher transmittance values than the visible channel. There are indications that 10.37 micrometers transmittance in wet soil events is lower than visible presumably because of strong liquid water absorption at the IR wavelength.

  11. Comparison between ASHRAE and ISO thermal transmittance calculation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanusa, Petar; Goss, William P.; Roth, Hartwig

    2007-01-01

    is proportional to the glazing/frame sightline distance that is also proportional to the total glazing spacer length. An example calculation of the overall heat transfer and thermal transmittance (U-value or U-factor) using the two methods for a thermally broken, aluminum framed slider window is presented....... The fenestration thermal transmittance calculations analyses presented in this paper show that small differences exist between the calculated thermal transmittance values produced by the ISO and ASHRAE methods. The results also show that the overall thermal transmittance difference between the two methodologies...... decreases as the total window area (glazing plus frame) increases. Thus, the resulting difference in thermal transmittance values for the two methods is negligible for larger windows. This paper also shows algebraically that the differences between the ISO and ASHRAE methods turn out to be due to the way...

  12. Analysis of an Intelligent Temperature Transmitter for Process Control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percentage error shows acceptable points at -0.04%, 0.04% and -0.1%. For higher percentage error readings, it is necessary to connect a resistor of value between 250Ω and 1100Ω between the current loop and the transmitter. The future of transmitter technology is however the wireless sensor node (WSN) incorporating ...

  13. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-01-01

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms

  14. Values and potentials of grid-connected solar photovoltaic applications in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hadri Haris; Iszuan Shah Syed Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Since early 1998, TNB Research Sdn Bhd has been conducting a pilot project to evaluate the performance and economics of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) applications in Malaysia. The project is co-funded by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and Malaysia Electricity Supply Industry Trust Account (MESITA). Currently, research project is being concluded with many valuable findings that would be able to provide the direction for the next solar PV development in Malaysia. In total, six pilot grid-connected solar PV systems were installed, where five are located within Klang Valley area and one in Port Dickson. The systems installation and commissioning were staggered between August 1998 to November 2001. A variety of building type was also selected for the system installation. In addition, various PV systems technologies and configurations were applied with average PV power capacity of 3 kW. These variances provide a good opportunity to assess the actual performances and economics of the solar PV applications under the Malaysian environment. This paper would discuss some of the findings, but with a focus on the values and potentials of the grid-connected solar PV applications in Malaysia

  15. Modelling and Optimising the Value of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arjun; Murali, Kartik; Anbuudayasankar, S. P.; Arjunan, C. V.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a net present value (NPV) approach for a solar hybrid system has been presented. The system, in question aims at supporting an investor by assessing an investment in solar-wind hybrid system in a given area. The approach follow a combined process of modelling the system, with optimization of major investment-related variables to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The consideration of solar wind hybrid supply presents significant potential for cost reduction. The investment variables concern the location of solar wind plant, and its sizing. The system demand driven, meaning that its primary aim is to fully satisfy the energy demand of the customers. Therefore, the model is a practical tool in the hands of investor to assess and optimize in financial terms an investment aiming at covering real energy demand. Optimization is performed by taking various technical, logical constraints. The relation between the maximum power obtained between individual system and the hybrid system as a whole in par with the net present value of the system has been highlighted.

  16. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The authorized...

  17. Moving Up the Value Chain : A Study of Malaysia's Solar and Medical Device Industries

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report responds to a request by the Government of Malaysia to examine how Malaysia can move up the value chain in the solar and medical device industries. Through the lens of long-term development, the overall growth performance of the Malaysian economy has been a resounding success story. The Commission on growth and development listed Malaysia as one of only 13 countries that regist...

  18. A review of health, planning, insurance and property value issues related to active solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.; Spencer, L.; Digby, G.; Battye, L.

    1996-01-01

    The research reported here considers the potential health risks, local authority planning implications, insurance and property value aspects of solar water heating systems. The United Kingdom market for this technology is also discussed. Methodologies employed, including literature reviews, telephone and postal survey and re-analysis of a 1995 survey, are explained. No major problems are identified in any of the target areas although recommendations for water temperature management and coordinated local authority policies on renewable energy are given. (UK)

  19. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Caixia [State Grid Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  20. Outreach to Scientists and to the Public about the Scientific Value of Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Great American Eclipse of August 21, 2017, provided an unprecedented opportunity for outreach among American audiences on a giant scale in the age of social media. Professonal scientists and other educators, however, were not exempt from ignorance of the remaining scientific value of observing solar eclipses, often mistakenly thinking that space satellites or mountaintop observatories could make artificial eclipses as good as natural ones, which they can't. Further, as Chair of the Working Group on Eclipses of the International Astronomical Union and as a frequent observer of solar eclipses in other countries, I felt an obligation to provide at-least-equal hospitality in our country. Here I discuss our welcome to and interaction with eclipse scientists from Greece, Slovakia, Australia, Bulgaria, Iran, China, and Japan and their participation in the eclipse observations. I describe my own outreach about the still-vital solar-eclipse observations through my August 2017 articles in Nature Astronomy and Scientific American as well as through book reviews in Nature and Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter and co-authorship of a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses in the July issue og the American Journal of Physics. I describe my eclipse-day Academic Minute on National Public Radio via WAMC and on http://365daysofastronomy.org, a website started during the International Year of Astronomy. I discuss my blog post on lecturing to pre-school through elementary-school students for the National Geographic Society's Education Blog. I show my Op-Ed pre-eclipse in the Washington Post. I discuss our eclipse-night broadcast of an eclipse program on PBS's NOVA, and its preparation over many months, back as far and farther than the February 26, 2017, annular solar eclipse observed from Argentinian Patagonia, with images from prior eclipses including 2013 in Gabon and 2015 in Svalbard. My work at the 2017 total solar eclipse was supported in large part with grants from the

  1. Universal tritium transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J. V.; Wood, M.

    2008-01-01

    sufficient time to thermally equilibrate. Amplifiers, transistors, resistors all need time to stabilize before the electrometer circuit will measure accurately in the 10 -15 and 10 -14 ampere range. Existing electrometers give the user no indication when the unit has stabilized and is acceptable for low level measurements. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) funded through the NNSA Plant Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program, has developed a truly Universal Tritium Transmitter (UTT) capable of solving many known problems with existing commercial electrometers. This UTT pushes the state-of-the-art in electrometer design and incorporates solutions to deficiencies found in commercial electrometers. (authors)

  2. Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values and Evidence of Presence of Dragon King (DK) in Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, T.; Ramos, F.; Rempel, E. L.; Silva, S.; C-L Chian, A.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind constitutes a nonlinear dynamical system, presenting intermittent turbulence, multifractality and chaotic dynamics. One characteristic shared by many such complex systems is the presence of extreme events, that play an important role in several Geophysical phenomena and their statistical characterization is a problem of great practical relevance. This work investigates the presence of extreme events in time series of the modulus of the interplanetary magnetic field measured by Cluster spacecraft on February 2, 2002. One of the main results is that the solar wind near the Earth's bow shock can be modeled by the Generalized Pareto (GP) and Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) distributions. Both models present a statistically significant positive shape parameter which implyies a heavy tail in the probability distribution functions and an unbounded growth in return values as return periods become too long. There is evidence that current sheets are the main responsible for positive values of the shape parameter. It is also shown that magnetic reconnection at the interface between two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes in the solar wind can be considered as Dragon Kings (DK), a class of extreme events whose formation mechanisms are fundamentally different from others. As long as magnetic reconnection can be classified as a Dragon King, there is the possibility of its identification and even its prediction. Dragon kings had previously been identified in time series of financial crashes, nuclear power generation accidents, stock market and so on. It is believed that they are associated with the occurrence of extreme events in dynamical systems at phase transition, bifurcation, crises or tipping points.

  3. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  4. Municipal Added Value through Solar Power Systems in the City of Freiburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Funcke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the conventional energy system towards renewable energies has entailed an increasing decentralization of energy generation in Germany, as the production units are smaller and draw on regional potentials. This can result in positive socio-economic effects in regions where the potential is exploited. The focus of this paper lies on evaluating existing methods and developing new ones, which can be used to determine local added value through renewable energy systems. The methods were required to cover direct as well as induced municipal added value effects and to include all steps of the examined value chain. A combination of methods was tested in a case study for the solar power system value chain in the city of Freiburg (ca. 220,000 inhabitants. The added value through this sector in the year 2009 was calculated at 30.8 million euros through direct effects and 6.2 million euros through induced effects. This total municipal added value of 37 million euros can be converted into roughly 1,500 jobs within the city boundaries. Based on some conservative assumptions, these numbers should be considered as minimum values.

  5. 47 CFR 80.959 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... watts into 50 ohms nominal resistance when operated with its rated supply voltage. The transmitter must... capability of the transmitter, measurements of primary supply voltage and transmitter output power must be... voltage measured at the power input terminals to the transmitter terminated in a matching artificial load...

  6. Estimation of missing values in solar radiation data using piecewise interpolation methods: Case study at Penang city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainudin, Mohd Lutfi; Saaban, Azizan; Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu

    2015-01-01

    The solar radiation values have been composed by automatic weather station using the device that namely pyranometer. The device is functions to records all the radiation values that have been dispersed, and these data are very useful for it experimental works and solar device’s development. In addition, for modeling and designing on solar radiation system application is needed for complete data observation. Unfortunately, lack for obtained the complete solar radiation data frequently occur due to several technical problems, which mainly contributed by monitoring device. Into encountering this matter, estimation missing values in an effort to substitute absent values with imputed data. This paper aimed to evaluate several piecewise interpolation techniques likes linear, splines, cubic, and nearest neighbor into dealing missing values in hourly solar radiation data. Then, proposed an extendable work into investigating the potential used of cubic Bezier technique and cubic Said-ball method as estimator tools. As result, methods for cubic Bezier and Said-ball perform the best compare to another piecewise imputation technique

  7. Estimation of missing values in solar radiation data using piecewise interpolation methods: Case study at Penang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Lutfi; Saaban, Azizan; Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu

    2015-12-01

    The solar radiation values have been composed by automatic weather station using the device that namely pyranometer. The device is functions to records all the radiation values that have been dispersed, and these data are very useful for it experimental works and solar device's development. In addition, for modeling and designing on solar radiation system application is needed for complete data observation. Unfortunately, lack for obtained the complete solar radiation data frequently occur due to several technical problems, which mainly contributed by monitoring device. Into encountering this matter, estimation missing values in an effort to substitute absent values with imputed data. This paper aimed to evaluate several piecewise interpolation techniques likes linear, splines, cubic, and nearest neighbor into dealing missing values in hourly solar radiation data. Then, proposed an extendable work into investigating the potential used of cubic Bezier technique and cubic Said-ball method as estimator tools. As result, methods for cubic Bezier and Said-ball perform the best compare to another piecewise imputation technique.

  8. Estimation of missing values in solar radiation data using piecewise interpolation methods: Case study at Penang city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainudin, Mohd Lutfi, E-mail: mdlutfi07@gmail.com [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUMCAS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Institut Matematik Kejuruteraan (IMK), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Saaban, Azizan, E-mail: azizan.s@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUMCAS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu, E-mail: mohdnazari@perlis.uitm.edu.my [Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    The solar radiation values have been composed by automatic weather station using the device that namely pyranometer. The device is functions to records all the radiation values that have been dispersed, and these data are very useful for it experimental works and solar device’s development. In addition, for modeling and designing on solar radiation system application is needed for complete data observation. Unfortunately, lack for obtained the complete solar radiation data frequently occur due to several technical problems, which mainly contributed by monitoring device. Into encountering this matter, estimation missing values in an effort to substitute absent values with imputed data. This paper aimed to evaluate several piecewise interpolation techniques likes linear, splines, cubic, and nearest neighbor into dealing missing values in hourly solar radiation data. Then, proposed an extendable work into investigating the potential used of cubic Bezier technique and cubic Said-ball method as estimator tools. As result, methods for cubic Bezier and Said-ball perform the best compare to another piecewise imputation technique.

  9. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion.

  10. Product of the SNPP VIIRS SD Screen Transmittance and the SD BRDF (RSB) From Both Yaw Maneuver and Regular On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    To assure data quality, the Earth-observing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) regularly performs on-orbit radiometric calibrations of its 22 spectral bands. The primary calibration radiance source for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) is a sunlit solar diffuser (SD). During the calibration process, sunlight goes through a perforated plate (the SD screen) and then strikes the SD. The SD scattered sunlight is used for the calibration, with the spectral radiance proportional to the product of the SD screen transmittance and the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The BRDF is decomposed to the product of its value at launch and a numerical factor quantifying its change since launch. Therefore, the RSB calibration requires accurate knowledge of the product of the SD screen transmittance and the BRDF (RSB; launch time). Previously, we calculated the product with yaw maneuver data and found that the product had improved accuracy over the prelaunch one. With both yaw maneuver and regular on orbit data, we were able to improve the accuracy of the SDSM screen transmittance and the product for the solar diffuser stability monitor SD view. In this study, we use both yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the product for the RSB SD view.

  11. A New Fuzzy-Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for a Solar Panel Based on Datasheet Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kargarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking maximum power point of a solar panel is of interest in most of photovoltaic applications. Solar panel modeling is also very interesting exclusively based on manufacturers data. Knowing that the manufacturers generally give the electrical specifications of their products at one operating condition, there are so many cases in which the specifications in other conditions are of interest. In this research, a comprehensive one-diode model for a solar panel with maximum obtainable accuracy is fully developed only based on datasheet values. The model parameters dependencies on environmental conditions are taken into consideration as much as possible. Comparison between real data and simulations results shows that the proposed model has maximum obtainable accuracy. Then a new fuzzy-based controller to track the maximum power point of the solar panel is also proposed which has better response from speed, accuracy and stability point of view respect to the previous common developed one.

  12. Determination of the SNPP VIIRS SDSM Screen Relative Transmittance From Both Yaw Maneuver and Regular On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chen, Xuexia; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suiteaboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite performs radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands primarily through observing a sunlit onboard solar diffuser (SD). The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function(BRDF) degradation factor is determined by an onboard SD stability monitor (SDSM), which observes the Sun through a pinhole screen and the sunlit SD. The transmittance of the SDSM pinhole screen over a range of solar angles was determined prelaunch and used initially to determine the BRDF degradation factor.The degradation-factor-versus-time curves were found to have a number of very large unphysical undulations likely due to the inaccuracy in the prelaunch determined SDSM screen transmittance.To refine the SDSM screen transmittance, satellite yaw maneuvers were carried out. With the SDSM screen relative transmittance determined from the yaw maneuver data, the computed BRDFdegradation factor curves still have large unphysical ripples, indicating that the projected solar horizontal angular step size in the yaw maneuver data is too large to resolve the transmittance at a fine angular scale. We develop a methodology to use both the yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the SDSM screen relative transmittance at a fine angular scale. We determine that the error standard deviation of the calculated relative transmittance ranges from 0.00030 (672 nm) to 0.00092 (926 nm). With the newly determined SDSM screen relative transmittance, the computed BRDF degradation factor behaves much more smoothly over time.

  13. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth in...

  14. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power is...

  15. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis demonstrating...

  16. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  17. Compensation for Distributed Solar. A Survey of Options to Preserve Stakeholder Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Compensation mechanisms for electricity generation systems installed behind the meter are under scrutiny in several jurisdictions in the United States. Legislators in 29 states introduced bills to amend net metering provisions in 2014, and in 33 states in the 2015 legislative session as of August 20, 2015. Some utilities have also sought to increase the revenue they receive from net-metered customers through rate redesign. The circumstances that have triggered the recent push for change include a growing percentage of net-metered customers, potential effects of distributed generation on cost allocation, decreasing photovoltaic (PV) system costs, the challenges of integrating high levels of solar generation in the distribution network, and increasing pressure on utility business models. This report presents a survey of options to charge and compensate PV customers, as well as options that may preserve utility revenues in scenarios with increased DG. These options could be used as building blocks to create a distributed generation (DG) compensation policy that may preserve the value of the different stakeholders and balance their interests.

  18. ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ON SITE EVALUATION OF THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Janković

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal transmittance or U-value is an indicator of the building envelope thermal properties and a key parameter for evaluation of heat losses through the building elements due to heat transmission. It can be determined by calculation based on thermal characteristics of the building element layers. However, this value does not take into account the effects of irregularities and degradation of certain elements of the envelope caused by aging, which may lead to errors in calculation of the heat losses. An effective and simple method for determination of thermal transmittance is in situ measurement, which is governed by the ISO 9869-1:2014 that defines heat flow meter method. This relatively expensive method leaves marks and damages surface of the building element. Furthermore, the final result is not always reliable, in particular when the building element is light or when the weather conditions are not suitable. In order to avoid the above mentioned problems and to estimate the real thermal transmittance value an alternative experimental method, here referred as the natural convection and radiation method, is proposed in this paper. For determination of thermal transmittance, this method requires only temperatures of inside and outside air, as well as the inner wall surface temperature. A detailed statistical analysis, performed by the software package SPSS ver. 20, shows several more advantages of this method comparing to the standard heat flow meter one, besides economic and non-destructive benefits.

  19. Forecasting Kp from solar wind data: input parameter study using 3-hour averages and 3-hour range values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus; Matzka, Jürgen; Shprits, Yuri

    2017-11-01

    We have developed neural network models that predict Kp from upstream solar wind data. We study the importance of various input parameters, starting with the magnetic component Bz, particle density n, and velocity V and then adding total field B and the By component. As we also notice a seasonal and UT variation in average Kp we include functions of day-of-year and UT. Finally, as Kp is a global representation of the maximum range of geomagnetic variation over 3-hour UT intervals we conclude that sudden changes in the solar wind can have a big effect on Kp, even though it is a 3-hour value. Therefore, 3-hour solar wind averages will not always appropriately represent the solar wind condition, and we introduce 3-hour maxima and minima values to some degree address this problem. We find that introducing total field B and 3-hour maxima and minima, derived from 1-minute solar wind data, have a great influence on the performance. Due to the low number of samples for high Kp values there can be considerable variation in predicted Kp for different networks with similar validation errors. We address this issue by using an ensemble of networks from which we use the median predicted Kp. The models (ensemble of networks) provide prediction lead times in the range 20-90 min given by the time it takes a solar wind structure to travel from L1 to Earth. Two models are implemented that can be run with real time data: (1) IRF-Kp-2017-h3 uses the 3-hour averages of the solar wind data and (2) IRF-Kp-2017 uses in addition to the averages, also the minima and maxima values. The IRF-Kp-2017 model has RMS error of 0.55 and linear correlation of 0.92 based on an independent test set with final Kp covering 2 years using ACE Level 2 data. The IRF-Kp-2017-h3 model has RMSE = 0.63 and correlation = 0.89. We also explore the errors when tested on another two-year period with real-time ACE data which gives RMSE = 0.59 for IRF-Kp-2017 and RMSE = 0.73 for IRF-Kp-2017-h3. The errors as function

  20. A method for daily global solar radiation estimation from two instantaneous values using MODIS atmospheric products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Huaqiang; Zhou, Guomo; Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Fan, Weiliang; Zhu, Dien

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the temporal and spatial distributions of solar radiation is very important in many scientific fields. In this study, instantaneous solar irradiances on a horizontal surface at 10:30 and 13:30 local time (LT) were calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric data products with relatively high spatial resolution using a solar radiation model. These solar irradiances were combined to derive half-hourly averages of solar irradiance (HASI) and daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface using linear interpolation, piecewise linear regression, and quadratic polynomial regression. Compared with field observations, the HASI were estimated accurately when the total cloud fraction (TCF) was 0.6. Overall, the daily GSR estimated in this study was better than that estimated by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis of NASA. The daily GSR estimated in this study was underestimated, whereas it was overestimated by MERRA. The combination of the daily GSR estimates of this study and MERRA offers a simple and feasible technique for reducing uncertainty in daily GSR estimates. - Highlights: • Daily GSR is integrated from two observations from the MODIS products. • Daily GSR from the MODIS products is underestimated. • Biases were attributed primarily to variations in the total cloud percent. • Combining daily GSR estimates from the MODIS and the MERRA increases accuracy.

  1. Regulatory Experience on Safety Smart Transmitter's CCF of SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Smart transmitters are digital I and C equipment which can replace analog transmitters. Non safety grade smart transmitters have been used for I and C systems of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant).. But, recently, smart transmitters have been used for safety grade I and C systems as well as non-safety grade I and C system for SKN 3 and 4. Smart transmitters execute measuring sensor values, generating output signals and adjusting range using software. Also, smart transmitters are basically capable of remote calibration through digital communication. The operating capability is more reliable and effective with remote calibration of smart transmitters, but there is potential vulnerability that causes the result no one wanted such as cyber attacks or software CCF. This paper addresses our regulatory experiences how to evaluate safety smart transmitter's CCF of SKN 3 and 4. Nuclear I and C equipment have increased the use on digital technology in safety system. According that, interest in a postulated software CCF is increasing. The software may be firmware or operating system of digital equipment. During SKN 3 and 4 operating license process, safety grade smart transmitter's adequacy was reviewed such as software V and V processes and equipment qualification. Also, it was analyzed that effect of the software CCFs of smart transmitters under DBA condition. Main concern was whether the postulated smart transmitter's software CCF may lead to an adverse safety consequence. We have future research plan to execute proof tests about our concerns and develop regulatory guide for smart transmitters.

  2. Flat-topped beam transmittance in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Yalçın; Baykal, Yahya

    2017-10-01

    Turbulence affects optical propagation, and, as a result, the intensity is attenuated along the path of propagation. The attenuation becomes significant when the turbulence becomes stronger. Transmittance is a measure indicating how much power is collected at the receiver after the optical wave propagates in the turbulent medium. The on-axis transmittance is formulated when a flat-topped optical beam propagates in a marine atmosphere experiencing anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Variations in the transmittance are evaluated versus the beam source size, beam number, link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, and structure constant. It is found that larger beam source sizes and beam numbers yield higher transmittance values; however, as the link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, or structure constant increase, transmittance values are lowered. Our results will help in the performance evaluations of optical wireless communication and optical imaging systems operating in a marine atmosphere.

  3. Influence of the pH value of anthocyanins on the electrical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irén Juhász Junger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the harvesting of renewable energies became of great importance. This led to a rapid development of dye-sensitized solar cells which can be produced from low-purity materials. The best electrical properties are provided by cells prepared using synthetical, ruthenium based dyes. Unfortunately, most of them are toxic and expensive. The anthocyanins extracted for example from hibiscus flowers yield a more cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative to toxic dyes, however, with a loss of solar cell efficiency. In this article the possibility of improvement of the conversion efficiency by modification of the pH value of the dye is investigated. By decrease of the pH value, an increase of efficiency by a factor of two was achieved.

  4. Analysis of solar radiation transfer: A method to estimate the porosity of a plastic shading net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, A.M.; Al-Helal, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic nets with opaque threads are frequently used for shading agricultural structures under high solar radiation conditions. A parameter that is often used to define a net is the net porosity (Π). Value of Π is usually estimated by one of three methods: image processing, direct beam transmittance, or solar radiation balance (hereafter radiation balance). Image processing is a rather slow process because it requires scanning the net sample at high resolution. The direct beam transmittance and radiation balance methods greatly overestimate Π because some of the solar radiation incident on the thread surfaces is forward scattered and add a considerable amount of radiation to that transmitted from the net pores directly. In this study, the radiation balance method was modified to estimate Π precisely. The amount of solar radiation scattered forward on the thread surfaces was estimated separately. Thus, the un-scattered solar radiation transmitted from the net pores directly, which describes the net porosity, Π could be estimated. This method, in addition to the image processing and the direct beam transmittance methods were used to estimate Π for different types of nets that are commonly used for shading structures in summer. Values of Π estimated by using the proposed method were in good accordance with those measured by the image processing method at a resolution of 4800 dpi. The direct beam transmittance and the radiation balance methods resulted in overestimation errors in the values of Π. This error strongly depends on the color of the net. The estimated errors were +14% for a green net and +37% for a white net when using the radiation balance method, and were +16% and +38%, respectively, when using the direct beam transmittance method. In the image processing method, a resolution of 2400 dpi is sufficient to estimate Π precisely and the higher resolutions showed no significant effect on the value of Π.

  5. Builder experience with low-cost high-value passive solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.; Neuffer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports on passive solar tract home construction in the Reno, Nevada, area, that has enhanced the builder's market, made buying a home more affordable for the entry-level customer and made living in that home more attractive, displaced energy at $1.50/MMBtu, and attracted the local utility into seriously considering offering cash incentives for the construction and sale of those homes as a very cost-effective gas demand side management program. The builder's solar models, costs and marketing experience are described, and the utility's economic analysis is presented

  6. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  7. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to... adequate to render the service proposed. In cases of questionable antenna locations, it is desirable to...

  8. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... current station authorization. On authorizations stating only the input power to the final radiofrequency...

  9. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  10. Externalities: Their role and value in near-term solar power implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindler, G.

    1992-01-01

    The total cost of electricity includes social and environmental costs, or externalities, that have traditionally been discluded from the cost of energy. Under current regulatory and public pressure to account for these costs as they vary between generating resources, externalities are being reviewed and are gradually being added to the construction and operation costs of all generating resources. Accounting for externalities is described as being obligatory for the electric utility industry. This paper analyzes a variety of quantifiable externalities in comparing solar and wind power to coal, nuclear, natural gas and oil. The inclusion of externalities in full-cost resource accounting is shown to make renewable resources such as solar and wind more competitive in a levelized market

  11. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Zafar, Ammar; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying

  12. NRL transmittance measurements at DIRT-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.; Gott, C.

    1981-06-01

    This is a final report on NRL experiments at the DIRT-III tests at Fort Polk, Louisiana in April - May 1980. Spectral transmission data at 3 wavelengths 0.55 microns, 1.06 microns and 10.4 microns is reported for 27 events in natural soil and various prepared soils. Spectral transmittance of smoke and dust clouds generated by explosive charges was found to be independent of wavelengths in about 50% of the events where useful data was obtained. When the charge was buried in wet natural soil transmittance at 10.4 microns was transmittance at 0.55 microns .

  13. Experimental investigation on photothermal properties of nanofluids for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qinbo; Wang, Shuangfeng; Zeng, Shequan; Zheng, Zhaozhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The factors affecting the transmittance of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids were studied with UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer. • The optical properties of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids were studied through the theoretical model. • The Cu–H 2 O nanofluids can enhance the absorption ability for solar energy. - Abstract: In this article, Cu–H 2 O nanofluids were prepared through two-step method. The transmittance of nanofluids over solar spectrum (250–2500 nm) was measured by the UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer based on integrating sphere principle. The factors influencing transmittance of nanofluids, such as particle size, mass fraction and optical path were investigated. The extinction coefficients measured experimentally were compared with the theoretical calculation value. Meanwhile, the photothermal properties of nanofluids were also investigated. The experimental results show that the transmittance of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids is much less than that of deionized water, and decreases with increasing nanoparticle size, mass fraction and optical depth. The highest temperature of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids (0.1 wt.%) can increased up to 25.3% compared with deionized water. The good absorption ability of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids for solar energy indicates that it is suitable for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems

  14. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-11-14

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  15. The economics of wind and solar variability. How the variability of wind and solar power affects their marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion

    2014-01-01

    Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly

  16. Light transmittance under diffuse radiation circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieboom, A.M.G. van den; Stoffers, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    For a grower it is important to know the light transmittance of a greenhouse. With this date (and many others) he is able to make a decision about which greenhouse and covering is the most economical in his situation. It is absolute impossible for a grower to use figures that are functions of: • the orientation of the greenhouse, • the relation between direct and global radiation, • the amount of radiation, etc. • He needs one comparable figure. As a comparable figure for light transmittance of a greenhouse we use the transmittance factor that is estimated with a diffuse radiation source. This figure will be the same as the mean transmittance over one year for that greenhouse, even with extreme direct radiation and independent of the orientation of the greenhouse. (author)

  17. APMP Pilot Study on Transmittance Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Chun; Hwang, Jisoo; Koo, Annette; Wu, Houping; Leecharoen, Rojana; Yu, Hsueh-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Five NMIs within APMP, including CMS/ITRI, MSL, NIM, NIMT and KRISS from TCPR applied to the APMP technical committee initiative project for funding to carry out a pilot comparison of transmittance haze in 2012. The project started in 2014 and the final report was completed at the end of 2016. In this pilot comparison, three different haze standards were adopted, and transmittance haze for each standard was measured according to ASTM D1003 or ISO 14782. This paper presents the first results of an APMP pilot study of transmittance haze and the analysis of the variation among different haze measurement systems which are commonly used. The study shows that the variables such as sphere multiplier, transmittance distribution, fluorescence of samples and optical path of the incident beam cause discrepancies among NMIs and highlight deficiencies in current documentary standards.

  18. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  19. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved digital transmitter for transmitting serial pulse code modulation (pcm) data at high bit rates over a transmission line is disclosed. When not transmitting, the transmitter features a high output impedance which prevents the transmitter from loading the transmission line. The pcm input is supplied to a logic control circuit which produces two discrete logic level signals which are supplied to an amplifier. The amplifier, which is transformer coupled to the output isolation circuitry, converts the discrete logic level signals to two high current level, ground isolated signals in the secondary windings of the coupling transformer. The latter signals are employed as inputs to the isolation circuitry which includes two series transistor pairs operating into a hybrid transformer functioning to isolate the transmitter circuitry from the transmission line.

  20. Terrestrial VLF transmitter injection into the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-08-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio waves emitted from ground sources (transmitters and lightning) strongly impact the radiation belts, driving electron precipitation via whistler-electron gyroresonance, and contributing to the formation of the slot region. However, calculations of the global impacts of VLF waves are based on models of trans-ionospheric propagation to calculate the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. Limited comparisons of these models to individual satellite passes have found that the models may significantly (by >20 dB) overestimate amplitudes of ground based VLF transmitters in the magnetosphere. To form a much more complete empirical picture of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, we present observations of the radiation pattern from a number of ground-based VLF transmitters by averaging six years of data from the DEMETER satellite. We divide the slice at ˜700 km altitude above a transmitter into pixels and calculate the average field for all satellite passes through each pixel. There are enough data to see 25 km features in the radiation pattern, including the modal interference of the subionospheric signal mapped upwards. Using these data, we deduce the first empirical measure of the radiated power into the magnetosphere from these transmitters, for both daytime and nighttime, and at both the overhead and geomagnetically conjugate region. We find no detectable variation of signal intensity with geomagnetic conditions at low and mid latitudes (L ionospheric heating by one VLF transmitter which modifies the trans-ionospheric absorption of signals from other transmitters passing through the heated region.

  1. Generation of solar radiation values by using Markov chains; Generacion de valores de radiacion usando cadenas de Markov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro, Jorge; Cesari, Daniela; Lema, Alba; Galimberti, Pablo [Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria]. E-mail: aadaro@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to adopt a methodology that allows to generate sequences of values of global solar radiation. It is carried out a preliminary study on the generation of radiation sequence a concept of Chains of Markov. For it is analyzed it the readiness of data and it is investigated about the possibility of using such a methodology calculating values of indexes of clarity previously. With data of available radiation and provided the National Meteorological Service for Rio Cuarto, the preliminary study is carried out the preliminary study looking for to validated the pattern to the effects of being able to transfer the use of the methodology in other regions. (author)

  2. Estimating Parameters for the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide Using VLF Narrowband Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. C.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the D-region (60 to 90 km altitude) ionospheric electron density profile has always been a challenge. The D-region's altitude is too high for aircraft and balloons to reach but is too low for satellites to orbit at. Sounding rocket measurements have been a useful tool for directly measuring the ionosphere, however, these types of measurements are infrequent and costly. A more sustainable type of measurement, for characterizing the D-region, is remote sensing with very low frequency (VLF) waves. Both the lower ionosphere and Earth's ground strongly reflect VLF waves. These two spherical reflectors form what is known as the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. As VLF waves propagate within the waveguide, they interact with the D-region ionosphere, causing amplitude and phase changes that are polarization dependent. These changes can be monitored with a spatially distributed array of receivers and D-region properties can be inferred from these measurements. Researchers have previously used VLF remote sensing techniques, from either narrowband transmitters or sferics, to estimate the density profile, but these estimations are typically during a short time frame and over a narrow propagation region. We report on an effort to improve the understanding of VLF wave propagation by estimating the commonly known h' and beta two parameter exponential electron density profile. Measurements from multiple narrowband transmitters at multiple receivers are taken, concurrently, and input into an algorithm. The cornerstone of the algorithm is an artificial neural network (ANN), where input values are the received narrowband amplitude and phase and the outputs are the estimated h' and beta parameters. Training data for the ANN is generated using the Navy's Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) model. Emphasis is placed on profiling the daytime ionosphere, which has a more stable and predictable profile than the nighttime. Daytime ionospheric disturbances, from high solar

  3. Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.

    1991-05-01

    The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

  4. North-south asymmetry of solar activity as a superposition of two realizations - the sign and absolute value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, O. G.; Obridko, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Since the occurrence of north-south asymmetry (NSA) of alternating sign may be determined by different mechanisms, the frequency and amplitude characteristics of this phenomenon should be considered separately. Aims: We propose a new approach to the description of the NSA of solar activity. Methods: The asymmetry defined as A = (N-S)/(N + S) (where N and S are, respectively, the indices of activity of the northern and southern hemispheres) is treated as a superposition of two functions: the sign of asymmetry (signature) and its absolute value (modulus). This approach is applied to the analysis of the NSA of sunspot group areas for the period 1874-2013. Results: We show that the sign of asymmetry provides information on the behavior of the asymmetry. In particular, it displays quasi-periodic variation with a period of 12 yr and quasi-biennial oscillations as the asymmetry itself. The statistics of the so-called monochrome intervals (long periods of positive or negative asymmetry) are considered and it is shown that the distribution of these intervals is described by the random distribution law. This means that the dynamo mechanisms governing the cyclic variation of solar activity must involve random processes. At the same time, the asymmetry modulus has completely different statistical properties and is probably associated with processes that determine the amplitude of the cycle. One can reliably isolate an 11-yr cycle in the behavior of the asymmetry absolute value shifted by half a period with respect to the Wolf numbers. It is shown that the asymmetry modulus has a significant prognostic value: the higher the maximum of the asymmetry modulus, the lower the following Wolf number maximum. Conclusions: A fundamental nature of this concept of NSA is discussed in the context of the general methodology of cognizing the world. It is supposed that the proposed description of the NSA will help clarify the nature of this phenomenon.

  5. Valuing the Resilience Provided by Solar and Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group

    2018-02-05

    This paper explores the impact of valuing resilience on the economics of photovoltaics (PV) and storage systems for commercial buildings. The analysis presented here illustrates that accounting for the cost of grid power outages can change the breakeven point for PV and storage system investment, and increase the size of systems designed to deliver the greatest economic benefit over time. In other words, valuing resilience can make PV and storage systems economical in cases where they would not be otherwise. As storage costs decrease, and outages occur more frequently, PV and storage are likely to play a larger role in building design and management considerations.

  6. Assessing the effects of customer innovativeness, environmental value and ecological lifestyles on residential solar power systems install intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kee Kuo

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of environmental value, ecological lifestyle, customer innovativeness on customer intention to install solar power system (SPS) in their private houses, an empirical model was proposed. Customer innovativeness was treated as a second-order construct with two first-order dimensions, with each of the latter being measured by means of reflective indicators. Using structural equation modeling, data collected from 203 college students and faculties at a University of Taiwan were tested against the model. We found that environmental value has a positive impact on ecological lifestyle and SPS install intention. Although ecological lifestyle associates positively with SPS install intention, the effect disappears when environmental value is included in the model. The effect of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention results from the tendency of customer novelty seeking, while the impact of customer independent judgment-making on SPS install intention is insignificant. The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention. Managerial implications for promoting of SPS are considered, and suggestions for further research provided. - Highlights: • We integrate customer innovativeness into an environmental behavior model. • The impact of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention was confirmed. • The impact of novelty seeking on SPS install intention has been found. • Environmental value is the most important factor for SPS install intention. • The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention

  7. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  8. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  9. Solar off-limb line widths with SUMER: revised value of the non-thermal velocity and new results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dolla

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves and ion-cyclotron absorption of high-frequency waves are frequently brought into models devoted to coronal heating and fast solar-wind acceleration. Signatures of ion-cyclotron resonance have already been observed in situ in the solar wind and in the upper corona. In the lower corona, one can use the line profiles to infer the ion temperatures. But the value of the so-called "non-thermal" (or "unresolved" velocity, potentially related to the amplitude of Alfvén waves propagating in the corona, is critical in firmly identifying ion-cyclotron preferential heating. In a previous paper, we proposed a method to constrain both the Alfvén wave amplitude and the preferential heating, above a polar coronal hole observed with the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer. Taking into account the effect of instrumental stray light before analysing the line profiles, we ruled out any direct evidence of damping of the Alfvén waves and showed that ions with the lowest charge-to-mass ratios were preferentially heated. We re-analyse these data here to correct the derived non-thermal velocity, and we discuss the consequences on the main results. We also include a measure of the Fe VIII 1442.56 Å line width (second order, thus extending the charge-to-mass ratio domain towards ions more likely to experience cyclotron resonance.

  10. Fast Turn-off Mine Transient Electromagnetic Transmitter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiao-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For solving problems such as short turn-off time, high linear degree of falling edge, measurement of turn-off time and influence of primary signals for transient electromagnetic transmitter, and restrictions because of the environmental conditions of underground coal mine, this thesis aims at designing a new transient electromagnetic transmitter system suitable for coal mine. Supported by damping absorption circuit, such system applies small volume, sectional transmitting coil, with features of short turn-off time, high linear degree of current falling edge. It uses the transmitter monitoring circuit, which accurately measures turn-off time and simultaneously records the current value changes after turn-off, thus to eliminate the influence of primary field as well as to restore earlier secondary field signals for reference and finally to improve the ability to detect the shallow structure. It turns out that the new system has a shorter turn-off time, a higher linear degree of current falling and more accurate data record of turn-off current.

  11. Reliability analysis for new technology-based transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, Florent, E-mail: florent.brissaud.2007@utt.f [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Charpentier, Dominique [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2011-02-15

    The reliability analysis of new technology-based transmitters has to deal with specific issues: various interactions between both material elements and functions, undefined behaviours under faulty conditions, several transmitted data, and little reliability feedback. To handle these particularities, a '3-step' model is proposed, based on goal tree-success tree (GTST) approaches to represent both the functional and material aspects, and includes the faults and failures as a third part for supporting reliability analyses. The behavioural aspects are provided by relationship matrices, also denoted master logic diagrams (MLD), with stochastic values which represent direct relationships between system elements. Relationship analyses are then proposed to assess the effect of any fault or failure on any material element or function. Taking these relationships into account, the probabilities of malfunction and failure modes are evaluated according to time. Furthermore, uncertainty analyses tend to show that even if the input data and system behaviour are not well known, these previous results can be obtained in a relatively precise way. An illustration is provided by a case study on an infrared gas transmitter. These properties make the proposed model and corresponding reliability analyses especially suitable for intelligent transmitters (or 'smart sensors').

  12. Design and calculation of low infrared transmittance and low emissivity coatings for heat radiative applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Da-Hai; Fan, Jin-Peng

    2012-02-01

    The infrared transmittance and emissivity of heat-insulating coatings pigmented with various structural particles were studied using Kubelka-Munk theory and Mie theory. The primary design purpose was to obtain the low transmittance and low emissivity coatings to reduce the heat transfer by thermal radiation for high-temperature applications. In the case of silica coating layers constituted with various structural titania particles (solid, hollow, and core-shell spherical), the dependence of transmittance and emissivity of the coating layer on the particle structure and the layer thickness was investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the coating pigmented with core-shell titania particles exhibits a lower infrared transmittance and a lower emissivity value than that with other structural particles and is suitable to radiative heat-insulating applications.

  13. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  14. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C., E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br, E-mail: justino@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  15. Comparative studies of measured and estimated values of global solar radiation using Eppley pyranometer and Hargreaves Samani-model at Nsukka under varying climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikpa, P.O.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    This study uses the Hargreaves and Samani (HS) modified model in estimating daily global solar radiation at Nsukka. The model equation was based on daily air temperature range and extraterrestrial solar radiation. The estimated results obtained for six months, staring from 25th August, 2003 to 20th February, 2004 were compared to measured values obtained with standard Eppley pyranometer. The measurements were taken manually within the same period. The comparison indicates that in the dry season months under consideration (December, 2003; January, 2004 and February, 2004) the model clearly gave higher insolation values of the daily global solar radiation. In the wet season months considered (i.e., part of August, 2003 through November, 2003) the model showed neither a clear pattern of higher nor a lower insolation. Further correlation analysis produced neither bias for the wet season nor dry season months. This indicates that on a monthly basis, the monthly average for estimated and measured values correlated well. (author)

  16. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resistance when operated with a primary supply voltage of 13.6 volts DC. (d) When an individual demonstration... paragraph must be met as follows: (1) Measurements of primary supply voltage and transmitter output power must be made with the equipment drawing energy only from ship's battery; (2) The primary supply voltage...

  17. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  18. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriately labeled pilot lamp or meter which will provide continuous visual indication at the transmitter... indication when the transmitter is radiating, or, in lieu thereof, a pilot lamp or meter which will provide... responsible operating personnel 24 hours per day. ...

  19. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Safer; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer responses based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better understanding of the factors that have an impact on printing quality. In order to avoid the additional optical non-linearities produced by light reflection on paper, we have limited the present investigation to transparency prints. The proposed model succeeded to predict the transmittance spectra of printed wedges combining two color toner layers with a mean deviation less than CIE-LAB (Delta) E equals 2.5.

  20. Ultrafast photoconductor detector-laser-diode transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Davis, B.A.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment in which we used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When we irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped GaAs detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. We are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip

  1. Ultrafast photoconductive detector-laser-diode transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.; Davis, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the results of an experiment in which they used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When they irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped Ga/As detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response of was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. They are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip

  2. Agricultural applications of NIR reflectance and transmittance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the use of near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy technologies for rapid determination of quality parameters in agriculture, including applications within crop product quality, feed and food quality, manure quality, soil analyses etc....... As a result it was decided to arrange a seminar within the Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists. This is a report of the meeting....

  3. Summary of Time Period-Based and Other Approximation Methods for Determining the Capacity Value of Wind and Solar in the United States: September 2010 - February 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2012-03-01

    This paper updates previous work that describes time period-based and other approximation methods for estimating the capacity value of wind power and extends it to include solar power. The paper summarizes various methods presented in utility integrated resource plans, regional transmission organization methodologies, regional stakeholder initiatives, regulatory proceedings, and academic and industry studies. Time period-based approximation methods typically measure the contribution of a wind or solar plant at the time of system peak - sometimes over a period of months or the average of multiple years.

  4. Two-dimensional photonic crystal arrays for polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Han, Jiyoung; Do, Young Rag; Kim, Hwajeong; Yim, Sanggyu; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2011-11-18

    We report the application of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) array substrates for polymer:fullerene solar cells of which the active layer is made with blended films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The 2D PC array substrates were fabricated by employing a nanosphere lithography technique. Two different hole depths (200 and 300 nm) were introduced for the 2D PC arrays to examine the hole depth effect on the light harvesting (trapping). The optical effect by the 2D PC arrays was investigated by the measurement of optical transmittance either in the direction normal to the substrate (direct transmittance) or in all directions (integrated transmittance). The results showed that the integrated transmittance was higher for the 2D PC array substrates than the conventional planar substrate at the wavelengths of ca. 400 nm, even though the direct transmittance of 2D PC array substrates was much lower over the entire visible light range. The short circuit current density (J(SC)) was higher for the device with the 2D PC array (200 nm hole depth) than the reference device. However, the device with the 2D PC array (300 nm hole depth) showed a slightly lower J(SC) value at a high light intensity in spite of its light harvesting effect proven at a lower light intensity.

  5. Improved light trapping in polymer solar cells by light diffusion ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiang; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Ching-Yi; Li, Husan-De; Zhan, Fu-Min; Huang, Yu-Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Light trapping is an important issue for solar cells to increase optical path length and optical absorption. In this work, a light trapping structure was realized for polymer solar cells by utilizing light diffusion ink which is conventionally used in display backlighting. The light scattering particles in the ink cause the deflection of light, and the number of these particles coated on a glass substrate determines the light transmission and scattering characteristics. It was observed that the short-circuit current density did not decrease with decreasing transmittance, but it increased to a highest value at an optimized transmittance. This behaviour is attributed to the trapping of scattered light in the photoactive layer. (paper)

  6. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-01-01

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and amp;E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  7. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  8. Evaluation of Photopolymerization Kinetics by Means of Transmittance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Armellin, E.; Cerroni, L.

    2018-04-01

    Polymeric resins are widely used for dental reconstruction, and most resins use camphorquinone as activator of the polymerization reaction, through the absorption of light at a defined wavelength range (from 400 nm to 460 nm). During the photopolymerization curing, transparency of these resins changes and transmittance variation can be detected by photodiode and bolometer measurements. This change can be used as an index of the reaction rate, and the kinetic parameter k (reaction rate) can be evaluated from transmittance data by means of nonlinear regression. The relation between k and the light intensity impinging on the resin sample can thus be obtained. In the present work, tests were carried out using the resin Enamel Plus HFO GE2. Results reveal the presence of two different polymerization reactions at two different intensity ranges. The obtained k values were used to predict the most suited curing times for different light intensities. The proposed methodology can be applied to different dental reconstruction materials, provided that the material is partially transparent and that its transparency changes during the polymerization reaction.

  9. Evaluating in situ thermal transmittance of green buildings masonries—A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Asdrubali

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a measurement campaign of in situ thermal transmittance, performed in some buildings in the Umbria Region (Italy, designed implementing bio-architecture solutions. The analyzed walls were previously monitored with thermographic surveys in order to assess the correct application of the sensors. Results of the investigation show that in situ thermal transmittance measurements and theoretical calculated U-value are not in perfect agreement. The mismatch becomes important for monolithic structures such as walls made of thermal blocks without insulating layers.

  10. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  11. Dynamic reliability of digital-based transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, Florent, E-mail: florent.brissaud.2007@utt.f [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France) and Universite de Technologie de Troyes - UTT, Institut Charles Delaunay - ICD and UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Smidts, Carol [Ohio State University (OSU), Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Scott Laboratory, 201 W 19th Ave, Columbus OH 43210 (United States); Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    Dynamic reliability explicitly handles the interactions between the stochastic behaviour of system components and the deterministic behaviour of process variables. While dynamic reliability provides a more efficient and realistic way to perform probabilistic risk assessment than 'static' approaches, its industrial level applications are still limited. Factors contributing to this situation are the inherent complexity of the theory and the lack of a generic platform. More recently the increased use of digital-based systems has also introduced additional modelling challenges related to specific interactions between system components. Typical examples are the 'intelligent transmitters' which are able to exchange information, and to perform internal data processing and advanced functionalities. To make a contribution to solving these challenges, the mathematical framework of dynamic reliability is extended to handle the data and information which are processed and exchanged between systems components. Stochastic deviations that may affect system properties are also introduced to enhance the modelling of failures. A formalized Petri net approach is then presented to perform the corresponding reliability analyses using numerical methods. Following this formalism, a versatile model for the dynamic reliability modelling of digital-based transmitters is proposed. Finally the framework's flexibility and effectiveness is demonstrated on a substantial case study involving a simplified model of a nuclear fast reactor.

  12. Analytical solution for haze values of aluminium-induced texture (AIT) glass superstrates for a-Si:H solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Forberich, Karen; Venkataraj, Selvaraj; Aberle, Armin G; Peters, Marius

    2014-01-13

    Light scattering at randomly textured interfaces is essential to improve the absorption of thin-film silicon solar cells. Aluminium-induced texture (AIT) glass provides suitable scattering for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The scattering properties of textured surfaces are usually characterised by two properties: the angularly resolved intensity distribution and the haze. However, we find that the commonly used haze equations cannot accurately describe the experimentally observed spectral dependence of the haze of AIT glass. This is particularly the case for surface morphologies with a large rms roughness and small lateral feature sizes. In this paper we present an improved method for haze calculation, based on the power spectral density (PSD) function of the randomly textured surface. To better reproduce the measured haze characteristics, we suggest two improvements: i) inclusion of the average lateral feature size of the textured surface into the haze calculation, and ii) considering the opening angle of the haze measurement. We show that with these two improvements an accurate prediction of the haze of AIT glass is possible. Furthermore, we use the new equation to define optimum morphology parameters for AIT glass to be used for a-Si:H solar cell applications. The autocorrelation length is identified as the critical parameter. For the investigated a-Si:H solar cells, the optimum autocorrelation length is shown to be 320 nm.

  13. Effects of pulsed sputtering frequency on the uniformity of Al:ZnO's transparent conductive oxide properties for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonkyun; Joo, Junghoon

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering is used to deposit Al doped ZnO (AZO) on a glass substrate for a transparent conducting oxide in a solar cell structure. A 5x25 in. 2 AZO target was sputtered by 50-250 kHz bipolar pulsed dc power supply to deposit a 400x400 mm 2 area by swinging back and forth. Sheet resistance, surface morphology, and optical transmittance were measured at different positions on 16 witness samples (small glass slides) to evaluate uniformity. In the thickness of 800 nm, the average value of sheet resistance was 30 Ω/□ and the average resistivity was 2.1x10 -3 Ω cm. Transmittance was 50%-80% over the visible range. The nonuniformities of thickness, transmittance, and resistivity in the 400x400 mm 2 area were 5.8%, 0.8%, and within 9.5%, respectively.

  14. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  16. MOVING UP ON SOLAR INDUSTRY VALUE CHAIN: A RESPOND TO WORLD BANK’S PRESCRIPTION FOR MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bakhtyar; Ch. Lim; Y. Ibrahim; R. Islam; K. Sopian

    2014-01-01

    The pressure due to the changes in supplying energy and its price in the international community is in such an extent that it encourages industrialized and developing countries in seeking self-sufficiency in energy production. As one of the leading in countries South East Asia Nations (ASEAN), Malaysia has taken planning and specific investment for the Solar Industry into consideration, besides paying attention to a variety of new and renewable energies. Given the diversity of processes in wo...

  17. 29 CFR 1921.15 - Transmittal of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmittal of record. 1921.15 Section 1921.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Decision and Order § 1921.15 Transmittal of record. Immediately following the...

  18. Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse...

  19. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter...

  20. 22 CFR 181.7 - Transmittal to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmittal to the Congress. 181.7 Section 181... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.7 Transmittal to the Congress. (a) International agreements.... Background statements, while not expressly required by the act, have been requested by the Congress and have...

  1. Radiation hardening of CMOS-based circuitry in SMART transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loescher, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    Process control transmitters that incorporate digital signal processing could be used advantageously in nuclear power plants; however, because such transmitters are too sensitive to radiation, they are not used. The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored work at Sandia National Laboratories under EPRI contract RP2614-58 to determine why SMART transmitters fail when exposed to radiation and to design and demonstrate SMART transmitter circuits that could tolerate radiation. The term ''SMART'' denotes transmitters that contain digital logic. Tests showed that transmitter failure was caused by failure of the complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS)-integrated circuits which are used extensively in commercial transmitters. Radiation-hardened replacements were not available for the radiation-sensitive CMOS circuits. A conceptual design showed that a radiation-tolerant transmitter could be constructed. A prototype for an analog-to-digital converter subsection worked satisfactorily after a total dose of 30 megarads(Si). Encouraging results were obtained from preliminary bench-top tests on a dc-to-dc converter for the power supply subsection

  2. Near-UV Transmittance of Basalt Dust as an Analog of the Martian Regolith: Implications for Sensor Calibration and Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Frías

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Martian regolith is exposed to solar irradiation in the near-UV (200-390 nm.Basalt is one of the main components of the dust on Mars surface. The near-UV irradiationof basalt dust on Mars is simulated experimentally in order to determine the transmittance asa function of the mass and thickness of the dust. This data can serve to quantify theabsorption of dust deposited on sensors aiming to measure the UV intensity on Marssurface. The minimum thickness of the dust that corresponds to near-zero-transmittance inthe near-UV is measured. Hypothetical Martian microorganisms living on the dusty regolithat deeper layers would be preserved from the damaging solar UV irradiation.

  3. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Toward a Climate-Specific Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Hacke, Peter L.; Kempe, Michael D.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Ballion, Amal; Kohl, Michael; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; French, Roger H.; Burns, David; Phillips, Nancy H.; Feng; Jiangtao; Elliott, Lamont; Scott, Kurt P.; Fowler, Sean; Gu, Xiaohong; Honeker, Christian C.; Khonkar, Hussam; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Shioda, Tsy

    2015-06-14

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulation resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of installations in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xe, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests. Index Terms -- reliability, durability, thermal activation.

  4. Investigation on atmospheric transmittance based on spectral and total direct insolation data; Nissha data ni motozuku taiki tokaritsu no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H; Kanayama, K; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Spectral insolation values measured at Kitami since 1994 by using a multi-purpose spectral radiometer, and direct insolation data collected at seven locations are available. Based on these data, effects of sun`s altitude and atmospheric condition on atmospheric transmittance were discussed. Spectra of insolation received on the ground are subjected to scattering and absorption by gas and particulates, and show complex shapes while they transmit from the sun, reach the atmosphere of the earth and pass through the atmosphere. The Bird`s model is shown. Impact of the sun`s altitude on the spectra of insolation directly reaching the ground is small if the altitude is higher than 45 degrees. The impact grows suddenly large when it is lower than 30 degrees. Atmospheric turbidity (caused by aerosols generated by volcanic eruption or exhaust gases) affects the spectral transmittance over the whole wavelength region. Amount of steam in the atmosphere has a strong effect on the spectral transmittance in the steam absorption band. Total transmittance of the atmosphere was sought based on the measurement data of insolation directly reaching the ground at eight locations from Kitami to Shiono-misaki. The transmittance at each location is in a range from 0.75 to 0.83 showing close proximity. These data agreed well also with the average transmittance surveyed by the Meteorological Agency. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Simulation of solar radiative transfer in cumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    This work presents a 3-D model of radiative transfer which is used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of cumulus clouds and fluxes (albedo and transmittance) of visible solar radiation.

  6. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  7. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm 3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality.

  8. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  9. Radiometric Calibration of Osmi Imagery Using Solar Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Han Lee

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OSMI (Ocean Scanning Multi-Spectral Imager raw image data (Level 0 were acquired and radiometrically corrected. We have applied two methods, using solar & dark calibration data from OSMI sensor and comparing with the SeaWiFS data, to the radiometric correction of OSMI raw image data. First, we could get the values of the gain and the offset for each pixel and each band from comparing the solar & dark calibration data with the solar input radiance values, calculated from the transmittance, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and the solar incidence angle (¥â,¥è of OSMI sensor. Applying this calibration data to OSMI raw image data, we got the two odd results, the lower value of the radiometric corrected image data than the expected value, and the Venetian Blind Effect in the radiometric corrected image data. Second, we could get the reasonable results from comparing OSMI raw image data with the SeaWiFS data, and get a new problem of OSMI sensor.

  10. Development of a wireless nuclear signal transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soodsakorn, A

    1994-12-31

    This thesis aims at the development of a nuclear signal transmission system using radio frequency as carrier. The system is helpful for long distance data transmission especially convenient in high level radiation area. The transmitting system comprises of pulse height ADCs with serial output, digital data modulation, frequency modulation and a l watt C B 27.125 MHz transmitter. The sequential data transmission is controlled by micro controller. The receiving system comprises of detector, noise filter and data demodulator where the signals in form of nuclear spectrum will be displayed on a micro-computer through R S-232{sub C} serial data transmission. It is found that the developed system can transmit a nuclear pulse height in the range of 0-10 V with the pulse width varying from 0.5-10 us. The linear correlation of the pulse height ADCs conversion is 0.998. The system can transmit a nuclear pulse rate of 600 cpm with the serial data of 1200 baud rate without error. At a l watt transmitted power, the system can on air cover an area of l km radius for continuous operation

  11. A simple mixture to enhance muscle transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Clemente, Manuel Pais; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2008-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is a fibrous tissue composed by muscle fibers and interstitial fluid. Due to this constitution, the muscle presents a non uniform refractive index profile that origins strong light scattering. One way to improve tissue transmittance is to reduce this refractive index mismatch by immersing the muscle in an optical clearing agent. As a consequence of such immersion tissue also suffers dehydration. The study of the optical clearing effect created by a simple mixture composed by ethanol, glycerol and distilled water has proven its effectiveness according to the variations observed in the parameters under study. The effect was characterized in terms of its magnitude, time duration and histological variations. The applied treatment has created a small reduction of the global sample refractive index that is justified by the long time rehydration caused by water in the immersing solution. From the reduction in sample pH we could also identify the dehydration process created in the sample. The immersion treatment has originated fiber bundle contraction and a spread distribution of the muscle fiber bundles inside. New studies with the mixture used, or with other combinations of its constituents might be interesting to perform with the objective to develop new clinical procedures.

  12. Discussion on informatization teaching of certain radar transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanhui; Lv, Guizhou; Meng, Yafeng

    2017-04-01

    With the development of informatization, the traditional teaching method of certain radar transmitter is more and more difficult to meet the need of cultivating new type of high-quality military talents. This paper first analyzes the problems traditional teaching method of certain radar transmitter, and then puts forward the strategy of informatization teaching, and finally elaborates the concrete steps and contents of informatization teaching. Using the multimedia maintenance training system, information simulation training system and network courses and other informatization means, effectively improves the master degree to radar transmitter by trainees, but also lays a good foundation for repair in the next step.

  13. Measurement of internal quality of watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiqing; Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Yu, Haiyan

    2006-10-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world. Soluble solids content (SSC) is major characteristic used for assessing watermelon internal quality. This study was about a method for nondestructive internal quality detection of watermelons by means of visible/Near Infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer when the watermelon was in motion (1.4m/s) and in static state. Spectra data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) method. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models and the PLS method can provide good results. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon both in motion and in static state, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon internal quality in a nondestructive way.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Spectral Transmittance of Some Welding Glasses with ANSI Z87.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Welding emits harmful rays to the eyes. We evaluate and compare the UV, blue light and IR transmittance characteristics of some currently available welding safety protectors with ANSI Z87.1 criteria.Materials and Methods: Three type of welding safety protectors (three of each type have been evaluated for spectral transmittance. One-sample T-test was performed to establish is there a statistically significant difference between the standard criteria and UV, blue and IR regions for the welding protectors (α=0.05.Results: In ultraviolet (UV (far and near region, two types of the tested protectors (P1, P2 transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001. In infrared (IR spectrum only one type (P3 transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001. In blue light region, all of the tested protectors transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001.Conclusion: Although all of the tested glasses could meet some parts of the criteria, but none of them could meet the complete spectral transmittance requirements of ANSI Z87.1.

  15. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  16. analysis of an analysis of an intelligent temperature transmitter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    temperature sensors and analyze a typical Rosemount Intelligent Temperature Transmitter (RITT) with a view to identifying and ... material science and communication technologies [2]. ... Some benefits of the 4-20mA transmission standard.

  17. PLZT light transmittance memory driven with an asymmetric voltage pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    PLZT is a ferroelectric electro-optic material, which has been operated with a constant voltage supply to keep a certain optical property. In this study, we propose an optical transmittance memory effect by controlling the domain conditions. The keypoint is to use an asymmetric voltage pulse. In the positive direction, a sufficiently-large voltage is applied to align the polarization directions. After this operation, a relatively small light transmittance is memorized even after removing the electric field. On the other hand, in the negative direction, the amplitude of the voltage is adjusted to the coercive electric field. In this condition, the domain structure is almost the same as the depolarization state. With this voltage supply, the maximum light transmittance can be kept after removing the electric field. Using these voltage operations, the PLZT can obtain two light transmittance states depending on the domain structure. This memory effect should be useful for innovative optical scanners or shutters in the future.

  18. Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continue development of a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM). Modules will be voltage controlled to adjust wavlength using temperature and drive current settings. The...

  19. Low-Power-Consumption Integrated PPM Laser Transmitter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional PPM laser transmitters, a CW laser followed by a modulator, are inherently inefficient since the data must be carved from the laser's steady output. 95%...

  20. Low-Power-Consumption Integrated PPM Laser Transmitter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional PPM laser transmitters, a CW laser followed by a modulator, are inherently inefficient since the data must be carved from the laser's steady output. 95%...

  1. 47 CFR 80.873 - VHF radiotelephone transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The transmitter must deliver a carrier power between 8 and 25 watts into a 50 ohm effective resistance... 50 ohms effective resistance over the frequency band specified in § 80.871(d). An individual...

  2. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian corrosive, high pressure, 460oC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a...

  3. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian high pressure, 465?aC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally...

  4. Photonic integrated transmitter and receiver for NG-PON2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana; Lopes, Ana; Rodrigues, Cláudio; Mãocheia, Paulo; Mendes, Tiago; Brandão, Simão.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Ferreira, Ricardo; Teixeira, António

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the authors present a monolithic Photonic Integrated Circuit which includes a transmitter and a receiver for NG-PON2. With this layout it is possible to build an OLT and, by redesigning some filters, also an ONU. This technology allows reducing the losses in the transmitter and in the receiver, increasing power budget, and also reducing the OEO conversions, which has been a major problem that operators want to surpass.

  5. Optimal Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Hybrid Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ozel, Omur; Shahzad, Khurram; Ulukus, Sennur

    2013-01-01

    We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a hybrid energy storage unit composed of a perfectly efficient super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite space for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter can choose to store the harvested energy in the SC or in the battery. The energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we consider the offline throughput maximization problem ...

  6. Optimal Analytical Solution for a Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer System with One Transmitter and Two Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer from one transmitter to multiple receivers through inductive coupling is slowly entering the market. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer (CWPT using electric coupling might be preferable. In this work, we determine closed-form expressions for a CWPT system with one transmitter and two receivers. We determine the optimal solution for two design requirements: (i maximum power transfer, and (ii maximum system efficiency. We derive the optimal loads and provide the analytical expressions for the efficiency and power. We show that the optimal load conductances for the maximum power configuration are always larger than for the maximum efficiency configuration. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that if the receivers are coupled, this can be compensated for by introducing susceptances that have the same value for both configurations. Finally, we numerically verify our results. We illustrate the similarities to the inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT solution and find that the same, but dual, expressions apply.

  7. Influence of opalescence and fluorescence properties on the light transmittance of resin composite as a function of wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Powers, John M

    2006-10-01

    To determine the influence of opalescence and fluorescence properties on the light transmittance of resin composites as a function of wavelength (410-750 nm). Spectral distribution of seven resin composites of A2 shade was measured according to the CIELAB color scale relative to the standard illuminant D65 in the reflectance and transmittance modes. Opalescence spectrum (OPS) was calculated as the subtraction spectrum (i.e., the spectrum measured in the transmittance mode subtracted at each wavelength from the spectrum measured in the reflectance mode). UV component of the illuminant was included and excluded to calculate the fluorescence spectrum (FLR and FLT in the reflectance and transmittance mode, respectively). Contrast ratio (CR) was calculated as the ratio of reflectance over a black background and over a white background. The total transmittance spectral distribution (TSD) value was used as the parameter to indicate masking ability of the resin composites over background color. Multiple regression analyses were performed among TSD and other optical parameters at the significance level of 0.05. In all the resin composites and wavelength range, correlation between CR and TSD was very high (r = -0.99). Correlations between each parameters varied by the wavelength range of fluorescence (410-500 nm) and no-fluorescence (510-750 nm). Correlation between OPS and TSD varied by the wavelength range (r = -0.86 to -0.94, Popalescence and fluorescence of resin composite varied by the wavelength.

  8. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  9. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  10. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  11. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal...

  12. High Power RF Transmitters for ICRF Applications on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuzhou; Yuan Shuai; Zhao Yanping; Zhang Xinjun; Chen Gen; Cheng Yan; Wang Lei; Ju Songqing; Deng Xu; Qin Chengming; Yang Lei; Kumazawa, R.

    2013-01-01

    An Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) system with a radio frequency (RF) power of 4 × 1.5 MW was developed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). High RF power transmitters were designed as a part of the research and development (R and D) for an ICRF system with long pulse operation at megawatt levels in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz. Studies presented in this paper cover the following parts of the high power transmitter: the three staged high power amplifier, which is composed of a 5 kW wideband solid state amplifier, a 100 kW tetrode drive stage amplifier and a 1.5 MW tetrode final stage amplifier, and the DC high voltage power supply (HVPS). Based on engineering design and static examinations, the RF transmitters were tested using a matched dummy load where an RF output power of 1.5 MW was achieved. The transmitters provide 6 MW RF power in primary phase and will reach a level up to 12 MW after a later upgrade. The transmitters performed successfully in stable operations in EAST and HT-7 devices. Up to 1.8 MW of RF power was injected into plasmas in EAST ICRF heating experiments during the 2010 autumn campaign and plasma performance was greatly improved.

  13. Microminiature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard I.; Emery, Mike S.; Falter, Kelly G.; Nowlin, C. H.; Rochelle, Jim M.; Clonts, Lloyd G.

    1997-02-01

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests are discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its small size of 2.2 multiplied by 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications are presented.

  14. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  15. Data transmission through power line of smart transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the method to use the phase shift keying (PSK) communication technique in smart transmitter is presented. In nuclear applications, smart transmitters for various parameters are expected to improve the accuracy of measurement and to reduce the load of calibration work. The capability of communication in field level is the most important merit of the smart transmitter. The most popular method is using of digital and analog techniques simultaneously - transmitting measurements from the field at 4-20mA while modulating the current to carry digital information in both directions over the same twisted pairs. Conventional smart transmitters use the frequency shift keying (FSK) method for digital communication. Generally, however, the FSK method has the speed limit at 1200 bps. Amount of information to transmit becomes increasing as the processing technique is improved. The PSK method is noticeable alternative for high speed digital communication, but it has non-zero DC component. In order to use the PSK method in the field transmission with smart transmitter, the method to remove the DC component is studied in this work

  16. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  17. Water based, solution-processable, transparent and flexible graphene oxide composite as electrodes in organic solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L F; Matos, C F; Gonçalves, L C; Roman, L S; Salvatierra, R V; Zarbin, A J G; Cava, C E

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose an easy method to achieve a conductive, transparent and flexible graphene oxide (GO)-based composite thin film from an aqueous dispersion. We investigated the blend ratio between GO and the conjugated polymer poly(3,4–ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by comparing the thin film optical transmittance, sheet resistance, morphology and mechanical stability. It was found that reasonable values of transmittance and resistivity coupled with its excellent flexibility – the conductivity remains almost the same even after 1000 bends cycles – make this composite very attracting for flexible optoelectronic applications. Thus, these films were used as transparent electrodes in a bilayer structured organic solar cell and the device architecture PET/GO:PEDOT/F8T2/C 60 /Al could reach a power conversion efficiency around 1.10%. This result presents a better performance compared with pristine PEDOT produced with similar parameters. (paper)

  18. Small-scale Scheimpflug lidar for aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qin, Laian; Hou, Zaihong; Jing, Xu; He, Feng; Tan, Fengfu; Zhang, Silong

    2018-03-19

    In this paper, a new prototypical Scheimpflug lidar capable of detecting the aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance at 1 km above the ground is described. The lidar system operates at 532 nm and can be used to detect aerosol extinction coefficients throughout an entire day. Then, the vertical atmospheric transmittance can be determined from the extinction coefficients with the equation of numerical integration in this area. CCD flat fielding of the image data is used to mitigate the effects of pixel sensitivity variation. An efficient method of two-dimensional wavelet transform according to a local threshold value has been proposed to reduce the Gaussian white noise in the lidar signal. Furthermore, a new iteration method of backscattering ratio based on genetic algorithm is presented to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance. Some simulations are performed to reduce the different levels of noise in the simulated signal in order to test the precision of the de-noising method and inversion algorithm. The simulation result shows that the root-mean-square errors of extinction coefficients are all less than 0.02 km -1 , and that the relative errors of the atmospheric transmittance between the model and inversion data are below 0.56% for all cases. The feasibility of the instrument and the inversion algorithm have also been verified by an optical experiment. The average relative errors of aerosol extinction coefficients between the Scheimpflug lidar and the conventional backscattering elastic lidar are 3.54% and 2.79% in the full overlap heights of two time points, respectively. This work opens up new possibilities of using a small-scale Scheimpflug lidar system for the remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols.

  19. Joint Transmitter-Receiver Optimization in the Downlink CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saquib

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the downlink code-division multiple access (CDMA system capacity, we propose to minimize the total transmitted power of the system subject to users′ signal-to-interference ratio (SIR requirements via designing optimum transmitter sequences and utilizing linear optimum receivers (minimum mean square error (MMSE receiver. In our work on joint transmitter-receiver design for the downlink CDMA systems with multiple antennas and multipath channels, we develop several optimization algorithms by considering various system constraints and prove their convergence. We empirically observed that under the optimization algorithm with no constraint on the system, the optimum receiver structure matches the received transmitter sequences. A simulation study is performed to see how the different practical system constraints penalize the system with respect to the optimum algorithm with no constraint on the system.

  20. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-02-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques: partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. Two experiments were designed for two varieties of watermelons [Qilin (QL), Zaochunhongyu (ZC)], which have different skin thickness range and shape dimensions. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models. The first derivative spectra showed the best results with high correlation coefficient of determination [r=0.918 (QL); r=0.954 (ZC)], low RMSEP [0.65 degrees Brix (QL); 0.58 degrees Brix (ZC)], low RMSEC [0.48 degrees Brix (QL); 0.34 degrees Brix (ZC)] and small difference between the RMSEP and the RMSEC by PLS method. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values for SSC. The models based on smoothing spectra (Savitzky-Golay filter smoothing method) did not enhance the performance of calibration models obviously. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon SSC in a

  1. 10 CFR 455.152 - Transmittal of record on review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Administrative Review § 455.152 Transmittal of record on review. On or before 15 days from receipt of a notice requesting administrative...

  2. Luminous transmittance and phase transition temperature of VO 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phase transition temperature (τc) of the films was obtained from both the transmittance and sheet resistance against temperature curves. A change in sheet resistance of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude was observed for both undoped and Ce-doped VO2 films. Comparison between undoped and doped VO2 films revealed ...

  3. Mark 4A DSN receiver-exciter and transmitter subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The present configuration of the Mark 4A DSN Receiver-Exciter and Transmitter Subsystems is described. Functional requirements and key characteristics are given to show the differences in the capabilities required by the Networks Consolidation task for combined High Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network tracking support.

  4. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... those that operate together as a system (e.g., trunked systems, simulcast systems), rather than independently. (b) Split of large systems. The FCC may split wide-area systems into two or more stations for... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station...

  5. Snake mortality associated with late season radio-transmitter implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Robert T. Zappalorth

    1998-01-01

    Radio-telemetry is an increasingly used procedure to obtain data on the biology of free-living snakes (Reinert 1992, 1994). In Texas and Louisiana we have been using the surgical technique of Weatherhead and Anderka (1984) to implant transmitters in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus...

  6. Transmittivity and wavefunctions in one-dimensional generalized Aubry models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, C.; Mookerjee, A.; Sen, A.K.; Thakur, P.K.

    1990-07-01

    We use the vector recursion method of Haydock to obtain the transmittance of a class of generalized Aubry models in one-dimension. We also study the phase change of the wavefunctions as they travel through the chain and also the behaviour of the conductance with changes in size. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs

  7. Spectral transmittance of the spectacle scale of snakes and geckos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van K.; Sivak, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral transmittance of the optical media of the eye plays a substantial role in tuning the spectrum of light available for capture by the retina. Certain squamate reptiles, including snakes and most geckos, shield their eyes beneath a layer of transparent, cornified skin called the

  8. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.685 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... located at the most central point at the highest elevation available. To provide the best degree of... operating on Channels 14-69 with transmitters delivering a peak visual power output of more than 1 kW may...

  9. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    ) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical...

  10. Ozone transmittance in a model atmosphere at Ikeja, Lagos state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of ozone transmittance with height in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6m absorption band was studied using Goody's model atmosphere, with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-22 km) for the month of ...

  11. Towards suppression of all harmonics in a polyphase multipath transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subhan, S.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a direct conversion transmitter architecture intended for cognitive radio applications. The architecture is based on the poly-phase multipath technique, which has been shown to cancel out many of the harmonics, sidebands and nonlinearity contributions of a power up-converter using

  12. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Using Pulsed Laser Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William; Fahey, Molly; Yu, Anthony; Stephen, Mark; Mao, Jianping; hide

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing a laser-based technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. We report on our development effort for the methane lidar, especially on our laser transmitters and recent airborne demonstration. Our lidar transmitter is based on an optical parametric process to generate near infrared laser radiation at 1651 nanometers, coincident with a CH4 absorption. In an airborne flight campaign in the fall of 2015, we tested two kinds of laser transmitters --- an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output wavelength of the lasers was rapidly tuned over the CH4 absorption by tuning the seed laser to sample the CH4 absorption line at several wavelengths. This approach uses the same Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique we have used for our CO2 lidar for ASCENDS. The two laser transmitters were successfully operated in the NASAs DC-8 aircraft, measuring methane from 3 to 13 kilometers with high precision.

  13. 47 CFR 95.607 - CB transmitter modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC (Federal Communications Commission): (a) The addition of any accessory or device not specified in the application for certification and authorized by the FCC in granting the certification; (b) The... cycle at the highest crest of the modulation envelope), as measured at the transmitter output antenna...

  14. 17 CFR 30.12 - Direct foreign order transmittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct foreign order... FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.12 Direct foreign order transmittal. (a) Authorized... investment decisions with respect to foreign futures and foreign option transactions are made by a commodity...

  15. 47 CFR 80.203 - Authorization of transmitters for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... application a working unit of the type for which certification is desired. Manufacturers of radar equipment... this chapter. Transmitters of a model authorized before October 1, 1986 will be considered type...) Except for radar equipment, applicants for certification of radio equipment designed to satisfy Part II...

  16. BioCO2 - a multidisciplinary, biological approach using solar energy to capture CO2 while producing H2 and high value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjånes, Kari; Lindblad, Peter; Muller, Jiri

    2007-10-01

    Many areas of algae technology have developed over the last decades, and there is an established market for products derived from algae, dominated by health food and aquaculture. In addition, the interest for active biomolecules from algae is increasing rapidly. The need for CO(2) management, in particular capture and storage is currently an important technological, economical and global political issue and will continue to be so until alternative energy sources and energy carriers diminish the need for fossil fuels. This review summarizes in an integrated manner different technologies for use of algae, demonstrating the possibility of combining different areas of algae technology to capture CO(2) and using the obtained algal biomass for various industrial applications thus bringing added value to the capturing and storage processes. Furthermore, we emphasize the use of algae in a novel biological process which produces H(2) directly from solar energy in contrast to the conventional CO(2) neutral biological methods. This biological process is a part of the proposed integrated CO(2) management scheme.

  17. The value of electric energy storage in electricity systems with high shares of wind and solar PV: the case of France in the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of ambitious targets for variable renewable energies (VRE) such as wind and solar has important effects on the technical and economic operation of power systems. Increasing shares of VRE will in particular require the deployment of more flexible and responsive technologies. Key flexibility providers in the scope are demand side management (DSM) and different forms of electric energy storage (EES) such as pumped hydroelectric (PHS), Li-ion batteries (Li-ion), and compressed air (CAES), among others. It have been previously showed how the value and the deployment of such new flexibility providers depended on the shares of VRE shares introduced into the system (Brijs et al., 2016; Van Stiphout et al., 2015; Villavicencio, 2017). Building on this works, this paper explores the value of storage in the context of a realistic Brownfield model calibrated on the existing French electricity system. In particular, this paper compares the value of storage (a) in a system corresponding to the target of 27% VRE production formulated by the French government in its 2015 Energy Transition Act by 2020 and (b) in a system corresponding to the target of 40% VRE production formulated in the same Act by 2030. The latter case will necessarily reflect the additional target which by 2025 limits the share of nuclear power to 50% of electricity production. In 2020, 4.7 GW of DSM are sufficient to provide the required flexibility and no EES investments will be needed. By 2030, however, in addition to a comparable level of DSM, 3.2 GW of additional EES investments are required. These storage solutions will generate an economic value of euro 350 million per year and will increases overall welfare by euro 670 million per year by 2030. The modeling yields a number of additional policy relevant results. First, limiting nuclear production will open opportunities for alternative base and mid-load providers, mainly gas, implying a threefold increase of CO_2 emissions compared to 2020

  18. Electric-field induced surface instabilities of soft dielectrics and their effects on optical transmittance and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shian, Samuel; Kjeer, Peter; Clarke, David R.

    2018-03-01

    When a voltage is applied to a percolative, mechanically compliant mat of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a smooth elastomer bilayer attached to an ITO coated glass substrate, the in-line optical transmittance decreases with increasing voltage. Two regimes of behavior have been identified based on optical scattering, bright field optical microscopy, and confocal optical microscopy. In the low field regime, the electric field produces a spatially inhomogeneous surface deformation of the elastomer that causes local variations in optical refraction and modulates the light transmittance. The spatial variation is associated with the distribution of the CNTs over the surface. At higher fields, above a threshold voltage, an array of pits in the surface form by a nucleation and growth mechanism and these also scatter light. The formation of pits, and creases, in the thickness of the elastomer, is due to a previously identified electro-mechanical surface instability. When the applied voltage is decreased from its maximum, the transmittance returns to its original value although there is a transmittance hysteresis and a complicated time response. When the applied voltage exceeds the threshold voltage, there can be remnant optical contrast associated with creasing of the elastomer and the recovery time appears to be dependent on local jamming of CNTs in areas where the pits formed. A potential application of this work as an electrically tunable privacy window or camouflaging devices is demonstrated.

  19. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  20. Transparent Electrode Based on Silver Nanowires and Polyimide for Film Heater and Flexible Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Duan, Feng; Liu, Junyan; Lan, Qiuming; Wu, Jianhao; Yang, Chengyan; Yang, Weijia; Zeng, Qingguang; Wang, Huafang

    2017-11-29

    Transparent, conductive, and flexible Ag nanowire (NW)-polyimide (PI) composite films were fabricated by a facile solution method. Well-dispersed Ag NWs result in percolation networks on the PI supporting layer. A series of films with transmittance values of 53-80% and sheet resistances of 2.8-16.5 Ω/sq were investigated. To further verify the practicability of the Ag NWs-PI film in optoelectronic devices, we utilized it in a film heater and a flexible solar cell. The film heater was able to generate a temperature of 58 °C at a driving voltage of 3.5 V within 20 s, indicating its potential application in heating devices that require low power consumption and fast response. The flexible solar cell based on the composite film with a transmittance value of 71% presented a power conversion efficiency of 3.53%. These successful applications proved that the fabricated Ag NWs-PI composite film is a good candidate for application in flexible optoelectronic devices.

  1. A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, C A [General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory.

  2. Remote control radioactive-waste removal system uses modulated laser transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P.; Rowland, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Laser remote control system consists of transmitter, auto tracker, and receiver. Transmitter and tracker, packaged together and bore sighted, constitute control station, receiver is slave station. Model has five command channels and optical link operating range of 110 m.

  3. Multiband RF circuits and techniques for wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wenhua; Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces systematic design methods for passive and active RF circuits and techniques, including state-of-the-art digital enhancement techniques. As the very first book dedicated to multiband RF circuits and techniques, this work provides an overview of the evolution of transmitter architecture and discusses current digital predistortion techniques. Readers will find a collection of novel research ideas and new architectures in concurrent multiband power dividers, power amplifiers and related digital enhancement techniques. This book will be of great interest to academic researchers, R&D engineers, wireless transmitter and protocol designers, as well as graduate students who wish to learn the core architectures, principles and methods of multiband RF circuits and techniques. .

  4. Scattering, absorption and transmittance of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María. M.; Salas, Marianne; Moldovan, Marionara; Dudea, Diana; Yebra, Ana; Ghinea, Razvan

    2017-08-01

    Optical properties of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites were studied. Spectral reflectance was measured and S and K coefficients as well as transmittance of samples were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. The spectral behavior of S, K and T experimental graphene exhibited different trends compared with the commercial nanocomposites and they were statistically different. Experimental nanocomposites show higher scattering and lower transmittance when compared with commercial nanocomposite, probably, due to the shape, type and size of the filler. K for short wavelength of the pre-polymerized experimental nancomposites was very low. According to our results, hidroxypatite with graphene oxide used in dental nanocomposites needs to be improved to reproduce esthetic properties of natural dental tissues and to have potentially clinical applications.

  5. Exciter For X-Band Transmitter And Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes developmental X-band exciter for X-band uplink subsystem of Deep Space Network. X-band transmitter-exciting signal expected to have fractional frequency stability of 5.2 X 10 to negative 15th power during 1,000-second integration period. Generates coherent test signals for S- and X-band Block III translator of Deep Space Network, Doppler-reference signal for associated Doppler-extractor system, first-local-oscillator signal for associated receiver, and reference signal for associated ranging subsystem. Tests of prototype exciter show controlling and monitoring and internal phase-correcting loops perform according to applicable design criteria. Measurements of stability of frequency and of single-sideband noise spectral density of transmitter-exciting signal made subsequently.

  6. Morphology and transmittance of porous alumina on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Peitao, E-mail: guopeitao@hotmail.com [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Xia Zhilin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan (China); Xue Yiyu [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Huang Caihua [China Three Gorges University, Yichang (China); Zhao Lixin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China)

    2011-02-01

    The porous optical film has higher threshold of laser-induced damage than densified films, for the study of mechanism of laser-induced damage of porous optical film with ordered pore structure. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with high transmittance on glass substrate has been prepared. Aluminum film was deposited on glass substrate by means of resistance and electron beam heat (EBH) evaporation. Porous alumina was prepared in oxalic acid solution under different anodizing conditions. At normal incidence, the optical transmittance spectrum over 300-1000 nm spectra region was obtained by spectrophotometer. SEM was introduced to analysis the morphology of the porous alumina film. The pore aperture increased with the increase of anodizing voltage, which resulted in a rapid decrease of the pore concentration and the optical thickness of porous alumina film. Damage morphology of porous alumina film is found to be typically defects initiated, and the defect is the pore presented on the film.

  7. Implementation and validation of a CubeSat laser transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents implementation and validation results for a CubeSat-scale laser transmitter. The master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design produces a 1550 nm, 200mW average power optical signal through the use of a directly modulated laser diode and a commercial fiber amplifier. The prototype design produces high-fidelity M-ary pulse position modulated (PPM) waveforms (M=8 to 128), targeting data rates > 10 Mbit/s while meeting a constraining 8W power allocation. We also present the implementation of an avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver with measured transmitter-to-receiver performance within 3 dB of theory. Via loopback, the compact receiver design can provide built-in self-test and calibration capabilities, and supports incremental on-orbit testing of the design.

  8. Designing Light Beam Transmittance Measuring Tool Using a Laser Pointer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuroso, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2016-08-01

    A simple instrument used for measuring light beam transmittance percentage made of window film has been developed. The instrument uses a laser pointer of 405 nm and 650 nm ±10% as a light source. Its accuracy approaches 80%. Transmittance data was found by comparing the light beam before and after passing the window film. The light intensity measuring unit was deleted by splitting the light source into two beams through a beam splitter. The light beam was changed into resistance by a NORP12 LDR sensor designed at a circuit of voltage divider rule of Khirchoff's laws. This conversion system will produce light beam intensity received by the sensor to become an equal voltage. This voltage will, then, be presented on the computer screen in the form of a real time graph via a 2.0 USB data transfer.

  9. Application of smart transmitter technology in nuclear engineering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    By making use of the microprocessor technology, instrumentation system becomes intelligent. In this study a programmable smart transmitter is designed and applied to the nuclear engineering measurements. In order to apply the smart transmitter technology to nuclear engineering measurements, the digital time delay compensation function and water level change detection function are developed and applied in this work. The time compensation function compensates effectively the time delay of the measured signal, but it is found that the characteristics of the compensation function should be considered through its application. It is also found that the water level change detection function reduces the detection time to about 7 seconds by the signal processing which has the time constant of over 250 seconds and which has the heavy noise. (Author)

  10. Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code LOWTRAN 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    1966) The refractive index of air, Metrologia 2:12, ൞ -1...sight. For an optical path traversing N layers in an upward or downward direction this process gives N [ 7 A+M A -SCAT --SUN I e,ps+op > AIV < La ... a...for cirrus normal transmittance, r, of the form = exp - (0. 14 LA ) (49) This expression closely duplicates the double exponential model of Davis 4 0 for

  11. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  12. Anomalous Faraday effect of a system with extraordinary optical transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Baryshev, Alexander V; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Granovsky, Alexander B; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2007-05-28

    It is shown theoretically that the Faraday rotation becomes anomalously large and exhibits extraordinary behavior near the frequencies of the extraordinary optical transmittance through optically thick perforated metal film with holes filled with a magneto-optically active material. This phenomenon is explained as result of strong confinement of the evanescent electromagnetic field within magnetic material, which occurs due to excitation of the coupled plasmon-polaritons on the opposite surfaces of the film.

  13. Test and evaluation of radioactively contaminated transducers and transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahm, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    People in the nuclear industries face some unique problems when handling, testing, or examining transducers and transmitters that have been radioactively contaminated. Although many people and organizations, including EG and G Idaho, have performed such work for many years, there are no set, structured approaches or procedures. This paper discusses a disciplined laboratory approach to contaminated transducer testing and evaluation, utilizing equipment and facilities developed specifically for this type of work

  14. FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

    This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

  15. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  16. Mechanisms of light transmittance changes in rat spinal cord slices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2002), s. S36 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /5./. Rome - Italy, 21.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111100004; CEZ:MSM 5011112 Keywords : light transmittance changes Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2002

  17. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  18. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haulena Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinnipeds, including many endangered and declining species, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into four rehabilitated California sea lions (Zalophus californianus and 15 wild juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus to determine the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. The life history transmitters record information throughout the life of the host and transmit data to orbiting satellites after extrusion following death of the host. Results Surgeries were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and single (n = 4 or dual (n = 15 transmitters were inserted into the ventrocaudal abdominal cavity via an 8.5 to 12 cm incision along the ventral midline between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis or preputial opening. Surgeries lasted 90 minutes (SD = 8 for the 19 sea lions. All animals recovered well and were released into the wild after extended monitoring periods from 27 to 69 days at two captive animal facilities. Minimum post-implant survival was determined via post-release tracking using externally attached satellite transmitters or via opportunistic re-sighting for mean durations of 73.7 days (SE = 9.0, Z. californianus and 223.6 days (SE = 71.5, E. jubatus. Conclusion The low morbidity and zero mortality encountered during captive observation and post-release tracking periods confirm the viability of this surgical technique for the implantation of long-term telemetry devices in otariids.

  19. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-11-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  20. 21 CFR 870.2910 - Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter... Devices § 870.2910 Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver is a device used to condition a physiological signal...

  1. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  2. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  3. Transmittance and scattering during wound healing after refractive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Santiago; Martinez-Garcia, C.; Blanco, J. T.; Torres, R. M.; Gonzalez, V. R.; Najera, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Merayo, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are frequent techniques performed to correct ametropia. Both methods have been compared in their way of healing but there is not comparison about transmittance and light scattering during this process. Scattering in corneal wound healing is due to three parameters: cellular size and density, and the size of scar. Increase in the scattering angular width implies a decrease the contrast sensitivity. During wound healing keratocytes activation is induced and these cells become into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Hens were operated using PRK and LASIK techniques. Animals used in this experiment were euthanized, and immediately their corneas were removed and placed carefully into a cornea camera support. All optical measurements have been done with a scatterometer constructed in our laboratory. Scattering measurements are correlated with the transmittance -- the smaller transmittance is the bigger scattering is. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data of the corneal transparency and scattering, in order to supply data that they allow generate a more complete model of the corneal transparency.

  4. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Aging characteristics of nuclear plant RTDs and pressure transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and pressure, level, and flow transmitters provide almost all the vital signals that are used for the control and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that the performance of these sensors remain acceptable as they age in the process under normal operating conditions. Four comprehensive research projects were conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the effects of normal aging on calibration stability and response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters of the types used for safety-related measurements in nuclear power plants. Each project was conducted over a three year period. The projects involved laboratory testing of representative RTDs and pressure transmitters aged in simulated reactor conditions. The main purpose of these projects was to establish the degradation rate of the sensors and use the information to determine if the current testing intervals practiced by the nuclear power industry are adequate for management of aging of the sensors. The results have indicated that the current nuclear industry practice of testing the response time and calibration of the sensors once every fuel cycle is adequate. (author)

  6. Transmitter-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in leech segmental ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, A J; Pentreath, V W

    1987-01-01

    1. The utilization and control of glycogen stores were studied in the isolated segmental ganglia of the horse leech, Haemopis sanguisuga. The glycogen in the ganglia was extracted and assayed fluorimetrically and its cellular localization and turnover studied by autoradiography in conjunction with [3H] glucose. 2. The glycogen levels were measured after incubation with different neurotransmitters for 60 min at 28 degrees C. The results for each experimental ganglion were compared to a paired control ganglion, and the results analysed by paired t-tests. 3. Several transmitter substances (5-HT, octopamine, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine) produced reductions in glycogen (glycogenolysis); other transmitters (glutamate, GABA) produced increases in glycogen (gluconeogenesis); others (adenosine, glycine) produced reductions or increases, depending on concentration. Acetylcholine had no effect on the glycogen levels. 4. Most of the glycogen in the ganglia is localized in the packet glial cells, which surround the neuron perikarya. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated that the effects of histamine and dopamine were principally on the glycogen in the glial cells. 5. Adenylate cyclase was demonstrated by electron microscope histochemistry to be localized on the plasma membranes of the glial cells, and to a lesser extent on the neuronal membranes. 6. It is concluded that the changes in glycogen in the glial cells may be party controlled by transmitters via adenylate cyclase. This may provide a sensitive mechanism for coupling neuronal activity with energy metabolism.

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Transmittance and Tunneling Current through a Trapezoidal Barrier under Spin Polarization Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, F. A.; Nabila, E.; Mardianti, H.; Ariani, T. I.; Khairurrijal

    2018-04-01

    The transmittance and tunneling current in heterostructures under spin polarization consideration were studied by employing a zinc-blended structure for the heterostructures. An electron tunnels through a potential barrier by applying a bias voltage to the barrier, which is called the trapezoidal potential barrier. In order to study the transmittance, an Airy wave function approach was employed to find the transmittance. The obtained transmittance was then utilized to compute the tunneling current by using a Gauss quadrature method. It was shown that the transmittances were asymmetric with the incident angle of the electron. It was also shown that the tunneling currents increased as the bias voltage increased.

  12. A study of integrated learning and the value of science in remote education: using the Internet to relay the total solar eclipse of 2001 June 11 in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Agata, H.; Maeda, K.; Okyudo, M..; Yamazaki, Y.

    A total solar eclipse was observed on 2001 June 21 in Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in Africa. For the purpose of promotion of science education using a solar eclipse as an educational project, the whole image and an enlarged image of the Sun, that showed the process of an eclipse and how things went in the observation area, were broadcast to the world through the Internet (Live Eclipse). Such images were distributed to four primary schools in Hiroshima and the Science and Technology Museum in Tokyo to give a remote lecture through computers. To find the effectiveness of the lecture, the learning effect on the participating children was examined two times before and after the remote lecture on the solar eclipse.

  13. Design principles and field performance of a solar spectral irradiance meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsiankou, V.; Hinzer, K.; Haysom, J.; Schriemer, H.; Emery, K.; Beal, R.

    2016-08-01

    A solar spectral irradiance meter (SSIM), designed for measuring the direct normal irradiance (DNI) in six wavelength bands, has been combined with models to determine key atmospheric transmittances and the resulting spectral irradiance distribution of DNI under all sky conditions. The design principles of the SSIM, implementation of a parameterized transmittance model, and field performance comparisons of modeled solar spectra with reference radiometer measurements are presented. Two SSIMs were tested and calibrated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) against four spectroradiometers and an absolute cavity radiometer. The SSIMs' DNI was on average within 1% of the DNI values reported by one of NREL's primary absolute cavity radiometers. An additional SSIM was installed at the SUNLAB Outdoor Test Facility in September 2014, with ongoing collection of environmental and spectral data. The SSIM's performance in Ottawa was compared against a commercial pyrheliometer and a spectroradiometer over an eight month study. The difference in integrated daily spectral irradiance between the SSIM and the ASD spectroradiometer was found to be less than 1%. The cumulative energy density collected by the SSIM over this duration agreed with that measured by an Eppley model NIP pyrheliometer to within 0.5%. No degradation was observed.

  14. Elaboración de instrumentos de medida de las actitudes y opiniones del profesorado universitario hacia la ética profesional docente y su papel como transmisor de valores. [Elaboration of measurement instruments for attitudes and opinions from university academic personnel towards teaching professional Ethics and its role as values transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela García-López

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available From the research study – a compared analysis of the university academic personnel’s attitudes and values towards professional ethics –, our objective was to discover whether the personnel members themselves consider that the professional ethical dimension in general, and the professional teaching ethics in particular, are essential to be a good teaching professional. In this article, we present the elaboration and validation process of the questionnaire that has been used, with which we hope to make some contribution towards clarifying aspects related with both professional teaching ethics and the ethics of professions within the university environment A partir de la investigación que hemos realizado sobre “Análisis comparado de las actitudes y valores del profesorado universitario ante la ética profesional”, con el objetivo de averiguar si el propio profesorado considera que la dimensión ética profesional en general, y la ética profesional docente, en particular, son esenciales para ser un buen profesional de la docencia, presentamos, en este artículo, el proceso de elaboración y validación del cuestionario que se ha utilizado, con el que esperamos hacer alguna aportación que nos permita aclarar aspectos relacionados con la ética profesional docente y con la ética de las profesiones en el ámbito universitario

  15. REMIT, Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, P.; Hagemeyer, D.; Hardwick, C.; Pippen, H.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC) -based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. 2 - Method of solution: REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in micro-curies. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in micro-curies. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REMIT is a single- user system that only runs on IBM compatible PC systems under DOS and supports only Hewlett

  16. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of raw milk for cow health monitoring: reflectance or transmittance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, B; Polshin, E; Lammertyn, J; Saeys, W

    2011-11-01

    The composition of produced milk has great value for the dairy farmer. It determines the economic value of the milk and provides valuable information about the metabolism of the corresponding cow. Therefore, online measurement of milk components during milking 2 or more times per day would provide knowledge about the current health and nutritional status of each cow individually. This information provides a solid basis for optimizing cow management. The potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy for predicting the fat, crude protein, lactose, and urea content of raw milk online during milking was, therefore, investigated in this study. Two measurement modes (reflectance and transmittance) and different wavelength ranges for Vis/NIR spectroscopy were evaluated and their ability to measure the milk composition online was compared. The Vis/NIR reflectance measurements allowed for very accurate monitoring of the fat and crude protein content in raw milk (R(2)>0.95), but resulted in poor lactose predictions (R(2)milk samples gave accurate fat and crude protein predictions (R(2)>0.90) and useful lactose predictions (R(2)=0.88). Neither Vis/NIR reflectance nor transmittance spectroscopy lead to an acceptable prediction of the milk urea content. Transmittance spectroscopy can thus be used to predict the 3 major milk components, but with lower accuracy for fat and crude protein than the reflectance mode. Moreover, the small sample thickness (1mm) required for NIR transmittance measurement considerably complicates its online use. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retention and effects of miniature transmitters in juvenile American eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Janak, Jill; Liss, Stephanie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Harnish, Ryan A.

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of a non-functional acoustic micro transmitter (tag) on survival, tag loss, and swimming ability of juvenile American eels (Anguilla rostrata). The transmitter was designed for implantation through a < 3 mm opening into the body cavity of anguilliform fishes without the need for sutures. American eels used for the swimming performance study were 113–175 mm (N = 120). There were two treatment groups (tagged and non-tagged), each treatment was split into six size groups of 10 mm for testing. Potential transmitter effects on swimming performance were examined by comparing critical swimming speeds (Ucrit an index of prolonged swimming performance) for tagged and non-tagged eels. There was no significant difference in Ucrit between tagged and non-tagged eels for all of the size groups tested. Median Ucrits for tagged eels ranged from 50.2 cm/s for the smallest group tested (113–119 mm) to 63.9 cm/s for fish 141–150 mm in length. Non-tagged group median Ucrits ranged from 47.2 cm/s for the smallest group to 66.9 cm/s for the 141–150 mm group. An additional 26 eels (115–208 mm) were tagged and held for 38 d (without undergoing swimming performance tests) to determine the effects on survival and tag loss. There was no mortality during the holding period and the majority of the tag loss occurred after 20 days post-tagging, which is the current projected life of the tag. Our results indicate that micro acoustic tags can be successfully implanted in juvenile American eels with no apparent impacts to swimming ability, and would be a viable option for examining eel movement patterns in river systems and near hydroelectric facilities.

  18. Method for transmittance measurements in sunglasses for a kiosk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Marcio M.; Figueiredo, M.; Konda, R. A.; Ventura, Liliane

    2013-03-01

    Light transmittance measurements through sunglasses lenses is one of the required tests of the Brazilian Standard NBR15111(2004). Its measurement establishes the category of the sample and determines the required ultraviolet, visible and infrared protection, as well as the attenuation coefficient for signal light recognition. However, these measurements are usually performed by spectrophotometers and educated users, who are acknowledged to manage the equipment, use the weighting functions (WF) and interpret the data. We propose an alternative method, which consists in having matching optics and electronics to obtain a close WF to be used in transmittance measurements, and create an accessible device, for public self-use, providing a simple way for measuring and educating the public about sunglasses protection. Measurements were made in 30 samples for UV test, performed for the 280 - 400nm range, where UVA and UVB light sources and two photodiode sensors with Erythema action response are assembled, and for traffic signal a visible light sensor was used with spectral human eye response and different LEDs. As for the visible test, the visible light sensor was used for different light sources: incandescent, fluorescent, and a set of LEDs, while the infrared test is performed by several LEDs that provide the 780 - 2000nm range, and an infrared sensor. For these tests, only the samples spectrum were used. The transmittances were within the deviation limit required by NBR15111. The results have led us to build a self service kiosk for public use providing the category, UV protection and IR protection of the sunglasses as well as the information regarding its use for driving.

  19. Behavioral modelling and predistortion of wideband wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Covers theoretical and practical aspects related to the behavioral modelling and predistortion of wireless transmitters and power amplifiers. It includes simulation software that enables the users to apply the theory presented in the book. In the first section, the reader is given the general background of nonlinear dynamic systems along with their behavioral modelling from all its aspects. In the second part, a comprehensive compilation of behavioral models formulations and structures is provided including memory polynomial based models, box oriented models such as Hammerstein-based and Wiene

  20. The Gigabit Optical Transmitters for the LHCb Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Lax, Ignazio; D’Antone, I; Marconi, U

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the boards developed for the optical data transmission of the calorimeter system of the LHCb experiment and test results. We developed two types of transmission boards: the single-channel and the multi-channel ones. Multi-channel boards can be equipped with a variable number of transmitters, depending on the need, with a maximum allowed of 12 channels. Each optical channel allows transmitting 32 bit data at 40.08 MHz. The boards have been designed and built using radiation hard devices produced at CERN. The optical links have been qualified using the eye diagram and the BERT at 1.6Gbps.

  1. Laser transmitter for Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John; Cimolino, Marc; Petros, Mulugeta

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) flight laser optical architecture has been space qualified by extensive testing at the system, subsystem and component level. The projected system output performance has been verified using an optically and electrically similar breadboard version of the laser. Parasitic lasing was closely examined and completely suppressed after design changes were implemented and tested. Oscillator and amplifier type heads were separately tested to 150 million shots. Critical subassemblies have undergone environmental testing to Shuttle qualification levels. A superior three color anti-reflection coating was developed and tested for use on 14 surfaces after the final amplifier.

  2. The Casimir effect for pistons with transmittal boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, Guglielmo

    2017-11-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of the Casimir effect for pistons subject to transmittal boundary conditions. In particular we consider, as piston configuration, a direct product manifold of the type I × N where I is a closed interval of the real line and N is a smooth compact Riemannian manifold. By utilizing the spectral zeta function regularization technique, we compute the Casimir energy of the system and the Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit results for the force are provided when the manifold N is a d-dimensional sphere.

  3. Influence of Finishing and Polishing Techniques and Abrasion on Transmittance and Roughness of Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pma; Ramos, T M; de Azevedo, C S; de Lima, E; de Souza, Shj; Turbino, M L; Cesar, P F; Matos, A B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of finishing and polishing systems and toothbrush abrasion on transmittance (T) and surface roughness (Ra) of three composite resins (Filtek Z350 XT, Tetric N-Ceram, and IPS Empress Direct). Eighteen resin disks (10 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) finished by polyester strips had initial surface smoothness recorded, representing phase 1 (P1). Specimens were divided into three groups (n=6) according to the finishing/polishing instrument used (OneGloss, TopGloss, and Sof-Lex) to compose phase 2 samples (P2). Then specimens were subjected to 514 cycles of toothbrush simulation using a toothpaste slurry, with a constant load applied to soft bristles, and were then washed (phase 3=P3). After each phase, the specimens were examined by an optical profiler and spectrophotometer to measure Ra and T. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey and Pearson tests. T values were statistically influenced by composite resin ( p=0.000) and phase of measurement ( p=0.000) factors, while the finishing/polishing system used ( p=0.741) did not affect T. On the other hand, Ra values were statistically affected by the factor finishing/polishing system ( p=0.000), but not by composite resin ( p=0.100) and phase of measurement ( p=0.451). Tetric N-Ceram and Empress Direct presented higher values of roughness when polished by OneGloss, while TopGloss and Sof-Lex showed a lower roughness. It can be concluded that composite resins transmitted more light after dental abrasion. Transmittance of composite resins was not modified by the distinct roughness created by finishing/polishing instruments.

  4. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  5. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  6. Estimating hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation for the compilation of solar radiation distribution maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for estimating hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation. The essence of the method is the estimation of two important factors related to solar radiation, atmospheric transmittance and a dimensionless parameter, using empirical and physical equations and data from general meteorological observation stations. An equation for atmospheric transmittance of direct solar radiation and a dimensionless parameter representing diffuse solar radiation are developed. The equation is based on multiple regression analysis and uses three parameters as explanatory variates: calculated hourly extraterrestrial solar radiation on a horizontal plane, observed hourly sunshine duration and hourly precipitation as observed at a local meteorological observatory. The dimensionless parameter for estimating a diffuse solar radiation is then determined by linear least squares using observed hourly solar radiation at a local meteorological observatory. The estimated root mean square error (RMSE) of hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation is about 0.0-0.2 MJ¥m(-2)¥h(-1) in each mean period. The RMSE of the ten-day and monthly means of these quantities is about 0.0-0.2 MJ¥m(-2)¥h(-1), based on comparisons with AMeDAS station data, located at a distance of 6 km

  7. Modified Polar Sigma-Delta Transmitter for Multiradio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maršálek Roman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio transmitters capable of transforming variable envelope signals into constant envelope signals can be associated with high-efficiency switched mode power amplifiers. One of the techniques providing this conversion is Polar Sigma-Delta ( architecture. This approach provides efficient solution for high-dynamic signals, and, moreover, it offers flexibility in a multiradio environment. The overall concept of the polar transmitter is presented here along with novel modifications and improvements. Namely, when recombining the envelope and the phase signals, it is suggested to replace the analog mixing by a digital mixing. The impact of a frequency synthesizer with a switched loop bandwidth and its imperfections on the overall polar architecture is investigated as well. The Mobile WiMAX standard has been chosen for validation due to very high requirements in terms of power dynamics and the variable channel bandwidth. Simulation results are presented in this paper, and advantages and drawbacks of this novel approach are pointed here as well.

  8. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  9. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  10. Modeling of solar transmission through multilayer glazing facade using shading blinds with arbitrary geometrical and surface optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    A system model that can accurately simulate the instantaneous solar transmittance through multilayer glazing façade (MGF) and shading device can provide a solid foundation for the thermal and daylighting performance calculation of MGF as well as indoor visual comfort evaluation. Traditional optical models for venetian blind and glazing façade meet with their limitations to analyze new prototype of shading blind like photovoltaic (PV) blind which has quite different surface optical properties compared with conventional venetian blind. The present study proposed a new system model for MGF using shading blind with arbitrary geometrical and optical features which is suitable for a wide range of applications. Three major calculation types for modeling of shading blinds cover all the possible situations in application. Guess Integer-Valued Function is adopted for delivering a general description on direct radiation transport. The direct-direct, direct-diffuse and diffuse-diffuse radiation transports are separately considered. A series of experiments were carried out to validate the model under various parameter settings and different weather conditions. Parametric study revealed some new findings in the evaluations of influence of ambient radiation situations, geometrical and optical features of blind space on both solar transmittance and solar absorption by blind layer. - Highlights: • Solar transport through glazing façades with PV blind with arbitrary geometry is simulated. • Ray-tracing and radiosity method are coupled in calculation. • Guess Integer-Valued Function is used in calculation of direct radiation transport. • Experiment and simulated data are compared for model validation. • Parametric study is conducted for evaluating the impact of different factors on the system.

  11. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szura Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  12. Effect of oxygen to argon flow ratio on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films for amorphous silicon thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yang-Shih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lien, Shui-Yang, E-mail: syl@mdu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yung-Chuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chao-Chun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chueh-Yang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, ChangHua 52345, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nautiyal, Asheesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wuu, Dong-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Shuo-Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chungli, 320 Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-01

    Transparent conductive oxide thin films in solar cell fabrication have attracted much attention due to their high conductivity and transmittance. In this paper, we have investigated the aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering on Asahi U-type SnO{sub 2} glass with different O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios in vacuum chamber. Furthermore, the micro-structural, electrical, and optical properties of AZO/SnO{sub 2} films were studied. The change in O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios is found to significantly affect the haze value, and slightly affect electrical resistivity and transmittance of the films. Afterward, the fabricated AZO thin films with different O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratios were used for building the solar cell devices. The current–voltage and external quantum efficiency characteristics were investigated for the solar cell devices. The optimized O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio of 3 for solar device shows the best efficiency of 10.41%, and a 20% increase in short-circuit current density compared to typical Asahi solar cells. - Highlights: ► A thin Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) film has been deposited on SnO{sub 2} substrates. ► The AZO film deposited at an O{sub 2}/Ar ratio of 3 shows low resistivity and high haze. ► The AZO film contains tiny grains that enhance light scattering. ► The amorphous silicon solar cell with the AZO layer shows a 20% increase in Jsc.

  13. Thermal Transmittance and the Embodied Energy of Timber Frame Lightweight Walls Insulated with Straw and Reed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljan, M.; Miljan, J.

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable energy use has become topical in the whole world. Energy gives us comfort we are used to. EU and national regulations determine energy efficiency of the buildings. This is one side of the problem - energy efficiency of houses during exploitation. But the other side is primary energy content of used materials and more rational use of resources during the whole life cycle of a building. The latter value constitutes about 8 - 20% from the whole energy content. Calculations of energy efficiency of materials lead us to energy efficiency of insulation materials and to comparison of natural and industrial materials taking into account their thermal conductivity as well as their primary energy content. Case study of the test house (built in 2012) insulated with straw bales gave the result that thermal transmittance of investigated straw bale walls was according to the minimum energy efficiency requirements set in Estonia U = 0.12 - 0.22 W/m2K (for walls).

  14. Gap energy studied by optical transmittance in lead iodide monocrystals grown by Bridgman's Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissid N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The bandgap energy as a function of temperature has been determined for lead iodide. The monocrystal was obtained in a vacuum sealed quartz ampoule inside a vertical furnace by Bridgman's method. The optical transmittance measurement enables to evaluate the values of Eg. By a fitting procedure of Eg as a function of temperature is possible to extract the parameters that govern its behavior. The variation of Eg with temperature was determined as: Eg(T = Eg(0 - aT2/(a + T, with: Eg(0 = (2.435 ± 0.008 eV, a = (8.7 ± 1.3 x 10-4 eV/K and a = (192 ± 90 K. The bandgap energy of lead iodide at room temperature was found to be 2.277 ± 0.007 eV.

  15. Solar reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, J

    1983-01-15

    The reflector in the form of part of a cylindrical surface delimited by two envelopes is installed on a platform which can move on an inclined curvilinear path. The angle of inclination of the path depends on the latitude of the locality. The reflected rays are focused on the tubular absorber. One of the axes of the platform is linked to a brake controlled by a sensor for intensity of solar radiation. The sensor is a pipe filled with liquid with high value of the temperature expansion coefficient, for example alcohol. The pipe is insulated from one side and is accessible to the solar rays from the opposite. One end of the pipe is equipped with a bending end or piston. In order to expand the fluid in the sensor, the pipe acts on the brake, and the reflector is installed in a position corresponding to the maximum radiation intensity.

  16. Optimal transmitter power of an intersatellite optical communication system with reciprocal Pareto fading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian

    2010-02-10

    This paper shows that optical signal transmission over intersatellite links with swaying transmitters can be described as an equivalent fading model. In this model, the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio is stochastic and follows the reciprocal Pareto distribution. With this model, we show that the transmitter power can be minimized, subject to a specified outage probability, by appropriately adjusting some system parameters, such as the transmitter gain.

  17. All polymer chip for amperometric studies of transmitter release from large groups of neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    We present an all polymer electrochemical chip for simple detection of transmitter release from large groups of cultured PC 12 cells. Conductive polymer PEDOT:tosylate microelectrodes were used together with constant potential amperometry to obtain easy-to-analyze oxidation signals from potassium......-induced release of transmitter molecules. The nature of the resulting current peaks is discussed, and the time for restoring transmitter reservoirs is studied. The relationship between released transmitters and potassium concentration was found to fit to a sigmoidal dose–response curve. Finally, we demonstrate...

  18. Effects of aging on calibration and response time of nuclear plant pressure transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the key results of an experimental research project conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to quantify the effects of normal aging on static and dynamic performance of nuclear grade pressure, level, and flow transmitters (hereafter referred to as pressure transmitters). The project involved laboratory testing of representative pressure transmitters manufactured by Barton, Foxboro, Rosemount, and Tobar (or Veritrak) companies. These manufacturers provide the four most commonly used pressure transmitters in the safety systems of US nuclear power plants. The transmitters were tested under normal aging conditions as opposed to accelerated aging, even though accelerated aging will be used in the last few months of the project to determine the weak links and failure modes of the transmitters. The project has been performed in two phases. The Phase 1 project which was a six month feasibility study has been completed and the results published in NUREG/CR-5383. The Phase 2 project is still underway with the final report due in the fall of 1991. The project has focused on the following areas: (1) effects of aging on calibration stability; (2) effects of aging on response time; (3) study of individual components of pressure transmitters that are sensitive to aging degradation; (4) sensing line blockages due to solidification of boron, formation of sludge, freezing, and other effects; (5) search of licensee event reports and component reliability databases for failures of safety-related pressure transmitters; and (6) oil loss syndrome in Rosemount pressure transmitters

  19. All-Nonvacuum-Processed CIGS Solar Cells Using Scalable Ag NWs/AZO-Based Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingqing; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2016-07-06

    With record cell efficiency of 21.7%, CIGS solar cells have demonstrated to be a very promising photovoltaic (PV) technology. However, their market penetration has been limited due to the inherent high cost of the cells. In this work, to lower the cost of CIGS solar cells, all nonvacuum-processed CIGS solar cells were designed and developed. CIGS absorber was prepared by the annealing of electrodeposited metallic layers in a chalcogen atmosphere. Nonvacuum-deposited Ag nanowires (NWs)/AZO transparent electrodes (TEs) with good transmittance (92.0% at 550 nm) and high conductivity (sheet resistance of 20 Ω/□) were used to replace the vacuum-sputtered window layer. Additional thermal treatment after device preparation was conducted at 220 °C for a few of minutes to improve both the value and the uniformity of the efficiency of CIGS pixel cell on 5 × 5 cm substrate. The best performance of the all-nonvacuum-fabricated CIGS solar cells showed an efficiency of 14.05% with Jsc of 34.82 mA/cm(2), Voc of 0.58 V, and FF of 69.60%, respectively, which is comparable with the efficiency of 14.45% of a reference cell using a sputtered window layer.

  20. Electromagnetic Cavity Effects from Transmitters Inside a Launch Vehicle Fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Dawn H.; Wahid, Parveen F.; Stanley, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the difficult analytical issue for launch vehicles and spacecraft that has applicability outside of the launch industry. Radiation from spacecraft or launch vehicle antennas located within enclosures in the launch vehicle generates an electromagnetic environment that is difficult to accurately predict. This paper discusses the test results of power levels produced by a transmitter within a representative scaled vehicle fairing model and provides preliminary modeling results at the low end of the frequency test range using a commercial tool. Initially, the walls of the fairing are aluminum and later, layered with materials to simulate acoustic blanketing structures that are typical in payload fairings. The effects of these blanketing materials on the power levels within the fairing are examined.

  1. Global solar irradiation in Italy during 1994 : monthly average daily values for 1614 sites estimated from Meteosat images; Radiazione solare globale al suolo in Italia nel 1994 : valori medi mensili per 1.614 localita` italiane stimate a partire dalle immagini fornite dal satellite Meteosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliani, E; Mancini, M; Petrarca, S; Spinelli, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-10-01

    The global solar radiation over Italy is estimated from Meteosat secondary images in the visible band. The stimation method relies on the fact that the cloud cover on a given area of the Earth`s surface statistically determines the amount of solar radiation falling on that area. Estimated values of the monthly average daily global radiation on a horizontal surface for the 1994 have been compared with values computed from data measured by the stations of the two Italian radiation networks: the Meteorological Service of the Italian Air Force and the National Agrometeorological Network (a total of 36 stations have been considered). The mean percentage difference between estimated and computed values over the year is 6 per cent. In the present report, the monthly maps of radiation over Italy and the estimated monthly average daily values for over 1600 sites (having more than 10,000 inhabitants) are given. In the yearly reports to be issued in the years to come, maps and mean values over the period starting with 1994 will be given as well.

  2. Measurement of thermal transmittance of opaque facade wall relationship with meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunović Biljana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of thermal transmittance or as otherwise called U-value [W/m2⋅K] of opaque facade wall of preschool institution built in 1977. The building has an incomplete technical documentation according to which considered wall was built of brick and masonry mortar. Thermal characteristics of the incorporated materials have not been specified. Considering that in the period of building construction JUS standards was used, a possible range of calculated U-vales was obtained (1,241-1,404 W/m2·K. Measurements were performed in accordance with ISO 9869 during three time periods with the resulting U-values (1,269±0,276 W/m2·K; 1,025±0,175 W/m2·K; 1,200±0,212 W/m2·K that do not differ from each other within experimental uncertainty. Furthermore, the correlation of the measured U-values and meteorological conditions that prevailed during the measurements was analyzed. In the second measurement period, the average values of the total cloud cover and low cloud cover were less, and the average duration of sunshine was longer than in the other two measurement periods.

  3. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  4. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  5. Phase separated thermotropic layers based on UV cured acrylate resins. Effect of material formulation on overheating protection properties and application in a solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Katharina [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Roseggerstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Wallner, Gernot M. [Institute of Materials Science and Testing of Plastics, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hausner, Robert [AEE - Institut fuer Nachhaltige Technologien (AEE-INTEC), Feldgasse 19, 8200 Gleisdorf (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This paper focuses on the effect of material composition on the overheating protection properties of thermotropic systems with fixed domains for solar thermal collectors. Numerous functional layers were prepared by a variation of base resin (polyester-, epoxy- or urethane-acrylate) and of thermotropic additives (non-polar and polar waxes) as well as by additive concentration (5 and 7 wt%). A detailed investigation of optical properties, switching temperature and switching process was performed applying UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Thermal transitions of both the thermotropic layers and the additives used were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The capability of the produced thermotropic layers to reduce stagnation temperatures in an all-polymeric flat plate collector was evaluated by theoretical modeling. The thermotropic layers showed a hemispheric solar transmittance between 76% and 87% in clear state. Above the switching threshold this transmittance changed by 1-16% to values between 62% and 85%. The layers exhibited switching temperatures between 33 and 80 C. The transition is fully completed within a temperature frame of 10-25 C. Resin types with higher glass transition temperatures were detected to benefit the reduction of the hemispheric solar transmittance above the switching threshold. This reduction was also found to increase with increasing molecular weight of the non-polar additive types. The comparison of the switching performance with the thermal transitions of the additives revealed a good correlation. Theoretical modeling showed that by the use of selected thermotropic layers in the glazing the maximum absorber temperatures can be limited to temperatures below 130 C. (author)

  6. solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first present the allowed areas obtained from global solar analysis and demonstrate the preference of the ... We demonstrate through a pro- jected analysis ... 10%) when the same input values of the parameters are used and also demonstrate.

  7. Solar neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of solar neutrino was performed by using the reaction /sup 37/cl+..nu..sub(e)..-->../sup 37/Ar+e/sup -/ by Davis et al. The argon gas produced through the above mentioned reaction in a tank containing 610 ton of C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/ was collected and measured. The rate of production of /sup 37/Ar was 0.13+-0.20/day, and the net production rate by the solar neutrino was 0.06+-0.20/day, being corrected for background. This value corresponds to 0.5+-1.0 SNU. Theoretical calculation with the model of spherically symmetric solar development gave an expected value of 5.6 SNU, which is in contradiction with the experimental value. Reason of this discrepancy was considered. The possibility of decay of neutrino to the other particles with weak interaction is very slight. Various models of the sun were investigated, but the results were still inconsistent with the experiment. The mixing of matters in the sun may cause the reduction of neutrino. If He gas comes to the center of the sun by mixing, the reaction, /sup 3/He+/sup 3/He, progresses excessively at the center, and it produces the expansion of the core of the sun. Then, the temperature drops and the neutrino is reduced. Various models which can explain the neutrino of less than ISNU have been presented. However, other theory says that the reduction of neutrino is not expected even if the mixing is considered. A problem concerning the mixing is whether the thermal instability which causes the mixing exists. (Kato, T.).

  8. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  9. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  10. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  11. Improvement of organic solar cells by flexible substrate and ITO surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yuang-Tung; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Wang, Chien-Kun; Lee, William; Lu, Chih-Chiang; Yau, Bao-Shun; Nain, Jhen-Liang; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Chang, Chiu-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, surface treatments on polyethylene terephthalate with polymeric hard coating (PET-HC) substrates are described. The effect of the contact angle on the treatment is first investigated. It has been observed that detergent is quite effective in removing organic contamination on the flexible PET-HC substrates. Next, using a DC-reactive magnetron sputter, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films of 90 nm are grown on a substrate treated by detergent. Then, various ITO surface treatments are made for improving the performance of the finally developed organic solar cells with structure Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PET. It is found that the parameters of the ITO including resistivity, carrier concentration, transmittance, surface morphology, and work function depended on the surface treatments and significantly influence the solar cell performance. With the optimal conditions for detergent treatment on flexible PET substrates, the ITO film with a resistivity of 5.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and average optical transmittance of 84.1% in the visible region are obtained. The optimal ITO surface treated by detergent for 5 min and then by UV ozone for 20 min exhibits the best WF value of 5.22 eV. This improves about 8.30% in the WF compared with that of the untreated ITO film. In the case of optimal treatment with the organic photovoltaic device, meanwhile, 36.6% enhancement in short circuit current density (J sc ) and 92.7% enhancement in conversion efficiency (η) over the untreated solar cell are obtained.

  12. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  13. Effect of package light transmittance on vitamin content of milk. Part 2: UHT whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2008-01-01

    This work is the second part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on UHT whole milk. The milk was stored at three different light intensities in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying light transmittance as

  14. Photonic integrated multiwavelength transmitters for fiber-to-the-home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawniczuk, K.; Smit, M.K.; Piramidowicz, P.; Szczepanski, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Wale, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measurement results of monolithically integrated photonic transmitters for application in the next generation Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks. 4- and 8-channel transmitters were integrated onto a single chip, using multiple lasers with distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)

  15. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money...

  16. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money...

  17. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  18. Dual-Band Modulation of Visible and Near-Infrared Light Transmittance in an All-Solution-Processed Hybrid Micro-Nano Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chen, Mei; Guo, Shumeng; Zhang, Lanying; Li, Fasheng; Yang, Huai

    2017-11-22

    Smart windows with controllable visible and near-infrared light transmittance can significantly improve the building's energy efficiency and inhabitant comfort. However, most of the current smart window technology cannot achieve the target of ideal solar control. Herein, we present a novel all-solution-processed hybrid micronano composite smart material that have four optical states to separately modulate the visible and NIR light transmittance through voltage and temperature, respectively. This dual-band optical modulation was achieved by constructing a phase-separated polymer framework, which contains the microsized liquid crystals domains with a negative dielectric constant and tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide (W-VO 2 ) nanocrystals (NCs). The film with 2.5 wt % W-VO 2 NCs exhibits transparency at normal condition, and the passage of visible light can be reversibly and actively regulated between 60.8% and 1.3% by external applied voltage. Also, the transmittance of NIR light can be reversibly and passively modulated between 59.4% and 41.2% by temperature. Besides, the film also features easy all-solution processability, fast electro-optical (E-O) response time, high mechanical strength, and long-term stability. The as-prepared film provides new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology, and the proposed strategy is conductive to engineering novel hybrid inorganic-organic functional matters.

  19. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  20. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  1. Solar irridiance variations and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mean value for the 1 AU total solar irradiance of 1368.2 W/m 2 and a downward trend of 0.05% per year were derived from measurements by the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission during 1980. Distinct temporary solar irradiance decreases associated with solar activity maxima were observed with a series of nine dips from April to October recurring at fairly regular intervals averaging 24 days. The decreases correlate inversely with sunspot area, 2800-MHz flux, and Zurich sunspot number. Dominant periods common to the irradiance and sunspot area power spectra link the irradiance decreases to sunspot flux deficit in solar active regions. Evidence of significant total irradiance modulation by facular flux excess is cited. A persistent radiative cycle of active regions consistent with the ACRIM irradiance results and the morphology of solar active regions was found. The pattern of regularly recurrent active region maxima between April and October suggests an asymmetry in solar activity generation during this period

  2. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  3. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, R.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the revised 10 CFR 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in R.G. 8.7, Rev. 1, ''Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data.'' REMIT is a personal computer (PC) based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of R. G. 8.7, Rev. 1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5, REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and alerts the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files

  4. Reflection effects in multimode fiber systems utilizing laser transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Harry E.

    1991-11-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at NASA-Kennedy for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Now, all of these channels use a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 or 1550 nm. Engineering tests in the past have given indications of the growth of systematic and random noise in the RF spectrum of a fiber network as the number of connector pairs is increased. This noise seems to occur when a laser transmitter is used instead of a LED. It has been suggested that the noise is caused by back reflections created at connector fiber interfaces. Experiments were performed to explore the effect of reflection on the transmitting laser under conditions of reflective feedback. This effort included computer integration of some of the instrumentation in the fiber optic lab using the Lab View software recently acquired by the lab group. The main goal was to interface the Anritsu Optical and RF spectrum analyzers to the MacIntosh II computer so that laser spectra and network RF spectra could be simultaneously and rapidly acquired in a form convenient for analysis. Both single and multimode fiber is installed at Kennedy. Since most are multimode, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  5. Comparison between moving and stationary transmitter systems in induction logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M.; Caleb Dhanasekaran, P.; Prabhakar Rao, K.

    1985-09-01

    In a general treatment of the theory of induction logging, an exact integral representation has been obtained for the mutual impedance between a vertical dipole transmitter and a coaxial dipole receiver in a three layered earth. Based on this representation, a computer model has been devised using the traditional Slingram system of induction logging and the comparatively new Turam system, ignoring borehole effects. The model results indicate that due to its much larger response, the Turam system is in general preferable to the Slingram in mineral and groundwater investigations where formation conductivity much less than 1 S/m is generally encountered. However, if the surrounding media are conductive (more than 0.1 S/m), the Turam system suffers from large amplitude attenuation and phase rotation of the primary field caused by the conductive surrounding, and is less useful than the Slingram system which does not so suffer, unless the target bed is shallow. Because it is a more complex function of system parameters than the corresponding Slingram log, a Turam log can be conveniently interpreted only by the modern inverse method using a fast algorithm for the forward solution and a high speed digital computer.

  6. Computational Investigations of THz Transmittance in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent scientific advancements in Terahertz (THz wave propagation and reception technology, there has been significant development in new possibilities for using THz waves – offering new possibilities in THz detection and ranging. A first foundational step toward this goal is to better understand THz transmittance in the turbulent atmosphere. In this project, a frequency modulation pattern of THz waves was created by utilizing a system of shifting frequency based on temperature, air humidity, and distance of transmission. The total path loss of the wave in air, based on the wave spread and molecular absorption, was then modeled using radiative transfer theory, onto a set of JavaHAWK filtered-HITRAN data representative of an air sample. This data was used to generate a path loss matrix, which was then used to optimize frequency of transmission for the specific conditions. The concept to be evaluated is whether adaptive frequency modulated THz might usefully decrease transmission losses by adjusting to atmospheric conditions (such as local variations in temperature and humidity.

  7. A 7T spine array based on electric dipole transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Nair, Govind; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Reich, Daniel S; Duyn, Jeff H; Merkle, Hellmut

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an array of electric dipole antennas for RF transmission in spine MRI at high fields. A two-channel transmit array based on an electric dipole design was quantitatively optimized for 7T spine imaging and integrated with a receive array combining eight loop coils. Using B1+ mapping, the transmit efficiency of the dipole array was compared with a design using quadrature loop pairs. The radiofrequency energy deposition for each array was measured using a home-built dielectric phantom and MR thermometry. The performance of the proposed array was qualitatively demonstrated in human studies. The results indicate dramatically improved transmit efficiency for the dipole design compared with the loop excitation. A gain of up to 76% was achieved within the spinal region. For imaging of the spine, electric dipole-based transmitters provide an attractive alternative to the traditional loop-based design. Easy integration with existing receive array technology facilitates practical use at high fields. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  9. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  10. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  11. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  12. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC certificated R/C transmitter (see R/C Rule 9) must be made in accord with the Technical... in order to: (1) Adjust a transmitter to an antenna; (2) Detect or measure radiation of energy other...

  13. Seasonality of light transmittance through Arctic sea ice during spring and summe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Hudson, S. R.; Granskog, M. A.; Pavlov, A.; Taskjelle, T.; Kauko, H.; Katlein, C.; Geland, S.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    The energy budget of sea ice and the upper ocean during spring, summer, and autumn is strongly affected by the transfer of solar shortwave radiation through sea ice and into the upper ocean. Previous studies highlighted the great importance of the spring-summer transition, when incoming fluxes are highest and even small changes in surface albedo and transmittance have strong impacts on the annual budgets. The timing of melt onset and changes in snow and ice conditions are also crucial for primary productivity and biogeochemical processes. Here we present results from time series measurements of radiation fluxes through seasonal Arctic sea ice, as it may be expected to play a key role in the future Arctic. Our observations were performed during the Norwegian N-ICE drift experiment in 2015 and the Polarstern expedition PS106 in 2017, both studying sea ice north of Svalbard. Autonomous stations were installed to monitor spectral radiation fluxes above and under sea ice. The observation periods cover the spring-summer transition, including snow melt and early melt pond formation. The results show the direct relation of optical properties to under ice algae blooms and their influence on the energy budget. Beyond these results, we will discuss the latest plans and implementation of radiation measurements during the MOSAiC drift in 2019/2020. Then, a full annual cycle of radiation fluxes may be studied from manned and autonomous (buoys) measurements as well as using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as measurement platform. These measurements will be performed in direct relation with numerical simulations on different scales.

  14. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  15. Variations in Solar Parameters and Cosmic Rays with Solar Magnetic Polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. [Department of Earth Science Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Y., E-mail: suyeonoh@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, Space Science and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The sunspot number varies with the 11-year Schwabe cycle, and the solar magnetic polarity reverses every 11 years approximately at the solar maximum. Because of polarity reversal, the difference between odd and even solar cycles is seen in solar activity. In this study, we create the mean solar cycle expressed by phase using the monthly sunspot number for all solar cycles 1–23. We also generate the mean solar cycle for sunspot area, solar radio flux, and cosmic ray flux within the allowance of observational range. The mean solar cycle has one large peak at solar maximum for odd solar cycles and two small peaks for most even solar cycles. The odd and even solar cycles have the statistical difference in value and shape at a confidence level of at least 98%. For solar cycles 19–23, the second peak in the even solar cycle is larger than the first peak. This result is consistent with the frequent solar events during the declining phase after the solar maximum. The difference between odd and even solar cycles can be explained by a combined model of polarity reversal and solar rotation. In the positive/negative polarity, the polar magnetic field introduces angular momentum in the same/opposite direction as/to the solar rotation. Thus the addition/subtraction of angular momentum can increase/decrease the motion of plasma to support the formation of sunspots. Since the polarity reverses at the solar maximum, the opposite phenomenon occurs in the declining phase.

  16. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  17. Accurate method for luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients measurements in sunglasses lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    The international standard ISO 12312-1 proposes transmittance tests that quantify how dark sunglasses lenses are and whether or not they are suitable for driving. To perform these tests a spectrometer is required. In this study, we present and analyze theoretically an accurate alternative method for performing these measurements using simple components. Using three LEDs and a four-channel sensor we generated weighting functions similar to the standard ones for luminous and traffic lights transmittances. From 89 sunglasses lens spectroscopy data, we calculated luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients using our obtained weighting functions and the standard ones. Mean-difference Tukey plots were used to compare the results. All tested sunglasses lenses were classified in the right category and correctly as suitable or not for driving. The greatest absolute errors for luminous transmittance and red, yellow, green and blue signal detection quotients were 0.15%, 0.17, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.18, respectively. This method will be used in a device capable to perform transmittance tests (visible, traffic lights and ultraviolet (UV)) according to the standard. It is important to measure rightly luminous transmittance and relative visual attenuation quotients to report correctly whether or not sunglasses are suitable for driving. Moreover, standard UV requirements depend on luminous transmittance.

  18. Preparation and cold welding of silver nanowire based transparent electrodes with optical transmittances >90% and sheet resistances ohm/sq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Xu, Wei; Mao, Bingxin; Shen, Wenfeng; Yu, Yan; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2018-02-15

    In this article, silver nanowires (AgNWs) with aspect ratios of 1000 and lengths up to 200 μm are obtained by a modified polyol approach. These very long AgNWs are then utilized to prepare transparent electrodes (TEs) displaying a transmittance of 91.3% at a sheet resistance of 8.6 ohm/sq without any post-treatment. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a process for the cold welding of Ag NWs by simply dipping the AgNWs films into CTAB solutions, resulting in a further improvement for the optoelectronic performance. After the post-treatment, the AgNW-based TEs can achieve a transmittance of 93% at a sheet resistance of 9.5 ohm/sq. In addition, the electric behaviors of AgNW-based TEs are investigated. In the bulk-like regime, for the as-prepared AgNW-based TEs, the Figure of merit (FOM), DC to optical conductivity ratio reaches up to 566.8. After the cold welding process, the DC to optical conductivity ratio can reach even higher values (631.6). In the percolative regime, the as-prepared and welded AgNW-based TEs can achieve Π (FOM with percolative-like behavior) values of 166.8 and 242.1, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    China's energy challenges and the government's strong commitment to provide alternatives. Through favourable tax policies, aggressive government procurement and national targets, China is building a world-class export industry in all parts of the solar value chain, as well as encouraging increased use of the sun's energy at home. It is now the third-largest national producer of solar PV for the global market and may soon become the leader. In short, it realises that green energy is the key to both sustainable economic growth and a more pleasant environment.Yet China can still do more, and I'm working closely with the Government to set even more aggressive standards to help drive the development of the country's renewable energy resources. The Government is developing a solar building code with Suntech's participation, and is considering a review of the solar targets in the national renewable energy law - the 1.8 gigawatt goal by 2020 is just a fraction of the country's true potential within that time frame

  20. Use of TCO as splitter in the optical splitting system for solar cells combination: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Mató, F.; Seuret-Jiménez, D.; Vigil-Galán, O.; Escobedo Alatorre, J. J.

    2017-10-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are evaluated as optical splitters in combined single thin film solar cells by using theoretical considerations. The optical properties of TCOs (transmittance and reflectance) are calculated using the Drude theory for free carriers. To improve the overall efficiency of the combined solar cells, the optical properties of the TCOs are studied as a function of the electron concentration and thickness, to obtain the best fit with the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the solar cells in each case. The optimum values of the above parameters are obtained by applying a modified version of the Hooke-Jeeves method. To validate the proposal of the use of a TCO as the splitter, the short circuit current is calculated for several combined solar cell systems and the results are compared with those obtained using more sophisticated and expensive splitters, reported in the literature. The experimental results using a commercial TCO are presented, to verify the validity and feasibility of the novel concept.

  1. Effect of incorporation of silver nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS layer on performance of organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Joginder; Nirwal, Varun Singh; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Peta, Koteswara Rao

    2018-05-01

    Solution processable organic solar cells have attracted significant interest in scientific community due to their easy processability, flexibility and eco friendly fabrication. In these organic solar cells structure, PEDOT:PSS layer has major importance as it used as hole transporting layer. In the present work, we have analyzed the effect of incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in PEDOT:PSS layer for P3HT:PCBM based organic solar cells. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS film is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. It has been observed that PEDOT:PSS layer with AgNPs has ˜5.4% more transmittance than PEDOT:PSS layer in most of the visible region, which helps in reaching more light on active layer. Finally, solar cell with structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS:AgNPs/Al is fabricated and J-V characteristics are plotted under illumination. It is observed that there is a significant (˜10%) enhancement in short circuit current and slight increment in open circuit voltage with addition of AgNPs in PEDOT:PSS layer. The calculated value of power conversion efficiency (PCE) of fabricated device without AgNPs in PEDOT:PSS was 1.67%, which increased to 2.02% after addition of AgNPs in PEDOT:PSS layer.

  2. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  3. Age-related changes in spectral transmittance of the human crystalline lens in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanishi, Yoshihito; Awano, Masakazu; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru; Murakami, Akira; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to measure spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens in situ. The crystalline lens was illuminated by one of four light-emitting diodes of different colors. The relative spectral transmittance of the human crystalline lens was measured with the Purkinje-Sanson mirror images over a wide range of ages. The study evaluated 36 crystalline lenses of 28 subjects aged 21-76 years. There was a significant correlation between the age and spectral transmittance for blue light. Spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens in situ could be measured with Purkinje-Sanson mirror images. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgó, J.; Comella, J. X.; Legrand, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a short delay, spontaneous fibrillations of the muscle fibres that could be suppressed with 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by formamide to uncouple excitation-contraction. 3. In preparations treated with formamide, CTX (1-2.5 nM) caused either spontaneous or repetitive muscle action potentials (up to frequencies of 60-100 Hz) in response to a single nerve stimulus. Recordings performed at extrajunctional regions of the muscle membrane revealed that during the repetitive firing a prolongation of the repolarizing phase of the action potential occurred. At junctional sites the repetitive action potentials were triggered by repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps). 4. CTX (2.5 nM) caused a TTX-sensitive depolarization of the muscle membrane. 5. In junctions equilibrated in solutions containing high Mg2+ + low Ca2+, addition of CTX (1.5 nM) first induced an average increase of 239 +/- 36% in the mean quantal content of e.p.ps. Subsequently CTX reduced and finally blocked nerve-evoked transmitter release irreversibly. 6. CTX (1.5-2.5 nM) increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in junctions bathed either in normal Ringer, low Ca2(+)-high Mg2+ medium or in a nominally Ca2(+)-free solution containing EGTA.2+ Extensive washing with toxin-free solutions did not reverse the effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1972891

  5. Review on Improving the Transmittance of Photovoltaic Glass%提高光伏玻璃透光率的研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿铁; 胡金中; 蔚川乐; 盛洁; 秦立祥

    2017-01-01

    能源短缺已经成为阻碍当今世界经济发展的重大问题,开发新型能源已经受到广泛的共识.太阳能作为一种无污染、可再生能源,它的利用受到越来越多的重视.太阳能光伏玻璃的透光率在太阳能利用方面起着重要的作用,所以如何提高光伏玻璃的透光率已成为光伏行业一项重大的研究课题.光伏玻璃作为光伏电池组件封装的重要组成部分,是直接应用在太阳能光伏发电组件上,具有传递和控制光线,或导出电流作用的玻璃产品.光伏玻璃的透光率是影响太阳能光伏电池转换效能的重要因素,然而它受到玻璃中金属含量,压延花型以及玻璃表面薄膜制备方法等很多因素的影响.本文介绍了影响光伏玻璃透光率的因素,并且详细地概述了提高光伏玻璃透光率的方法以及对这些方法所做的研究,为下一阶段的研究提供了方向.%Energy shortage has become a major obstacle to the development of the world economy, the development of new energy has been widely agreed.As a kind of non pollution and renewable energy, solar energy has attracted more and more attention.The transmittance of solar photovoltaic glass plays an important role in the use of solar energy, so how to improve the transmittance of photovoltaic cells has become a major research topic in the photovoltaic industry.As an important part of the photovoltaic cell package, photovoltaic glass is a kind of glass product which is directly applied to the solar photovoltaic power generation component, and has the function of transferring and controlling the light, or exporting the current.The transmittance of photovoltaic glass is an important factor which affects the conversion efficiency of solar photovoltaic cells.However, it is affected by many factors, such as the content of metal in the glass, the pattern of the rolled glass and the preparation method of the glass surface film.This article introduces the factors

  6. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    KAUST Repository

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints

  7. Performance Limits of Online Energy Harvesting Communications with Noisy Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) measured at the transmitter, in order to maximize

  8. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a common architecture for laser transmitters that address requirements for water vapor as well as ground and airborne ozone lidar systems. Our...

  9. Perturbations of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling by powerful VLF emissions from ground-based transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A. S.; Markov, G. A.; Ryabov, A. O.; Parrot, M.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of the plasma-wave disturbances stimulated in the near-Earth plasma by powerful VLF radiation from ground-based transmitters are investigated. Radio communication VLF transmitters of about 1 MW in power are shown to produce artificial plasma-wave channels (density ducts) in the near-Earth space that originate in the lower ionosphere above the disturbing emission source and extend through the entire ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth along the magnetic field lines. Measurements with the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite have revealed that under the action of emission from the NWC transmitter, which is one of the most powerful VLF radio transmitters, the generation of quasi-electrostatic (plasma) waves is observed on most of the satellite trajectory along the disturbed magnetic flux tube. This may probably be indicative of stimulated emission of a magnetospheric maser.

  10. Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration...

  11. Development of Ethernet Based Remote Monitoring and Controlling of MST Radar Transmitters using ARM Cortex Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana ROSHANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerging Web Services technology has provided a new and excellent solution to Industrial Automation in online control and remote monitoring. In this paper, a Web Service Based Remote Monitoring & Controlling of Radar Transmitters for safety management (WMCT developed for MST Radar is described. It achieved the MST radar transmitters’ remote supervisory, data logging and controlling activities. The system is developed using an ARM Cortex M3 processor to monitor and control the 32 triode-based transmitters of the 53-MHz Radar. The system controls transmitters via the internet using an Ethernet client server and store health status in the Database for radar performance analysis. The system enables scientists to operate and control the radar transmitters from a remote client machine Webpage.

  12. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Shah, Nor Shahihda Mohd

    2016-01-01

    and optical transmitter have taken plenty of time for transmitting signal. When proposed design is operated at 1 GHz, 5 GHz, 10 GHz and 20 GHz using time constraint technique, it is observed that among all these frequencies, at 10 GHz high performance output is achieved for designed optical transmitter....... This high performance design of optical transmitter has zero timing error, low timing score and high slack time due to synchronization between input data and clock frequency. It is also determined that 99% timing score is reduced in comparison with 1 GHz frequency that has high jitters, high timing error......, high time score and low slack time. The high performance design is realized without disturbing actual bandwidth, power consumption and other parameters of the design. The proposed high performance design of 100Gb/s optical transmitter can be used with existing optical communication system to develop...

  13. Optical and electrical properties of hydrided palladium thin films studied by an inversion approach from transmittance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, W.E.; Rojas, I.; Azofeifa, D.E.; Clark, N.

    2006-01-01

    Palladium (Pd) thin films have been deposited by electron beam evaporation, and exposed to increasing hydrogen pressures. Transmittance spectra in the range of visible light have been measured to obtain from them, by means of a spectral projected gradient method, the wavelength dependence of the dielectric function. The decreasing metallic character of Pd with hydrogen absorption is displayed. This effect is more pronounced when Pd is deposited on metallic substrates, and there is a correlation with an increase in the effective polarization of the core electrons determining the optical dielectric constant value. Another optimization approach is devised to separate the contribution of the free carriers and of the interband transitions to the optical conductivity and to the dielectric function. Very good agreement is found between the optimized parameters characterizing the free carrier contribution and the corresponding values reported in the literature and obtained by independent experimental methods

  14. Exposure of the general public to digital broadcast transmitters compared to analogue ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; Bornkessel, C.; Wuschek, M.; Schmidt, P.

    2007-01-01

    The terrestrial digital video and audio broadcast are supposed to replace the existing analogue broadcast systems. To determine possible changes of this switch-over on the public exposure situation to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, extensive measurements at more than 300 identical points were performed 'before' and accordingly 'after' the switch-over. At the point with the highest sum-exposure, only 0.3% of the ICNIRP reference levels for general public exposure (power flux density) was reached. The statistical analysis of both measurement campaigns ('before-after') shows an increase in mean exposure in the centre of the DVB-T starting areas around Nuremberg and Munich, which is mainly based on the increase in the radiated power at the transmitter stations. After developing a simple calculation program based on the ITU-RP.1546, the measured exposure values were compared to calculations. Optimising the results leads to mean deviations of ±3 dB at about 80% of all points. (authors)

  15. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitters and electro-explosive devices located within an enclosure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2010-04-01

    This report documents calculations conducted to determine if 42 low-power transmitters located within a metallic enclosure can initiate electro-explosive devices (EED) located within the same enclosure. This analysis was performed for a generic EED no-fire power level of 250 mW. The calculations show that if the transmitters are incoherent, the power available is 32 mW - approximately one-eighth of the assumed level even with several worst-case assumptions in place.

  16. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyz...

  18. Perancangan Prototipe Transmitter Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37.5 kHz Pingers

    OpenAIRE

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI; KANIA SAWITRI; RUDI GUNAWAN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK Pingers transmitter berfungsi untuk memancarkan sinyal atau getaran pulsa akustik pada black box. Frekuensi sinyal yang dipancarkan sebesar 37,5 kHz yang dimodulasikan oleh pulsa dengan durasi 10 ms setiap interval 1 second. Modulasi yang digunakan adalah modulasi on off keying. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers transmitter yang tersusun atas rangkaian osilator, timer, inverter, switch dan rangkaian amplifier. Frekuensi 37,5 kHz tersebut dibangkitkan oleh rangkaian osi...

  19. Software-Defined Radio Global System for Mobile Communications Transmitter Development for Heterogeneous Network Vulnerability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    AbdelWahab, “ 2G / 3G Inter-RAT Handover Performance Analysis,” Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1, 8, 11–16, Nov. 2007. [19] J...RADIO GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS TRANSMITTER DEVELOPMENT FOR HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK VULNERABILITY TESTING by Carson C. McAbee... MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS TRANSMITTER DEVELOPMENT FOR HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK VULNERABILITY TESTING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carson C. McAbee

  20. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  1. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  2. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  3. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Prediction of transmittance spectra for transparent composite electrodes with ultra-thin metal layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Alford, T. L., E-mail: TA@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Khorasani, Arash Elhami [ON Semiconductor Corp., Phoenix, Arizona 85005 (United States); Theodore, N. D. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona 85224 (United States); Dhar, A. [Intel Corp., 2501 NW 229th Ave, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Recent interest in indium-free transparent composite-electrodes (TCEs) has motivated theoretical and experimental efforts to better understand and enhance their electrical and optical properties. Various tools have been developed to calculate the optical transmittance of multilayer thin-film structures based on the transfer-matrix method. However, the factors that affect the accuracy of these calculations have not been investigated very much. In this study, two sets of TCEs, TiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}, were fabricated to study the factors that affect the accuracy of transmittance predictions. We found that the predicted transmittance can deviate significantly from measured transmittance for TCEs that have ultra-thin plasmonic metal layers. The ultrathin metal layer in the TCE is typically discontinuous. When light interacts with the metallic islands in this discontinuous layer, localized surface plasmons are generated. This causes extra light absorption, which then leads to the actual transmittance being lower than the predicted transmittance.

  5. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  6. Hydrodynamic effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson; Granger

    1998-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to measure the effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas). A full-scale turtle model was constructed from an 11.5 kg specimen with a 48 cm carapace length, and a transmitter model was constructed from a Telonics ST-6. The turtle model was tested in a wind tunnel with and without the transmitter, which was mounted on the forward, topmost part of the carapace. Drag, lift and pitch moment were measured for several speeds and flow angles, and the data were scaled for application to the marine environment. At small flow angles representative of straight-line swimming, the transmitter increased drag by 27-30 %, reduced lift by less than 10 % and increased the pitch moment by 11-42 %. On the basis of the drag data at zero angle of attack, it is estimated that the backpack will reduce swimming speed by 11 %, assuming that the turtle produces the same thrust with the unit attached. The drag data are also used to estimate the effect of a transmitter on the swimming energetics of an adult green turtle. Design guidelines are included to minimize the adverse forces and moments caused by the transmitter.

  7. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  8. A Novel WPT System Based on Dual Transmitters and Dual Receivers for High Power Applications: Analysis, Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Wireless Power Transfer (WPT systems only have one energy transmission path, which can hardly meet the power demand for high power applications, e.g., railway applications (electric trains and trams, etc. due to the capacity constraints of power electronic devices. A novel WPT system based on dual transmitters and dual receivers is proposed in this paper to upgrade the power capacity of the WPT system. The reliability and availability of the proposed WPT system can be dramatically improved due to the four energy transmission paths. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA tool ANSYS MAXWELL (ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA, USA is adopted to investigate the proposed magnetic coupling structure. Besides, the effects of the crossing coupling mutual inductances among the transmitters and receivers are analyzed. It shows that the same-side cross couplings will decrease the efficiency and transmitted power. Decoupling transformers are employed to mitigate the effects of the same-side cross couplings. Meanwhile, the output voltage in the secondary side can be regulated at its designed value with a fast response performance, and the system can continue work even with a faulty inverter. Finally, a scale-down experimental setup is provided to verify the proposed approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method could improve the transmitted power capacity, overall efficiency and reliability, simultaneously. The proposed WPT structure is a potential alternative for high power applications.

  9. Solar opacities constrained by solar neutrinos and solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    This review discusses the current situation for opacities at the solar center, the solar surface, and for the few million kelvin temperatures that occur below the convection zone. The solar center conditions are important because they are crucial for the neutrino production, which continues to be predicted about 4 times that observed. The main extinction effects there are free-free photon absorption in the electric fields of the hydrogen, helium and the CNO atoms, free electron scattering of photons, and the bound-free and bound-bound absorption of photons by iron atoms with two electrons in the 1s bound level. An assumption that the iron is condensed-out below the convection zone, and the opacity in the central regions is thereby reduced, results in about a 25 percent reduction in the central opacity but only a 5 percent reduction at the base of the convection zone. Furthermore, the p-mode solar oscillations are changed with this assumption, and do not fit the observed ones as well as for standard models. A discussion of the large effective opacity reduction by weakly interacting massive particles also results in poor agreement with observed p-mode oscillation frequencies. The much larger opacities for the solar surface layers from the Los Alamos Astrophysical Opacity Library instead of the widely used Cox and Tabor values show small improvements in oscillation frequency predictions, but the largest effect is in the discussion of p-mode stability. Solar oscillation frequencies can serve as an opacity experiment for the temperatures and densities, respectively, of a few million kelvin and between 0.1 and 10 g/cm 3 . Current oscillation frequency calculations indicate that possibly the Opacity Library values need an increase of typically 15 percent just at the bottom of the convection zone at 3 x 10 6 K. 41 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  10. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  11. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  12. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. First-principles prediction of solar radiation shielding performance for transparent windows of GdB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lihua, E-mail: xiaolihua@git.edu.cn [School of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Guizhou Special Functional Materials 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Su, Yuchang, E-mail: ychsu@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Ran, Jingyu; Qiu, Wei; Shao, Fang [Guizhou Special Functional Materials 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); Liu, Yike; Wu, Jianming; Lu, Fanghai [School of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); Guizhou Special Functional Materials 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang 550003 (China); Tang, Dongsheng, E-mail: dstang@hunnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Peng, Ping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2016-04-28

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB{sub 6} are studied using the first-principles calculations. Calculated values for magnetic and optical properties and lattice constant are found to be consistent with previously reported experimental results. The calculated results show that GdB{sub 6} is a perfect near-infrared absorption/reflectance material that could serve as a solar radiation shielding material for windows with high visible light transmittance, similar to LaB{sub 6}, which is assigned to its plasma oscillation and a collective oscillation (volume plasmon) of carrier electrons. It was found that the magnetic 4f electrons of Gd are not relevant to the important optical properties of GdB{sub 6}. These theoretical studies serve as a reference for future studies.

  15. Coupled solar still, solar heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, R R; Harris, W B; Moor, D H; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation of combinations of solar stills and solar heaters indicates the probable economic advantage of such an arrangement in many locations if the size of the heater is optimized relative to that of the still. Experience with various low cost solar heaters is discussed.

  16. Solar Sailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  17. Solar nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, G

    1978-04-01

    The current state of neutrino solar astrophysics is outlined, showing the contradictions between the experimental results of solar neutrino detection and the standard solar models constructed on the basis of the star structure and development theory, which give values for high-energy neutrino fluxes considerably exceeding the upper experimental limit. A number of hypotheses interpreting the experimental results are summarized. The hypotheses are critically assessed and experiments are recommended for refining or verifying experimental data. Also dealt with are nuclear reactions in the Sun, as is the attempt to interpret the anomalous by high /sup 3/He fluxes from the Sun and the relatively small amounts of solar neutrinos and gamma quanta. The importance is emphasized of the simultaneous and complex measurement of the fluxes of neutrons, gamma radiation, and isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and boron from the Sun as indicators of nuclear reactions in the Sun.

  18. Perancangan Solar Charge Controller dan Inverter pada Aplikasi Solar Panel Berbasis Atmega8535 secara Software

    OpenAIRE

    Larasati, Devi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this final project is to apply the codevision AVR ATMega 8535 to process the data on the storage accumulator battery charging current from the solar panels. Value current is processed in the microcontroller is in the current detection using current sensor ACS-712. To prevent backflow from batteries to solar panels when the solar panel voltage is less than accumulator battery voltage, current flows from the solar panels through solar charge controller to the battery before. C...

  19. Acoustic transmittance of an aperiodic deterministic multilayer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrigal-Melchor, J; Enciso-Muñoz, A; Contreras-Solorio, D A

    2013-01-01

    We study theoretically the acoustic transmission for a multilayer structure where the characteristic acoustic impedance follows the values generated by the self-similar sequence called the 1 s counting sequence . The transmission spectrum shows clearly self-similarity characteristics.

  20. Values Education through Aggadic Stories: The Didactic Rewriter as Interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Didactic rewrites of aggadic stories are an important resource in values education. This study, geared primarily toward teachers involved in choosing curricular materials, investigates how the didactic rewriter actually becomes an interpreter, rather than a mere transmitter, of the original text. The personal values of the rewriters can influence…

  1. Compilation of solar abundance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge, Oe.; Engvold, O.

    1977-01-01

    Interest in the previous compilations of solar abundance data by the same authors (ITA--31 and ITA--39) has led to this third, revised edition. Solar abundance data of 67 elements are tabulated and in addition upper limits for the abundances of 5 elements are listed. References are made to 167 papers. A recommended abundance value is given for each element. (JIW)

  2. Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrmann, N.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors at temperatures above 100 °C or with low solar irradiation, we implement a double glazing with a low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner pane to improve the insulation of the transparent cover. Since commercially available low-e glazing provides only insufficient solar transmittance for the application in thermal flat-plate collectors we are developing a sputter-deposited low e-coating system based on transparent conductive oxides which provides a high solar transmittance of 85% due to additional antireflective coatings and the use of low-iron glass substrates. Durability tests of the developed coating system show that our low e-coating system is well suitable even at high temperatures, humidity and condensation.

  3. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles....... The two glasses are identical, except for the fact that one of them is equipped with antireflection surfaces by the company SunArc A/ S. The transmittance was increased by 5–9%-points due to the antireflection surfaces. The increase depends on the incidence angle. The efficiency at incidence angles of 08...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...

  4. Device-independent quantum reading and noise-assisted quantum transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roga, W; Buono, D; Illuminati, F

    2015-01-01

    In quantum reading, a quantum state of light (transmitter) is applied to read classical information. In the presence of noise or for sufficiently weak signals, quantum reading can outperform classical reading by reason of enhanced state distinguishability. Here we show that enhanced quantum efficiency depends on the presence in the transmitter of a particular type of quantum correlations, the discord of response. Different encodings and transmitters give rise to different levels of efficiency. Considering noisy quantum probes, we show that squeezed thermal transmitters with non-symmetrically distributed noise among the field modes yield higher quantum efficiency compared with coherent thermal quantum states. The noise-enhanced quantum advantage is a consequence of the discord of response being a non-decreasing function of increasing thermal noise under constant squeezing, a behavior that leads to increased state distinguishability. We finally show that, for non-symmetric squeezed thermal states, the probability of error, as measured by the quantum Chernoff bound, vanishes asymptotically with increasing local thermal noise with finite global squeezing. Therefore, with fixed finite squeezing, noisy but strongly discordant quantum states with a large noise imbalance between the field modes can outperform noisy classical resources as well as pure entangled transmitters with the same finite level of squeezing. (paper)

  5. The Effect of an Externally Attached Neutrally Buoyant Transmitter on Mortal Injury during Simulated Hydroturbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2012-02-03

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing through hydroturbines experience a rapid decrease in pressure as they pass by the turbine blade and the severity of this decompression can be highly variable. This rapid decrease in pressure can result in injuries such as swim bladder rupture, exophthalmia, and emboli and hemorrhaging in the fins and tissues. However, recent research indicates that the presence of a telemetry tag (acoustic, radio, inductive) implanted inside the coelom of a juvenile salmon increases the likelihood that the fish will be injured or die during turbine passage. Thus, previous research conducted using telemetry tags implanted into the coelom of fish may have been inaccurate. Thus, a new technique is needed to provide unbiased estimates of survival through turbines. This research provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter. Both nontagged fish and fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter were exposed to a range of rapid decompressions simulating turbine passage. Juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter did not receive a higher degree of barotrauma than their nontagged counterparts. We suggest that future research include field-based comparisons of survival and behavior among fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter and those internally implanted with transmitters.

  6. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  7. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  8. Application of smart differential pressure transmitters (DPTS) for containment studies facility (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanware, V.M.; Gole, N.V.; Sebastian, A.; Subramaniam, K.

    2001-01-01

    Containment Studies Facility (CSF) is being set up in BARC for studying various containment related thermal hydraulic and other processes during simulated conditions of pipe rupture. The set up consists of a model reactor containment vessel with a model primary heat transport system. Besides, provisions exist to introduce aerosols and hydrogen also in the containment model. The instrumentation includes measurement of the process temperatures, pressures, levels, flows, humidity, etc. Differential Pressure Transmitters (DPT) will be used for measurement of levels and flows in the CSF. The procured DPTs for this facility are smart. Conventional transmitters have a rangeability specification of 5 or 6. But the smart transmitters have rangeability varying between 40-100. Smart transmitters have facility to change its operating range online. This enables the provision of zooming in on the selected range and narrowing the range around the point of measurement. This facility can be exploited to realise the maximum possible accuracy at the smallest possible range around the point of measurement. This paper describes how the smart DPTs function, how the Highway Addressable Remote Transmitter (HART) protocol works and how we propose to use the on-line rangeability of these DPTs get the highest resolution in our measurements. (author)

  9. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Grant, Jeff; Roper, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III) taste bud cells (∼50%) respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA) with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami) receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  10. All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate fully solution processed semi-transparent silver electrodes on flexible substrates having a sheet resistance as low as 5Ω/□ and transmittance of ∼30% at 550nm. We demonstrate the use of this electrode as a substitute for ITO in an inverted organic solar cell (OSC...

  11. Multi-Material Front Contact for 19% Thin Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between transmittance and conductivity of the front contact material poses abottleneck for thin film solar panels. Normally, the front contact material is a metal oxide and the optimal cell configuration and panel efficiency were determined for various band gap materials, representing

  12. Daylight and solar control in buildings. General evaluation and optimization of a new angle selective glazing facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontini, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost 40% of the overall energy consumption in Europe. For the future energy scenarios, the building envelope, especially the facades, becomes really important as it provides the necessary area for the installation of PV modules or solar collectors to produce energy, using renewable energy sources. A new multifunctional building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) glazed facade for this application is presented here. The new angle-selective see through facade combines four important tasks in one element: solar control, glare protection, visual contact and electricity generation. Mathematical analysis and complex simulations with the software Radiance are performed to optimize the geometry and to assess the visual impact and optical properties of the new window. In order to evaluate the impact of the new facade in building spaces a new method for modelling the total solar energy transmittance, in building energy simulations software, for complex glazing facades is presented. The new black-box-model (BBM) is implemented into ESP-r software and is validated. The BBM is used to assess the impact of modelling accurately the g-value of complex facade within building simulation. It is shown that the new method can significantly increase the accuracy of heating/cooling loads and room temperatures. (orig.)

  13. Mg-doped VO2 nanoparticles: hydrothermal synthesis, enhanced visible transmittance and decreased metal-insulator transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanahira, Minoru; Sun, Chao; Yan, Liuming

    2013-05-28

    This paper reports the successful preparation of Mg-doped VO2 nanoparticles via hydrothermal synthesis. The metal-insulator transition temperature (T(c)) decreased by approximately 2 K per at% Mg. The Tc decreased to 54 °C with 7.0 at% dopant. The composite foils made from Mg-doped VO2 particles displayed excellent visible transmittance (up to 54.2%) and solar modulation ability (up to 10.6%). In addition, the absorption edge blue-shifted from 490 nm to 440 nm at a Mg content of 3.8 at%, representing a widened optical band gap from 2.0 eV for pure VO2 to 2.4 eV at 3.8 at% doping. As a result, the colour of the Mg-doped films was modified to increase their brightness and lighten the yellow colour over that of the undoped-VO2 film. A first principle calculation was conducted to understand how dopants affect the optical, Mott phase transition and structural properties of VO2.

  14. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  15. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  16. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)

  17. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  18. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  19. REMIT5.1, Radiation exposure monitoring and information transmittal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) is a PC-based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com. REMIT system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. 2 - Methods - REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the Committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in microcuries. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in microcuries. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - None noted

  20. Design and Development of a Pressure Transmitter Using Modified Inductance Measuring Network and Bellow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Lakshmi Narayana K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pressure transmitter using a modified op-amp based network for inductance measurement using a bellow as sensor has been proposed to measure the pressure and to convert pressure changes in to an electrical current which can be transmitted to a remote indicator. The change in inductance due to change in pressure is measured by an improved modified operational amplifier based network. The proposed network permits offset inductance compensation of sensing coil and also minimizes the stray capacitance between sensing coil and ground using dummy inductor whose value equal to zero level inductance of sensing coil and op-amps with high input impedance. In the first part of experiment, a modified op-amp based inductance measuring circuit has been simulated using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench and studied with test inductance, and in the second part, the experimentation was done by replacing the test inductance with a sensing coil fitted to bellow by means of ferromagnetic wire for the measurement of pressure. It has been observed that the variation in gauge pressure from 0 to 70 psi having linear relationship with output ac voltage in the range of 0 to 85.0 mV. Corresponding to pressure variations, the ac output voltage further converted into an electric current of 4 to 20 mA for remote indication and control purpose. The investigations have been performed to sense air pressure of pressure tank fitted with pump piston. The experimental results are found to have good linearity of about ± 0.1 % and resolution.

  1. Micro controller based design of digital transmitters for temperature measurements in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature transmitter is one of the most important transmitters in the nuclear reactor it is used for RTD (resistance temperature detector) signal conditioning. It has built-in current excitation, instrumentation amplifier, linearization and current output circuitry which amplifies the RTD signal and gives linearization to it. It is a part of a system to get temperature and monitoring it. This system is very cost and complicated. In this work a digital system is implemented by using micro controller techniques that replaces the existing system, one chip (PIC16f877) is used to build a digital system, which is more accurate and give more performance and low costs . RTD is the sensing element of temperature, its resistance increases with temperature. There are many types of transmitters in the reactor such as temperature, pressure, level and flow but temperature one is chosen because of temperature is one of the most important parameters in process control.

  2. Optimal position of the transmitter coil for wireless power transfer to the implantable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghui Jian; Stanaćević, Milutin

    2014-01-01

    The maximum deliverable power through inductive link to the implantable device is limited by the tissue exposure to the electromagnetic field radiation. By moving away the transmitter coil from the body, the maximum deliverable power is increased as the magnitude of the electrical field at the interface with the body is kept constant. We demonstrate that the optimal distance between the transmitter coil and the body is on the order of 1 cm when the current of the transmitter coil is limited to 1 A. We also confirm that the conditions on the optimal frequency of the power transmission and the topology of the transmission coil remain the same as if the coil was directly adjacent to the body.

  3. High-energy, 2µm laser transmitter for coherent wind LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.

    2017-11-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar at 2μm wavelength has been built with higher output energy (300 mJ) than previously available. The laser transmitter is based on the solid-state Ho:Tm:LuLiF, a NASA Langley Research Center invented laser material for higher extraction efficiency. This diode pumped injection seeded MOPA has a transform limited line width and diffraction limited beam quality. NASA Langley Research Center is developing coherent wind lidar transmitter technology at eye-safe wavelength for satellite-based observation of wind on a global scale. The ability to profile wind is a key measurement for understanding and predicting atmospheric dynamics and is a critical measurement for improving weather forecasting and climate modeling. We would describe the development and performance of an engineering hardened 2μm laser transmitter for coherent Doppler wind measurement from ground/aircraft/space platform.

  4. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  5. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  6. Simulation and design of omni-directional high speed multibeam transmitter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Jui, Ping-Chang; Wang, Sun-Chen

    2006-09-01

    For future high speed indoor wireless communication, diffuse wireless optical communications offer more robust optical links against shadowing than line-of-sight links. However, their performance may be degraded by multipath dispersion resulting from surface reflections. We have developed a multipath diffusive propagation model capable of providing channel impulse responses data. It is aimed to design and simulate any multi-beam transmitter under a variety of indoor environments. In this paper, a multi-beam transmitter system with semi-sphere structure is proposed to combat the diverse effects of multipath distortion albeit, at the cost of increased laser power and cost. Simulation results of multiple impulse responses showed that this type of multi-beam transmitter can significantly improve the performance of BER suitable for high bit rate application. We present the performance and simulation results for both line-of-sight and diffuse link configurations.

  7. Marine spawning sites of perch Perca fluviatilis revealed by oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Christensen, Emil A.F.; Carl, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, a flood-protection system dramatically changed a large part of the coastal environment of Køge Bugt, a bay in the western Baltic Sea, from open coast to a brackish lagoon habitat. An anadromous stock of European perch Perca fluviatilis seems to have benefitted from this change...... a strong proof of concept of oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters in brackish and marine fish spawning studies. The transmitter expulsions were validated using an egg map, which was based on visual observations of perch egg-strands, and 11 of the 12 expulsed transmitters (92%) were located in areas...... with eggs. Many fish spawned in the brackish water with salinities up to 9.6 PSU. These salinities are higher than those previously observed for European perch spawning in the wild, and call for further investigations of salinity tolerance in perch eggs...

  8. Transmitter and Translating Receiver Design For 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2010-01-20

    This paper explores the architecture and design of an optically-implemented 64-ary PPM transmitter and direct-translating receiver that effectively translates incoming electrically-generated bit streams into optical PPM symbols (and vice-versa) at > 1 Gb/s data rates. The PPM transmitter is a cascade of optical switches operating at the frame rate. A corresponding receiver design is more difficult to architect and implement, since increasing data rates lead to correspondingly shorter decision times (slot times and frame times). We describe a solution in the form of a time-to-space mapping arrayed receiver that performs a translating algorithm represented as a code map. The technique for generating the code map is described, and the implementation of the receiver as a planar lightwave circuit is given. The techniques for implementing the transmitter and receiver can be generalized for any case of M-ary PPM.

  9. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  10. Methods of Phase and Power Control in Magnetron Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazadevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Various methods of phase and power control in magnetron RF sources of superconducting accelerators intended for ADS-class projects were recently developed and studied with conventional 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, CW magnetrons operating in pulsed and CW regimes. Magnetron transmitters excited by a resonant (injection-locking) phasemodulated signal can provide phase and power control with the rates required for precise stabilization of phase and amplitude of the accelerating field in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities of the intensity-frontier accelerators. An innovative technique that can significantly increase the magnetron transmitter efficiency at the widerange power control required for superconducting accelerators was developed and verified with the 2.45 GHz magnetrons operating in CW and pulsed regimes. High efficiency magnetron transmitters of this type can significantly reduce the capital and operation costs of the ADSclass accelerator projects.

  11. NOVEL TECHNIQUE OF POWER CONTROL IN MAGNETRON TRANSMITTERS FOR INTENSE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M.; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2016-10-21

    A novel concept of a high-power magnetron transmitter allowing dynamic phase and power control at the frequency of locking signal is proposed. The transmitter compensating parasitic phase and amplitude modulations inherent in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities within closed feedback loops is intended for powering of the intensity-frontier superconducting accelerators. The con- cept uses magnetrons driven by a sufficient resonant (in- jection-locking) signal and fed by the voltage which can be below the threshold of self-excitation. This provides an extended range of power control in a single magnetron at highest efficiency minimizing the cost of RF power unit and the operation cost. Proof-of-principle of the proposed concept demonstrated in pulsed and CW regimes with 2.45 GHz, 1kW magnetrons is discussed here. A conceptual scheme of the high-power transmitter allowing the dynamic wide-band phase and y power controls is presented and discussed.

  12. Research on control technology of hardware parallelism for marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Luo, Xianhu; Zhao, Qingxian; Chen, Kai; Jing, Jianen

    2018-02-01

    The marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been recognized as an effective exploration method of shallow hydrocarbons around the world. We developed our own underwater marine CSEM transmitter that consisted of many functional modules with various response times. We previously adopted a centralized software-control technology to design the transmitter circuit topological structure. That structure probably generated a control disorder or malfunction. These undesirable conditions could lead to repeated recovery and deployment of the transmitter, which not only consumed time but also affected data continuity and establishment of stable and continuous CSEM field. We developed an instrument design concept named ‘control technology of hardware parallelism’. In this design, a noteworthy innovation of our new technology is to solve the above-mentioned problems at the physical and fundamental levels. We used several self-contained control-units to simultaneously accomplish the predetermined functions of the transmitter. The new solution relies on two technologies: multi-core embedded technology and multi-channel parallel optical-fiber data transmission technology. The first technology depends on many independent microcontrollers. Every microcontroller is only used to achieve a customized function. The second one relies on several multiple optical-fiber transmission channels realized by a complex programmable logic device and two optical-fiber conversion devices, which are used to establish a communication link between the shipboard monitoring and control-unit and underwater transmitter. We have conducted some marine experiments to verify the reliability and stability of the new method. In particular, the new technology used in the transmitter system could help us obtain more useful measured data in a limited time, improve real-time efficiency, and support the establishment of a stable CSEM field.

  13. Brain transmitter precursors and metabolites in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Curzon, G; Kantamaneni, B D; Callaghan, N; Sullivan, P A

    1982-01-01

    Patients studied during recovery from an episode of ketoacidotic diabetes had raised blood glucose, plasma free fatty acid and plasma free tryptophan concentrations. Plasma total tryptophan was decreased. Well controlled diabetics showed normal values. The ketoacidotic patients had increased lumbar CSF tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations. Plasma tyrosine and CSF tyrosine and homovanillic acid concentrations were normal in both diabetic groups. The results are discussed in...

  14. Toward Improved Modeling of Spectral Solar Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to extend the capability of the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by computing spectral solar irradiances over both horizontal and inclined surfaces. A new model is developed by computing the optical thickness of the atmosphere using a spectral irradiance model for clear-sky conditions, SMARTS2. A comprehensive lookup table (LUT) of cloud bidirectional transmittance distribution functions (BTDFs) is precomputed for 2002 wavelength bands using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, libRadtran. The solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere is given by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. Our results indicate that this new model has an accuracy that is similar to that of state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, but it is significantly more efficient.

  15. Optoelectronic properties of R-F magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd2SnO4) thin films for CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadheepan, K.; Thamilselvan, M.; Kim, Kyunghae; Yi, Junsin; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of “as-prepared” Cd 2 SnO 4 thin films ideal for thin film solar cells. • Lowest value of resistivity with high mobility attained for the as-prepared Cd 2 SnO 4 films. • Maximum transmittance of 93% in the visible range for the as-prepared films. • Effect of substrate temperature on the scattering mechanism of TCO. - Abstract: The influence of substrate temperature on the microstructural behavior, optical, electrical properties and on the scattering mechanism of charge carriers were studied for the as-prepared radio-frequency (R-F) magnetron sputtered Cadmium Tin Oxide (Cd 2 SnO 4 ) thin films. Films prepared at the substrate temperature of 300 °C were found to be polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) plane. Well pronounced Moss–Burstein shift, in the transmittance spectra with dispersions in the optical band gap from 3.07 to 3.30 eV, was observed at substrate temperatures between 25 and 300 °C. Optical property of high visible transmittance was retained by the films. Analysis of the electrical properties on the prepared crystalline Cd 2 SnO 4 films showed a calculated resistivity of 10 −3 –10 −4 Ω cm, with n-type carrier density in the range of 10 19 –10 20 cm −3 and the charge carrier mobility in the range of 63–30 cm 2 /V s. The effects of structural, compositional and optical properties on the scattering mechanism of charge carrier are elaborated and reported to be an experimental evidence for the theoretical predictions. The results revealed the essential DC electrical conduction behavior, which is ideal for the fabrication of Cd 2 SnO 4 -based CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells

  16. Ultra-low power transmitter for encoding non-MR signals in Magnetic Resonance (MR) recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Pedersen, Jan Ole; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    collection of data from non-MRI sensors. The transmitter consumes only 1.3mW while transmitting 2.7µW at 120MHz with high frequency stability. The presented design is useful in low power applications requiring high frequency stability and is intended for wireless transmission of non-MR signal recordings......Advancing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology requires integration of the MRI scanners with sensors and systems for monitoring various non-MRI signals. In this paper, we present design and integration of a low power AM radio transmitter into a 3T MRI scanner, which can be used for efficient...

  17. Investigating Feasibility Of Multiple UHF Passive RFID Transmitters Using Backscatter Modulation Scheme In BCI Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Ajrawi, Shams; Sarkar, Mahasweta; Rao, Ramesh

    simulatedbrain matter to a receiver located on the surface of a simulatedskull. These analyses are essential for building a brain computerinterface application. We showcase theoretical and experimentalresults based on a phantom model of the human brain usingpassive RFID as the implantable transmitter operating...... in UHFrange. Furthermore, we use backscatter modulation as a powertransfer mechanism. Investigation on the feasibility and appli-cability of implantable UHF Passive RFID transmitters insidethe brain is done for capturing multi-channel ECoG signals at ahigh data transfer rate. Detailed analysis have been done...

  18. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  19. The miniature optical transmitter and transceiver for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C; Zhao, X; Deng, B; Gong, D; Guo, D; Li, X; Liang, F; Liu, G; Liu, T; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Chen, J; Huang, D; Hou, S; Teng, P-K

    2013-01-01

    We present the design and test results of the Miniature optical Transmitter (MTx) and Transceiver (MTRx) for the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments. MTx and MTRx are Transmitter Optical Subassembly (TOSA) and Receiver Optical Subassembly (ROSA) based. There are two major developments: the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) driver ASIC LOCld and the mechanical latch that provides the connection to fibers. In this paper, we concentrate on the justification of this work, the design of the latch and the test results of these two modules with a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) VCSEL driver

  20. Solar control on irradiated Ta2O2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydogan, N. D.; Zayim, E. Oe.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films consisting of Ta 2 O 5 have been used in industry in applications related to thin-film capacitors, optical waveguides, and antireflection coatings on solar cells. Ta 2 O 5 films are used for several special applications as highly refractive material and show different optical properties depending on the deposition methods. Sol-gel technique has been used for the preparation of Ta 2 O 5 thin films. Ta 2 O 5 thin films were prepared by sol-gel proses on glass substrates to obtain good quality films. These films were exposed to gamma radiation from Co-60 radioisotope. Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were placed against the source and irradiated for 8 different gamma doses; between 0.35 and 21.00 kGy at room temperature. Energetic gamma ray can affect the samples and change its colour. On the other hand some of the Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were irradiated with beta radiation from Sr-90 radioisotope. The effect of gamma irradiation on the solar properties of Ta 2 O 5 films is compared with that of beta irradiation. The solar properties of the irradiated thin films differ significantly from those of the unirradiated ones. After the irradiation of the samples transmittance and reflectance are measured for solar light between 300 and 2100 nm, by using Perkin Elmer Lambda 9 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer. Change in the direct solar transmittance, reflectance and absorptance with absorbed dose are determined. Using the optical properties, the redistribution of the absorbed component of the solar radiation and the shading coefficient (SC) are calculated as a function of the convective heat-transfer coefficient. Solar parameters are important for the determination of the shading coefficient. When the secondary internal heat transfer factor (qi), direct solar transmittance (□ e ), and solar factor (g) are known, it is possible to determine shading coefficient via the dose rates. The shading coefficient changes as the dose rate is increased. In this study, the shading

  1. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  2. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  3. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  4. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  5. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  6. SOLAR-ISS: A new reference spectrum based on SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.; Irbah, A.; Bureau, J.; Weber, M.; Bramstedt, K.; Hilbig, T.; Thiéblemont, R.; Marchand, M.; Lefèvre, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Bekki, S.

    2018-03-01

    solar spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) highlights significant differences with previous solar reference spectra and with solar spectra based on models. The integral of the SOLAR-ISS solar spectrum yields a total solar irradiance of 1372.3 ± 16.9 Wm-2 at 1σ, that is yet 11 Wm-2 over the value recommended by the International Astronomical Union in 2015. The spectrum shown in Fig. B.1 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A1

  7. Parameterization Of Solar Radiation Using Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Alfa, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network technique for parameterization of global solar radiation. The available data from twenty-one stations is used for training the neural network and the data from other ten stations is used to validate the neural model. The neural network utilizes latitude, longitude, altitude, sunshine duration and period number to parameterize solar radiation values. The testing data was not used in the training to demonstrate the performance of the neural network in unknown stations to parameterize solar radiation. The results indicate a good agreement between the parameterized solar radiation values and actual measured values

  8. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    more about work by this consortium, which crosses national laboratories, on new materials and designs information on NREL's research and development of solar technologies. To receive new issues by email prize, focused on solar energy technologies, and will release the prize rules and open registration

  9. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  10. Glycine: an alternative transmitter candidate of the pallidosubthalamic projection neurons in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M.; Hattori, T.

    1987-01-01

    Autoradiographic retrograde tracing techniques with radioactive transmitters were used to analyse the identity of a putative transmitter in the rat pallidosubthalamic (GP-STN) pathway. One to 2 hours after the stereotaxic injection of 3 H-glycine restricted to the STN, a large number of neuronal somata were radiolabeled in the GP. No comparable labeling was observed following the injection of 3 H-gamma-aminobutyric acid ( 3 H-GABA) into the same nucleus even with survival times as long as 6 hours. Specifically, no significant somatic labeling was detected either in the GP or in the caudoputamen (CPU). Only when 3 H-GABA was injected into the substantia nigra did CPU and GP neurons become labeled. On the contrary, STN neuronal somata were invariably labeled 6 hours after the intrapallidal injection of 3 H-GABA, whereas no perikaryal labeling was observed in the STN after 3 H-glycine injection into the GP. The perikaryal labeling was prevented in all cases by intraventricular administration of colchicine 1 day before the isotope injections. The observations suggest that 3 H-glycine was preferentially transported retrogradely through the GP-STN pathway, and 3 H-GABA through the STN-GP projection. In view of the recent controversy on the role of GABA as a putative transmitter of the GP-STN projection, we now propose glycine as an alternative transmitter candidate of these critically situated neurons in the basal ganglia

  11. 47 CFR 73.653 - Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters. 73.653 Section 73.653 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.653 Operation of TV aural and visual...

  12. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  13. Spatial integration of local transmitter responses in motoneurones of the turtle spinal cord in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Integration of responses to local activation of transmitter receptors in the dendrites of motoneurones was investigated in a slice preparation of the turtle spinal cord. Membrane-active substances were applied from up to three independent iontophoresis electrodes during intracellular recording...

  14. Optimization of DP-M-QAM Transmitter using Cooperative Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2018-01-01

    We present a method for joint optimization of transmitter in-phase, quadrature and inter-polarization time skew, amplitude mismatch, and bias voltages. The method is based on a cooperative coevolutionary genetic algorithm with fitness functions extracted from a directly detected reference QAM sig...

  15. Analog direct-modulation behavior of semiconductor laser transmitters using optical FM demodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yabre, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of the analog modulation performance of a semiconductor laser transmitter which employs the direct optical FM demodulation. This analysis is based on the rate equations in which Langevin noise functions are included. The optical FM response has

  16. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  17. A novel Chirped Return-to-Zero Transmitter and Transmission Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Peucheret, Christophe; Xueyan, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    A new 10 Gb/s chirped return-to-zero transmitter using CW light modulated by only one external modulator is proposed. Transmission over 3600 km of standard single mode fibre is performed in a re-circulating loop set-up with 80 km amplifier span....

  18. Adaptive Transmitter Optimization in Multiuser Multiantenna Systems: Theoretical Limits, Effect of Delays, and Performance Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardzija Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in programmable and reconfigurable radios have rendered feasible transmitter optimization schemes that can greatly improve the performance of multiple-antenna multiuser systems. Reconfigurable radio platforms are particularly suitable for implementation of transmitter optimization at the base station. We consider the downlink of a wireless system with multiple transmit antennas at the base station and a number of mobile terminals (i.e., users each with a single receive antenna. Under an average transmit power constraint, we consider the maximum achievable sum data rates in the case of (1 zero-forcing (ZF spatial prefilter, (2 modified zero-forcing (MZF spatial prefilter, and (3 triangularization spatial prefilter coupled with dirty-paper coding (DPC transmission scheme. We show that the triangularization with DPC approaches the closed-loop MIMO rates (upper bound for higher SNRs. Further, the MZF solution performs very well for lower SNRs, while for higher SNRs, the rates for the ZF solution converge to the MZF rates. An important impediment that degrades the performance of such transmitter optimization schemes is the delay in channel state information (CSI. We characterize the fundamental limits of performance in the presence of delayed CSI and then propose performance enhancements using a linear MMSE predictor of the CSI that can be used in conjunction with transmitter optimization in multiple-antenna multiuser systems.

  19. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant

  20. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...... aluminium content in aluminium hydroxide suspension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Sb-Based Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (DHBTs) With Fmax 650GHz for 340GHz Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    PROPER IDENTIFICATION . NOT TO BE USED FOR INTERIM PROGRESS REPORTS SEE PAGE 2 FOR INTERIM PROGRESS REPORT INSTRUCTIONS MEMORANDUM OF TRANSMITTAL...conduction band lineup . These advantages have led to rapid progress in increasing device bandwidths, allowing competitive RF performance with established

  2. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    atmospherics temperatura and humidity profiles. Validation tests performed on experimental spectra demonstrate the occuracy of the method with typical...indicated as with the title.) Passive Remota Sensing Infrared Spectra Cloud Temperatura Cloud Transmittance FTIR Spectrometer Icing Hazard Detection (DCD03E.IFO - 95.02.22) UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF FORM

  3. Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-02

    We report the total and diffuse transmission enhancement of sapphires with the ultraviolet curable SU8 polymer surface structures consisting of conical subwavelength gratings (SWGs) at one- and both-side surfaces for different periods. The SWGs patterns on the silicon templates were transferred into the SU8 polymer film surface on sapphires by a simple and cost-effective soft lithography technique. For the fabricated samples, the surface morphologies, wetting behaviors, and optical characteristics were investigated. For theoretical optical analysis, a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method was used. At a period of 350 nm, the sample with SWGs on SU8 film/sapphire exhibited a hydrophobic surface and higher total transmittance compared to the bare sapphire over a wide wavelength of 450-1000 nm. As the period of SWGs was increased, the low total transmittance region of < 85% was shifted towards the longer wavelengths and became broader while the diffuse transmittance was increased (i.e., larger haze ratio). For the samples with SWGs at both-side surfaces, the total and diffuse transmittance spectra were further enhanced compared to the samples with SWGs at one-side surface. The theoretical optical calculation results showed a similar trend to the experimentally measured data.

  4. Topology optimised photonic crystal waveguide intersections with high-transmittance and low crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikeda, N; Sugimoto, Y; Watanabe, Y

    2006-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies on the photonic crystal waveguide intersection based on the topology optimisation design method are reported and the effectiveness of this technique is shown by achieving high transmittance spectra with low crosstalk for the straightforward beam-propagation line...

  5. Design of an Omnidirectional Multibeam Transmitter for High-Speed Indoor Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jaw-Luen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For future high speed indoor wireless communication, diffuse wireless optical communications offer more robust optical links against shadowing than line-of-sight links. However, their performance may be degraded by multipath dispersion arising from surface reflections. We have developed a multipath diffusive propagation model capable of providing channel impulse responses data. It is aimed to design and simulate any multibeam transmitter under a variety of indoor environments. In this paper, a multi-beam transmitter system associated with hemisphere structure is proposed to fight against the diverse effects of multipath distortion albeit, at the cost of increased laser power and cost. Simulation results of multiple impulse responses showed that this type of multi-beam transmitter can significantly improve the performance of BER suitable for high bit rate application. We present the performance and simulation results for both line-of-sight and diffuse link configurations. We propose a design of power radiation pattern for a transmitter in achieving uniform and full coverage of power distributions for diffuse indoor optical wireless systems.

  6. An Improved Current-Doubler Rectifier for the Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxi Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High power marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitters have gained interest with applications in marine geological survey and mineral resources exploration. The direct current to direct current (DC-DC converter that is typically used in marine transmitters has some issues, as the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT tube cannot achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS. In particular, lagging-leg switching cannot easily achieve ZVS. The conversion efficiency of the heat converter requires improvement. This paper proposes an improved current-doubler rectifier for the marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter (ICDR-MCSET. Resonant inductance is increased and a blocking capacitor is added to the converter (DC-DC circuit, where the converter can achieve ZVS in a wide load range. This results in the effective decrease of the heating temperature and the improvement of transformation efficiency. Saber software simulation and a 20 KW electromagnetic transmitter are used to verify the results, which show that the method is feasible and effective.

  7. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal

  8. Improvements in X-band transmitter phase stability through Klystron body temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the techniques used and experimental results obtained in improving transmitter stability by control of the klystron body temperature. Related work in the measurement of klystron phase control parameters (pushing factors) is also discussed. The contribution of wave guide temperature excursions to uplink phase stability is presented. Suggestions are made as to the direction of future work in this area.

  9. Estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements with the application of perturbation numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoświat, Artur; Skrzypczyk, Jerzy; Krause, Paweł; Steidl, Tomasz; Winkler-Skalna, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    Fast estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements is uncertain, and the obtained results can be burdened with a large error. Nevertheless, such attempts should be undertaken merely due to the fact that a precise measurement by means of heat flux measurements is not always possible in field conditions (resentment of the residents during the measurements carried out inside their living quarters), and the calculation methods do not allow for the nonlinearity of thermal insulation, heat bridges or other fragments of building envelope of diversified thermal conductivity. The present paper offers the estimation of thermal transmittance and internal surface resistance with the use of temperature measurements (in particular with the use of thermovision). The proposed method has been verified through tests carried out on a laboratory test stand built in the open space, subjected to the influence of real meteorological conditions. The present elaboration involves the estimation of thermal transmittance by means of temperature measurements. Basing on the mentioned estimation, the authors present correction coefficients which have impact on the estimation accuracy. Furthermore, in the final part of the paper, various types of disturbance were allowed for using perturbation numbers, and the introduced by the authors "credibility area of thermal transmittance estimation" was determined.

  10. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  11. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Solar MHD is an important tool for understanding many solar phenomena. It also plays a crucial role in explaining the behaviour of more general cosmical magnetic fields and plasmas, since the Sun provides a natural laboratory in which such behaviour may be studied. While terrestrial experiments are invaluable in demonstrating general plasma properties, conclusions from them cannot be applied uncritically to solar plasmas and have in the past given rise to misconceptions about solar magnetic field behaviour. Important differences between a laboratory plasma on Earth and the Sun include the nature of boundary conditions, the energy balance, the effect of gravity and the size of the magnetic Reynolds number (generally of order unity on the Earth and very much larger on the Sun). The overall structure of the book is as follows. It begins with two introductory chapters on solar observations and the MHD equations. Then the fundamentals of MHD are developed in chapters on magnetostatics, waves, shocks, and instabilities. Finally, the theory is applied to the solar phenomena of atmospheric heating, sunspots, dynamos, flares, prominences, and the solar wind. (Auth.)

  12. Solar neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  13. Device for welding components using ultrasonics, particularly for solar cell contacts and solar cell connections. Vorrichtung zum Verschweissen von Bauteilen unter Verwendung von Ultraschall, insbesondere von Solarzellenkontakten und Solarzellenverbindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochermann, H.

    1983-06-23

    This is a device for welding components, particularly solar cell contacts and solar cell connections, using an ultrasonic welding device. The ultrasonic welding device has a high frequency generator, an ultrasonic emitter, a transmitter, a sonotrode, a device for accommodating the components and controls. The sonotrode is provided with a circumferential beading acting as the welding disc, which, together with the sonotrode, is rolled over the components by a relative movement. The part of the beading which is tangential to the component introduces ultrasonic energy into the component. The relative movement is made possible by the system of the ultrasonic emitter, transmitter and sonotrode with the surrounding beading being mounted so that it can rotate in a vibration node of the transmitter. (orig.).

  14. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  15. Solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullmann, H; Schmidt, B [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Industrialisierung des Bauens

    1976-01-01

    The utilisation possibilities of solar energy for the energy supplying of buildings are becoming increasingly more significant. Solar research at the moment aims predominantly with a high level of efficiency and therefore making accessible a significant range of applications for solar technology. Parallel to this are attempts to effect the saving of energy, be it in the demand for energy-saving constructions or in the increasing development and application of rational energy utilisation by technologists. The most important point of these activities at the moment, is still technological methods.

  16. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  17. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  18. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  19. Recent Advancements in the Numerical Simulation of Surface Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit; Deline, Chris

    2017-06-27

    This paper briefly reviews the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's recent efforts on developing all-sky solar irradiance models for solar energy applications. The Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) utilizes the simulation of clear-sky transmittance and reflectance and a parameterization of cloud transmittance and reflectance to rapidly compute broadband irradiances on horizontal surfaces. FARMS delivers accuracy that is comparable to the two-stream approximation, but it is approximately 1,000 times faster. A FARMS-Narrowband Irradiance over Tilted surfaces (FARMS-NIT) has been developed to compute spectral irradiances on photovoltaic (PV) panels in 2002 wavelength bands. Further, FARMS-NIT has been extended for bifacial PV panels.

  20. Solar structure without computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We derive succinctly the equations of solar structure. We first present models of objects in hydrostatic equilibrium that fail as models of the sun in order to illustrate important physical requirements. Then by arguing physically that the pressure gradient can be matched to the simple function dP/dr = -kre/sup( -r//a) 2 , we derive a complete analytic representation of the solar interior in terms of a one-parameter family of models. Two different conditions are then used to select the appropriate value of the parameter specifying the best model within the family: (1) the solar luminosity is equated to the thermonuclear power generated near the center and/or (2) the solar luminosity is equated to the radiative diffusion of energy from a central region. The two methods of selecting the parameter agree to within a few percent. The central conditions of the sun are well calculated by these analytic formulas, all without aid of a computer. This is an original treatment, yielding much the best description of the solar center to be found by methods of differential and integral calculus, rendering it an excellent laboratory for applied calculus

  1. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Diseño de placas solares e implementación de un transmisor experimental AX.25 para el 3Cat-1

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalvez Foguet, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Explains the design and construction of two types of solar panels for the 3cat1, one type based on commercial high efficiency multi-junction solar cells and other based in UPC Electronic Engineering Department in-house developed solar cells. Also describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based experimental transmitter to send data packets to the 3cat1 ground station. Diseño y construcción de dos tipos de paneles solares para el 3cat1, el primero basado en celulas solares...

  3. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  4. Solar chulha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhao, P. H. [Department of Physics J.D. Institute of Engg. & Tech. Yavatmal (India); Patrikar, S. R. [Department of Physics VNIT, Nagpur (India)

    2016-05-06

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  5. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  6. Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  7. Solar thermal - the new dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This booklet is intended to engineering consultants and construction professionals and aims at showing them the real interest of solar thermal energy. It notably highlights the very high efficiency which can be reached, the high performance value compared to gas, the high rank of solar thermal energy in terms of profitability over a 20-year period, the fact that solar thermal energy is almost always the most economic solution for buildings and the less expensive in comparison with non renewable energies. It outlines that, as far as purchase is concerned, solar thermal energy is more than competitive, is also a leader as far as financing issues are concerned. It finally briefly describes how the SOCOL initiative can be a support at any step of a solar thermal project

  8. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  9. Solar Schematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  10. Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Annual averages of logarithms of hourly interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensities, obtained from geocentric spacecraft between November 1963 and December 1977, reveal the following solar cycle variation. For 2--3 years at each solar minimum period, the IMF intensity is depressed by 10--15% relative to its mean value realized during a broad 9-year period contered at solar maximum. No systematic variations occur during this 9-year period. The solar minimum decrease, although small in relation to variations in some other solar wind parameters, is both statistically and physically significant

  11. Economical analysis of a solar desalination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Tie-Zhu; He, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple stage tower-type of solar desalination unit by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit...... and yearly electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful to do the further investigation on solar desalination systems for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  12. Comparisons of Measurements and Modeling of Solar Eclipse Effects on VLF Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Marshall, R. A.; Drob, D. P.; Decena, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 provides an excellent opportunity to examine Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal propagation through the path of the solar eclipse between Navy VLF transmitters and several VLF receivers. The VLF transmitters available for this study radio signal propagation study are NLK in Jim Creek, Washington (24.8 kHz, 192 kW, 48.20N, 121.90W), NML in LaMour, North Dakota (25.2 kHz, 500 kW 46.37N, 93.34W), and NAA in Cutler, Maine (24.0 kHz, 1000 kW, 44.65N, 67.29W). These VLF transmitters provide propagation paths to three VLF receivers at Utah State University (41.75N, 111.76W), Bear Lake Observatory (41.95N, 111.39W), Salt Lake City (40.76N, 111.89W) and one receiver in Boulder, Colorado (40.02N, 105.27W). The solar eclipse shadow will cross all propagations paths during the day and will modify the D region electron density within the solar shadow. The week prior to the solar eclipse will be used to generate a diurnal baseline of VLF single strength for each transmitter-receiver pair. These will be compared to the day of the solar eclipse to identify VLF propagation differences through the solar eclipse shawdow. Additionally, the electron density effects of the week prior and of the solar eclipse day will be modeled using the Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model [Eccles et al., 2005] with a detailed eclipse solar flux mask. The Long-Wave Propagation Code and the HASEL RF ray-tracing code will be used to generate VLF signal strength for each measured propagation path through the days prior and the solar eclipse day. Model-measurement comparisons will be presented and the D region electron density effects of the solar eclipse will be examined. The DDDR is a time-dependent D region model, which makes it very suitable for the solar eclipse effects on the electron density for the altitude range of 36 to 130 km. Eccles J. V., R. D. Hunsucker, D. Rice, J. J. Sojka (2005), Space weather effects on midlatitude HF propagation paths: Observations and

  13. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Y.-C; Brugge, M.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Dekinga, A.; Porter, R.; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters andGPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and globaltracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliablemethods to attach these tracking devices to small migratorybirds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2)tags are retained

  14. Development of a Greek solar map based on solar model estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Psiloglou, B. E.; Kavadias, K. A.; Paliatsos, A. G.; Bartzokas, A.

    2016-05-01

    The realization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) for power generation as the only environmentally friendly solution, moved solar systems to the forefront of the energy market in the last decade. The capacity of the solar power doubles almost every two years in many European countries, including Greece. This rise has brought the need for reliable predictions of meteorological data that can easily be utilized for proper RES-site allocation. The absence of solar measurements has, therefore, raised the demand for deploying a suitable model in order to create a solar map. The generation of a solar map for Greece, could provide solid foundations on the prediction of the energy production of a solar power plant that is installed in the area, by providing an estimation of the solar energy acquired at each longitude and latitude of the map. In the present work, the well-known Meteorological Radiation Model (MRM), a broadband solar radiation model, is engaged. This model utilizes common meteorological data, such as air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and sunshine duration, in order to calculate solar radiation through MRM for areas where such data are not available. Hourly values of the above meteorological parameters are acquired from 39 meteorological stations, evenly dispersed around Greece; hourly values of solar radiation are calculated from MRM. Then, by using an integrated spatial interpolation method, a Greek solar energy map is generated, providing annual solar energy values all over Greece.

  15. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  16. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  17. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  18. Response of the mid-latitude D-region ionosphere to the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 studied using VLF signals in South Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanikumar, D. V.; Kwak, Y.-S.; Patra, A. K.; Maurya, A. K.; Singh, Rajesh; Park, S.-M.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze VLF signals received at Busan to study the the D-region changes linked with the solar eclipse event of 22 July 2009 for very short (∼390 km) transmitter-receiver great circle path (TRGCP) during local noon time 00:36-03:13 UT (09:36-12:13 KST). The eclipse crossed south of Busan with a maximum obscuration of ∼84%. Observations clearly show a reduction of ∼6.2 dB in the VLF signal strength at the time of maximum solar obscuration (84% at 01:53 UT) as compared to those observed on the control days. Estimated values of change in Wait ionospheric parameters: reflection height (h‧) in km and inverse scale height parameter (β) in km-1 from Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) model during the maximum eclipse phase as compared to unperturbed ionosphere are 7 km and 0.055 km-1, respectively. Moreover, the D-region electron density estimated from model computation shows 95% depletion in electron density at the height of ∼71 km. The reflection height is found to increase by ∼7 km in the D-region during the eclipse as compared to those on the control days, implying a depletion in the Lyman-α flux by a factor of ∼7. The present observations are discussed in the light of current understanding on the solar eclipse induced D-region dynamics.

  19. Impact of two telemetry transmitter implantation incision suturing methods on the physiological state and condition of perch (Perca fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożyński Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the impact on European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (mean body weight – 78.33 g of the intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters using different suturing methods. In the first experiment silk sutures were used (experiment I – group ST, while in the second tissue adhesive was used (experiment II – group GT. Following the procedure, the fish were kept for 42 days in a recirculating system. Differences in growth and condition parameters were only noted in the first week of the experiment. Specimens from group GT had lower values for DGR (daily growth rate and SGR (specific growth rate, but a higher value for FCR (feed conversion ratio values. For the hematological parameters, lower values of MCV (mean corpuscular volume and PLT (blood platelets were noted in group GT, while for the biochemical parameters, lowered ALP (alkaline phosphatase activity and Mg (magnesium concentrations were noted in group ST. In group ST, 33.3% of the specimens loss their tags, while in group GT 77.8% did so. Differences in incision healing were only noted in the second week, when specimens in group ST were observed to have fully closed incisions, while in group GT 50% of the incisions were open. Despite the high percentage of implantation incision healing in both groups, because of the high values of tag loss rate, neither method can be recommended for perch. It might be more effective to use tag with external antennae in this species. The method use for closing implantation incisions also must be improved to eliminate tag shedding.

  20. Microcontroller Based Solar Charge Controller for Power Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vikas Khare

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell converts solar energy directly into electricity. This paper describes a design of microcontroller based solar charge controller for power application.[2] The work of the Paper is to charge a 12 volt battery by using a 50 watt solar panel with maximum power. This circuit regulates the charging of battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reached a preset value.[1] The microprocessor based charge ...

  1. Solar Energy Innovation Network | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Innovation Network Solar Energy Innovation Network The Solar Energy Innovation Network grid. Text version The Solar Energy Innovation Network is a collaborative research effort administered (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office to develop and demonstrate new ways for solar energy to improve

  2. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m"2, the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m"2, the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  3. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  4. Study on moving target detection to passive radar based on FM broadcast transmitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Target detection by a noncooperative illuminator is a topic of general interest in the electronic warfare field.First of all,direct-path interference(DPI)suppression which is the technique of bottleneck of moving target detection by a noncooperative frequency modulation(FM) broadcast transmitter is analyzed in this article;Secondly,a space-time-frequency domain synthetic solution to this problem is introduced:Adaptive nulling array processing is considered in the space domain,DPI cancellation based on adaptive fractional delay interpolation(AFDI)technique is used in planned time domain,and long-time coherent integration is utilized in the frequency domain;Finally,an experimental system is planned by considering FM broadcast transmitter as a noncooperative illuminator,Simulation results by real collected data show that the proposed method has a better performance of moving target detection.

  5. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  6. Surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses by plasma for improvement of antithrombogenicity and transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lihua; Wu Di; Chen Yashao; Wang Xiaoli; Zhao Guowei; Wan Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Chang' an South Road 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Huang Changzheng [Able Eye Device Co. Ltd, Zhengzhou 450008 (China)

    2009-05-15

    To improve antithrombogenicity and reduce ultraviolet transmittance, polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses (PMMA IOLs) were pretreated with Ar plasma and combined with heparin (Hp), with polyglycol (PEG) and with both Hp and PEG in a plasma atmosphere. The resulting modified PMMA IOLs denoted as PEG-PMMA, Hp-PMMA and Hp-PEG-PMMA were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), contact angle (CA) and platelet adhesion experiments. The results indicated that Hp and PEG had been successfully immobilized onto the surfaces of PMMA IOLs. Antithrombogenicity was improved remarkably and ultraviolet transmittance was reduced as well.

  7. Investigating Feasibility of Multiple UHF Passive RFID Transmitters Using Backscatter Modulation Scheme in BCI Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Ajrawi, Shams; Sarkar, Mahasweta; Mihovska, Albena

    Building a wireless body area network (WBAN) application including implantable transceivers placed inside the human brain to collect the data from the electrodes and transmit them wirelessly to a controller placed outside the brain on the scalp faced major challenges. The transmission...... using passive RFID as the implantable transmitters and letting them operate in the UHF range. Backscatter modulation has been used as a power transfer mechanism. Investigation on the feasibility and applicability of implantable UHF Passive RFID transmitters inside the brain is done for capturing multi......-channel ECoG signals when traversing through a phantom brain model as a transmission medium for the experiments at a high data transfer rate. Detailed analysis has been done on parameters such as Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), signal to noise ratio (SNR), Maximum number of electrodes, Path Loss...

  8. Dependence of transmittance and group index on the coupling strength between constituents of a metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy Vu, Tran Thanh; Lee, Young Pak; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Rhee, Joo Yull; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on the coupling effects between constituent elements of metamaterials have opened up a new gateway to many fascinating electromagnetic properties and functionalities that cannot be explained by the uncoupled point of view. In this work, we numerically investigated, in a THz regime, the coupling between a cut wire and a split-ring resonator, which gives rise to an interesting phenomenon—the so-called electromagnetically induced transparency-like effect. The trade-off between the maximum transmittance of the transmission window and the group index, which depends on the coupling strength between constituent elements, was systematically studied. Furthermore, by characterizing this trade-off by the transmittance-delay product (figure of merit), a criterion for slow-light applications was provided

  9. CMOS 60-GHz and E-band power amplifiers and transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dixian

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the development of design techniques and methodologies for 60-GHz and E-band power amplifiers and transmitters at device, circuit and layout levels. The authors show the recent development of millimeter-wave design techniques, especially of power amplifiers and transmitters, and presents novel design concepts, such as “power transistor layout” and “4-way parallel-series power combiner”, that can enhance the output power and efficiency of power amplifiers in a compact silicon area. Five state-of-the-art 60-GHz and E-band designs with measured results are demonstrated to prove the effectiveness of the design concepts and hands-on methodologies presented. This book serves as a valuable reference for circuit designers to develop millimeter-wave building blocks for future 5G applications.

  10. FDTD simulation of transmittance characteristics of one-dimensional conducting electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kilbock; Song, Seok Ho; Ahn, Jinho

    2014-03-24

    We investigated transparent conducting electrodes consisting of periodic one-dimensional Ag or Al grids with widths from 25 nm to 5 μm via the finite-difference time-domain method. To retain high transmittance, two grid configurations with opening ratios of 90% and 95% were simulated. Polarization-dependent characteristics of the transmission spectra revealed that the overall transmittance of micron-scale grid electrodes may be estimated by the sum of light power passing through the uncovered area and the light power penetrating the covered metal layer. However, several dominant physical phenomena significantly affect the transmission spectra of the nanoscale grids: Rayleigh anomaly, transmission decay in TE polarized mode, and localized surface plasmon resonance. We conclude that, for applications of transparent electrodes, the critical feature sizes of conducting 1D grids should not be less than the wavelength scale in order to maintain uniform and predictable transmission spectra and low electrical resistivity.

  11. Component-Level Selection and Qualification for the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) Laser Altimeter Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Erich A.; Chiragh, Furqan L.; Switzer, Robert; Vasilyev, Aleksey A.; Thomes, Joe; Coyle, D. Barry; Stysley, Paul R.

    2018-01-01

    Flight quality solid-state lasers require a unique and extensive set of testing and qualification processes, both at the system and component levels to insure the laser's promised performance. As important as the overall laser transmitter design is, the quality and performance of individual subassemblies, optics, and electro-optics dictate the final laser unit's quality. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) laser transmitters employ all the usual components typical for a diode-pumped, solid-state laser, yet must each go through their own individual process of specification, modeling, performance demonstration, inspection, and destructive testing. These qualification processes and results for the laser crystals, laser diode arrays, electro-optics, and optics, will be reviewed as well as the relevant critical issues encountered, prior to their installation in the GEDI flight laser units.

  12. Application of smart transmitter technology in nuclear engineering measurements with level detection algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In this study a programmable smart transmitter is designed and applied to the nuclear engineering measurements. In order to apply the smart transmitter technology to nuclear engineering measurements, the water level detection function is developed and applied in this work. In the real time system, the application of level detection algorithm can make the operator of the nuclear power plant sense the water level more rapidly. Furthermore this work can simplify the data communication between the level-sensing thermocouples and the main signal processor because the level signal is determined at field. The water level detection function reduces the detection time to about 8.3 seconds by processing the signal which has the time constant 250 seconds and the heavy noise signal

  13. Performance improvement of 100 kW high frequency transmitter for CW operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Bae, Y. D.; Cho, C. G.; Wang, S. J.; Lee, K. D.

    2001-08-01

    For the plasma heating of KSTAR(Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research)by using ICH(Ion Cyclotron Heating), it is designed that the selective ion heating and current drive are performed by the transmitter with the rf power of 8 MW in the frequency range of 25-60 MHz. 100 kW HF transmitter was constructed for the high voltage/current test of ICH antenna and HF transmission components. The output power is about 100 kW around 30 MHz. Thomson 581 tetrode is used for the final amplifier whose cavity type is ground cathode. Overall gain is above 15 dB and the bandwidth is about 100 kHz

  14. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; Sun, Yannan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Fu, Tao; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2014-11-01

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.

  15. A method of reconstructing the spatial measurement network by mobile measurement transmitter for shipbuilding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Siyang; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Ren, Yongjie; Guo, Yin

    2017-01-01

    The workshop Measurement Position System (wMPS) is a distributed measurement system which is suitable for the large-scale metrology. However, there are some inevitable measurement problems in the shipbuilding industry, such as the restriction by obstacles and limited measurement range. To deal with these factors, this paper presents a method of reconstructing the spatial measurement network by mobile transmitter. A high-precision coordinate control network with more than six target points is established. The mobile measuring transmitter can be added into the measurement network using this coordinate control network with the spatial resection method. This method reconstructs the measurement network and broadens the measurement scope efficiently. To verify this method, two comparison experiments are designed with the laser tracker as the reference. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of point-to-point length is better than 0.4mm and the accuracy of coordinate measurement is better than 0.6mm. (paper)

  16. Spatio Temporal Variability of the Global Transmittance During the Arctic POLARSTERN Expedition 106/1 Ice Floe Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos Velasco, C.; Macke, A.; Griesche, H.; Engelmann, R.; Deneke, H.; Seifert, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at a higher rate than the rest of the planet. This has been leading to a dramatically decrease of snow coverage and sea ice thickness in recent years and several studies have suggested that a similar trend is expected in the upcoming years. Large uncertainties in predicting the Arctic climate arise from our lack of understanding the role clouds play in sea ice / atmosphere interaction. During summer the shortwave radiation dominates and clouds have a net cooling effect at the surface. The strength of this cooling critically depends on cloud phase, composition and height. Clouds interactions with aerosols, and its sensitivity to surface properties further complicates their role in the Arctic system. Scattering between the surface and cloud layers amplifies the cloud shortwave contribution, especially over a highly reflective surface such as snow or ice. Therefore, to comprehend how the Arctic's surface is significantly modulated by solar radiation is necessary to more clearly understand the cloud-induced spatio-temporal variability at process relevant scales. Irradiance variability may also have an effect on the biological productivity of various plankton species below the ice. The present study provides an overview of spatio-temporal variability at spatial scales ranging from several decameters to 1 kilometer of the global transmittance derived from 15 pyranometer stations installed at an ice floe station (June 4-16 2017) during the POLARSTERN expedition PS106/1. Specific irradiance statistics under clear sky, broken clouds and overcast conditions will be described considering the combination of a Cloud Radar Mira 35 and a Polly Raman polarization Lidar. Ultimately, radiative closure studies will be performed to quantify our abilities to reproduce realistic cloud solar radiative forcing under Arctic conditions. Acknowledgements. This research is funded by Deutsche Forschunsgemeinschaft (DFG) and involves the active participation of Leibniz

  17. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV | Solar Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    customer economics. Illustration titled "The Solar Plus Home," showing depicting the relationship rate structures that affect the customer value of PV generation. At the same time, increasing PV . These issues have prompted the PV industry to consider new ways to optimize the customer value of

  18. Diffusion Length Mapping for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Cinà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion length (L of photogenerated carriers in the nanoporous electrode is a key parameter that summarizes the collection efficiency behavior in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. At present, there are few techniques able to spatially resolve L over the active area of the device. Most of them require contact patterning and, hence, are intrinsically destructive. Here, we present the first electron diffusion length mapping system for DSCs based on steady state incident photon to collected electron (IPCE conversion efficiency ( η I P C E analysis. The measurement is conducted by acquiring complete transmittance ( T DSC and η I P C E spectra from the photo electrode (PE and counter electrode (CE for each spatial point in a raster scan manner. L ( x , y is obtained by a least square fitting of the IPCE ratio spectrum ( I P C E R = η I P C E -CE η I P C E -PE . An advanced feature is the ability to acquire η I P C E spectra using low-intensity probe illumination under weakly-absorbed background light (625 nm with the device biased close to open circuit voltage. These homogeneous conditions permit the linearization of the free electron continuity equation and, hence, to obtain the collection efficiency expressions ( η COL-PE and η COL-CE . The influence of the parameter’s uncertainty has been quantified by a sensitivity study of L. The result has been validated by quantitatively comparing the average value of L map with the value estimated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  19. Accurate Modeling of Ionospheric Electromagnetic Fields Generated by a Low Altitude VLF Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2009-1055 Accurate Modeling of Ionospheric Electromagnetic Fields Generated by a Low Altitude VLF Transmitter ...m (or even 500 m) at mid to high latitudes . At low latitudes , the FDTD model exhibits variations that make it difficult to determine a reliable...Scientific, Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 02-08-2006 – 31-12-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Accurate Modeling of Ionospheric Electromagnetic Fields

  20. Pyrolyzed Photoresist Electrodes for Integration in Microfluidic Chips for Transmitter Detection from Biological Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Amato, Letizia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we show how pyrolyzed photoresist carbon electrodes can be used for amperometric detection of potassium-induced transmitter release from large groups of neuronal PC 12 cells. This opens the way for the use of carbon film electrodes in microfabricated devices for neurochemical drug ...... by the difference in photoresist viscosity. By adding a soft bake step to the fabrication procedure, the flatness of pyrolyzed AZ 5214 electrodes could be improved which would facilitate their integration in microfluidic chip devices....

  1. An Advanced Detecting Scheme against a Signal Distortion with a Smart Transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Jun Young; Kim, Young Mi

    2013-01-01

    The analog signal distortion could be detected. Also the data integrity for information security could be provided. The assurance of the integrity in digital information as well as analog signals is necessary. The above proposed schemes can be utilized for detecting the modification of the digital information or analog signal distortion without any of authentication. These effects have merits of the defenses for analog signals and cyber security in terms of information integrity. There are many kinds of measuring nuclear I and C system. Thus, the applicable algorithms may be different according to the lightness or the level of the security in each measuring system. In the future, finding and applying the efficient algorithms in each measuring systems in the nuclear power plant should be studied. As the I and C system will be gradually digitalized, the requirements for basic security concepts should be considered and applied. As IT technology has been much developed, measuring nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) systems also is going to be evolving. At this point, the smart transmitter has been developed and tried to be applied. Recently, constructed nuclear power plants in Korea have adopted the smart meters. In case of Shin-Kori unit 3, about 59 safety grade smart transmitters and about 180 non-safety grade smart transmitters are used for measuring various signals. In the field of measuring nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) systems, the cyber security problems can happen more. Thus, providing defense methods against possible cyber attacks are essential. In particular, the defense schemes for providing data information integrity will be essential. In addition, it is necessary to detect the analog signal distortion between the host smart transmitters and the client cabinet. In this paper, applicable one of directions and methods against the above two problems are proposed

  2. New developments on ChemCam laser transmitter and potential applications for other planetology programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Benoît; Durand, Eric; Maurice, Sylvestre; Bruneau, Didier; Montmessin, Franck

    2017-11-01

    ChemCam is a LIBS Instrument mounted on the MSL 2011 NASA mission. The laser transmitter of this Instrument has been developed by the French society Thales Optronique (former Thales Laser) with a strong technical support from CNES. The paper will first rapidly present the performance of this laser and will then describe the postChemCam developments realized on and around this laser for new planetology programs.

  3. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo; Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Lau, Wah Tung; Ren, Hengjiang; Li, Er-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  4. Design and Development of a Pressure Transmitter Using Modified Inductance Measuring Network and Bellow Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Lakshmi Narayana K.; Bhujanga Rao A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a pressure transmitter using a modified op-amp based network for inductance measurement using a bellow as sensor has been proposed to measure the pressure and to convert pressure changes in to an electrical current which can be transmitted to a remote indicator. The change in inductance due to change in pressure is measured by an improved modified operational amplifier based network. The proposed network permits offset inductance compensation of sensing coil and also minimizes ...

  5. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    KAUST Repository

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto

    2012-08-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints is derived. A suboptimal scheme is proposed to overcome the frequency of outages for the independent peak transmission rate constraint. In all cases, numerical results are provided for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Worldwide OMEGA and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Transmitter Outages, January to December 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    WORLDWIDE OMEGA AND VERY LOW FREQUENCY IVLF) TRANSMITTER OUTAGE--ETC, MAY 81 L RZONCA ,’,L.ASSI LED FAA-CT-81-26 FAA-RD- B1 -29 UL7 A-I’ l15FDRL AIO...computer for the time period GBR - Rugby , England (16.00 kHz) January to December 1980. (For the purposes of this report, any downtime NA - Cutler, Maine

  7. An Advanced Detecting Scheme against a Signal Distortion with a Smart Transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jun Young; Kim, Young Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The analog signal distortion could be detected. Also the data integrity for information security could be provided. The assurance of the integrity in digital information as well as analog signals is necessary. The above proposed schemes can be utilized for detecting the modification of the digital information or analog signal distortion without any of authentication. These effects have merits of the defenses for analog signals and cyber security in terms of information integrity. There are many kinds of measuring nuclear I and C system. Thus, the applicable algorithms may be different according to the lightness or the level of the security in each measuring system. In the future, finding and applying the efficient algorithms in each measuring systems in the nuclear power plant should be studied. As the I and C system will be gradually digitalized, the requirements for basic security concepts should be considered and applied. As IT technology has been much developed, measuring nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) systems also is going to be evolving. At this point, the smart transmitter has been developed and tried to be applied. Recently, constructed nuclear power plants in Korea have adopted the smart meters. In case of Shin-Kori unit 3, about 59 safety grade smart transmitters and about 180 non-safety grade smart transmitters are used for measuring various signals. In the field of measuring nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) systems, the cyber security problems can happen more. Thus, providing defense methods against possible cyber attacks are essential. In particular, the defense schemes for providing data information integrity will be essential. In addition, it is necessary to detect the analog signal distortion between the host smart transmitters and the client cabinet. In this paper, applicable one of directions and methods against the above two problems are proposed.

  8. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo

    2016-02-24

    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  9. Polarization-, carrier-, and format-selectable optical flow generation based on a multi-flow transmitter using passive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katopodis, V.; Spyropoulou, M.; Tsokos, C.

    2016-01-01

    and acting as the interface between any software defined switch and the physical layer transport equipment. The transmitter has been evaluated within a flexible network node comprising programmable flexible wavelength selective switches (WSSs). Two single-flow scenarios based on a dual-polarization m...... generation is feasible with appropriate distribution of the client data in the digital domain and encapsulation into OTN containers. Configuration of the electrical and optical transmitter resources is performed via a developed software defined optics (SDO) platform residing on top of the transmitter...

  10. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  11. Effects of harness transmitters on behavior and reproduction of wild mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Krapu, Gary L.; Greenwood, Raymond J.; Lokemoen, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Radio telemetry has been an important research tool in waterfowl studies for >20 years, yet little effort has been made to evaluate potential effects of transmitters on the birds that carry them. As part of a 4-year mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota and Minnesota, we compared radio-marked and unmarked female mallards in terms of percent time observed feeding, resting, and preening; nest initiation date; and clutch size and egg volume. Radio-marked females carried a 23-g back-mounted transmitter attached with a 2-loop harness (Dwyer 1972). On average, radio-marked females tended to feed less, rest and preen more, initiate nests later, and lay smaller clutches and eggs than unmarked females. Thus, behavioral and reproductive data from ducks marked with back-mounted harness-attached transmitters may be biased. We recommend that new designs of radio packages be field tested and caution that effects may be masked under extreme environmental conditions.

  12. Analysis of Intermodulation Distortion in OFDM Based Transmitter Using EER Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matejka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, new digital modulation systems have appeared in the audio broadcasting. Such broadcasting systems require new transmitters’ concepts to enable the transmission of digitally modulated signals. Moreover, the selected modulation schemes (e.g. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing require a high linearity power stage, which typically exhibits low efficiency due to high peak-toaverage power ratio of the modulated signal. One of the promising transmitter concepts is the Kahn envelope elimination and restoration technique, where the original Cartesian in-phase and quadrature baseband signals are transformed to the envelope and phase signals. The main advantage of this technique is an ability to employ suitable types of highly efficient amplitude modulation transmitters for envelope amplification, while the phase modulated carrier is produced by an additional phase modulator. The substantial drawback of envelope elimination and restoration is nonideal recombination of linearly distorted amplitude signal and phase modulated carrier at the output power stage. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to analyze the effect of the envelope and phase signals bandwidth limitation on the modulated signal in-channel distortion and out-ofchannel emission. Secondly, to present the performance results as a reference for transmitter designers to properly set the envelope and phase paths to reach required in-channel signal quality and suppress out-of-channel products.

  13. A study on suppressing transmittance fluctuations for air-gapped Glan-type polarizing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfa; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Li, Chuanzhi; Jiao, Zhiyong; Wang, Ning; Xu, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiumin; Song, Lianke

    2018-05-01

    Light intensity transmittance is a key parameter for the design of polarizing prisms, while sometimes its experimental curves based on spatial incident angle presents periodical fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel method for completely suppressing these fluctuations via setting a glued error angle in the air gap of Glan-Taylor prisms. The proposal consists of: an accurate formula of the intensity transmittance for Glan-Taylor prisms, a numerical simulation and a contrast experiment of Glan-Taylor prisms for analyzing the causes of the fluctuations, and a simple method for accurately measuring the glued error angle. The result indicates that when the setting glued error angle is larger than the critical angle for a certain polarizing prism, the fluctuations can be completely suppressed, and a smooth intensity transmittance curve can be obtained. Besides, the critical angle in the air gap for suppressing the fluctuations is decreased with the increase of beam spot size. This method has the advantage of having less demand for the prism position in optical systems.

  14. Configurable Transmitter and Systolic Channel Estimator Architectures for Data-Dependent Superimposed Training Communications Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero-Aguirre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a configurable superimposed training (ST/data-dependent ST (DDST transmitter and architecture based on array processors (APs for DDST channel estimation are presented. Both architectures, designed under full-hardware paradigm, were described using Verilog HDL, targeted in Xilinx Virtex-5 and they were compared with existent approaches. The synthesis results showed a FPGA slice consumption of 1% for the transmitter and 3% for the estimator with 160 and 115 MHz operating frequencies, respectively. The signal-to-quantization-noise ratio (SQNR performance of the transmitter is about 82 dB to support 4/16/64-QAM modulation. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the mean square error (MSE of the channel estimator implemented in hardware is practically the same as the one obtained with the floating-point golden model. The high performance and reduced hardware of the proposed architectures lead to the conclusion that the DDST concept can be applied in current communications standards.

  15. A dual-mode 6-9 GHz transmitter for OFDM-UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunfeng; Gao Ting; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated dual-mode 6 to 9 GHz transmitter for both WiMedia and China MB-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed transmitter consists of a dual-mode I/QLPF, an up-conversion mixer, a two-stage power driver amplifier and a broadband high-speed frequency divider with LO buffers for I/Q LO carrier generation. The measurement results show that the gain ripple of the transmitter is within ±1.5/±2.8 dB from 6 to 8.7/9 GHz. The output IP3 is about +13.2 dBm, the output 1dBCP is around +2.8 dBm, and the LO leakage/sideband rejection ratio is about -35/-38 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated with a TSMC 0.13 μm RFCMOS process with a die size of 1.6 x 1.3 mm 2 and the core circuit consumes only 46 mA under a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A dual-mode 6-9 GHz transmitter for OFDM-UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yunfeng; Gao Ting; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents a fully integrated dual-mode 6 to 9 GHz transmitter for both WiMedia and China MB-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed transmitter consists of a dual-mode I/QLPF, an up-conversion mixer, a two-stage power driver amplifier and a broadband high-speed frequency divider with LO buffers for I/Q LO carrier generation. The measurement results show that the gain ripple of the transmitter is within {+-}1.5/{+-}2.8 dB from 6 to 8.7/9 GHz. The output IP3 is about +13.2 dBm, the output 1dBCP is around +2.8 dBm, and the LO leakage/sideband rejection ratio is about -35/-38 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated with a TSMC 0.13 {mu}m RFCMOS process with a die size of 1.6 x 1.3 mm{sup 2} and the core circuit consumes only 46 mA under a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. A New Position Location System Using DTV Transmitter Identification Watermark Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouinard Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new position location technique using the transmitter identification (TxID RF watermark in the digital TV (DTV signals is proposed in this paper. Conventional global positioning system (GPS usually does not work well inside buildings due to the high frequency and weak field strength of the signal. In contrast to the GPS, the DTV signals are received from transmitters at relatively short distance, while the broadcast transmitters operate at levels up to the megawatts effective radiated power (ERP. Also the RF frequency of the DTV signal is much lower than the GPS, which makes it easier for the signal to penetrate buildings and other objects. The proposed position location system based on DTV TxID signal is presented in this paper. Practical receiver implementation issues including nonideal correlation and synchronization are analyzed and discussed. Performance of the proposed technique is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations and compared with other existing position location systems. Possible ways to improve the accuracy of the new position location system is discussed.

  18. [Study on predicting firmness of watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Ying, Yi-Bin; Lu, Hui-Shan; Xu, Hui-Rong; Xie, Li-Juan; Fu, Xia-Ping; Yu, Hai-Yan

    2007-06-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world and firmness (FM) is one of the major characteristics used for assessing watermelon quality. The objective of the present research was to study the potential of visible/near Infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance spectroscopy as a way for the nondestructive measurement of FM of watermelon. Statistical models between the spectra and FM were developed using partial least square (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) methods. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients (r) of validation set of samples and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP). Models for three kinds of mathematical treatments of spectra (original, first derivative and second derivative) were established. Savitsky-Goaly filter smoothing method was used for spectra data smoothing. The PLS model of the second derivative spectra gave the best prediction of FM, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0. 974 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0. 589 N using Savitsky-Goaly filter smoothing method. The results of this study indicate that NIR diffuse transmittance spectroscopy can be used to predict the FM of watermelon. The Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique will be valuable for the nandestructive detection large shape and thick peel fruits'.

  19. Thermal Transmittance of Porous Hollow Clay Brick by Guarded Hot Box Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonsoo

    2018-03-01

    The thermal property of a porous hollow clay brick was determined by measuring the thermal transmittance of the wall made of porous hollow clay bricks. Prior to the production of porous hollow clay bricks, nonporous and porous tiny clay bricks were prepared to determine the physico-mechanical properties by modifying the amount of wood flour and firing temperature. The bricks were produced by uniaxial pressing and then fired in an electric furnace. Their physico-mechanical properties were measured by water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, and compressive strength. The porous tiny clay bricks were produced with three types of wood flour: coarse wood flour (1-0.36 mm), medium-sized wood flour (0.36-0.15 mm), and fine wood flour (cement bricks. The two walls had a thermal transmittance of 1.42 and 2.72 W\\cdot m^{-2}\\cdot K^{-1}, respectively. The difference in thermal transmittance was due to the pores created with fine wood flour (< 0.08 mm) as a pore-forming agent.

  20. Thermal effects on the bulk luminous transmittance and track recording characteristics of dyed cellulose nitrate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.; Lal, N.; Nagpaul, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Simple heat treatment of polymers produces various typical morphological and chemical changes which consequently alter their physical and track registration properties. Bulk colour fading and alpha-track annealing effects have been studied in Kodak Pathe red-dyed cellulose nitrate film LR-115, type II and another Kodak product CA80-15, lightly rose-tinted cellulose nitrate, as a result of thermal annealing (room temperature to 155 0 C for times of 30 min to 16 h). The degree of colour fading has been measured in terms of percentage transmission of ordinary white light as sensed by a cadmium sulphide photoconductive cell, imitating the response of the human eye. It is found that at a given temperature, the transmittance rises first and acquires near-saturation after a certain annealing time. In the measurements reported here, it is seen that near-saturation transmittance is approximately proportional to the square root of the product of annealing time and temperature. The possibility of using these colour fading and transmittance measurements as an index of latent track fading is described. (orig.)

  1. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  2. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  3. Reflectance, absorbance and transmittance spectra of bermudagrass and manilagrass turfgrass canopies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Volterrani

    Full Text Available Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella 'Zeon', were studied. The aim was to describe their canopy architecture grown with minimal disturbance to the natural arrangement of the leaves and stems, and to determine the potential effects of canopy architecture on light penetration and reflectance. Radiometric measurements were carried out at eight different profile levels of turfgrasses that were up to 12 cm tall. A LI-COR 1800 spectroradiometer with an optical fiber cable and a 7 mm diameter sensor was used. Measurements were carried out in the 390-1100 nm region at 5 nm intervals. The LAI value was higher for the manilagrass (9.0 than for the hybrid bermudagrass (5.6. The transmitted radiation was found to be closely dependent on downward cumulative LAI. Despite a more upright habit (mean insertion angle of 22.4° ±3.4, Zoysia matrella showed a higher NIR reflectance compared to Cdxt, which has a horizontal leaf arrangement (mean insertion angle 62.1° ± 9.6. The species studied showed substantial differences both in terms of phytometric characteristics and in the capacity to attenuate solar radiation.

  4. Reflectance, absorbance and transmittance spectra of bermudagrass and manilagrass turfgrass canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterrani, Marco; Minelli, Alberto; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Caturegli, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Leaves act as a primary organ for the interception of solar radiation and their spatial arrangement determines how the plant canopy interacts with light. Many studies have been carried out on the penetration of radiation into crops however to date, few results are available on turfgrasses, mainly due to the difficulties of introducing sensors into the turf without disturbing the natural position of the leaves. In the present research two warm season turfgrasses, hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × transvaalensis) 'Patriot' and manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) 'Zeon', were studied. The aim was to describe their canopy architecture grown with minimal disturbance to the natural arrangement of the leaves and stems, and to determine the potential effects of canopy architecture on light penetration and reflectance. Radiometric measurements were carried out at eight different profile levels of turfgrasses that were up to 12 cm tall. A LI-COR 1800 spectroradiometer with an optical fiber cable and a 7 mm diameter sensor was used. Measurements were carried out in the 390-1100 nm region at 5 nm intervals. The LAI value was higher for the manilagrass (9.0) than for the hybrid bermudagrass (5.6). The transmitted radiation was found to be closely dependent on downward cumulative LAI. Despite a more upright habit (mean insertion angle of 22.4° ±3.4), Zoysia matrella showed a higher NIR reflectance compared to Cdxt, which has a horizontal leaf arrangement (mean insertion angle 62.1° ± 9.6). The species studied showed substantial differences both in terms of phytometric characteristics and in the capacity to attenuate solar radiation.

  5. Low-temperature, solution-processed aluminum-doped zinc oxide as electron transport layer for stable efficient polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qianqian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Bao, Xichang, E-mail: baoxc@qibebt.ac.cn [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yu, Jianhua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhu, Dangqiang [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Zhang, Qian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Gu, Chuantao [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Dong, Hongzhou [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Yang, Renqiang [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Dong, Lifeng, E-mail: DongLifeng@qust.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Department of Physics, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104 (United States)

    2016-04-30

    A simple low-temperature solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) were synthesized and investigated as an electron transport layer (ETL) for inverted polymer solar cells. A solar cell with a blend of poly(4,8-bis-alkyloxy-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-alt-alkylcarbonyl-thieno [3,4-b] thiophene) and (6,6)-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and AZO as ETL demonstrates a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.36% under the illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. Compared to the cells with ZnO ETL (PCE of 6.85%), the PCE is improved by 7.45% with the introduction of an AZO layer. The improved PCE is ascribed to the enhanced short circuit current density, which results from the electron transport property of the AZO layer. Moreover, AZO is a more stable interfacial layer than ZnO. The PCE of the solar cells with AZO as ETL retain 85% of their original value after storage for 120 days, superior to the 39% of cells with ZnO ETL. The results above indicate that a simple low-temperature solution-processed AZO film is an efficient and economical ETL for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells. Due to its environmental friendliness, good electrical properties, and simple preparation approach, AZO has the potential to be applied in high-performance, large-scale industrialization of solar cells and other electronic devices. - Highlights: • ZnO and AZO were synthesized by a simple low-temperature solution-processed method. • AZO films show high transmittance and conductivity. • The photovoltaic performance can be improved with AZO as ETL. • AZO-based devices demonstrate excellent stability, with 85% retained after 120 days.

  6. Nowcasting solar irradiance using the sunshine number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulescu, Marius; Mares, Oana; Paulescu, Eugenia; Stefu, Nicoleta; Pacurar, Angel; Calinoiu, Delia; Gravila, Paul; Pop, Nicolina; Boata, Remus

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new two-state model for forecasting solar irradiance is proposed. • Sunshine number conditions the transition between states. • High performance is reported. • Modularity and flexibility are advantages. - Abstract: This paper focuses on short-term forecasting of solar irradiance. An innovative two-state model is proposed: if the sun is shining, the solar irradiance is estimated with an empirical model fitted on historical data; if the sun is covered, the clear sky solar irradiance is adjusted according to the cloud transmittance. The distinction between these two states is made by the sunshine number, a binary indicator of whether the Sun is covered by clouds or not, previously introduced by Badescu (2002). Sunshine number is the sole quantity effectively forecasted in the model. The general structure of the model and its advantages are discussed. Its performance on real data is demonstrated, and comparison of the model results against classical ARIMA approach applied to clearness index time series, as main competitor, is made. We conclude with an outlook to future developments oriented to improve the model accuracy

  7. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  8. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.N.

    1987-09-01

    The problem with solar neutrinos is that there seem to be too few of them, at least near the top end of the spectrum, since the 37 Cl detector finds only about 35% of the standard predicted flux. Various kinds of explanation have been offered: (a) the standard solar model is wrong, (b) neutrinos decay, (c) neutrinos have magnetic moments, (d) neutrinos oscillate. The paper surveys developments in each of these areas, especially the possible enhancement of neutrino oscillations by matter effects and adiabatic level crossing. The prospects for further independent experiments are also discussed. (author)

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  11. Upright nanopyramid structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning effects for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amalathas, Amalraj Peter; Alkaisi, Maan M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of upright nanopyramid (UNP) structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning functions on the device performance of monocrystalline Si solar cells. The UNP structures were fabricated on the surface of the glass substrate by simple, high throughput and low cost UV nanoimprint lithography, using a Si master mold with inverted nanopyramid (INP) structures. The diffuse transmittance and haze ratio values were significantly increased for UNP patterned glass, especially in the wavelength range 300–600 nm compared to the bare glass; this implies that antireflection and strong light scattering are due to the UNP structures. By replacing a bare cover glass with UNP patterned glass, the power conversion efficiency of the monocrystalline Si solar cell was substantially enhanced by about 10.97%; this is mainly due to the increased short-circuit current density J SC of 32.39 mA cm −2 compared to the reference cell with bare cover glass (i.e. J SC   =  31.60 mA cm −2 ). In addition, unlike the bare cover glass (i.e. θ CA ∼ 36°), the fluorinated UNP structured cover glass exhibited a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle ( θ CA ) of ∼132° and excellent self-cleaning of dust particles by rolling down water droplets. (paper)

  12. Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and GIS Based Solar Analysis for Solar Potential Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakoǧlu, Berkant; Usta, Ziya; Cömert, Çetin; Gökalp, Ertan

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, estimation of solar potential plays an important role in planning process for sustainable cities. The use of solar panels, which produces electricity directly from the sun, has become popular in accordance with developing technologies. Since the use of solar panels enables the users to decrease costs and increase yields, the use of solar panels will be more popular in the future. Production of electricity is not convenient for all circumstances. Shading effects, massive clouds and rainy weather are some factors that directly affect the production of electricity from solar energy. Hence, before the installation of solar panels, it is crucial to conduct spatial analysis and estimate the solar potential of the place that the solar panel will be installed. There are several approaches to determine the solar potential. Examination of the applications in the literature reveals that the applications conducted for determining the solar potential are divided into two main categories. Solar potential is estimated either by using artificial neural network approach in which statistical parameters such as the duration of sun shine, number of clear days, solar radiation etc. are used, or by spatial analysis conducted in GIS approaches in which spatial parameters such as, latitude, longitude, slope, aspect etc. are used. In the literature, there are several studies that use both approaches but the literature lacks of a study related to the comparison of these approaches. In this study, Karadeniz Technical University campus has been selected as study area. Monthly average values of the number of clear sky days, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine duration and solar radiation parameters obtained for the years between 2005 and 2015 will be used to perform artificial neural network analysis to estimate the solar potential of the study area. The solar potential will also be estimated by using GIS-based solar analysis modules. The results of

  13. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  14. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  15. Attaching transmitters to waterbirds using one versus two subcutaneous anchors: Retention and survival trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Dickson, Rian D.; Anderson, Eric M.; Evenson, Joseph R.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge of wildlife telemetry is choosing an attachment technique that maximizes transmitter retention while minimizing negative side effects. For waterbirds, attachment of transmitters with subcutaneous anchors has been an effective and well-established technique, having been used on >40 species. This method was recently modified to include a second subcutaneous anchor, presumably increasing transmitter retention beyond that of single-anchor attachments. This putative benefit may be offset, however, by increased health risks related to additional incisions and subcutaneous protrusions. To test this potential trade-off, we attached radiotransmitters to molting and wintering surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (M. fusca) during 2008 and 2009 in Washington State and southeast Alaska, USA, using single- (121 scoters) and double-anchor (128 scoters) attachment techniques. We estimated daily probabilities of survival and radio retention for each group, this being apparent retention for wintering scoters because we could not differentiate shed transmitters from flighted emigration. For scoters during the flightless remigial molt, we found that addition of a second anchor increased cumulative retention probability (±SE) over a 49-day period from 0.69 ± 0.11 for single-anchor to 0.88 ± 0.07 for double-anchor attachments, while having no effect on survival. However, during winter, scoters with double-anchor attachments experienced no improvement in apparent retention, while having significantly lower survival during their first 14 days following transmitter attachment; of 15 mortalities during this period, 11 had 2 subcutaneous anchors. From day 15 onward, winter survival rates were nearly identical for single- versus double-anchor attachments, indicating that adverse effects of subcutaneous anchors were mainly limited to the 14-day postattachment period. Overall, given that the survival cost of adding a second subcutaneous anchor

  16. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  17. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  18. Synergistic effect of solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    Waterborne diseases are still common in developing countries as drinking water sources are contaminated and feasible means to reliably treat and disinfect these waters are not available. Many of these developing countries are in the tropical regions of the world where sunlight is plentiful. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect contaminated water using a modified Family Sol*Saver System (FSP). The non-UV transmittable cover sheet of the former FSP system was replaced with an UV transmittable plastic cover sheet to enable more wavelengths of sunlight to treat the water. Disinfection efficiency of both systems was evaluated based on reduction of the natural populations of faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, total heterotrophic bacteria, hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria and FRNA virus. The results showed that under sunny and partly sunny conditions, water was heated to critical temperature (60 degrees C) in both the FSP systems inactivating more than 3 log (99.9%) of the concentrations of faecal coliform and E. coli to undetectable levels of heat worked synergistically to enhance the inactivation of faecal indicator bacteria. The relative log removal of indicator microorganism in the FSP treated water was total heterotrophic bacteria heat and radiation effects of sunlight were important in disinfecting water by solar units. The data indicated that direct radiation of sunlight worked synergistically with solar heating of the water to disinfect the water. Thus, effective disinfection was observed even when the water temperature did not reach 60 degrees C. Finally, the hydrogen sulphide test is a simple and reliable test that householders can use to determine whether their water had been sufficiently disinfected.

  19. Rotation of the Solar Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    Regular measurements of the general magnetic field of the Sun, performed over about half a century at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, the J. Wilcox Solar Observatory, and five other observatories, are considered in detail for the time 1968 - 2016. They include more than twenty-six thousand daily values of the mean line-of-sight field strength of the visible solar hemisphere. On the basis of these values, the equatorial rotation period of the Sun is found to be 26.926(9) d (synodic). It is shown that its half-value coincides within error limits with both the main period of the magnetic four-sector structure, 13.4577(25) d, and the best-commensurate period of the slow motions of the major solar system bodies, 13.479(22) d (sidereal). The probability that the two periods coincide by chance is estimated to be about 10^{-7}. The true origin of this odd resonance is unknown.

  20. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Matsuo, Yutaka; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2018-01-22

    Photovoltaics, more generally known as solar cells, are made from semiconducting materials that convert light into electricity. Solar cells have received much attention in recent years due to their promise as clean and efficient light-harvesting devices. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) could play a crucial role in these devices and have been the subject of much research, which continues to this day. SWNTs are known to outperform multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) at low densities, because of the difference in their optical transmittance for the same current density, which is the most important parameter in comparing SWNTs and MWNTs. SWNT films show semiconducting features, which make SWNTs function as active or charge-transporting materials. This chapter, consisting of two sections, focuses on the use of SWNTs in solar cells. In the first section, we discuss SWNTs as a light harvester and charge transporter in the photoactive layer, which are reviewed chronologically to show the history of the research progress. In the second section, we discuss SWNTs as a transparent conductive layer outside of the photoactive layer, which is relatively more actively researched. This section introduces SWNT applications in silicon solar cells, organic solar cells, and perovskite solar cells each, from their prototypes to recent results. As we go along, the science and prospects of the application of solar cells will be discussed.