WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar thermal-electric power

  1. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Possibilities for retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants using solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matjanov, Erkinjon K.; Abduganieva, Farogat A.; Aminov, Zarif Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Total installed electric power output of the existing thermal electric power plants in Uzbekistan is reaches 12 GW. Thermal electric power plants, working on organic fuel, produce around 88 % of the electricity in the country. The emission coefficient of CO 2 gases is 620 gram/kwph. Average electric efficiency of the thermal electric power plants is 32.1 %. The mentioned above data certifies, that the existing thermal electric power plants of Uzbekistan are physically and morally aged and they need to be retrofitted. Retrofitting of the existing thermal electric power plants can be done by several ways such as via including gas turbine toppings, by using solar technologies, etc. Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology which has already shown its enormous promise. With few environmental impacts and a massive resource, it offers a comparable opportunity to the sunniest Uzbekistan. Solar thermal power uses direct sunlight, so it must be sited in regions with high direct solar radiation. In many regions, one square km of land is enough to generate as much as 100-120 GWh of electricity per year using the solar thermal technology. This is equivalent to the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal or gas-fired mid-load power plant. Solar thermal power plants can be designed for solar-only or for hybrid operation. Producing electricity from the energy in the sun's rays is a straightforward process: direct solar radiation can be concentrated and collected by a range of Concentrating Solar Power technologies to provide medium- to high temperature heat. This heat is then used to operate a conventional power cycle, for example through a steam turbine or a Stirling engine. Solar heat collected during the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media such as molten salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the storage medium thereby continuing turbine operation. Currently, the

  3. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  4. Solar thermal electric power generation - an attractive option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A

    1999-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy is being successfully used for production of electricity in few developed countries for more than 10 years. In solar Electric Generating Systems high temperature is generated by concentrating solar energy on black absorber pipe in evacuated glass tubes. This heat is absorbed and transported with the help of high temperature oil in to highly insulated heat exchanger storage tanks. They are subsequently used to produce steam that generates power through steam turbines as in standard thermal power plants. Various components involved in Solar thermal field have been developed at the Solar Systems Laboratory of College of EME, NUST Rawalpindi. It is considered as a cost effective alternate for power generation. The research has been partially sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology under its Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) in (1996-1998). Parabolic mirror design, fabrication, polishing, installation, solar tracking, absorber pipe, glass tubes, steam generation al have been developed. This paper will cover the details of indigenous technological break through made in this direction. (author)

  5. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  6. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  7. Stirling engines for low-temperature solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    der Minassians, Artin

    This dissertation discusses the design and development of a distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation system that combines solar-thermal technology with a moderate-temperature Stirling engine to generate electricity. The conceived system incorporates low-cost materials and utilizes simple manufacturing processes. This technology is expected to achieve manufacturing cost of less than $1/W. Since solar-thermal technology is mature, the analysis, design, and experimental assessment of moderate-temperature Stirling engines is the main focus of this thesis. The design, fabrication, and test of a single-phase free-piston Stirling engine prototype is discussed. This low-power prototype is designed and fabricated as a test rig to provide a clear understanding of the Stirling cycle operation, to identify the key components and the major causes of irreversibility, and to verify corresponding theoretical models. As a component, the design of a very low-loss resonant displacer piston subsystem is discussed. The displacer piston is part of a magnetic circuit that provides both a required stiffness and actuation forces. The stillness is provided by a magnetic spring, which incorporates an array of permanent magnets and has a very linear stiffness characteristic that facilitates the frequency tuning. In this prototype, the power piston is not mechanically linked to the displacer piston and forms a mass-spring resonating subsystem with the engine chamber gas spring and has resonant frequency matched to that of the displacer. The fabricated engine prototype is successfully tested and the experimental results are presented and discussed. Extensive experimentation on individual component subsystems confirms the theoretical models and design considerations, providing a sound basis for higher power Stirling engine designs for residential or commercial deployments. Multi-phase Stirling engine systems are also considered and analyzed. The modal analysis of these machines proves

  8. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  9. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  10. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  11. On the evolution, over four generations of paraboloidal dish solar thermal electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1993-01-01

    After a decade of supplying useful power, the White Cliffs Paraboloidal Dish Solar Thermal Power Station (1100 km west of Sydney) is still operational and has provided major lessons and experience for subsequent developments; particularly for the Molokai/Alburquerque unit built jointly with Power Kinetics Inc (of Troy, USA) for the US Department of Energy. This has, in turn, given valuable guidance for the third generation system now nearing completion in Canberra and employing new collector concepts refined for commercial production and viability. Unlike much dish-oriented R and D, we consider systems of dish arrays supplying central plant as a more attractive proposition than assemblies of dish/engine units, for all but very small systems (<2 MWe). Development has recently commerce on the fourth generation technology which result in a 2 MWe dish system within 2 years, expected to be followed closely by a system of 10 to 20 MWe, preparatory to still larger systems, as the technology evolves and experience is gained. The rationale in this progression in based on the achievement of commercial cost-effectiveness in competition with other energy sources. The direction of evolution is becoming clear and application of the technology to broader spheres than electricity generation is likely. Because of the nature of production methods employed and the ease of installation, system implementation can be rapid. (Author) 29 refs

  12. Prospects for solar thermal electricity generation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaquil, P.

    1991-01-01

    The future potential for solar thermal electric power plants is quite significant. The size of the renewable energy resource base for the United States of America alone is almost 500 times its current primary energy consumption. Unfortunately, the levels of current utilization are quite small. Why have these technologies not made a larger contribution to today's market? The answer is that significant barriers still exist. (orig.)

  13. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  14. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  15. Achievement report on the development of solar thermal electric power plant technologies. Annex; Taiyonetsu hatsuden plant gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fuzoku shiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    The two solar thermal electric power pilot plants are of the tower concentration type and the flat/curved surface concentration type. For the first time in the world, they succeeded in operating at a rated output of 1,000kW in August and September, 1981, respectively. Sunshine was inputted at an unstable rate, and the plants were operated under various load patterns. Studies were conducted and an optimum operating technique is established. Since designing, construction, and operation were carried for two types of pilot plants, quantities of useful data were collected through a variety of experiences. Valuable hints and design data were provided for use in the construction of full-scale power plants in the future. Element units developed for the plants were high-reflectance mirrors, high-precision tracking mechanisms, solar heat collectors of the cavity type and paraboloidal type, and molten salt heat accumulators. The tower concentration type plant exhibits a power generation efficiency of 16-17% and an overall plant efficiency of 3.1-4.4%. The maximum overall efficiency a month is 3.9% with the flat/curved surface concentration type plant. (NEDO)

  16. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  17. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  18. Experience of Milled Peat Burning at Thermal Electric Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zhikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents extensive knowledge and practical experience on burning of milled peat in the boilers of thermal electric power plants in Belarus and Russia. The accumulated experience can be used for solution of problems pertaining to substitution of some types of fuel imported to Belarus by milled peat which is extracted at many fuel effective peat enterprises of the Republic.

  19. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  20. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  1. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldes, N.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

  2. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  3. Study into solar thermal electricity export opportunities for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of the project described in this report were: to provide an assessment of the world-wide opportunities currently available for the development of high temperature solar thermal (H-TSTh) technology; to identify United Kingdom companies and expertise which could benefit from the exploitation of export markets for H-TSTh; to estimate the potential benefits to the UK of such exploitation; and to review the current status of H-TSTh technology. Despite limited involvement at present, it is concluded that the UK would be well placed with respect to longer term market opportunities if current developments by UK companies in fixed bowl technology and Stirling engines for dish Stirling system are successful. Opportunities also exist for turbine supply, civil contractors, insurance, finance and operation, but discussions with relevant UK companies has revealed only limited interest. (Author)

  4. Optimization of low temperature solar thermal electric generation with Organic Rankine Cycle in different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Li; Gang, Pei; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    The presented low temperature solar thermal electric generation system mainly consists of compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) and the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) working with HCFC-123. A novel design is proposed to reduce heat transfer irreversibility between conduction oil and HCFC-123 in the heat exchangers while maintaining the stability of electricity output. Mathematical formulations are developed to study the heat transfer and energy conversion processes and the numerical simulation is carried out based on distributed parameters. Annual performances of the proposed system in different areas of Canberra, Singapore, Bombay, Lhasa, Sacramento and Berlin are simulated. The influences of the collector tilt angle adjustment, the connection between the heat exchangers and the CPC collectors, and the ORC evaporation temperature on the system performance are investigated. The results indicate that the three factors have a major impact on the annual electricity output and should be the key points of optimization. And the optimized system shows that: (1) The annual received direct irradiance can be significantly increased by two or three times optimal adjustments even when the CPC concentration ratio is smaller than 3.0. (2) Compared with the traditional single-stage collectors, two-stage collectors connected with the heat exchangers by two thermal oil cycles can improve the collector efficiency by 8.1-20.9% in the simultaneous processes of heat collection and power generation. (3) On the use of the market available collectors the optimal ORC evaporation temperatures in most of the simulated areas are around 120 C. (author)

  5. Electrical power system integrated thermal/electrical system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper adds thermal properties to previously developed electrical Saber templates and incorporates these templates into a functional Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) simulation. These combined electrical and thermal templates enable the complete and realistic simulation of a vehicle EPS on-orbit. Applications include on-orbit energy balance determinations for system load changes, initial array and battery EPS sizing for new EPS development, and array and battery technology trade studies. This effort proves the versatility of the Saber simulation program in handling varied and complex simulations accurately and in a reasonable amount of computer time. 9 refs

  6. Investigation of the Promotion of Wind Power Consumption Using the Thermal-Electric Decoupling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the provinces of north China, combined heat and electric power generations (CHP are widely utilized to provide both heating source and electricity. While, due to the constraint of thermal-electric coupling within CHP, a mass of wind turbines have to offline operate during heating season to maintain the power grid stability. This paper proposes a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach to release the energy waste. Within the thermal-electric decoupling system, heat storage and electric boiler/heat pump are introduced to provide an auxiliary thermal source during hard peak shaving period, thus relying on the participation of an outside heat source, the artificial electric power output change interval could be widened to adopt more wind power and reduce wind power curtailment. Both mathematic models and methods are proposed to calculate the evaluation indexes to weight the effect of TED, by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Numerical simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the results show that the proposed approach could relieve up to approximately 90% of wind power curtailment and the ability of power system to accommodate wind power could be promoted about 32%; moreover, the heating source is extended, about 300 GJ heat could be supplied by TED during the whole heating season, which accounts for about 18% of the total heat need.

  7. Microstructural evolution of pipelines for thermal electric power plants after a prolongated operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, M.; Rosetti, R.; Porta, G.

    1991-01-01

    The study of failures originated in pipelines for thermal electric power plants allows an evaluation of the limit microstructural conditions that turn the system to critical conditions. A set of pipe samples with different microsctructural evolution which had been affected by direct flame were prepared. The samples were taken close to failures, away from them, from out of use pipes, etc. Metallographic studies were carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Phase distribution, morphology and their relation with the different stages of aging were observed. (Author) [es

  8. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity;Le Photovoltaique. Le solaire thermique. L'heliothermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  9. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  10. Solar thermal electricity production. A building block for the energy turnaround?; Solarthermische Stromerzeugung. Ein Baustein fuer die Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) e.V., Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung

    2012-12-15

    Whereas in Germany enthusiasm for solar thermal power plants has subsided following the inglorious insolvency of Solar Millennium AG, internationally the market is livening up again. This has to do with the fact that many countries have now understood that security of supply cannot be founded on photovoltaics and wind alone in the long term. Solar thermal power could thus yet become an important building block in Germany's energy supply system as it continues to pursue the energy turnaround.

  11. Survey of solar thermal energy storage subsystems for thermal/electric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C. L.

    1978-08-01

    A survey of the current technology and estimated costs of subsystems for storing the thermal energy produced by solar collectors is presented. The systems considered were capable of producing both electricity and space conditioning for three types of loads: a single-family detached residence, an apartment complex of 100 units, and a city of 30,000 residents, containing both single-family residences and apartments. Collector temperatures will be in four ranges: (1) 100 to 250/sup 0/F (used for space heating and single-cycle air conditioners and organic Rankine low-temperature turbines); (2) 300 to 400/sup 0/F (used for dual-cycle air conditioners and low-temperature turbines); (3) 400 to 600/sup 0/F (using fluids from parabolic trough collectors to run Rankine turbines); (4) 800 to 1000/sup 0/F (using fluids from heliostats to run closed-cycle gas turbines and steam Rankine turbines). The solar thermal energy subsystems will require from 60 to 36 x 10/sup 5/ kWhr (2.05 x 10/sup 5/ to 1.23 x 10/sup 10/ Btu) of thermal storage capacity. In addition to sensible heat and latent heat storage materials, several other media were investigated as potential thermal energy storage materials, including the clathrate and semiclathrate hydrates, various metal hydrides, and heat storage based on inorganic chemical reactions.

  12. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  13. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  14. Solar Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  15. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  16. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  18. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  19. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  20. Solar powered dugout aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murrell, S.

    2001-10-01

    Pasture dugouts are a significant source of water for livestock on the Canadian Prairies and as such, must maintain the best water quality possible. Aeration improves the water quality and is part of a good management plan to reduce overall water treatment costs. Although dugouts can be aerated naturally through wind and wave action and photosynthesis, this generally aerates only the top portion of the dugout. Artificial aeration by air injection into the lowest point of the dugout ensures that the water is oxygenated throughout the entire dugout. Solar aeration can be used in remote areas where grid power is not practical. With solar powered aeration systems, solar panels are used to generate the electrical power needed to run the compressor while storing excess energy in batteries. A solar aeration system includes solar panels, deep cycle batteries to store excess power, a control board with a regulator, a compressor, a weighed feeder hose, and an air diffuser. This publication presented the design of a solar aeration system and its cost. 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  2. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  3. Solar powered Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  4. Natural gas utilization in Santa Cruz thermal-electric power; A utilizacao de gas natural em Santa Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Mauricio F. de.; Lundeqvist, Carl G; Gomes, Gerson; Almeida, A E

    1994-12-31

    Use of natural gas as an alternative energy source on the thermo electric power plant of Santa Cruz are presented. Economic studies on hydroelectric power plants to use thermal generators during low water supply periods, costs of natural gas as a alternative energy fuel, and the engineer services to the conversion of fuel oil system, are discussed. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    The construction, launch, components, and operations of satellite solar power systems (SSPS) for direct beaming of solar energy converted to electricity to earth stations are outlined. The reference designs of either Si or concentrator GaAs solar cell assemblies large enough to project 5 GW of power are described. The beam will be furnished by klystrons or amplitrons for reception by rectennas on earth. Conforming to the law of amplitude and the equiphase law will permit high efficiencies, pointing accuracy, and low power deposition/sq cm, thus avoiding environmental problems, although some telecommunications systems may suffer interference. The construction of the dipole rectenna grid is sketched, noting that one receiver would be an ellipse sized at 10 x 13 km. Various forms of pollution which could result from the construction of an SSPS are examined.

  6. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  7. Applying an overall criterion according to the European norms, for ecological assessment of the thermal electrical power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardu, Mircea; Petrescu, Camelia

    2006-01-01

    This work consists of assessing the thermal power plants impact on the environment by the global considering of the pollutant SO 2 and NO x emissions. This assessment takes into account the emission comparisons with the admissible values provided by the European norms. The conclusion we might draw is that the SN proposed global criterion application, (S from sulfur, namely the sulfur dioxide and N from nitrogen, namely the nitrogen oxides), the investment expenses for installing the necessary SDN and SDS systems (were SDN stands for denox plant and SDS for desulfurization systems), and the operation expenses are smaller (in case of pit coal they are even smaller) if we apply such criterion. The ecologic analysis model we applied as an estimation for large solid fuels categories (lignite, pit coal) and for the 330 MW existing power units, can also be applied to the actual cases for different fuel qualities or unit unitary power levels

  8. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  9. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  10. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  11. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  13. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  14. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes. Solar PV gives DC Power. But load is AC; Needs a DC-AC convertor. Now if we add a battery. Battery stores only DC. Require a AC-DC convertor for charging; Require a DC-AC convertor during discharging. For low power, each ...

  15. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  16. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  17. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  18. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  19. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  20. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  1. Thermo-economic analysis of Shiraz solar thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaghoubi, M. [Academy of Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, A.; Hesami, R. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The Shiraz solar thermal power plant in Iran has 48 parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) which are used to heat the working oil. There is potential to significantly increase the performance and reduce the cost of PTC solar thermal electric technologies. Conventional energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics does qualitatively assess the various losses occurring in the components. Therefore, exergy analysis, based on the second law of thermodynamics, can be applied to better assess various losses quantitatively as well as qualitatively. This paper presented a newly developed exergy-economic model for the Shiraz solar thermal power plant. The objective was to find the minimum exergetic production cost (EPC), based on the second law of thermodynamics. The application of exergy-economic analysis includes the evaluation of utility supply costs for production plants, and the energy costs for process operations. The purpose of the analysis was to minimize the total operating costs of the solar thermal power plant by assuming a fixed rate of electricity production and process steam. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  3. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  4. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2 . The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  5. Solar power role in the future power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    One studied the most essential factors, materials and processes governing the role of the solar power in the future power generation. Paper describes new principles to convert solar energy, to produce solar silicon and solar elements, to encapsulate solar modules, to make use of stationary solar concentrators [ru

  6. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  7. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  8. Concentrating solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelli, Enzo; Vignolini, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy can be used instead of fossil fuels to produce high-temperature heat for use in many industrial processes and in electricity generation. If carried out on a large scale, the replacement would make it possible to reduce harmful emissions and stabilise the global climate over the long term. ENEA has an innovative project in this sector [it

  9. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  10. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  11. Conceptual design and analysis of a Dish-Rankine solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.

    1980-08-01

    A Point Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) solar thermal electric system which employs small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) engines is examined with reference to its projected technical/economic performance. With mass-produced power modules (about 100,000 per year), the projected life-cycle energy cost for an optimized no-storage system is estimated at 67 mills/kWh (Levelized Busbar Energy Cost) without the need for advanced development of any of its components. At moderate production rates (about 50 MWe/yr) system energy costs are competitive with conventional power generation systems in special remote-site types of applications.

  12. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  13. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  14. Solar Power Use Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA evaluates partnership metrics annually to determine progress toward programmatic goals.

  15. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  16. Solar dynamic power module design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, Richard R.; Labus, Thomas L.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have shown that the use of solar dynamic (SD) power for the growth areas of the Space Station Freedom program will result in life cycle cost savings when compared to power supplied by photovoltaic sources. In the SD power module, a concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver which has integral thermal energy storage. A Power Conversion Unit (PCU) based on the closed Brayton cycle removes thermal energy from the receiver and converts that energy to electrical energy. Since the closed Brayton cycle is a single phase gas cycle, the conversion hardware (heat exchangers, turbine, compressor, etc.) can be designed for operation in low earth orbit, and tested with confidence in test facilities on earth before launch into space. The concentrator subassemblies will be aligned and the receiver/PCU/radiator combination completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling liquid on earth before launch to, and assembly on, orbit.

  17. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  18. Implementation of a solar thermal electricity pilot plant (Concentrated Tower) of 1MW and introduction of a bus fleet of plug-in hybrids on the Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Implementacao de uma planta piloto de heliotermia (Torre de Concentracao) de 1MW e introducao de uma frota de onibus hibridos plug-in na Ilha do Fundao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno Soares Moreira Cesar; Malagueta, Diego Cunha [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to simulate a solar thermal electricity pilot plant at the Campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), at Fundao Island, which would generate part of the electricity demanded by the Technology Center (CT) of the UFRJ. Based on the electricity demand from UFRJ and the electric prices paid by the institution, this study proposes the construction of a 1MW Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) pilot plant and analyses the economical, energy and environmental viability of implementation of this plant, operating from 2015 to 2045. This CSP plant would cover a field of 0,01km{sup 2} and have a 30% of capacity factor. This study also evaluates the impact caused by the substitution of the current Campus internal bus fleet for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The current service is provided by Normandy, which operates 12 buses plus 1 backup. These new buses would be regularly partially recharged by the energy generated from CSP. All the simulations have been made with the RETScreen software, which simulated the operation of the CSP, the amount of electricity produced, the carbon emissions avoided, the acquisition and implementation of the plug-in hybrid electric bus fleet and the cash flow. Six scenarios generated were, namely A1, B1, C1 (all for lower costs for the CSP plants) and A2, B2, C2 (for higher costs). For a social discount rate around 8% and along 30 years, only the A1, C1 and C2 scenarios showed a non-negative cash flow. Also, the emissions avoided were around 222 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 6.660 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in the A1 and A2 scenarios, and around 550 tCO{sub 2}/yr (or 16.512 tCO{sub 2} over 30 years) in all others scenarios. (author)

  19. THESEUS - the first utility-scale 50 MWe. THErmal Solar EUropean power Station for the island of Crete, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobi, A. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Tzatzanis, A.

    1997-12-31

    When the European Commission`s Directorate for Energy (DG XVII) opened the second application window for THERMIE proposals under the Fourth Framework Programme on September 15, 1995, Europe`s solar thermal power community discovered a remarkable modification to the previous call for proposals. For the first time since solar thermal electricity was introduced for THERMIE demonstration projects, it now became eligible for EU financial support. Right now, the European Commission committed funding for the design and engineering phase of the THESEUS project implementation. (orig.)

  20. Solar thermal power: the seamless solar link to the conventional power world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, Michael; Quaschning, Volker

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on solar thermal power generation and describes two solar thermal power concepts, namely, the parabolic trough or solar farm, and the solar central receiver or power tower. Details are given of grid-connected parabolic trough power plants in California and recent developments in collector design and absorber tubes, and the operation of power tower plants with different heat transfer media. Market issues are discussed, and solar thermal power projects under development, and application for support for solar thermal power projects under the Global Environment Facility's Operational Programme by Egypt, India, Iran, Mexico and Morocco are reported

  1. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  2. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - KaXu Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL KaXu Solar One This page provides information on KaXu Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: April 14, 2015 Project Overview Project Name: KaXu Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  4. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  6. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power. Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating solar power can contribute significantly to the world's energy supply. As shown in this roadmap, this decade is a critical window of opportunity during which CSP could become a competitive source of electrical power to meet peak and intermediate loads in the sunniest parts of the world. This roadmap identifies technology, economy and policy goals and milestones needed to support the development and deployment of CSP, as well as ongoing advanced research in CSF. It also sets out the need for governments to implement strong, balanced policies that favour rapid technological progress, cost reductions and expanded industrial manufacturing of CSP equipment to enable mass deployment. Importantly, this roadmap also establishes a foundation for greater international collaboration. The overall aim of this roadmap is to identify actions required - on the part of all stakeholders - to accelerate CSP deployment globally. Many countries, particularly in emerging regions, are only just beginning to develop CSP. Accordingly, milestone dates should be considered as indicative of urgency, rather than as absolutes. This roadmap is a work in progress. As global CSP efforts advance and an increasing number of CSP applications are developed, new data will provide the basis for updated analysis. The IEA will continue to track the evolution of CSP technology and its impacts on markets, the power sector and regulatory environments, and will update its analysis and set additional tasks and milestones as new learning comes to light.

  8. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  9. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  10. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  11. Elite silicon and solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasamanov, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The article is of popular character, the following issues being considered: conversion of solar energy into electric one, solar batteries in space and on the Earth, growing of silicon large-size crystals, source material problems relating to silicon monocrystals production, outlooks of solar silicon batteries production [ru

  12. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  13. Leasing solar power instead of buying it; Solarpaechter statt Stromkaeufer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppen, Margarete von [Rechtsanwaltssozietaet Geiser und von Oppen, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Owners of PV systems wo let their tenants or neighbours use their solar power may make bigger profits than from reimbursement for power supply to the public grid. The contribution relates solar power price components to solar module types.

  14. Solar and nuclear power are partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter attempts to refute the claim made by solar energy proponents that the continued reliance on electric grids with coal-fired and nuclear plants hinders the development of solar energy sources. It is proposed that solar and nuclear power do not compete with one another, no energy source can do the job alone, and the future of solar energy is brightest only if nuclear power succeeds. Since electric utilities have to generate almost twice as much energy during the day than at night, solar energy could be used to decrease the amount of electric power the nuclear power plants must supply at peak periods. It is argued that the key to solving future energy demands is diversity in the forms of energy supply

  15. Design consideration of solar powered cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment, it is important to develop new technologies that reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. Using solar energy is a good solution which could meet the world's energy needs. The aim of this study is to present the design process in the production of a solar powered car. Designing a solar powered car is a difficult task as there are strict requirements in term of efficiency: the car must have low drag resistance, be light-weight, and have low rolling resistance. In addition this paper presents the use of the solar powered Stirling engine technology rather than a photovoltaic conversion system for vehicle propulsion. This study presented a design process in the construction of a solar powered car and is expected to provide a new topic of research in the transportation field.

  16. Feature Selection and ANN Solar Power Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    O’Leary, Daniel; Kubby, Joel

    2017-01-01

    A novel method of solar power forecasting for individuals and small businesses is developed in this paper based on machine learning, image processing, and acoustic classification techniques. Increases in the production of solar power at the consumer level require automated forecasting systems to minimize loss, cost, and environmental impact for homes and businesses that produce and consume power (prosumers). These new participants in the energy market, prosumers, require new artificial neural...

  17. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  18. Online short-term solar power forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The method is suited to online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons of up to 36 hours. The data used is fifteen......-minute observations of solar power from 21 PV systems located on rooftops in a small village in Denmark. The suggested method is a two-stage method where first a statistical normalization of the solar power is obtained using a clear sky model. The clear sky model is found using statistical smoothing techniques....... Then forecasts of the normalized solar power are calculated using adaptive linear time series models. Both autoregressive (AR) and AR with exogenous input (ARX) models are evaluated, where the latter takes numerical weather predictions (NWPs) as input. The results indicate that for forecasts up to two hours...

  19. Recipe for success in solar power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of a campaign run jointly by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy and the Association of Swiss Electricity Utilities called 'Solar Power from your Utility'. An analysis of solar power marketing efforts made by ten utilities is presented. The results of assessments of these market measures made by solar power customers and non-customers are presented and questions of pricing, product-image and product-confidence are discussed. Finally, suggestions for the optimisation of the marketing measures are made

  20. Solar-powered Gossamer Penguin in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Gossamer Penguin in flight above Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards, California, showing the solar panel perpendicular to the wing and facing the sun. Background The first flight of a solar-powered aircraft took place on November 4, 1974, when the remotely controlled Sunrise II, designed by Robert J. Boucher of AstroFlight, Inc., flew following a launch from a catapult. Following this event, AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) took on a more ambitious project to design a human-piloted, solar-powered aircraft. The firm initially took the human-powered Gossamer Albatross II and scaled it down to three-quarters of its previous size for solar-powered flight with a human pilot controlling it. This was more easily done because in early 1980 the Gossamer Albatross had participated in a flight research program at NASA Dryden in a program conducted jointly by the Langley and Dryden research centers. Some of the flights were conducted using a small electric motor for power. Gossamer Penguin The scaled-down aircraft was designated the Gossamer Penguin. It had a 71-foot wingspan compared with the 96-foot span of the Gossamer Albatross. Weighing only 68 pounds without a pilot, it had a low power requirement and thus was an excellent test bed for solar power. AstroFlight, Inc., of Venice, Calif., provided the power plant for the Gossamer Penguin, an Astro-40 electric motor. Robert Boucher, designer of the Sunrise II, served as a key consultant for both this aircraft and the Solar Challenger. The power source for the initial flights of the Gossamer Penguin consisted of 28 nickel-cadmium batteries, replaced for the solar-powered flights by a panel of 3,920 solar cells capable of producing 541 Watts of power. The battery-powered flights took place at Shafter Airport near Bakersfield, Calif. Dr. Paul MacCready's son Marshall, who was 13 years old and weighed roughly 80 pounds, served as the initial pilot for these flights to

  1. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  2. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  3. Deployed Base Solar Power (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    various time intervals. Data Acquisitions and Components:  FieldPoint  Current, Voltage, and Power Transducers  POA Pyranometers  Solar...Tracking Pyranometer  Weather Station  kWh Meter Parameters being monitored:  Solar Module Temperatures  Ambient Temperature  Wind Speed  Wind

  4. Students To Race Solar-Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 1999 — Middle school students from across the state next week will race model solar cars designed Race Solar-Powered Vehicles For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five

  5. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  6. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  7. Low-cost solar electric power

    CERN Document Server

    Fraas, Lewis M

    2014-01-01

    ?This book describes recent breakthroughs that promise major cost reductions in solar energy production in a clear and highly accessible manner. The author addresses the three key areas that have commonly resulted in criticism of solar energy in the past: cost, availability, and variability. Coverage includes cutting-edge information on recently developed 40? efficient solar cells, which can produce double the power of currently available commercial cells. The discussion also highlights the potentially transformative emergence of opportunities for integration of solar energy storage and natura

  8. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  10. Online Short-term Solar Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2011-01-01

    This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours.......This poster presents two approaches to online forecasting of power production from PV systems. The methods are suited for online forecasting in many applications and here they are used to predict hourly values of solar power for horizons up to 32 hours....

  11. Solar Powered Heat Storage for Injera Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia with a population of about 85 million meets 96% of its energy needs with bio-mass, charcoal, wood, animal dung and plant residues. More than 50% of this energy goes entirely on baking Injera. Injera the national food of the country demands 180-220 °C to be well cooked. In this article; Injera baking with solar energy on off-focus system, status of electric powered stove and the potential for solar powered stoves is discussed. The research and development of solar thermal for househol...

  12. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  13. Solar power's rise and promise

    OpenAIRE

    Pernia, Ernesto M.; Generoso, Maria Janela M.

    2015-01-01

    Time was when solar energy was facilely dismissed as impractical, inefficient, and pricey. In recent years, however, innovations in technology, regulation, and financing have resulted in remarkable efficiency improvements and price reductions, thereby reversing the skepticism about this renewable energy (RE) source. In this paper, we explore how this has happened, to what extent photovoltaic solar technology has been accepted around the world, and what might be its potential for inclusive gre...

  14. Solar powered vehicles: From dream to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The initiatives of the 'Schweizer Vereinigung fuer Sonnenenergie' (Swiss Association for Solar Energy) has added new impetus worldwide for the utilisation of solar energy. The Association organised the 'Tour de Sol', a race for vehicles propelled with the aid of solar energy. Solar vehicles with and without supplementary power, both standard production models and prototypes were eligible for the race. Before the start of the race, the solar-powered vehicles were 'filled up' with solar energy at a 'solar filling station'. The winner in the 'standard' section (a 2-seater small car for short distances) weighed in at 240 kg and attained a top speed of 100 km/h and a range of 150 km. The rear-wheel drive of this battery-powered vehicle was provided by 2 permanent magnet motors. A newly-developed nickel-zinc battery from the USA was available to power the twin engines. The energy requirement was the equivalent of less than 1 liter of petrol per 100 km.

  15. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  16. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  17. Solar powered aviation beacon/landing light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the work was to design, develop and test Solar Powered Aviation Landing Lights/Obstruction Beacons. The entire lighting units were to be stand alone devices capable of producing their own individual power supply. The whole process was to be documented to provide insight into the processes and decisions involved. (author)

  18. An automated tool for solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsheh, E.M.; Natsheh, A.R.; Albarbar, AH

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a novel model of smart grid-connected solar power system is developed. The model is implemented using MatLab/SIMULINK software package. Artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The dynamic behavior of the proposed model is examined under different operating conditions. Solar irradiance, and temperature data are gathered from a grid connected, 28.8 kW solar power system located in central Manchester. The developed system and its control strategy exhibit excellent performance with tracking efficiency exceed 94.5%. The proposed model and its control strategy offer a proper tool for smart grid performance optimization. (author)

  19. Materials in harnessing solar power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-04-06

    Apr 6, 2018 ... design should be in such a way that it can provide a balance among specific .... In India, manufacturing of solar PV modules has been on swift rise but primarily it is ... Si wafers. Therefore, the need to promote Si production and ...... ing mirrors and receiving tubes can be manufactured in India. This will not ...

  20. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  1. Solar Power. Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [Booth Clean Energy LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-05-01

    As global electricity demand increases, governments are designing and implementing policies to scale up and catalyze renewable energy, which now meets 22% of global electricity demand (REN21 2014). Solar technologies are a critical component of this expanded deployment, and they have experienced unprecedented growth in recent years. As presented in Figure 1, solar prices have decreased significantly over the last decade (REN21 2014) and in 2013, new capacity installation of solar electricity from photovoltaics (PV) 1 surpassed all other renewable energy technologies worldwide—excluding hydropower—with 39 gigawatts installed that year. Concentrating solar thermal power,2 although it still represents a fairly nascent market, also continues to expand as installed capacity increased by 36% in 2013 compared to 2012. In addition to meeting energy demand in an increasingly cost-effective manner, solar deployment can also support critical economic, social, and environmental development goals (Flavin and Hull Aeck, n.d.).

  2. Center for Autonomous Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    manufactured by Corning . Corning has recently produced rolls of the glass and tested it on the Binghamton roll-to-roll line. Glass offers several...future. An example of the Willow Glass product from Corning Test fixture of bending and stretching using for coated flexible substrates for up...films Synthesized by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis for Application in Solar Cells", Ratheesh R. Thankalekshmi and A.C. Rastogi, Journal of Applied Physics

  3. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkerim, A I; Eusuf, M M R Sami; Salami, M J E; Aibinu, A; Eusuf, M A

    2013-01-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors

  4. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  5. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiers, Adam [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.j.faiers.so2@cranfield.ac.uk; Neame, Charles [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.neame@cranfield.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified.

  6. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  7. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  8. New directions for space solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-07-01

    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  9. Solar power generation system. Solar denryoku hassei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohaku, T [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1990-12-21

    In a conventional solar power generation system having shunt elements for controlling generated power and supplying the controlled power to a load, it is difficult to carry out a stable power control, because the shunt characteristics of an analogue shunt element driving circuit vary widely as compared with a digital shunt element driving circuit, as the temperature varies. According to the present invention, in a solar power generation system having a plurality of solar cells divided into two of the first and second cell groups and a first and a second shunt element driving means provided for the first and second cell groups, the first shunt element driving means is composed of a combination of a resisance and level shift diode arranged, and the second shunt element driving means is composed of a combination of a transistor and level shift diode arranged. A stable current control of the shunt elements can be therefore realized, because the control voltage range of the first and second shunt element driving means is changed so as to be expanded, as the temperature varies, so that their overlapped voltage range is kept constant. 7 figs.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power. Report April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl, Erik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Enery and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies offer ways to utilise solar radiation by concentrating the light. In a concentrated form, the light can be utilised more cost efficiently. It is focused with mirrors or lenses and used either as a heat source in thermal power cycles (thermal CSP) or as a light source for high efficiency photovoltaic cells (concentrating photovoltaics, CPV). All concentrating systems use tracking to follow the movement of the sun, in two or three dimensions, and require direct sunlight (no diffusing clouds). CSP plants are often more complex, component wise than those based on flat PV. The extra cost of complexity is generally more than offset by the larger scales, the less need for expensive materials such as purified silicon and a better fit with the current energy infrastructure. Some thermal CSP plants offer great possibilities to deal with the intermittency of solar energy, as the heat generated can be stored in the form of a heated liquid in large tanks for many hours with little additional cost, and drive the thermal power generation also during cloudy periods or at night. CSP is growing rapidly and can be an important portion of future low-carbon energy systems. A prerequisite is that expected cost reductions are, at least largely, realised. In regions with good solar conditions (Mediterranean countries, US Southwest, Middle East, Australia etc), CSP systems already in the short-term future can satisfy significant shares of the power demand, to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions. Less solar-intensive regions (Northern Europe, much of North America etc) can be supplied with CSP power from solar-rich regions by using long distance power grids, for instance the high voltage DC cables being deployed and developed today

  11. Solar power generating device. Solar denryoku hassei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, E

    1990-02-06

    Concerning the existing solar power generating device using the analogue sequential partial shunt system, the number of interface line between the solar cell panel and the shunt dissipater is enormous and complicated in addition to the increased temperature rise of the shunt transistor in its working condition. Furthermore, concerning the digital sequential full shunt system, the above temperature rise becomes less, but the above number of interface line is likewise enormous. In order to remove the above defects, the solar power generating device which this invention concerns has the features that, in each row of solar cells connected to shunt transistors which are controlled respectively in a manner of on (saturation)/off independently in accordance with the amount of surplus electric power, the number of parallel connection of the unit cell circuits composing the each row above is made to be the different number respectively. Besides, it is proposed to have the feature in particular that such a number is made to be the number of 2 {sup n} (n is from zero to any integer, m) where n is increased by one progressively. 5 figs.

  12. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  13. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  14. Thermal and optical study of parabolic trough collectors of Shiraz solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A.; Yaghoubi, M.; Vadiee, A.; Hessami, R. [Shiraz Univ, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kanan, P. [Renewable Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The construction of the first 250 KW solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran was discussed. The power plant is comprised of a steam and oil cycle which includes 48 parabolic trough collectors (PTCs). Solar thermal power plants based on PTCs are currently the most successful solar technologies for electricity generation. These power plants are basically composed of a solar collector field and a power block. The solar collector field is designed to collect heat from the sun which it is continuously tracking. The reflecting surface concentrates direct solar radiation in the optical focal line of the collector where the heat collecting element (HCE) is located. The HCE absorbs the reflected energy and transmits it to the heat transfer fluid which is pumped to the conventional power block where electricity is generated. There is potential to significantly increase the performance and reduce the cost of PTC solar thermal electric technologies. However, it is necessary to characterize the optical performance and determine the optical losses of PTCs in order to improve the optical efficiency of these systems and to ensure the desired power quality. In this study, thermocouple sensors were used to record the collector oil inlet and outlet temperature along with the ambient temperature in the PTCs. In addition to measuring the wind speed, the solar beam radiation intensity was measured along with the oil's mass flow rate. All parameters were measured as a function of time. Based on these measurements, the intercept factor value and collector's incidence angle was determined and compared with other large size constructed commercial parabolic collectors. The maximum beam radiation during the experimental period was 735 2mW. The useful heat gain and the collector's instantaneous efficiency as a whole was evaluated on an hourly basis. All these parameters were strongly influenced by the incident beam radiation and found to follow each other. The optical and thermal

  15. The solar two power tower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, J.M.; Klimas, P.C.; Laquil, P. de III; Skowronski, M.

    1993-01-01

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a cooperative project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to convert the 10-MWe Solar One Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. Successful operation of the convert plant to be called Solar Two, will reduce the economic risks in building the initial commercial power tower projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. In a molten salt power tower plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver, atop a tower. Molten salt is heated in the receiver and stored until it is needed to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. Joining the SCE and DOE in sponsoring in sponsoring this project are the following organizations: Los Alamos department of Water Power, Idaho Power Company, PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, City of Pasadena, California Energy Commission, Electric Power Research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Commission, Electric Power research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Bechtel Corporation. The Solar Two project will convert the Solar One heat transfer system from a water/steam type to molten nitrate salt by replacing the water/steam receiver and oil/rock thermal storage system with a nitrate salt receiver, salt thermal storage, and steam generator. The estimate cost of Solar Two, including 3-year test period, is 48.5 millions. The plant will be on line in early 1995. (authors)

  16. The solarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, G.D.; Grasse, W.

    1997-01-01

    IEA(International Energy Agency)/SolarPACES(Solar Power and Chemical Energy systems)represents a world wide coalition for information sharing and collaboration on applications of concentrated solar energy. The current SolarPACES community has built up solar thermal system know-how over 15 years, is operating the three main solar test centres in the world. Its main activities are in the following four fields: solar thermal electric power systems, solar chemistry, solar technology and advanced applications and non-technical activities. The article presents the talk on the strategy of solarPACES given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. (A.A.D.)

  17. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  18. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  19. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  20. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    to this thesis, “the Boeing 702 offers a range of power up to 18 kW. Dual and triple -junction gallium arsenide solar cells enable such high power...CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................85 A. KEY POINTS AND...USAF. Without the proper starting point and frame of reference, this thesis would not have been possible. Thank you to everyone who had an influence on

  1. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  2. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  3. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  4. Microcontroller Based Solar Charge Controller for Power Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vikas Khare

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell converts solar energy directly into electricity. This paper describes a design of microcontroller based solar charge controller for power application.[2] The work of the Paper is to charge a 12 volt battery by using a 50 watt solar panel with maximum power. This circuit regulates the charging of battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reached a preset value.[1] The microprocessor based charge ...

  5. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  6. Lightweight Solar Power for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    The innovation targets small satellites or CubeSats for which conventional deployable arrays are not feasible due to their size, weight and complexity. This novel solar cell array includes a thin and flexible photovoltaic cell applied to an inflatable structure to create a high surface area array for collecting solar energy in a lightweight, simple and deployable structure. The inflatable array, with its high functional surface area, eliminates the need and the mechanisms required to point the system toward the sun. The power density achievable in these small arrays is similar to that of conventional high-power deployable/pointable arrays used on large satellites or space vehicles. Although inflatable solar arrays have been previously considered by others, the arrays involved the use of traditional rigid solar cells. Researchers are currently working with thin film photovoltaics from various suppliers so that the NASA innovation is not limited to any particular solar cell technology. NASA has built prototypes and tested functionality before and after inflation. As shown in the current-voltage currents below, deployment does not damage the cell performance.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  8. Developing solar power programs : San Francisco's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, F.

    2006-01-01

    This keynote address discussed an array of solar programs initiated in government-owned buildings in San Francisco. The programs were strongly supported by the city's mayor,and the voting public. Known for its fog and varying microclimates, 11 monitoring stations were set up throughout the city to determine viable locations for the successful application of solar technologies. It was observed that 90 per cent of the available sunshine occurred in the central valley, whereas fog along the Pacific shore was problematic. Seven of the monitoring sites showed excellent results. Relationships with various city departments were described, as well as details of study loads, load profiles, electrical systems, roofs and the structural capabilities of the selected government buildings. There was a focus on developing good relations with the local utility. The Moscone Convention Center was selected for the program's flagship installation, a 675 kW solar project which eventually won the US EPA Green Power Award for 2004 and received high press coverage. Cost of the project was $4.2 million. 825,000 kWh solar electricity was generated, along with 4,500,000 kWh electricity saved annually from efficiency measures, resulting in a net reduction of 5,325,000 kWh. Savings on utilities bills for the center were an estimated $1,078,000. A pipeline of solar projects followed, with installations at a sewage treatment plant and a large recycling depot. A program of smaller sites included libraries, schools and health facilities. Details of plans to apply solar technology to a 500 acre redevelopment site in southeast San Francisco with an aging and inadequate electrical infrastructure were described. A model of efficient solar housing for the development was presented, with details of insulation, windows, heating ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating, lighting, appliances and a 1.2 kilowatt solar system. Peak demand reductions were also presented. tabs., figs

  9. Solar Powered Remediation and pH Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    zone. The PRT system was completely powered via an off-the-grid solar power system . The system consisted of four 85 watt photovoltaic solar panels...polarity of the proton reduction system can be periodically alternated (i.e., the anode becomes a cathode) to increase the size of the treatment area, to...PRT System The PRT system was completely powered via an off-the-grid solar power system . The system consisted of four 85 watt photovoltaic solar

  10. Solids-based concentrated solar power receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2018-04-10

    A concentrated solar power (CSP) system includes channels arranged to convey a flowing solids medium descending under gravity. The channels form a light-absorbing surface configured to absorb solar flux from a heliostat field. The channels may be independently supported, for example by suspension, and gaps between the channels are sized to accommodate thermal expansion. The light absorbing surface may be sloped so that the inside surfaces of the channels proximate to the light absorbing surface define downward-slanting channel floors, and the flowing solids medium flows along these floors. Baffles may be disposed inside the channels and oriented across the direction of descent of the flowing solids medium. The channels may include wedge-shaped walls forming the light-absorbing surface and defining multiple-reflection light paths for solar flux from the heliostat field incident on the light-absorbing surface.

  11. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddhibi, F; Amara, M Ben; Balghouthi, M; Guizani, A

    2015-01-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature

  12. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  13. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  14. Market: why is thermal solar power down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2010-01-01

    After a 10 year period of steady growth the French market of the thermal solar power dropped by 15% in 2009. Only 265.000 m 2 were installed instead of 313.000 m 2 in 2008. The main reason of this decrease is the economic crisis: the European market for thermal solar energy dropped by 10%. The second reason is the unfair competition of the photovoltaic power that benefits from very favourable electricity purchase prices, from higher subsidies and from a better image in the public's eye. Another competitor on the market is the new equipment called 'thermodynamic water heater' that involves a heat pump, this equipment is cheaper but only on a short term basis. (A.C.)

  15. High-Fidelity Solar Power Income Modeling for Solar-Electric UAVs: Development and Flight Test Based Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Oettershagen, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Solar power models are a crucial element of solar-powered UAV design and performance analysis. During the conceptual design phase, their accuracy directly relates to the accuracy of the predicted performance metrics and thus the final design characteristics of the solar-powered UAV. Likewise, during the operations phase of a solar-powered UAV accurate solar power income models are required to predict and assess the solar power system performance. However, the existing literature on solar-powe...

  16. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  17. Feature Selection and ANN Solar Power Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O’Leary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of solar power forecasting for individuals and small businesses is developed in this paper based on machine learning, image processing, and acoustic classification techniques. Increases in the production of solar power at the consumer level require automated forecasting systems to minimize loss, cost, and environmental impact for homes and businesses that produce and consume power (prosumers. These new participants in the energy market, prosumers, require new artificial neural network (ANN performance tuning techniques to create accurate ANN forecasts. Input masking, an ANN tuning technique developed for acoustic signal classification and image edge detection, is applied to prosumer solar data to improve prosumer forecast accuracy over traditional macrogrid ANN performance tuning techniques. ANN inputs tailor time-of-day masking based on error clustering in the time domain. Results show an improvement in prediction to target correlation, the R2 value, lowering inaccuracy of sample predictions by 14.4%, with corresponding drops in mean average error of 5.37% and root mean squared error of 6.83%.

  18. Short-Term Solar Collector Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Perers, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to online forecasting of power output from solar thermal collectors. The method is suited for online forecasting in many applications and in this paper it is applied to predict hourly values of power from a standard single glazed large area flat plate collector...... enabling tracking of changes in the system and in the surrounding conditions, such as decreasing performance due to wear and dirt, and seasonal changes such as leaves on trees. This furthermore facilitates remote monitoring and check of the system....

  19. Space solar power for powering a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a Space Solar Power (SSP) system capable of powering the climbers of an SE. The initial SE will use laser power beaming from floating platforms near the SE platform. This study outlines an SSP system, based near the SE at geosynchronous altitude (GEO), which powers the climbers traversing the elevator. Such a system would reduce the SE system's dependence on fuel supply from land for its power beaming facilities. Moreover, since deploying SSP systems is anticipated to be a major use for SE's, SSP's could represent an elegant solution to the problem of SE energy consumption. SSP systems for sending usable power to Earth have been designed for well over 30 years. Technologies pertinent to SSP systems are continually evolving. This slightly different application carries the added requirements of aiming the beamed power at a moving target and sending the power in a form the climbers can use. Systems considered include beaming power to the climbers directly from a traditional SSP and reflecting sunlight onto the climbers. One of our designs includes a very new technology, optical rectennas. Mars SEs are conceived as having space-based power systems. Therefore, it is important to consider the problems that will be encountered in these types of applications.

  20. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  1. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  2. Solar power in South Africa; Anpfiff in Suedafrika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristau, Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Excellent reimbursement regulations for solar power should be enough to promote photovoltaic energy conversion in South Africa. However, public utilities are not obliged to buy solar power, and the connection of private solar systems to the public grid is a matter for negotiation. Many private investors therefore decide to instal autonomous systems. (orig.)

  3. Solar power satellite - A geostationary channel tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, C

    1981-12-01

    The concept-development status of solar power satellite (SPS) systems is considered, with attention to Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLVs), the construction methods to be used in either geostationary or low earth orbit, and the configuration of the solar array. By comparison with the 30-ton payload of the Space Shuttle, HLLV designs under consideration have payloads of 114 to 425 tons. The unit cost for 5-GW satellites, in 1977 dollars, is estimated at five billion dollars. Consideration is given to the possible deleterious environmental effects of both the 400 or more launches required for each SPS and such results of radio frequency energy transfer beam operation as the suppression of blood platelet production in human beings and ionospheric heating. The uncertainty that still surrounds the relative advantages of competing designs and the need for long-range, billion-dollar funding appear to be insuperable obstacles to the construction of SPSs.

  4. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  5. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  6. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  7. BKW-FMB: Focus on solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This collection of three short articles present four examples of installations using renewable forms of energy that are operated by the Bernese power utility BKW-FMB in Switzerland. Brief details are given on the company, one of the largest electricity utilities in Switzerland. The first article deals with the photovoltaics (PV) installations on the roof of the new national soccer stadium in Berne and one of the oldest Swiss PV-installations on Mont-Soleil in the Jura mountains. Also covered are the efforts made by the utility and its partners in the area of marketing the power under the trade name '1 to 1 energy'. Information for the general public is provided in visitor centres and also by the solar-powered boat on the Lake of Bienne. A further article deals with wind power from the Mont-Crosin Site in the Jura mountains. The third article describes a hydro-electric power station on the river Aare, which, thanks to measures taken in the ecological area, carries the 'Naturemade Star' label for the power it produces

  8. Solar Irradiance & On Grid Solar Power Systems with Net Metering in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Qamar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of solar irradiance and scope of on-grid solar power systems with net-metering in Pakistan. Detailed analysis of solar irradiance in Pakistan is being carried out by developing the dedicated solar excel sheets. The need of on grid solar power systems for the present energy crisis in developing countries like Pakistan is also discussed. It also presents the inclination of many countries especially USA and Europe towards it. Identification of barriers for implementing on grid net metered solar power systems in Pakistan along with solutions of these barriers is carried out.

  9. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  10. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis John M. Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeable battery, which is charged by a solar panel retrofitted at the roof of the device, this is to promote energy conservation, and green engineering principles in the development of the study.The device can process empty plastic bottles (500ml. max with a base diameter of 3.5 inches, and aluminium cans. These recyclable materials are placed inside the machine and is scanned, then crushed and placed in a bin. An inductive sensor is used to detect either the material is a plastic bottle or an aluminium can. To compensate the user for recycling, an equivalent monetary value will be dispensed. The owner of the device can check the status of the coin dispenser and bins through an Android messaging application developed using the Eclipse IDE and the Java programming language, and when a certain limit is reached by the coin dispenser or the trash bins, an automatic text message notification will be sent to the owner.

  11. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  12. Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The certification of the CALMAC solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

  13. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banoni Vanessa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated

  14. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoni, Vanessa Arellano; Arnone, Aldo; Fondeur, Maria; Hodge, Annabel; Offner, J Patrick; Phillips, Jordan K

    2012-04-23

    This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models' benefits and costs. The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm, outweigh any minor concerns or potential

  15. The place of solar power: an economic analysis of concentrated and distributed solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper examines the cost and benefits, both financial and environmental, of two leading forms of solar power generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells and Dish Stirling Systems, using conventional carbon-based fuel as a benchmark. Methods First we define how these solar technologies will be implemented and why. Then we delineate a model city and its characteristics, which will be used to test the two methods of solar-powered electric distribution. Then we set the constraining assumptions for each technology, which serve as parameters for our calculations. Finally, we calculate the present value of the total cost of conventional energy needed to power our model city and use this as a benchmark when analyzing both solar models’ benefits and costs. Results The preeminent form of distributed electricity generation, grid-tied photovoltaic cells under net-metering, allow individual homeowners a degree of electric self-sufficiency while often turning a profit. However, substantial subsidies are required to make the investment sensible. Meanwhile, large dish Stirling engine installations have a significantly higher potential rate of return, but face a number of pragmatic limitations. Conclusions This paper concludes that both technologies are a sensible investment for consumers, but given that the dish Stirling consumer receives 6.37 dollars per watt while the home photovoltaic system consumer receives between 0.9 and 1.70 dollars per watt, the former appears to be a superior option. Despite the large investment, this paper deduces that it is far more feasible to get few strong investors to develop a solar farm of this magnitude, than to get 150,000 households to install photovoltaic arrays in their roofs. Potential implications of the solar farm construction include an environmental impact given the size of land require for this endeavour. However, the positive aspects, which include a large CO2 emission reduction aggregated over the lifespan of the farm

  16. Study on thermal electric conversion system for FBR plant. Investigation for effective EVST waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Isamu; Kurata, Chikatoshi

    2004-02-01

    Recently, it has been important to reuse discharged heat energy from present nuclear plant, especially from sodium cooled FBR, which are typical high temperature system, in the view of reduction of environmental burden and improvement of heat efficiency for plant. The thermal electric conversion system can work only the temperature difference and has been applied to the limited fields such as space or military, however, that results show good merits for reliability, maintenance free, and so on. Recently, the development of new thermal electric conversion elements has made remarkable progress. In this study, for the effective utilization of waste heat from Monju', the prototype plant of FBR, we made an investigation of electric power generating system maintaining the cooling faculty by applying the thermal electric conversion system to sodium cooling line of EVST. Using the new type iron based thermal electric conversion elements, which are plentiful, economical and good for environmental harmonization, we have calculated the amount of heat exchange and power generation from sodium cooling line of EVST, and have investigated the module sizing, cost and subject to be settled. The results were , (1)The amount of power generation from sodium cooling line of EVST is smaller about one figure than motive power of sodium cooler fan. However, if Seebeck coefficient and heat conductivity of iron based thermal electric conversion elements shall be improved, power from sodium cooling line shall be able to cover the motive power. (2) The amount of heat released from sodium cooling line after the installation of thermal electric conversion module covers the necessity to maintain the sodium cooling faculty. (3) In case of the installation of module to the sodium cooler, it should be reconstructed because of tube arrangement modification. In case of the installation of module to the sodium connecting line, air ventilation system is needed to suppress the room temperature. (4) As

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - ISCC Duba 1 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Break Ground: 2016 Start Production: 2017 Participants Developer(s): Saudi Electricity Co. Owner(s ) (%): Saudi Electricity Co. EPC Contractor: Initec Energia Generation Offtaker(s): Saudi Electricity Co. Plant Configuration Solar Field SCA Manufacturer (Model): Flabeg (Ultimate Trough) HCE Manufacturer: Archimede Solar

  18. The Contribution of Solar Power Funding for Online Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contribution of Solar Power Funding for Online Content Accessibility and Sustainability of Blended Learning in Rural Africa: The Tanzania Perspective. ... Despite these appealing features, penetration of solar electricity in remote and rural areas in Tanzania is limited by high initial cost of building a stand-alone solar ...

  19. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  20. Analysis of a solar powered absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.A.M.; El-Shaarawi, M.A.I.; Siddiqui, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional absorption system modified to increase COP. • Results indicated increase of 10% in COP due to dephlegmator heat recovery. • Results indicated increase of 8% in COP due to refrigerant storage unit. • Results indicated increase of 18% in COP due to combined effect of modifications. • Simulation results indicated a very good agreement with the measured results. - Abstract: Today, fossil fuel is the primary extensively used source of energy. However, its negative impact on the environment have forced the energy research continuity to seriously consider renewable sources of energy. Solar energy, in particular, has been the main focus in this regard because it is a source of clean energy and naturally available. This study presents the design and analysis of a solar powered absorption refrigeration system modified to increase its coefficient of performance (COP). The modifications include recovering of waste heat from a dephlegmator and utilization of a refrigerant storage unit. The simulation results indicate an increase of 10% in the COP of the conventional design using dephlegmator heat recovery and an increase of 8% in the COP of the conventional design due to the use of a refrigerant storage. The analysis for the combined effect of modifications indicates an increase of 18% in the COP compared to conventional design. Calculated values of coefficient of performance indicate a very good agreement with the ones obtained based on measurement

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Gen3 Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vidal, Judith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wagner, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolb, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andraka, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Today's power-tower concentrating solar power (CSP) technology exists in large part as a result of Department of Energy (DOE) and utility industry funding of demonstration systems in the 1980s and 1990s. Today's most advanced towers are integrated with molten-salt thermal energy storage, delivering thermal energy at 565 degrees C for integration with conventional steam-Rankine cycles. The supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle has been identified as a likely successor to the steam-Rankine power cycle due to its potential for high efficiency when operating at elevated temperatures of 700 degrees C or greater. Over the course of the SunShot Initiative, DOE has supported a number of technology pathways that can operate efficiently at these temperatures and that hold promise to be reliable and cost effective. Three pathways - molten salt, particle, and gaseous - were selected for further investigation based on a two-day workshop held in August of 2016. The information contained in this roadmap identifies research and development challenges and lays out recommended research activities for each of the three pathways. DOE foresees that by successfully addressing the challenges identified in this roadmap, one or more technology pathways will be positioned for demonstration and subsequent commercialization within the next ten years. Based on current knowledge of the three power tower technologies, all three have the potential to achieve the SunShot goal of 6 cents/kilowatt-hour. Further development, modeling, and testing are now required to bring one or more of the technologies to a stage where integrated system tests and pilot demonstrations are feasible.

  2. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  3. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  4. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  5. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  6. Hybrid solar and hydro-power for Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyss, N

    1978-02-01

    It is proposed that integrating solar powerplants into the Austrian electricity networks could cost less than conventional thermal plants, and provide a high degree of independence to the country. The following aspects are discussed; the seasonal distribution of sunshine, solar power plants, land requirements, economic feasibility, solar/fossil hybrid operation, integration strategy, Malta-B as a calculating unit, solar-hydraulic baseload throughout the year, concrete requirements, solar-hydraulic possibilities within the next 50 years, cement for solar plants, and energy accounting. (MHR)

  7. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  8. Combined heat and power solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    An Australian-designed photovoltaic (PV) power system that also supplies hot water is close to commercial release. PVs have been around for decades and solar concentrators have been efficiently heating water for nearly a century. The Australian National University, Department of Engineering - Centre for Sustainable Energy systems (CSES), has designed a domestic scale modular system that not only generates electricity but also provides concentrated thermal energy to heat water for a Solahart hot water system and is designed to be deployed into small to medium scale applications such as hospitals, schools and dwellings with an easily assembled galvanised steel frame. A market research was carried out and is envisaged that at least 7,500 units will be installed annually by the year 2005 and up to 25,000 units by 2008

  9. Solar Power Augmented Electrolysis Module for Energy Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrating solar photovoltaic power with regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage can often be very complex and costly. It usually requires complex power...

  10. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Nandar Oo; Kyaw Soe Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart...

  11. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  12. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  13. Optimum Dispatch of Hybrid Solar Thermal (HSTP Electric Power Plant Using Non-Smooth Cost Function and Emission Function for IEEE-30 Bus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of economic load dispatch (ELD is to optimize the total fuel cost of hybrid solar thermal electric power plant (HSTP. In ELD problems the cost function for each generator has been approximated by a single quadratic cost equation. As cost of coal increases, it becomes even more important have a good model for the production cost of each generator for the solar thermal hybrid system. A more accurate formulation is obtained for the ELD problem by expressing the generation cost function as a piece wise quadratic cost function. However, the solution methods for ELD problem with piece wise quadratic cost function requires much complicated algorithms such as the hierarchical structure approach along with evolutionary computations (ECs. A test system comprising of 10 units with 29 different fuel [7] cost equations is considered in this paper. The applied genetic algorithm method will provide optimal solution for the given load demand.

  14. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  15. The research and development of the automatic solar power tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yan Ping; Yuan Zhong Ying

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a kind of automatic tracker using solar power. It depends on two important parts which are servo system and adjusting mechanism system to keep the tracker operating normally. The article focuses on describing the characteristics and functions of two systems and the operating details of the automatic solar power tracker.

  16. Marketing of green electrons. Solar-power stock exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer-Waelti, E.

    1999-01-01

    An independent power producer evaluates the current solar-power stock exchanges in Switzerland. Most stock exchanges have been created by electric utilities which want to deliver 'green' power to those of their clients asking for. A first group of solar-power stock exchanges offer to take over the produced solar power at a marginal price. Among them, some organise a competition between the potential solar-power producers, in order to press down the investment cost for the new photovoltaic plants to build. Other stock exchanges propose a periodical adaptation of the prices, especially an adaptation to the capital interest rate. For sure, the total length of the time period for which the contract is established is one of the decisive factors. Because no bank is ready to grant a credit for such an investment without having seen a long-running take-over contract for the produced power [de

  17. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  18. Applicability of advanced automotive heat engines to solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Evans, D. G.; Alger, D. L.

    The requirements of a solar thermal power system are reviewed and compared with the predicted characteristics of automobile engines under development. A good match is found in terms of power level and efficiency when the automobile engines, designed for maximum powers of 65-100 kW (87 to 133 hp) are operated to the nominal 20-40 kW electric output requirement of the solar thermal application. At these reduced power levels it appears that the automotive gas turbine and Stirling engines have the potential to deliver the 40+ percent efficiency goal of the solar thermal program.

  19. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Power management circuits for self-powered systems based on micro-scale solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun-Jung; Yu, Chong-Gun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, two types of power management circuits for self-powered systems based on micro-scale solar energy harvesting are proposed. First, if a solar cell outputs a very low voltage, less than 0.5 V, as in miniature solar cells or monolithic integrated solar cells, such that it cannot directly power the load, a voltage booster is employed to step up the solar cell's output voltage, and then a power management unit (PMU) delivers the boosted voltage to the load. Second, if the output voltage of a solar cell is enough to drive the load, the PMU directly supplies the load with solar energy. The proposed power management systems are designed and fabricated in a 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process, and their performances are compared and analysed through measurements.

  2. Concentrating solar power: a sustainable and renewable way to get energy from solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montecchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Solar light irradiating the Earth is a great sustainable and renewable power source. In concentrating solar power plants, mirrors are used to redirect the solar light toward a small area where a receiver captures and converts it into thermal-energy which can be stored. ENEA has been developing the parabolic-trough Italian technology, as well as several facilities for the component characterization. The paper reports on some of those which are purely optical instruments [it

  3. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  4. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  5. The Future of Solar Power in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Reid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used detailed industry data to analyse the impacts of expected further cost reductions on the competitiveness of solar power in Britain, and assess whether the solar market can survive without support in the near future. We investigated three solar power markets: large-scale, ground-mounted “solar farms” (defined in our analysis as larger than a 5000 kilowatt system; commercial roof-top (250 kW; and residential rooftop (3 kW. We found that all three would be economic without support in the next decade. Such an outcome assumes progressively falling support under a stable policy regime. We found that unsubsidised residential solar power may be cheaper with battery storage within the next five to 10 years. Unsupported domestic solar battery packs achieve payback periods of less than 10 years by 2025. That could create an inflexion point driving adoption of domestic solar systems. The variability of solar power will involve some grid integration costs at higher penetration levels, such as more frequent power market scheduling; more interconnector capacity; storage; and backup power. These costs and responses could be weighed against non-market benefits including the potential for grid balancing; lower carbon and particulate emissions; and energy security.

  6. Solar-pumped lasers for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Nelson, L.; Quimby, D.; Christiansen, W.

    1979-01-01

    Multi-Megawatt CW solar-pumped lasers appear to be technologically feasible for space power transmission in the 1990s time frame. A new concept for a solar-pumped laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate black body cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, either CO or CO2. Reradiation losses are minimized with resulting high efficiency operation. A 1 MW output laser may weigh as little as 8000 kg including solar collector, black body cavity, laser cavity and ducts, pumps, power systems and waste heat radiator. The efficiency of such a system will be on the order of 10 to 20%. Details of the new concept, laser design, comparison to competing solar-powered lasers and applications to a laser solar power satellite (SPS) concept are presented.

  7. Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, V.

    1993-01-01

    Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

  8. Is solar power too expensive? In the long term, no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    This short article reports on a workshop held by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Zurich, Switzerland, which addressed the question if solar power is too expensive. The article summarises the presentations of energy and financial experts from around the world who attended the workshop. Developments in solar technology, traditional energy supply and the various applications of solar energy are discussed. Marketing aspects and price developments are examined and the risks and chances offered by the solar business are discussed. The lack of purchasing power in developing countries is also addressed.

  9. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  10. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  11. Detecting photovoltaic solar panels using hyperspectral imagery and estimating solar power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirjak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.

  12. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, M. Keith [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Barnett, Russell [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  13. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  14. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  15. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  16. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  17. Cleaning Robot for Solar Panels in Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Lu-Bin; Shen, Cheng-Wei; Bian, Huai-Qiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The dust particles on solar panel surface have been a serious problem for the photovoltaic industry, a new monorail-tracked robot used for automatic cleaning of solar panel is presented in this paper. To meet the requirement of comprehensive and stable cleaning of PV array, the monorail-tracked pattern of robot is introduced based on the monorail structure technique. The running and striding mechanism are designed for mobility of robot on the solar panels. According to the carrying capacity and water circulation mechanism, a type of self-cleaning device with filtering system is developed. Combined with the computer software and communications technology, the control system is built in this robot, which can realize the functions of autonomous operation, positioning and monitoring. The application of this developed cleaning robot can actualize the Industrialization of automatic cleaning for PV components and have wide market prospect.

  18. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  19. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  20. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  1. New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near-space flight vehicle for defense and security. ... To overcome this problem, we propose a pseudo-satellite system where telecommunication devices are carried on a perpetually flying solar aircraft cruising at stratospheric altitude. Our aircraft will combine ...

  2. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  3. Design and installation package for a solar powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design and installation procedures of a solar powered pump developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company are presented. Subsystem installation, operation and maintenance requirements, subsystem performance specifications, and detailed design drawings are included.

  4. Small Footprint Solar/Wind-powered CASTNET System Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In this Research Effort “Small Footprint Solar/Wind-Powered CASTNET System” there are two data sets. One data set contains atmospheric concentration measurements, at...

  5. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  6. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1988-01-01

    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  7. Thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2014-09-01

    The spatial coherence of solar beam radiation is a key constraint in solar rectenna conversion. Here, we present a derivation of the thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion - an expansion of Landsberg's elegant basic bound, originally limited to incoherent converters at maximum flux concentration. First, we generalize Landsberg's work to arbitrary concentration and angular confinement. Then we derive how the values are further lowered for coherence-limited converters. The results do not depend on a particular conversion strategy. As such, they pertain to systems that span geometric to physical optics, as well as classical to quantum physics. Our findings indicate promising potential for solar rectenna conversion.

  8. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  9. Design approach for solar cell and battery of a persistent solar powered GPS tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Watson, Sterling M.; Pennes, Anthony; Marius Peters, Ian; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2017-08-01

    Sensors with wireless communication can be powered by photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, using solar power requires thoughtful design of the power system, as well as a careful management of the power consumption, especially for devices with cellular communication (because of their higher power consumption). A design approach can minimize system size, weight, and/or cost, while maximizing device performance (data transmission rate and persistence). In this contribution, we describe our design approach for a small form-factor, solar-powered GPS tracker with cellular communication. We evaluate the power consumption of the device in different stages of operation. Combining measured power consumption and the calculated energy-yield of a solar cell, we estimate the battery capacity and solar cell area required for 5 years of continuous operation. We evaluate trade-offs between PV and battery size by simulating the battery state of charge. The data show a trade-off between battery capacity and solar-cell area for given target data transmission rate and persistence. We use this analysis to determine the combination of solar panel area and battery capacity for a given application and the data transmission rate that results in minimum cost or total weight of the system.

  10. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  11. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  12. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  13. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  14. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  15. High Temperature Surface Parameters for Solar Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, C. F; Jenkins, R. J; Rudkin, R. L; Laughridge, F. I

    1960-01-01

    ... at a given distance from the sun. Thermal conversion efficiencies with a concentration ratio of 50 have been computed for each surface when exposed to solar radiation at the Earth's mean orbital radius...

  16. Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market

  17. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  18. Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features

  19. Solar thermal power plants simulation using the TRNSYS software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popel, O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpilrain, E.E. [Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVTAN), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-01

    The paper describes activity directed on the TRNSYS software application for mathematical simulation of solar thermal power plants. First stage of developments has been devoted to simulation and thermodynamic analysis of the Hybrid Solar-Fuel Thermal Power Plants (HSFTPP) with gas turbine installations. Three schemes of HSFTPP, namely: Gas Turbine Regenerative Cycle, Brayton Cycle with Steam Injection and Combined Brayton-Rankine Cycle,- have been assembled and tested under the TRNSYS. For this purpose 18 new models of the schemes components (gas and steam turbines, compressor, heat-exchangers, steam generator, solar receiver, condenser, controllers, etc) have been elaborated and incorporated into the TRNSYS library of 'standard' components. The authors do expect that this initiative and received results will stimulate experts involved in the mathematical simulation of solar thermal power plants to join the described activity to contribute to acceleration of development and expansion of 'Solar Thermal Power Plants' branch of the TRNSYS. The proposed approach could provide an appropriate basis for standardization of analysis, models and assumptions for well-founded comparison of different schemes of advanced solar power plants. (authors)

  20. Brownfields City of Houston Solar Project: Solar Power Analysis and Design Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document details the scope of work elements completed in support of this project, as well as recommendations for next steps towards solar project development and power purchase agreement negotiation and finalization.

  1. Mini Solar and Sea Current Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenhali, Abdulrahman; Alshamsi, Hatem; Aljunaibi, Yaser; Almussabi, Dheyab; Alshehhi, Ahmed; Hilal, Hassan Bu

    2017-07-01

    The power demand in United Arab Emirates is increased so that there is a consistent power cut in our region. This is because of high power consumption by factories and also due to less availability of conventional energy resources. Electricity is most needed facility for the human being. All the conventional energy resources are depleting day by day. So we have to shift from conventional to non-conventional energy resources. In this the combination of two energy resources is takes place i.e. wind and solar energy. This process reviles the sustainable energy resources without damaging the nature. We can give uninterrupted power by using hybrid energy system. Basically this system involves the integration of two energy system that will give continuous power. Solar panels are used for converting solar energy and wind turbines are used for converting wind energy into electricity. This electrical power can utilize for various purpose. Generation of electricity will be takes place at affordable cost. This paper deals with the generation of electricity by using two sources combine which leads to generate electricity with affordable cost without damaging the nature balance. The purpose of this project was to design a portable and low cost power system that combines both sea current electric turbine and solar electric technologies. This system will be designed in efforts to develop a power solution for remote locations or use it as another source of green power.

  2. The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Yorston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations have grown globally at a rapid pace in recent years. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the cost competitiveness of this electric power source. Based on data available for the second half of 2011, we conclude that utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. In contrast, commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in the sense that the generating cost of power from solar PV is comparable to the retail electricity prices that commercial users pay, at least in certain parts of the U.S. This conclusion is shown to depend crucially on both the current federal tax subsidies for solar power and an ideal geographic location for the solar installation. Projecting recent industry trends into the future, we estimate that utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade. Furthermore, commercial-scale installations could reach “grid parity” in about ten years, if the current federal tax incentives for solar power were to expire at that point. - Highlights: ► Assessment of the cost competitiveness of new solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations. ► Utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. ► Commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in certain parts of the U.S. ► Utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade

  3. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  4. Optimal offering strategy for a concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are becoming economically viable. ► CSP production is positively correlated with the demand. ► CSP plants can be made dispatchable by using molten salt storage facilities. ► Integrating CSP plants in a market constitutes a relevant challenge. -- Abstract: This paper provides a methodology to build offering curves for a concentrating solar power plant. This methodology takes into account the uncertainty in the thermal production from the solar field and the volatility of market prices. The solar plant owner is a price-taker producer that participates in a pool-based electricity market with the aim of maximizing its expected profit. To enhance the value of the concentrating solar power plant, a molten salt heat storage is considered, which allows producing electricity during periods without availability of the solar resource. To derive offering curves, a mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed, which is robust from the point of view of the uncertainty associated with the thermal production of the solar field and stochastic from the point of view of the uncertain market prices.

  5. A Remote Power Management Strategy for the Solar Energy Powered Bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsing Chao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar energy powered bicycle by a wireless sensor network (WSN far-end network monitoring solar energy to transfer the electrical energy storage and the effectiveness analysis is proposed. In order to achieve this goal, an embarked ZigBee by a solar-powered bicycle the far-end wireless network supervisory system is setup. Experimental results prove that our prototype, the solar energy powered bicycle, can manage the solar energy for charging two Lead-Acid batteries pack. As a result, the user by the wireless network in parking period knows the data on the amount of immediate solar radiation, the degree of illumination, the ambient temperature, and electrical energy storage capacity information by the internet interface.

  6. Investigation of solar photovoltaic module power output by various models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhrani, A.Q.; Othman, A.K.; Rigit, A.R.H.; Baini, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the power output of a solar photovoltaic module by various models and to formulate a suitable model for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic modules. The model was used to correct the configurations of solar photovoltaic systems for sustainable power supply. Different types of models namely the efficiency, power, fill factor and current-voltage characteristic curve models have been reviewed. It was found that the examined models predicted a 40% yield of the rated power in cloudy weather conditions and up to 80% in clear skies. The models performed well in terms of electrical efficiency in cloudy days if the influence of low irradiance were incorporated. Both analytical and numerical methods were employed in the formulation of improved model which gave +- 2% error when compared with the rated power output of solar photovoltaic module. The proposed model is more practical in terms of number of variables used and acceptable performance in humid atmospheres. Therefore, it could be useful for the estimation of power output of the solar photovoltaic systems in Sarawak region. (author)

  7. The Potential for Low-Cost Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Carpenter, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Concern over the possibility of global climate change as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere is resulting in increased interest in renewable energy technologies. The World Bank recently sponsored a study to determine whether solar thermal power plants can achieve cost parity with conventional power plants. The paper reviews the conclusions of that study

  8. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  9. A solar powered wireless computer mouse: industrial design concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; Veefkind, M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Silvester, S.

    2009-01-01

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared

  10. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  11. Solar radiation for sea-water desalination and electric power generation via vacuum solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottinelli, L.; Reali, M.; El-Nashar, A.M.; Giusiano, F.; Vigotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present report concerns the energetic potential of vacuum solar which are rather versatile and efficient devices for converting solar energy into thermal energy. Two main energetic applications have been analysed: the first one for a solar sea water desalination plant which has been operated in Abu Dhabi for the past ten years, the other for a conceptual solar thermoelectric-power plant having a fair thermodynamic efficiency (15-20%). A simple technology for the manufacture of vacuum solar collectors in a standard mechanical shop is being developed in collaboration between ENEL Sp A (DSR-CRIS, Milano) and WED (Abu Dhabi). Such technology should have an important economy-saving potential per se and would also make repair and substitution operations simple enough for the actual operators of the vacuum solar collector system without any need of external assistance. The technic-operative-economical features of the Abu Dhabi solar desalination plant suggest that the use novel simplified vacuum solar collectors could have a considerable technic economical potential. The analysis of the conceptual solar thermo-electric-power plant focuses on its general layout and singles out key technological issues which ought to be addressed in an overall feasibility study. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Solar power from space: the worldwide grid of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in the feasibility and prospects for generating large amounts of electricity from space-based solar power systems is reviewed. The interest is generated by reports which suggest that sun-surfacing solar arrays in stationary earth orbit at an altitude 22,300 miles would not only be unaffected by the Earth's day-night cycle, cloud cover and atmospheric dust, but would also receive some eight times as much sunlight as solar collectors at the Earth's surface. The prediction is that relevant technology will be perfected to the point where by the middle of the 21. century a large share of the world's demand for electricity will be met by a series of very large space-based solar photovoltaic arrays. Several billion watts of power could be beamed to the Earth at microwave radio frequencies for collection by wide area rectifying ground antennas for conversion to electricity via transmitters connected to the photovoltaic arrays. A chronological account of development of this concept of beaming solar power from space shows that the idea has been around since the 1880s, gaining more and more credibility with each advance in space science . The moon, too, has been suggested as an ideal site for developing large-scale solar power systems that beam microwave energy to Earth. The lunar soil could supply silicon to build solar arrays, and metals such as iron and aluminum, for support structures and electric wiring. NASA is actively pursuing this line of inquiry, especially since all the problems involved with solar energy generation on earth, are absent on the moon.While a breakthrough is not imminent, the significant progress achieved to date in demonstrating the feasibility of wireless power transmission from space provides good reason for continuing to pursue this line of investigation

  13. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett K.

    A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for two cooling seasons. Its performance in providing power for space cooling has been analyzed. This solar cooling system is comprised of 53.3 m2 of XCPC trough collectors which are used to power a 23 kW double effect (LiBr) absorption chiller. This is the first system that combines both XCPC and absorption chilling technologies. Performance of the system was measured in both sunny and cloudy conditions, with both clean and dirty collectors. It was found that these collectors are well suited at providing thermal power to drive absorption cooling systems and that both the coinciding of available thermal power with cooling demand and the simplicity of the XCPC collectors compared to other solar thermal collectors makes them a highly attractive candidate for cooling projects.

  14. Optimal Allocation of Thermal-Electric Decoupling Systems Based on the National Economy by an Improved Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to relieve the large amount of wind power curtailment during the heating period in the North China region, a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach is proposed to both bring down the constraint of forced power output of combined heat and power plants and increase the electric load level during valley load times that assist the power grid in consuming more wind power. The operating principles of the thermal-electric decoupling approach is described, the mathematical model of its profits is developed, the constraint conditions of its operation are listed, also, an improved parallel conjugate gradient is utilized to bypass the saddle problem and accelerate the optimal speed. Numerical simulations are implemented and reveal an optimal allocation of TED which with a rated power of 280 MW and 185 MWh heat storage capacity are possible. This allocation of TED could bring approximately 16.9 billion Yuan of economic profit and consume more than 80% of the surplus wind energy which would be curtailed without the participation of TED. The results in this article verify the effectiveness of this method that could provide a referential guidance for thermal-electric decoupling system allocation in practice.

  15. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  16. Experimental Investigation of Solar Powered Reverse Osmosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire7-

    due to its low energy consumption is one of the best desalination alternatives. ... numerous villages and farmers, it is very difficult to extend an electric grid to every ... osmosis coupling with solar PV systems holds great promise for increasing ...

  17. Performance evaluation and parametric choice criteria of a Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    A more realistic thermodynamic model of the pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) system consisting of a Brayton cycle and a reverse Brayton cycle is proposed, where the internal and external irreversible losses are took into account and several important controlling parameters, e.g., the pressure ratio and heat flows of the two isobaric processes in the Brayton cycle, are introduced. Analytic expressions for the round trip efficiency and power output of the PTES system are derived. The general performance characteristics of the PTES system are revealed. The optimal relationship between the round trip efficiency and the power output is obtained. The influences of some important controlling parameters on the performance characteristics of the PTES system are discussed and the optimally operating regions of these parameters are determined. - Highlights: • A cycle model of the Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed. • Internal and external irreversible losses are considered. • Maximum power output and efficiency of the system are calculated. • Optimum performance characteristics of the system are revealed. • Rational ranges of key controlling parameters are determined.

  18. Solar photovoltaic projects in the mainstream power market

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Develop large-scale solar photovoltaic projects with this book, to feed power into a grid. Contains case studies of the Waldpolenz Energy Park, Germany, Lopburi Solar Plant in Thailand and what will be the world's largest PV plant, the Topaz Solar Farm in California. Also included are interviews from leading figures in the PV industry.Contents cover:planning and structuring projectssiting, planning and connection issuesbuilding and operating projectstechnology basicseconomies of PVhistory and business of PVfinancing and regulationtechnical aspects of system design.Supported by figures and photographs, this is for anyone wanting to master the commercial, professional, financial, engineering or political aspects of developing mega-watt solar PV projects in a mainstream power market.

  19. A new concept of space solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Duan, Baoyan; Song, Liwei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Dongxu

    2017-07-01

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) is a tremendous energy system that collects and converts solar power to electric power in space, and then transmits the electric power to earth wirelessly. In this paper, a novel SSPS concept based on ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial is proposed. A spherical condenser made of ENZ metamaterial is developed, by using the refractive property of the ENZ metamaterial sunlight can be captured and redirected to its center. To make the geometric concentration ratio of the PV array reasonable, a hemispherical one located at the center is used to collect and convert the normal-incidence sunlight to DC power, then through a phased array transmitting antenna the DC power is beamed down to the rectenna on the ground. Detailed design of the proposed concept is presented.

  20. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  1. Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Fen

    2009-01-01

    Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh) -1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

  2. General review of solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Sebarchievici, Calin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide review of development in solar sorption refrigeration technologies. • Theoretical basis and applications of absorption and adsorption cycles are discussed. • Thermodynamic properties of most common working pairs have been reviewed. • Development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems was explored. • A comparison between solar-powered absorption and adsorption systems was performed. - Abstract: The negative environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels have forced the energy research community seriously to consider renewable sources, such as naturally available solar energy. Thermally powered refrigeration technologies are classified into two categories: thermo-mechanical technology and sorption technology (open systems or closed systems). This paper provides a detailed review of the solar closed sorption (absorption and adsorption) refrigeration systems, which utilise working pairs (fluids). After an introduction of the basic principles of these systems, the history of development and recent advances in solar sorption refrigeration technologies are reported. The adsorption cooling typically has a lower heat source temperature requirement than the absorption cooling. Based on the coefficient of performance (COP), the absorption systems are preferred over the adsorption systems, and the higher temperature issues can be easily handled with solar adsorption systems. The thermodynamic properties of most common working fluids, as well as the use of ternary mixtures in solar-powered absorption systems, have been reviewed in this study. The paper also refers to new approaches to increase the efficiency and sustainability of the basic adsorption cycles, such as the development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems. This research shows that solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration technologies can be attractive alternatives not only to serve the needs for air-conditioning, refrigeration, ice making, thermal

  3. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  4. Techno-economic design optimization of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A holistic view is essential in the engineering of technical systems. This thesis presents an integrative approach for designing solar thermal power plants. The methodology is based on a techno-economic plant model and a powerful optimization algorithm. Typically, contemporary design methods treat technical and economic parameters and sub-systems separately, making it difficult or even impossible to realize the full optimization potential of power plant systems. The approach presented here ov...

  5. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  6. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  7. Concentrated solar power in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenon, Alaric C.; Fylaktos, Nestor; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Papanicolas, Costas N.

    2017-06-01

    Solar concentration systems are usually deployed in large open spaces for electricity generation; they are rarely used to address the pressing energy needs of the built environment sector. Fresnel technology offers interesting and challenging CSP energy pathways suitable for the built environment, due to its relatively light weight (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system of a recently constructed office & laboratory building, the Novel Technologies Laboratory (NTL). The multi-generative system will support cooling, heating and hot water production feeding the system of the NTL building, as a demonstration project, part of the STS-MED program (Small Scale Thermal Solar District Units for Mediterranean Communities) financed by the European Commission under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), CBCMED program.

  8. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  9. GPP Webinar: Market Outlook and Innovations in Wind and Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar reviewing the state of the renewable energy industry as a whole, with a focus on wind and solar power and exploring recent marketplace innovations in wind and solar power and renewable energy purchases.

  10. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  11. Effects of the selection of heat transfer fluid and condenser type on the performance of a solar thermal power plant with technoeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazoglu, M. Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of the selection of HTF and condenser type on STPs were examined. • Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STP was investigated. • LCOE for STP compared with gas turbine and combined cycle. • CSP with thermal storage can be competitive technology with carbon tax/credits. - Abstract: Renewable electricity generation systems have an increasing trend in terms of usage due to aiming to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and energy source diversification strategies of countries. Parabolic trough, Fresnel, and solar tower systems have been used to generate solar thermal electricity around the world. In this study, the effects of the selection of collector heat transfer fluid (HTF) and condenser type on a concentrated solar thermal power plant were analyzed. Net power, net electrical efficiency, and economic analysis were carried out for the selected HTFs for different collector outlet temperature cases. In the case of condenser type selection four different systems were considered; water cooled, air cooled (dry air) and air cooled with water spraying (spraying before fan and spraying before and after fan). Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and specific investment cost were calculated. According to the results, specific investment cost and LCOE were found to be 4000 USD/kW_e_l and 0.207 USD/kW h, respectively. Carbon tax/credit was also included to the calculations of LCOE and a comparison study was carried out for gas turbine, combined cycle and solar thermal power plant with thermal storage. Including carbon tax/credit to the LCOE shows that solar thermal power plant with heat storage can be competitive when compared to gas turbines.

  12. Solar-Electrochemical Power System for a Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Morales, Nelson

    1994-01-01

    This report documents a sizing study of a variety of solar electrochemical power systems for the intercenter NASA study known as 'Mars Exploration Reference Mission'. Power systems are characterized for a variety of rovers, habitation modules, and space transport vehicles based on requirements derived from the reference mission. The mission features a six-person crew living on Mars for 500 days. Mission power requirements range from 4 kWe to 120 kWe. Primary hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells, regenerative hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells, sodium sulfur batteries advanced photovoltaic solar arrays of gallium arsenide on germanium with tracking and nontracking mechanisms, and tent solar arrays of gallium arsenide on germanium are evaluated and compared.

  13. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  14. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger

    1990-01-01

    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  15. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cells is the pH membrane gradient which reduces cell voltage and power output. This problem is caused by acid production at the anode, alkaline production at the cathode, and the nonspecific proton exchange through the membrane. Here we report a solution for a new kind of solar energy powered microbial fuel cell via development of a reversible bioelectrode responsible for both biocatalyzed anodic and cathodic electron transfer. Anodic produced protons were used for the cathodic reduction reaction which held the formation of a pH membrane gradient. The microbial fuel cell continuously generated electricity and repeatedly reversed polarity dependent on aeration or solar energy exposure. Identified organisms within biocatalyzing biofilm of the reversible bioelectrode were algae, (cyano)bacteria and protozoa. These results encourage application of solar energy powered microbial fuel cells.

  16. Application of Power Systems Economics to Wind and Solar Power Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Andrew David

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is the economic implications of the technical challenges of integrating variable generation, namely wind and solar, into the electric power system. The research is organized around three topics: short-term variability of wind and solar generation, changes in the economic value of wind and solar with increasing penetration, and the effectiveness of different measures at mitigating changes in economic value with increasing penetration levels. Early studies of PV g...

  17. Solar Array Power Conditioning for a Spinning Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Antonio; Chirulli, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The conditioning of the output power from a solar array can mainly be achieved by the adoption of DET or MPPT based architecture. There are several factors that can orientate the choice of the system designer towards one solution or the other; some of them maybe inherent to the mission derived requirements (Illumination levels, EMC cleanliness, etc.), others come directly from a careful assessment of performances and losses of both power conditioner and solar array.Definition of the criteria on which basis the final choice is justified is important as they have to guarantee a clear determination of the available versus the required power in all those mission conditions identifiable as design drivers for the overall satellite system both in terms of mass and costs.Such criteria cannot just be simple theoretical enunciations of principles; nor the meticulous definition of them on a case by case basis for different types of missions as neither option gives a guarantee of being conclusive.The aim of this paper is then to suggest assessment steps and guidelines that can be considered generically valid for any mission case, starting from the exposition of the trade off activity performed in order to choose the power conditioning solution for a spinning satellite having unregulated power bus architecture. Calculations and numerical simulations have been made in order to establish the needed solar array surface in case of adoption of a DET or MPPT solution, taking into account temperature and illumination levels on the solar cells, as well as power losses and inefficiencies from the solar generator to the main power bus, in different mission phases. Particular attention has been taken in order to correctly evaluate the thermal effects on the rest of the spacecraft as function of the adopted power system regulation.

  18. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  19. Lightweight Phase-Change Material For Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight panels containing phase-change materials developed for use as heat-storage elements of compact, lightweight, advanced solar dynamic power system. During high insolation, heat stored in panels via latent heat of fusion of phase-change material; during low insolation, heat withdrawn from panels. Storage elements consist mainly of porous carbon-fiber structures imbued with germanium. Developed for use aboard space station in orbit around Earth, also adapted to lightweight, compact, portable solar-power systems for use on Earth.

  20. Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketlogetswe, Clever; Seabe, Omphemetse O.; Fiszdon, Jerzy K.

    2008-01-01

    Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

  1. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  2. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  3. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  5. Solar powered wrist worn acquisition system for continuous photoplethysmogram monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James P; Beppler, Eric; Novak, Tristan; Whitmire, Eric; Jayakumar, Rochana; Randall, Clive; Qu, Weiguo; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    We present a solar-powered, wireless, wrist-worn platform for continuous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters during the activities of daily life. In this study, we demonstrate the capability to produce photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals using this platform. To adhere to a low power budget for solar-powering, a 574 nm green light source is used where the PPG from the radial artery would be obtained with minimal signal conditioning. The system incorporates two monocrystalline solar cells to charge the onboard 20 mAh lithium polymer battery. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is used to tether the device to a smartphone that makes the phone an access point to a dedicated server for long term continuous storage of data. Two power management schemes have been proposed depending on the availability of solar energy. In low light situations, if the battery is low, the device obtains a 5-second PPG waveform every minute to consume an average power of 0.57 mW. In scenarios where the battery is at a sustainable voltage, the device is set to enter its normal 30 Hz acquisition mode, consuming around 13.7 mW. We also present our efforts towards improving the charge storage capacity of our on-board super-capacitor.

  6. Data and Tools | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    -energy estimates for grid-connected power projects based on installation and operating costs and system ) is an economic cash flow model designed to assess projects, design cost-based incentives (e.g., feed

  7. Solar power generation in a rural region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The book contains the papers discussions and results of a German/Senegalese seminar on photovoltaic power generation in rural regions of Senegal which was held in Dakar on 19-23 November 1990. (HP) [de

  8. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  9. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  10. Combining Energy Conversion and Storage: A Solar Powered Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Remya; Kumar, P. Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A plasmonic TiO_2/CdS/Au fibers photoanode is fabricated for the first time. • The efficiency of the plasmonic cell is greater by 1.35 times than the non-plasmonic one. • A solar powered supercapacitor is developed with plasmonic photoanode and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. • The solar cell current charges the supercapacitor. • A specific capacitance of 150 F g"−"1 is achieved under sunlight without any external bias. - Abstract: A solar powered supercapacitor wherein a plasmonic quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) sources the photocurrent for charging/discharging a conjoined supercapacitor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is demonstrated. Gold or Au fibers are integrated into a titanium dioxide/cadmium sulfide (TiO_2/CdS) electrode to yield a TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode. The plasmonic effect of Au fibers is reflected in the higher incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE = 55%) and an improved overall power conversion efficiency (3.45%) produced by the TiO_2/CdS/Au photoanode relative to the non-plasmonic TiO_2/CdS photoanode. A Janus type bi-functional electrode composed of MWCNTs on either face separated by glass is prepared and it is coupled with the TiO_2/CdS/Au electrode and another MWCNT electrode to yield the tandem solar powered supercapacitor. By channelling the photocurrent produced by the QDSC part, under 0.1 sun illumination, the capacitance of the symmetric supercapacitor, without the application of any external bias is 150 F g"−"1 which compares well with reported values of electrically powered MWCNT supercapacitors. Our innovative design for a photo-supercapacitor offers a new paradigm for combining low cost photovoltaics with energy storage to yield a technologically useful device that needs nothing else other than solar energy to run.

  11. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    27545 MWth: the EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2011. After two years of sharp decline, the European solar thermal market is bottoming out. The EurObserv'ER survey findings are that the installation figure fell just 1.9% in comparison with 2010, giving a newly-installed collector area of 3.7 million m 2 . The concentrated solar power sector has been forging ahead alongside the heat production applications, and at the end of 2011 installed capacity passed the one gigawatt mark in Spain for the first time with 1157.2 MWe

  12. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  13. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  14. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsheh, E M; Albarbar, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P and O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  15. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  16. Coherence-limited solar power conversion: the fundamental thermodynamic bounds and the consequences for solar rectennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-01

    Solar rectifying antennas constitute a distinct solar power conversion paradigm where sunlight's spatial coherence is a basic constraining factor. In this presentation, we derive the fundamental thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited blackbody (principally solar) power conversion. Our results represent a natural extension of the eponymous Landsberg limit, originally derived for converters that are not constrained by the radiation's coherence, and are irradiated at maximum concentration (i.e., with a view factor of unity to the solar disk). We proceed by first expanding Landsberg's results to arbitrary solar view factor (i.e., arbitrary concentration and/or angular confinement), and then demonstrate how the results are modified when the converter can only process coherent radiation. The results are independent of the specific power conversion mechanism, and hence are valid for diffraction-limited as well as quantum converters (and not just classical heat engines or in the geometric optics regime). The derived upper bounds bode favorably for the potential of rectifying antennas as potentially high-efficiency solar converters.

  17. Mobile solar mini power station filled with infrared heliochambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukadirov, M.A.; Akhmedova, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work dedicated to development of perspective types of solar energetic devices of in-land application in accordance with conception about advantage of decentralized production of electrical and heat energy for supply of atom customers. It is given constructive particulars and characteristics of developed by authors mobile energy complex, which contents from block photoelectrical of convertor on the base of semiconductor solar elements, transparent in longwaved area out of edge of absorption base band, with power from 100 till 1000 Wt and heliochamber for accumulation of infrared part of solar radiation with wave length λ> 1 mcm. It is shown that, introduction into the system of energy complex the infrared heliochamber, increase the efficiency of equipment generally on the account of increasing the useful application of solar spectrum and extend her functional abilities. It is discussed the advantages of similar energy complex at decision of separate production tasks, including agriculture processing. (Author)

  18. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  19. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  20. LOW POWER UPCONVERSION FOR SOLAR FUELS PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Felix N. [Bowling Green State University

    2013-08-05

    Earth abundant copper(I) diimine complexes represent a renewable and economically feasible alternative to commonly used heavy metal containing chromophores. In the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, copper(I) diimine complexes typically undergo a significant structural rearrangement, leading to molecules with large Stokes shifts and very short excited state lifetimes, thereby limiting their usefulness as sensitizers in bimolecular electron and triplet energy transfer reactions. Strategically placed bulky substituents on the coordinating phenanthroline ligands have proven useful in restricting the transiently produced excited state Jahn-Teller distortion, leading to longer-lived excited states. By combining bulky sec-butyl groups in the 2- and 9- positions with methyl groups in the 3-,4-, 7-, and 8- positions, a remarkably long-lived (2.8 μs in DCM) copper(I) bis-phenanthroline complex, [Cu(dsbtmp)2]+, has been synthesized and characterized. Unlike other copper(I) diimine complexes, [Cu(dsbtmp)2]+ also retains a μs lifetime in coordinating solvents such as acetonitrile and water as a result of the cooperative sterics inherent in the molecular design. Preliminary results on the use of this complex in hydrogen-forming homogeneous photocatalysis is presented. Photon upconversion based on sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) represents a photochemical means to generate high-energy photons (or high-energy chemical products) from low-energy excitation, having potential applications in solar energy conversion and solar fuels producing devices. For the first time, synthetically facile and earth abundant Cu(I) MLCT sensitizers have been successfully incorporated into two distinct photochemical upconversion schemes, affording both red-to-green and orange-to-blue wavelength conversions. Preliminary results on aqueous-based photochemical upconversion as well as intramolecular Sn(IV) porphyrins containing axially coordinated aromatic hydrocarbon

  1. Design and modeling of low temperature solar thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Ganesh, N.; Srinivas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimum conditions are different for efficiency and power conditions. ► The current model works up to a maximum separator temperature of 150 °C. ► The turbine concentration influences the high pressure. ► High solar beam radiation and optimized cycle conditions give low collector cost. -- Abstract: During the heat recovery in a Kalina cycle, a binary aqua–ammonia mixture changes its state from liquid to vapor, the more volatile ammonia vaporizes first and then the water starts vaporization to match temperature profile of the hot fluid. In the present work, a low temperature Kalina cycle has been investigated to optimize the heat recovery from solar thermal collectors. Hot fluid coming from solar parabolic trough collector with vacuum tubes is used to generate ammonia rich vapor in a boiler for power generation. The turbine inlet conditions are optimized to match the variable hot fluid temperature with the intermittent nature of the solar radiation. The key parameters discussed in this study are strong solution concentration, separator temperature which affects the hot fluid inlet temperature and turbine ammonia concentration. Solar parabolic collector system with vacuum tubes has been designed at the optimized power plant conditions. This work can be used in the selection of boiler, separator and turbine conditions to maximize the power output as well as efficiency of power generation system. The current model results a maximum limit temperature for separator as 150 °C at the Indian climatic conditions. A maximum specific power of 105 kW per kg/s of working fluid can be obtained at 80% of strong solution concentration with 140 °C separator temperature. The corresponding plant and cycle efficiencies are 5.25% and 13% respectively. But the maximum efficiencies of 6% and 15% can be obtained respectively for plant and Kalina cycle at 150 °C of separator temperature.

  2. Solar wind power electric plant on Vis (Croatia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A project of a solar photovoltaic electric power plant presented by the Republic of Croatia at the meeting of the E.P.I.A. Mission for photovoltaic technology of the Mediterranean countries, aroused a great interest of the representatives of the invited countries. However, the interest within Croatia in the project has disappeared although E.P.I.A. offered a financing of two thirds of costs. There are attempts to construct 1800 kw wind-driven generators at the same location not taking into consideration a possibility of building a hybrid solar-wind-power electric plant. The chance that the solar part is completely of domestic origin is not accepted but the preference is given to the building of imported wind-driven generators. (orig.)

  3. Control of Power and Voltage of Solar Grid Connected

    OpenAIRE

    Allah, Boucetta Abd; Djamel, Labed

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy is high on International agendas. Currently, grid-connected photovoltaic systems are a popular technology to convert solar energy into electricity. Control of power injected into the grid, maximum power point, high efficiency, and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid are the requirements for inverter connection into the grid. Consequently, the performance of the inverters connected to the grid depends largely on the control strategy applied. In...

  4. Research notes : solar powered navigational lighting system demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ODOT will be installing a solar powered navigational lighting system on the AstoriaMegler Bridge as part of a pilot project approved by the Federal Highways Administration (FHWA). The coastal bridge is the connection across the Columbia River on U.S....

  5. Electrostatic protection of the Solar Power Satellite and rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Few, A. A., Jr.; Reiff, P. H.; Cooke, D.; Bohannon, J.; Haymes, B.

    1979-01-01

    Several features of the interactions of the solar power satellite (SPS) with its space environment were examined theoretically. The voltages produced at various surfaces due to space plasmas and the plasma leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets were calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low-Earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the EOTV high voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three dimensional self-consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one dimensional models. Magnetic shielding of the satellite, to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment is considered. It is concluded that minor modifications can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment. The SPS design employed in this study is the 1978 MSFC baseline design utilizing GaAs solar cells at CR-2 and an aluminum structure.

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Dish/Engine Projects | Concentrating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Power | NREL Dish/Engine Projects Photo of several flat, octagonal panels arranged together to form a dish-shaped structure. The receiver is supported above the panels by an arm-like of the panels. These dish/Stirling units are being tested at Sandia National Laboratories in

  7. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  8. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  9. The solar power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The helio-thermodynamics which produces electric power with high temperatures obtained by the concentration of sun rays, is increasing. This document presents maps of the different installations, installed or in project, and their capacities in the world. (A.L.B.)

  10. Independent Energy's Solar thermal products and services listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This article is a listing of companies offering products and services for the development of solar thermal electric power plants. The listing provides the company name under a heading describing the product or service the company provides. The products and services covered by the listing include developers and owner/operators, manufacturers of equipment, instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, and financial and legal services

  11. Economics of satellite solar power system operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.Q.; Tomkins, R.

    1981-01-01

    The potential value of the Satellite Power System (SPS) concept depends partly on the effects of integrating SPS power into a national supply grid. Some of these effects are evaluated. The factors that would affect utilities appraisal of the system are briefly reviewed. The cost implications of these factors are considered under the headings Load factors, Reliability, System Planning and Integration, and Rectenna Siting and Transmission, with particular reference to the UK and W Europe. A method is proposed for studying the ground segment of the system; a utility could calculate the value it would place on microwave 'fuel' supplied by the space segment, thereby providing firm cost targets for this part of the system. 21 refs.

  12. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  13. Implications of longitude and latitude on the size of solar-powered UAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Parvathy; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied solar irradiance and daylight implication on solar-powered UAV design. • We explored for perpetual UAV flight for 12 cities around the world. • All year round solar-powered UAV operation possible for cities near equatorial line. • Cities in latitudes of ±35° are the optimal for solar-powered UAV. • Longitudinal coordinates and elevation have a minor effect on UAV design. - Abstract: The implication of solar irradiance and daylight duration on the design of a small solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is capable of operating perpetually in various cities around the world was investigated. Solar data in 2013 on 12 cities distributed around the world was collected. The effects of the available solar irradiance and daylight of the city on the maximum take-off weight and wing span of a small solar-powered UAV were studied. The analysis indicates that daylight duration is as important as the available solar irradiance to the performance of the solar-powered UAV. Longitudinal coordinates and elevation have a minor effect on the estimation of daylight duration. Areas considerably high in solar irradiance and daylight duration are more conducive to the effective performance of solar-powered UAVs than other areas. Therefore, cities closer to the equator have an advantage in utilizing solar-powered UAVs; where smaller and lighter solar-powered UAV can be designed

  14. A wireless soil moisture sensor powered by solar energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Jiang

    Full Text Available In a variety of agricultural activities, such as irrigation scheduling and nutrient management, soil water content is regarded as an essential parameter. Either power supply or long-distance cable is hardly available within field scale. For the necessity of monitoring soil water dynamics at field scale, this study presents a wireless soil moisture sensor based on the impedance transform of the frequency domain. The sensor system is powered by solar energy, and the data can be instantly transmitted by wireless communication. The sensor electrodes are embedded into the bottom of a supporting rod so that the sensor can measure soil water contents at different depths. An optimal design with time executing sequence is considered to reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the sensor is a promising tool for monitoring moisture in large-scale farmland using solar power and wireless communication.

  15. The THESEUS project -- 50 MWe solar thermal power for Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillig, F.; Geyer, M.; Kistner, R.; Aringhoff, R.; Nava, P.; Brakmann, G.

    1998-07-01

    A consortium of European industry, utilities and research institutions from Greece, Germany, Spain and Italy attempts to implement a 52 MWe solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough technology on the Greek island of Crete sponsored by the EU' s THERMIE program. The increased demand for electricity on the island, a consequence of the growing allurement of the island as a tourist resort, makes it necessary to expand the installed capacity on Crete during the next years. According to the capacity expansion plans of Greek' s utility PPC a 160 MWe heavy fuel-fired power plant complex--two 30 MWe diesel units and two 50 MWe steam turbine units--is foreseen to be built by the year 2002. In this paper a description of the technical, economical and environmental aspects of the THESEUS project is provided. Moreover a market entry strategy for solar thermal power generation is discussed.

  16. A Distributed Routing Scheme for Energy Management in Solar Powered Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Energy management is critical for solar-powered sensor networks. In this article, we consider data routing policies to optimize the energy in solar powered networks. Motivated by multipurpose sensor networks, the objective is to find the best

  17. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the ... for power generation. ... determined because they are functions of the solar angles that ..... able to withstand the weight and the blowing wind.

  18. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  19. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  20. Integration of Small Solar Tower Systems Into Distributed Power Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-parks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostats configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs

  1. Energy and exergy analysis of solar power tower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chao; Wang Zhifeng; Li Xin; Sun Feihu

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the renewable electricity contribution from solar thermal power systems based on energy analysis alone cannot legitimately be complete unless the exergy concept becomes a part of that analysis. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the energy analysis and exergy analysis of the solar power tower system using molten salt as the heat transfer fluid. Both the energy losses and exergy losses in each component and in the overall system are evaluated to identify the causes and locations of the thermodynamic imperfection. Several design parameters including the direct normal irradiation (DNI), the concentration ratio, and the type of power cycle are also tested to evaluate their effects on the energy and exergy performance. The results show that the maximum exergy loss occurs in the receiver system, followed by the heliostat field system, although main energy loss occurs in the power cycle system. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the receiver and the overall system can be increased by increasing the DNI and the concentration ratio, but that increment in the efficiencies varies with the values of DNI and the concentration ratio. It is also found that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the solar tower system can be increased to some extent by integrating advanced power cycles including reheat Rankine cycles and supercritical Rankine cycles. - Highlights: →We presented a theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the solar tower system. →We tested the effects of several design parameters on the energy and exergy performance. →The maximum exergy loss occurs in the receiver system, followed by the heliostat field system. →Integrating advanced power cycles leads to increases in the overall energy and exergy efficiencies.

  2. Effects of Power Tracking Algorithms on Lifetime of Power Electronic Devices Used in Solar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canras Batunlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In photovoltaic solar energy systems, power management algorithms (PMAs, usually called maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms, are widely used for extracting maximum available power at every point in time. However, tracking the maximum power has negative effects on the availability of solar energy systems. This is due, mainly, to the created disturbances and thermal stresses on the associated power electronic converters (PECs. This work investigates the effects of PMA on the lifetime consumption, thermal stresses and failures on DC-DC converters used in solar systems. Firstly theoretical analysis and modelling of photovoltaic solar systems including converter’s electro thermal characteristics were developed. Subsequently, experiments on photovoltaic solar systems were carried out using two different PMAs, namely, perturb and observe (P&O and incremental conductance (IC. Real-time data was collected, under different operating conditions, including thermal behavior using thermal imaging camera and dSPACE. Converters’ thermal cycling was found to be approximately 3 °C higher with the IC algorithm. The steady state temperature was 52.7 °C, for the IC while it was 42.6 °C for P&O. Although IC algorithm offers more accurate power management tool, it causes more severe thermal stresses which, in this study, has led to approximately 1.4 times greater life consumption compared to P&O.

  3. Combined heat and power and solar energy; BHKW und solare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, M.; Schmidt, A.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a new apartment complex in Buelach, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard and also features solar-thermal heat generation. This solar installation provides heat for the provision of domestic hot water and, also, heat for the space-heating system of the building complex. The solar collectors cover an area of 153 m{sup 2}; their power is rated at 96 kW. Further elements of the building's technical services include a combined heat and power plant, a heat-pump and a gas-fired boiler. The article discusses ecological and social aspects of the design and construction of the building complex and briefly describes the installations, which also include a 'Minergie' fan-assisted balanced ventilation system.

  4. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging. EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2

  5. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  6. Solar Power System Evaluated for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    The electric power system is a crucial element of any mission for the human exploration of the Martian surface. The bulk of the power generated will be delivered to crew life support systems, extravehicular activity suits, robotic vehicles, and predeployed in situ resource utilization (ISRU) equipment. In one mission scenario, before the crew departs for Mars, the ISRU plant operates for 435 days producing liquefied methane and oxygen for ascent-stage propellants and water for crew life support. About 200 days after ISRU production is completed, the crew arrives for a 500-day surface stay. In this scenario, the power system must operate for a total of 1130 days (equivalent to 1100 Martian "sols"), providing 400 MW-hr of energy to the ISRU plant and up to 18 kW of daytime user power. A photovoltaic power-generation system with regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage has been under study at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The conceptual power system is dominated by the 4000- m2 class photovoltaic array that is deployed orthogonally as four tent structures, each approximately 5 m on a side and 100-m long. The structures are composed of composite members deployed by an articulating mast, an inflatable boom, or rover vehicles, and are subsequently anchored to the ground. Array panels consist of thin polymer membranes with thin-film solar cells. The array is divided into eight independent electrical sections with solar cell strings operating at 600 V. Energy storage is provided by regenerative fuel cells based on hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane technology. Hydrogen and oxygen reactants are stored in gaseous form at 3000 psi, and the water produced is stored at 14.7 psi. The fuel cell operating temperature is maintained by a 40-m2 deployable pumped-fluid loop radiator that uses water as the working fluid. The power management and distribution (PMAD) architecture features eight independent, regulated 600-Vdc channels. Power management and

  7. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  8. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Saguaro Power Plant | Concentrating

    Science.gov (United States)

    States Location: Red Rock, Arizona (Southwest USA) Owner(s): Arizona Public Service (100%) Technology Status: Currently Non-Operational Country: United States City: Red Rock State: Arizona County: Pinal : Organic Rankine Power Cycle Pressure: 323.0 psi Cooling Method: Wet cooling Turbine Efficiency: 20.7

  9. Space power system utilizing Fresnel lenses for solar power and also thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A solar power plant suitable for earth orbits passing through Van Allen radiation belts is described. The solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency is estimated to be around 9 percent, and the expected power-to-weight ratio is competitive with photovoltaic arrays. The system is designed to be self-contained, to be indifferent to radiation belt exposures, store energy for periods when the orbiting system is in earth shadow (so that power generation is contant), have no moving parts and no working fluids, and be robust against micrometeorite attack. No electrical batteries are required.

  10. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  11. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof... certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 6 and 10... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power...

  12. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC OUTPUT POWER FORECASTING USING BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jency Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy is an important renewable and unlimited source of energy. Solar photovoltaic power forecasting, is an estimation of the expected power production, that help the grid operators to better manage the electric balance between power demand and supply. Neural network is a computational model that can predict new outcomes from past trends. The artificial neural network is used for photovoltaic plant energy forecasting. The output power for solar photovoltaic cell is predicted on hourly basis. In historical dataset collection process, two dataset was collected and used for analysis. The dataset was provided with three independent attributes and one dependent attributes. The implementation of Artificial Neural Network structure is done by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP and training procedure for neural network is done by error Back Propagation (BP. In order to train and test the neural network, the datasets are divided in the ratio 70:30. The accuracy of prediction can be done by using various error measurement criteria and the performance of neural network is to be noted.

  13. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taherbaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  14. Saving assessment using the PERS in solar power towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Marugan-Cruz, C.; Santana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The lamination of the solar salt is avoided using the PERS and the main energy sink. • The PERS using salt pump as turbine saves 30–50% of the parasitic power. • The most appropriate configuration is a similar turbine three times one salt pump. • The payback period is around two years, and the economical savings from 1 to 4 M$. - Abstract: The improvement of the solar power tower using solar salt is one of the main goals of researchers. Any method or invention to improve the efficiency of this technology contributes to promote the renewable energies. The use of a Potential Energy Recovery System (PERS) in two different solar power tower plants of 20 and 100 MW has been analysed. The PERS is formed, at least, by one turbine, located at the hot salt pipe coming from the receiver. The turbine is engaged to the shaft of the feed pump, which raises the heat transfer fluid from the cold tank to the receiver. It reduces the parasitic power consumption of the plant, and increases its global efficiency. Different PERS configurations have been modelled. Based on an energetic and economic analysis, the optimal configuration is a geometrical similar turbine of three times the volume flow rate of one feed pump. The PERS has been proven to be a cost reductive and clean tool. For a 100 MW power plant of 30-year lifetime the investment cost is 1.26 M$ and the annual cash flow is 0.89 M$, while for a plant of 20 MW these values are 0.26 M$ and 0.19 M$, respectively

  15. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  16. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  17. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  18. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  19. Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T.; Renne, D.; Myers, D.; Wilcox, S.; Sengupta, M.; George, R.; Turchi, C.

    2010-09-01

    As the world looks for low-carbon sources of energy, solar power stands out as the most abundant energy resource. Harnessing this energy is the challenge for this century. Photovoltaics and concentrating solar power (CSP) are two primary forms of electricity generation using sunlight. These use different technologies, collect different fractions of the solar resource, and have different siting and production capabilities. Although PV systems are most often deployed as distributed generation sources, CSP systems favor large, centrally located systems. Accordingly, large CSP systems require a substantial investment, sometimes exceeding $1 billion in construction costs. Before such a project is undertaken, the best possible information about the quality and reliability of the fuel source must be made available. That is, project developers need to have reliable data about the solar resource available at specific locations to predict the daily and annual performance of a proposed CSP plant. Without these data, no financial analysis is possible. This handbook presents detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for each stage of the project.

  20. Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran

    2017-12-01

    Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.

  1. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  2. Solar-Powered Plasmon-Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naldoni Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis uses semiconductors to convert sunlight into chemical energy. Recent reports have shown that plasmonic nanostructures can be used to extend semiconductor light absorption or to drive direct photocatalysis with visible light at their surface. In this review, we discuss the fundamental decay pathway of localized surface plasmons in the context of driving solar-powered chemical reactions. We also review different nanophotonic approaches demonstrated for increasing solar-to-hydrogen conversion in photoelectrochemical water splitting, including experimental observations of enhanced reaction selectivity for reactions occurring at the metalsemiconductor interface. The enhanced reaction selectivity is highly dependent on the morphology, electronic properties, and spatial arrangement of composite nanostructures and their elements. In addition, we report on the particular features of photocatalytic reactions evolving at plasmonic metal surfaces and discuss the possibility of manipulating the reaction selectivity through the activation of targeted molecular bonds. Finally, using solar-to-hydrogen conversion techniques as an example, we quantify the efficacy metrics achievable in plasmon-driven photoelectrochemical systems and highlight some of the new directions that could lead to the practical implementation of solar-powered plasmon-based catalytic devices.

  3. Comparison of the Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Solar Chimney and a Solar PV-Powered Fan for Ventilation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Klimeš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study into the performance of a solar chimney and a solar photovoltaic (PV-powered fan for ventilation applications was carried out using numerical simulations. The performance of the solar chimney was compared with that of a direct current (DC fan powered by a solar PV panel. The comparison was carried out using the same area of the irradiated surface—the area of the solar absorber plate in the case of the solar chimney and the area of the solar panel in the case of the photovoltaic-powered fan. The two studied cases were compared under various solar radiation intensities of incident solar radiation. The results indicate that the PV-powered fans significantly outperform solar chimneys in terms of converting solar energy into the kinetic energy of air motion. Moreover, ventilation with PV-powered fans offers more flexibility in the arrangement of the ventilation system and also better control of the air flow rates in the case of battery storage.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM WITH GRID CONNECTED POWER SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bharti; Dr. A.K.Sharma

    2017-01-01

    In this paper , we are analyzed about the solar power with grid connection using of various component such as PV Cells battery inverter, and grid power connection , in this way we are connected the grid power and solar power , after that finally we are analyzed the power quality of output with the help of various devices.

  5. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  6. Anisotropic Behaviour of Magnetic Power Spectra in Solar Wind Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Saur, J.; Gerick, F.; von Papen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction:High altitude fast solar wind turbulence (SWT) shows different spectral properties as a function of the angle between the flow direction and the scale dependent mean magnetic field (Horbury et al., PRL, 2008). The average magnetic power contained in the near perpendicular direction (80º-90º) was found to be approximately 5 times larger than the average power in the parallel direction (0º- 10º). In addition, the parallel power spectra was found to give a steeper (-2) power law than the perpendicular power spectral density (PSD) which followed a near Kolmogorov slope (-5/3). Similar anisotropic behaviour has also been observed (Chen et al., MNRAS, 2011) for slow solar wind (SSW), but using a different method exploiting multi-spacecraft data of Cluster. Purpose:In the current study, using Ulysses data, we investigate (i) the anisotropic behaviour of near ecliptic slow solar wind using the same methodology (described below) as that of Horbury et al. (2008) and (ii) the dependence of the anisotropic behaviour of SWT as a function of the heliospheric latitude.Method:We apply the wavelet method to calculate the turbulent power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations parallel and perpendicular to the local mean magnetic field (LMF). According to Horbury et al., LMF for a given scale (or size) is obtained using an envelope of the envelope of that size. Results:(i) SSW intervals always show near -5/3 perpendicular spectra. Unlike the fast solar wind (FSW) intervals, for SSW, we often find intervals where power parallel to the mean field is not observed. For a few intervals with sufficient power in parallel direction, slow wind turbulence also exhibit -2 parallel spectra similar to FSW.(ii) The behaviours of parallel and perpendicular power spectra are found to be independent of the heliospheric latitude. Conclusion:In the current study we do not find significant influence of the heliospheric latitude on the spectral slopes of parallel and perpendicular

  7. Starting characteristics of direct current motors powered by solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S.; Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. Discussed here is the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, and series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for two cases: with and without a maximum-power-point-tracker (MPPT) included in the system. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system.

  8. Sizing and preliminary hardware testing of solar powered UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jashnani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating solar energy into modern aircraft technology has been a topic of interest and has received a lot of attention from researchers over the last two decades. A few among the many potential applications of this technology are the possibility of continuous self sustained flight for purposes such as information relay, surveillance and monitoring. This paper discusses the altitude and payload mass, as independent parameters, and their influence on the size and design of the aircraft. To estimate available solar power, two different models have been presented; one for low altitudes and the other for high altitudes. An engineering ground model was built to simulate the power and propulsion system over 24 h of continuous operation. The paper presents data from tests performed till date and lessons learnt while dealing with the construction of the engineering ground model as well as changes that can be made to improve the design.

  9. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  10. Liquid metal cooling concepts in solar power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, P.B.; Mangus, J.D.; Whitlow, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties and proven technology of a liquid sodium heat transport system provide numerous advantages and benefits for application in a central receiver solar thermal power plant concept. The major advantages of utilizing liquid sodium are: attainment of high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, reduced relative costs, and achievement of these goals by the mid-1980's through the utilization of proven liquid metal technology developed in the power industry, without the need for extensive development programs. The utilization of liquid sodium reduces the complexity of the design of these systems, thus providing confidence in system reliability. The implementation of the proven technology in liquid metal systems also provides assurance of reliability. In addition, the ease of transition from liquid metal breeder reactor systems to solar application provides immediate availability of this technology

  11. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  12. Non-Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Options for Financing Solar Deployment at Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-01

    Financing solar using power purchase agreements (PPAs) has facilitated solar deployment of more than 100 megawatts (MW) at universities--as compared to 50 MW facilitated by financing models not using PPAs. This brochure, which overviews existing financing models and funding mechanisms available for solar procurement, focuses on non-PPA financing models. For more information on solar deployment at universities using PPAs, refer to Using Power Purchase Agreements for Solar Deployment at Universities.

  13. Innovation in concentrating solar power technologies: A study drawing on patent data

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Frauke G.; Hooper, Elizabeth; Wand, Robert; Zloczysti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding the innovative process of renewable energy technologies is important for tackling climate change. Though concentrating solar power is receiving growing interest, innovation studies so far have explored innovative activity in solar technologies in general, ignoring the major differences between solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies. This study relies on patent data to examine international innovative activity in concentrating solar power technologies. Our uniqu...

  14. concentrated solar power and solar thermal Barometer - EurObserv'ER - May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    European concentrated solar power capacity remained stable in 2014 and will probably post a negligible increase in 2015. Construction work on a number of new facilities in Italy that are scheduled for commissioning in 2016 and 2017 could commence in the second half of the year. The European solar thermal market for producing heat, domestic hot water and heating has not found the recipe for recovery. According to EurObserv'ER, the market contracted by a further 3.7% from its 2013 level which is the sixth decrease in a row

  15. Solar powered irrigation management using neutron scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazi, A.M.A

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to modify a locally assembled solar-powered irrigation system. A direct-coupled photovoltaic pumping system has been assembled and installed in the Egyptian desert in Inshas at the Nuclear Research Center (31 degree 21 ' E, 30 degree 17 ' N). 800 Watt DC motor with brushes was modified to match unsteady PV generator current output. The DC motor was supplied with PV generator current, which was divided between 9 and 4 modules. Pump-set output was tested at different insolation levels and a relationship was carried out from observed data. Hourly solar insolation averages for ten years period were obtained from a program named (Meteo-Norm) software in order to predict and calculate the average daily pumping system water delivery in cubic meters. Preliminary experiment was conducted to acquire a relationship between PVP system outputs and solar-radiation intensity values; which differ from time to time during the day and through different seasons. Solar radiation, power consumption (as Voltage and Current), motor RPM and pump flow varied, while head was kept constant at 4 meter.The system showed trustworthy response to the PV generator output power demonstrated in DC motor RPM and consequently water deliver Based on the obtained results of this study, conclusions are:1.Parameters affecting the performance of solar generator under desert conditions were ambient temperature and contaminants. Focusing on the controllable parameter; dust contaminants; experiments were made to find out the best cleaning period which has limited decrease of the PV output. Results showed that output power was 22% lower for the panel with no cleaning for 20 days. Recommendation is made to do cleaning schedule every three days. 2.Maximizing photovoltaic system efficiency is achieved in order to minimize the initial costs, in other words; more power generated from the PV system unit. These can be obtained by tracking the sun rays through the daytime. Solar tracker was

  16. Rectenna System Design. [energy conversion solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Andryczyk, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The fundamental processes involved in the operation of the rectenna system designed for the solar power satellite system are described. The basic design choices are presented based on the desired microwave rf field concentration prior to rectification and based on the ground clearance requirements for the rectenna structure. A nonconcentrating inclined planar panel with a 2 meter minimum clearance configuration is selected as a representative of the typical rectenna.

  17. Computational engineering applied to the concentrating solar power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannuzzi, Giuseppe Mauro; Miliozzi, Adio

    2006-01-01

    Solar power plants based on parabolic-trough collectors present innumerable thermo-structural problems related on the one hand to the high temperatures of the heat transfer fluid, and on the other to the need og highly precise aiming and structural resistance. Devising an engineering response to these problems implies analysing generally unconventional solutions. At present, computational engineering is the principal investigating tool; it speeds the design of prototype installations and significantly reduces the necessary but costly experimental programmes [it

  18. Optimization criteria for solar and wind power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salieva, R B

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the design of solar and wind power systems requires both the specification of the target function and the optimization of the system with respect to two criteria, namely, the system must be economical (minimum cost to the economy) and it must be reliable (the probability of failure-free operation of the system must be not less than a standard value).

  19. Solar Electricity: The Power of Choice, Third Quarter 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnelten, K.; Moon, S.; Miller, J.

    2001-12-01

    Solar Electricity: The Power of Choice (formerly NREL PV Working With Industry) is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the photovoltaics (PV) research and development activities performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. This issue is devoted to coverage of the Program Review Meeting of the National Center for Photovoltaics, held in October, 2001. The editorialist for this issue is Kannan Ramanathan, chair of the Program Review and a research scientist with the National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL.

  20. Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 1: Protection of the solar power satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Several features of the interactions of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) with its space environment are examined theoretically. The voltages produced at various surfaces due to space plasmas and the plasma leakage currents through the kapton and sapphire solar cell blankets are calculated. At geosynchronous orbit, this parasitic power loss is only 0.7%, and is easily compensated by oversizing. At low Earth orbit, the power loss is potentially much larger (3%), and anomalous arcing is expected for the EOTV high voltage negative surfaces. Preliminary results of a three dimensional self consistent plasma and electric field computer program are presented, confirming the validity of the predictions made from the one dimensional models. Lastly, magnetic shielding of the satellite is considered to reduce the power drain and to protect the solar cells from energetic electron and plasma ion bombardment. It is concluded that minor modifications can allow the SPS to operate safely and efficiently in its space environment. Subsequent design changes will substantially alter the basic conclusions.

  1. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  2. Solar electric power for instruments at remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Small photovoltaic (PV) systems are the preferred method to power instruments operating at permanent locations away from the electric power grid. The low-power PV power system consists of a solar panel or small array of panels, lead-acid batteries, and a charge controller. Even though the small PV power system is simple, the job of supplying power at a remote site can be very demanding. The equipment is often exposed to harsh conditions. The site may be inaccessible part of the year or difficult and expensive to reach at any time. Yet the system must provide uninterrupted power with minimum maintenance at low cost. This requires good design. Successful small PV systems often require modifications by a knowledgeable fieldworker to adapt to conditions at the site. Much information is available in many places about solar panels, lead-acid batteries, and charging systems but very little of it applies directly to low power instrument sites. The discussion here aims to close some of the gap. Each of the major components is described in terms of this application with particular attention paid to batteries. Site problems are investigated. Finally, maintenance and test procedures are given. This document assumes that the reader is engaged in planning or maintaining low-power PV sites and has basic electrical and electronic knowledge. The area covered by the discussion is broad. To help the reader with the many terms and acronyms used, they are shown in bold when first used and a glossary is provided at the end of the paper.

  3. Solar updraft power generator with radial and curved vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizh, Hadyan; Hamsan, Raziff; Zamri, Aidil Azlan Ahmad; Keprawi, Mohamad Fairuz Mohamad; Shirato, Hiromichi

    2018-02-01

    Solar radiation is the largest source of energy available on earth and the solar updraft power generator (SUPG) is a renewable energy facility capable of harnessing its abundant power. Unlike the conventional wind turbines that harness natural wind in the atmosphere and often encounter with the intermittent issue or even complete cut-off from airflow, the SUPG creates artificial wind as a result of solar-induced convective flows. However, the SUPG has an inherent low total efficiency due to the conversion of thermal energy into pressure energy. Acknowledging the low efficiency and considering its potential as a renewable energy facility, the current work aims to increase the total efficiency by installing a series of guide walls inside the collector. Two types of guide walls were used i.e. radial and curved vanes. The result with curved vanes showed that the updraft velocity is higher compare to those without vanes. About 18% and 64% improvement of updraft velocity and mechanical power were attained respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the role of radial vanes configuration was more to produce a smooth updraft velocity profile rather than increasing the total efficiency.

  4. Assessment of distributed solar power systems: Issues and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R. A.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T. C.; Patton, J. B.

    1982-11-01

    The installation of distributed solar-power systems presents electric utilities with a host of questions. Some of the technical and economic impacts of these systems are discussed. Among the technical interconnect issues are isolated operation, power quality, line safety, and metering options. Economic issues include user purchase criteria, structures and installation costs, marketing and product distribution costs, and interconnect costs. An interactive computer program that allows easy calculation of allowable system prices and allowable generation-equipment prices was developed as part of this project. It is concluded that the technical problems raised by distributed solar systems are surmountable, but their resolution may be costly. The stringent purchase criteria likely to be imposed by many potential system users and the economies of large-scale systems make small systems (less than 10 to 20 kW) less attractive than larger systems. Utilities that consider life-cycle costs in making investment decisions and third-party investors who have tax and financial advantages are likely to place the highest value on solar-power systems.

  5. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.

    2012-10-01

    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  6. How solar power is preserved; Wie Sonnenstrom haltbar wird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heup, Juergen; Rentzing, Sascha

    2013-06-15

    The expansion of photovoltaics only works, if stores are able to buffer the fluctuating solar energy. Economic technologies are still missing, but the researchers are pursuing several promising approaches (e. g. lithium batteries, sodium sulfur batteries, redox-flow batteries, hydrogen storage (power-to-gas), heat pump). [German] Der Ausbau der Photovoltaik funktioniert nur, wenn Speicher die schwankende Solarenergie puffern. Noch fehlen wirtschaftliche Technologien, doch die Forscher verfolgen einige viel versprechende Ansaetze (z.B. Lithium-Batterien, Natrium-Schwefel-Batterien, Redox-flow-Batterien, Wasserstoffspeicherung (Power-to-Gas), Waermepumpe).

  7. Inverters for interfacing of solar cells with the power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanzanis, G. N.; Jackson, R. D.

    In this work, based on a research course in the Engineering Dep. Cambridge University, some non-classical inverter circuits are studied. They can be used for interfacing solar cells with the power grid at low voltage (230V) and at low power level. They are based on d.c. choppers which have a fast switching transistor. Their theoretical efficiency is 100 percent and they provide a satisfactory output current waveform in phase to the a.c. line voltage. The problems of control are also studied using a suitable mathematical model.

  8. High-power ultrashort fiber laser for solar cells micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, J.-B.; Duterte, C.; Liegeois, F.; Lekime, D.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.

    2012-02-01

    We report on a high-power ultra-short fiber laser for thin film solar cells micromachining. The laser is based on Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) scheme. The pulses are stretched to hundreds of picoseconds prior to amplification and can be compressed down to picosecond at high energy. The repetition rate is adjustable from 100 kHz to 1 MHz and the optical average output power is close to 13 W (before compression). The whole setup is fully fibred, except the compressor achieved with bulk gratings, resulting on a compact and reliable solution for cold ablation.

  9. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  10. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    IntroductionSolar power represents an important and rapidly expanding component of the renewable energy portfolio of the United States (Lovich and Ennen, 2011; Hernandez and others, 2014). Understanding the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife is a priority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in compliance with Department of Interior Order No. 3285 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009) to “develop best management practices for renewable energy and transmission projects on the public lands to ensure the most environmentally responsible development and delivery of renewable energy.” Recent studies examining effects of renewable energy development on mortality of migratory birds have primarily focused on wind energy (California Energy Commission and California Department of Fish and Game, 2007), and in 2012 the FWS published guidance for addressing wildlife conservation concerns at all stages of land-based wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). As yet, no similar guidelines exist for solar development, and no published studies have directly addressed the methodology needed to accurately estimate mortality of birds and bats at solar facilities. In the absence of such guidelines, ad hoc methodologies applied to solar energy projects may lead to estimates of wildlife mortality rates that are insufficiently accurate and precise to meaningfully inform conversations regarding unintended consequences of this energy source and management decisions to mitigate impacts. Although significant advances in monitoring protocols for wind facilities have been made in recent years, there remains a need to provide consistent guidance and study design to quantify mortality of bats, and resident and migrating birds at solar power facilities (Walston and others, 2015).In this document, we suggest methods for mortality monitoring at solar facilities that are based on current methods used at wind power facilities but adapted for the

  11. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  12. Thermal energy storage for solar power generation - State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K. N.

    1981-12-01

    High temperature storage for applications in solar-thermal electric systems is considered. Noting that thermal storage is in either the form of latent, sensible or chemically stored heat, sensible heat storage is stressed as the most developed of the thermal storage technologies, spanning direct heating of a storage medium from 120-1250 C. Current methods involve solids, packed beds, fluidized beds, liquids, hot water, organic liquids, and inorganic liquids and molten salts. Latent heat storage comprises phase-change materials that move from solid to liquid with addition of heat and liquid to solid with the removal of heat. Metals or inorganic salts are candidates, and the energy balances are outlined. Finally, chemical heat storage is examined, showing possible high energy densities through catalytic, thermal dissociation reactions.

  13. Power Management Strategy by Enhancing the Mission Profile Configuration of Solar-Powered Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy offers solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV the possibility of unlimited endurance. Some researchers have developed techniques to achieve perpetual flight by maximizing the power from the sun and by flying in accordance with its azimuth angles. However, flying in a path that follows the sun consumes more energy to sustain level flight. This study optimizes the overall power ratio by adopting the mission profile configuration of optimal solar energy exploitation. Extensive simulation is conducted to optimize and restructure the mission profile phases of UAV and to determine the optimal phase definition of the start, ascent, and descent periods, thereby maximizing the energy from the sun. In addition, a vertical cylindrical flight trajectory instead of maximizing the solar inclination angle has been adopted. This approach improves the net power ratio by 30.84% compared with other techniques. As a result, the battery weight may be massively reduced by 75.23%. In conclusion, the proposed mission profile configuration with the optimal power ratio of the trajectory of the path planning effectively prolongs UAV operation.

  14. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  15. Development of solar concentrators for high-power solar-pumped lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T

    2014-04-20

    We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2  m×2  m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0  W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

  16. Scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut; Mukhopadhyay, Swarnav

    2016-09-01

    Energy is at the core of economic growth and development in the present day world. But relentless and unchecked use of harmful energy resources like fossil fuels (coil and oil), nuclear energy has taken a toll on mother nature. The energy coffers are being rapidly depleted and within a few years all of them will become empty, leaving nothing for the future generations to build on. Their constant usage has degraded the air quality and given way to land and water pollution. Scientists and world leaders have initiated a call for action to shift our dependence from currently popular energy sources to cleaner and renewable energy sources. Search for such energy sources have been going on for many years. Solar energy, wind energy, ocean energy, tidal energy, biofuel, etc. have caught the attention of people. Another such important which has become popular is 'Solar Hydrogen'. Many visionary scientists have called hydrogen the energy of the future. It is produced from water by direct or indirect use of sunlight in a sustainable manner. This paper discusses the current energy scenario, the importance of solar-hydrogen as a fuel and most importantly the scope for solar hydrogen power plants along Indian coastline.

  17. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  18. Radiation Testing of PICA at the Solar Power Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratory's Solar Power Tower was used to irradiate specimens of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), in order to evaluate whether this thermal protection system material responded differently to potential shock layer radiative heating than to convective heating. Tests were run at 50, 100 and 150 Watts per square centimeter levels of concentrated solar radiation. Experimental results are presented both from spectral measurements on 1- 10 mm thick specimens of PICA, as well as from in-depth temperature measurements on instrumented thicker test specimens. Both spectral measurements and measured in-depth temperature profiles showed that, although it is a porous, low-density material, PICA does not exhibit problematic transparency to the tested high levels of NIR radiation, for all pragmatic cm-to-inch scale thicknesses. PICA acted as a surface absorber to efficiently absorb the incident visible and near infrared incident radiation in the top 2 millimeter layer in the Solar Power Tower tests up to 150 Watts per square centimeter.

  19. The potential of concentrating solar power in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluri, Thomas P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper all provinces of South Africa with a good potential for the implementation of large-scale concentrating solar power plants are identified using geographic information systems. The areas are assumed suitable if they get sufficient sunshine, are close enough to transmission lines, are flat enough, their respective vegetation is not under threat and they have a suitable land use profile. Various maps are created showing the solar resource, the slope, areas with 'least threatened' vegetation, proximity to transmission lines and areas suitable for the installation of large concentrating solar power plants. Assuming the installation of parabolic trough plants, it is found that the identified suitable areas could accommodate plants with a nominal capacity of 510.3 GW in the Northern Cape, 25.3 GW in the Free State, 10.5 GW in the Western Cape and 1.6 GW in the Eastern Cape, which gives a total potential nominal capacity of 547.6 GW for the whole country. (author)

  20. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  1. The performance of the first Jordan Badia's solar powered refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Awwad Al-Dabbas

    2012-01-01

    We are facing a significant challenge in Jordan's Badia region. Such challenge present us given that it will be environmentally protected with easy access to the refrigeration process to food and medical vaccines keeping at a reasonably and economical low cost. Solar cooling method that is generated from the sun as a substitute for batteries or electrical power is characteristic of its kind to store a power system for continued use. A pilot project of solar refrigerator was tested to collect technological data on a standard basis so the method control tests are accurate and precise. Solar refrigerator does not require electricity, which utilizes a combination of heat conduction and convection. In addition, it can be made from readily available material such as cardboard, sand, and recycled metal. It is constructed from two cylinders: an inner metal cylinder, fitted inside, and an outer cylinder that can be made of wood or plastic, etc, and organic material such as (sand, wool, or soil) placed in the left space between the two cylinders which is then saturated with water. As heat from the sun evaporates the water, the inner chamber is cooled to reduce and maintains the temperature at (6 degree C). (authors)

  2. Modeling of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryuanto Soetedjo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for solar power system is modeled using MATLAB Simulink. The model consists of PV module, buck converter, and MPPT controller. The contribution of the work is in the modeling of buck converter that allowing the input voltage of the converter, i.e. output voltage of PV is changed by varying the duty cycle, so that the maximum power point could be tracked when the environmental changes. The simulation results show that the developed model performs well in tracking the maximum power point (MPP of the PV module using Perturb and Observe (P&O Algorithm.

  3. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  4. Choice of antenna geometry for microwave power transmission from solar power satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made between square and circular transmitting antennas for solar power satellite microwave power transmission. It is seen that the exclusion zone around the rectenna needed to protect populations from microwaves is smaller for a circular antenna operating at 2.45 GHz than it is for a square antenna at that frequency. If the frequency is increased, the exclusion zone size remains the same for a square antenna, but becomes even smaller for a circular antenna. Peak beam intensity is the same for both antennas if the frequency and antenna area are equal. The circular antenna puts a somewhat greater amount of power in the main lobe and somewhat less in the side lobes. Since rain attenuation and atmospheric heating remain problems above 10 GHz, it is recommended that future solar power satellite work concentrate on circular transmitting antennas at frequencies of roughly 10 GHz.

  5. Numerical evaluation of the Kalina cycle for concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish

    Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. One of the key challenges currently faced by the solar industry is the high cost of electricity production. These co...

  6. Feasibility Investigation for a Solar Power Generation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 states that by fiscal year 2013, at least 7.5% of the energy consumed by the government must be renewable energy. In an effort to help meet this goal, Johnson Space Center (JSC) is considering installing a solar power generation facility. The purpose of this project is to conduct a feasibility investigation for such a facility. Because Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has a solar power generation facility, the first step in this investigation is to learn about KSC's facility and obtain information on how it was constructed. After collecting this information, the following must be determined: the amount of power desired, the size of the facility, potential locations for it, and estimated construction and maintenance costs. Contacts with JSC's energy provider must also be established to determine if a partnership would be agreeable to both parties. Lastly, all of this data must be analyzed to decide whether or not JSC should construct the facility. The results from analyzing the data collected indicate that a 200 kW facility would provide enough energy to meet 1% of JSC's energy demand. This facility would require less than 1 acre of land. In the map below, potential locations are shown in green. The solar power facility is projected to cost $2 M. So far, the information collected indicates that such a facility could be constructed. The next steps in this investigation include contacting JSC's energy provider, CenterPoint Energy, to discuss entering a partnership; developing a life cycle cost analysis to determine payback time; developing more detailed plans; and securing funding.

  7. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaei, Ali; Barzegar Avval, Hasan; Eslami, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C) by solar power tower (SPT) as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simul...

  8. Solar-wind system powers mountain clean-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    By using a hybrid solar-wind system, the Japanese have tackled the problem of human excrement left by tourists in mountain lodges and in natural parks by installing flush toilets and wastewater treatment plants. The solar array (4.9 kW{sub p}) consists of 76 panels of single-crystal photovoltaic cells each with an output of 64 Wp. The wind turbines (total capacity 2.1 kW) operate whatever the wind strength or direction. Storage batteries prevent any dip in power which would result from low ambient temperatures. The system can still function at temperatures as low as minus 25{sup o}C. Between November and April when the lodge is closed, the waste is decomposed biologically. A block diagram shows the elements of the system, and details of cost are given. The system won the 1999 New Energy Award.

  9. A solar power plant for Curtin University Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Curtin University, Sarawak Malaysia (Curtin Sarawak) is the first and largest offshore campus of Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia, and the first foreign university to be established in East Malaysia in partnership with the Sarawak State Government. Today's major concern of Curtin is its monthly electrical energy consumption and the electricity bill since its monthly energy consumption exceeds 0.3 Million kWh, and the corresponding electricity bill surpasses RM 95000. Such a situation necessitates Curtin to curtail the heavy energy consumption with immediate effect. Introducing Renewable Energy Source such as PV Solar Systems is a cost-effective and environmental friendly solution to reduce the exponential increase in energy consumption charges of Curtin. Hence, this paper proposes a 90 kW solar power plant for Curtin Sarawak.

  10. A solar power plant for Curtin University Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C

    2016-01-01

    The Curtin University, Sarawak Malaysia (Curtin Sarawak) is the first and largest offshore campus of Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia, and the first foreign university to be established in East Malaysia in partnership with the Sarawak State Government. Today's major concern of Curtin is its monthly electrical energy consumption and the electricity bill since its monthly energy consumption exceeds 0.3 Million kWh, and the corresponding electricity bill surpasses RM 95000. Such a situation necessitates Curtin to curtail the heavy energy consumption with immediate effect. Introducing Renewable Energy Source such as PV Solar Systems is a cost-effective and environmental friendly solution to reduce the exponential increase in energy consumption charges of Curtin. Hence, this paper proposes a 90 kW solar power plant for Curtin Sarawak. (paper)

  11. Minimisation of Power loss from partially shaded solar cell arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maine, Tony; Bell, John [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Built Environment Engineering; Martin, Stewart [University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA (Australia). School of Electrical and Information Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In conventional wiring schemes the output from a partially shaded solar cell array drops rapidly to that of the fully shaded array even when only a small fraction is shaded. In this paper circuit simulation has been used to show that by dynamically reconfiguring the array, the power losses due to shading can be significantly reduced. Reconfiguration is achieved by using switching microcircuits with on-chip photo detectors to determine which parts of the array are in shade. The currents from the shaded and unshaded sections of the array are separated and then connected in parallel to a maximum power point tracker. It is shown that by using this reconfiguration that the power output from a partially shaded array can be increased by at least 100% compared with that from a conventional series connected array over a range of shading conditions. (orig.)

  12. Intelligent solar-powered automobile-ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.; Ma Weiping; Wu Mingfung

    2005-01-01

    This study adopts airflow management technology to improve the local temperature distributions in an automobile to counteract the greenhouse effect. The automobile's temperature can be reduced to almost the outside temperature before the driver or passenger gets into the vehicle. When the engine is idling, the greenhouse-control system can be activated to remove the hot air from the car. An appropriate negative pressure is maintained to prevent stuffiness and save energy. The greenhouse-control system requires electrical power when the engine is idle, and a battery cannot supply sufficient power. An auxiliary solar-power supply can save energy and reduce the greenhouse effect of sunlight, while creating a comfortable traveling environment. It ensures that the engine is not overburdened and increases its service life, conserving energy, protecting the environment and improving comfort

  13. Combined Heat & Power Using the Infinia Concentrated Solar CHP PowerDish System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Executive Orders FOB - Forward Operating Base FPSE - Free Piston Stirling Engine GHG - Greenhouse Gas ICC - International Code Council IMA... Stirling Engine (FPSE) for military, commercial, and space applications for almost 30 years. These developments have included multiple fuel types...product for its Free Piston Stirling Engine operating on solar energy for electricity production, called the PowerDishTM, a reasonable extension for

  14. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  15. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  16. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  17. Solar Dynamic Power System Stability Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Wang, Yanchun

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to conduct dynamic analysis, control design, and control performance test of solar power system. Solar power system consists of generation system and distribution network system. A bench mark system is used in this research, which includes a generator with excitation system and governor, an ac/dc converter, six DDCU's and forty-eight loads. A detailed model is used for modeling generator. Excitation system is represented by a third order model. DDCU is represented by a seventh order system. The load is modeled by the combination of constant power and constant impedance. Eigen-analysis and eigen-sensitivity analysis are used for system dynamic analysis. The effects of excitation system, governor, ac/dc converter control, and the type of load on system stability are discussed. In order to improve system transient stability, nonlinear ac/dc converter control is introduced. The direct linearization method is used for control design. The dynamic analysis results show that these controls affect system stability in different ways. The parameter coordination of controllers are recommended based on the dynamic analysis. It is concluded from the present studies that system stability is improved by the coordination of control parameters and the nonlinear ac/dc converter control stabilize system oscillation caused by the load change and system fault efficiently.

  18. Cloud Instrument Powered by Solar Cell Sends Data to Pachube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ursutiu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the economic downturn, there have been quite a few new developments in the world of remote measurements lately. Tag4M (www.tag4m.com introduced the concept of cloud instrument where sensors connected to WiFi tags send data to off-the-shelf Access Points which are part of the WiFi infrastructure that exists in enterprises, retail outlets, factories, and warehouses. Access Points route the data to the Internet where specialized web applications receive the information for processing and display. One of these specialized web applications is Pachube, (http://www.pachube.com which bills itself as a “real-time data brokerage platform”. Pachube enables people to tag and share real time sensor data from objects, devices and spaces around the world. This article presents the pachube cloud instrument where sensors connected to Tag4M WiFi tags send digitized data to www.pachube.com for public display. The article contains very detailed analysis of the solar cell power source that is used to continuously power the Tag4M tag during this application. Cloud Instruments powered by solar cells enable people around the world to share real time sensor data using web pages on the Internet. This is a very interesting and exciting technology development that we want to bring to your attention.

  19. PowerShades. Transparent photovoltaics and solar shading. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzel, E. (PhotoSolar ApS, Taastrup (Denmark)); Univ. of Neuchatel, Institute of Microtechnology, Neuchatel (CH)); Savcor Denmark A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Chem-Tec Plating A/S, Uldum (Denmark)); Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    This report marks the end of the PSO funded R and D project PowerShades. The objective of the project has been to establish knowledge about the manufacturing of PowerShade transparent photovoltaics and to demonstrate the viability of PowerShade, both as a product and when considered a building element. It has not been the objective to demonstrate a full-scale manufacturing of PowerShade, but to establish the knowledge that enables industrial manufacturing. The overall objective of the project has been achieved, and the large majority of the milestones defined have been met to full extent. It has been shown that PowerShade photovoltaic cells with an electrical efficiency of 5% can be reached, and it is expected that future work will lead to even better efficiency. Also, it has been demonstrated by full size side by side comparison that PowerShade transparent photovoltaics may replace exterior solar shading devices without compromise to the thermal properties of the building. The project has identified a number of work areas that must be addressed before an industrial manufacturing can be established. The efficiency of the photovoltaic generator must be increased and the stability of the entire product documented. Also, some of the identified processing steps must be scaled in capacity before manufacturing can be considered. (author)

  20. Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site http://moonbase.msfc.nasa.gov/ and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

  1. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  2. Solar power engineering in the future world: A view from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper suggests an energy model for the future world based on solar power engineering and new Russian energy technologies. Chlorine-free solar silicon technologies, stationary concentrators, solar modules with service lives doubled up to 40 years, matrix solar elements with an efficiency factor of 20% at a concentration of 5-500, and resonance waveguide methods for transmitting energy for solar energy systems are considered. (author)

  3. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  4. Solar-Powered Airplane with Cameras and WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert G.; Dunagan, Steve E.; Sullivan, Don; Slye, Robert; Brass, James; Leung, Joe G.; Gallmeyer, Bruce; Aoyagi, Michio; Wei, Mei Y.; Herwitz, Stanley R.; hide

    2004-01-01

    An experimental airborne remote sensing system includes a remotely controlled, lightweight, solar-powered airplane (see figure) that carries two digital-output electronic cameras and communicates with a nearby ground control and monitoring station via a wireless local-area network (WLAN). The speed of the airplane -- typically <50 km/h -- is low enough to enable loitering over farm fields, disaster scenes, or other areas of interest to collect high-resolution digital imagery that could be delivered to end users (e.g., farm managers or disaster-relief coordinators) in nearly real time.

  5. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  6. Evaluation of the cooking power in three different solar cookers box-type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S; López, R; Vaca, M

    2017-01-01

    In the present work calculations for the cooking power in three different solar cookers are shown. The designs considered for the solar cookers are square, rectangular and octagonal. Agree to the results, a solar cooker with larger area for the solar radiation inlet has the biggest cooking power. The cooking powers obtained for the solar cookers are 4.04 W (0.49 m 2 ), 2.06 W (0.15 m 2 ) and 0.88 W (0.19 m 2 ) which correspond to square, rectangular and octagonal designs respectively. For the evaluation, the standard ASAE S580 JAN03 was considered to evaluate the cooking power in the solar cookers. Following the method established in this standard was possible to calculate the cooking power and evaluate the solar cookers at the same time. This activity except for what has been done in the standard, have not been done in other works. (paper)

  7. Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar...... panels with uncontrolled inverters, the upper limit of installable capacity is quickly reached in many of today’s distribution feeders. This problem can often be mitigated by optimally controlling the voltage angles of inverters. However, the optimal power flow problem in its standard form is a large...... scale non-convex optimization problem, and thus can’t be solved precisely and also is computationally heavy and intractable for large systems. This paper examines the use of a convex relaxation using Semi-definite programming to optimally control solar power inverters in a distribution grid in order...

  8. Passive solar power in the shade of French energy policy, 1945-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The installation in 1949 of the LES (solar energy laboratory) on Mont Louis-Odeillo in the Pyrenees, was emblematic of public commitment to passive solar power. Throughout the 1950's solar furnaces were supported for research into materials and solar powered homes, moving in phase with colonial policy. Then, with the construction at Odeillo of a giant solar furnace as part of the 'policy of grandeur', policy swung in the opposite direction. The study concludes with the role that the LES played at the time of the energy crisis in the 1970's and questions the French model of not developing solar energy

  9. Energy Non-Availability in Distribution Grids with Heavy Penetration of Solar Power: Assessment and Mitigation through Solar Smoother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathagata Sarkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid fluctuation of solar irradiance due to cloud passage causes corresponding variations in the power output of solar PV power plants. This leads to rapid voltage instability at the point of common coupling (PCC of the connected grid which may cause temporary shutdown of the plant leading to non-availability of energy in the connected load and distribution grid. An estimate of the duration and frequency of this outage is important for solar energy generators to ensure the generation and performance of the solar power plant. A methodology using PVsyst (6.6.4, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland and PSCAD (4.5, Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada simulation has been developed to estimate the duration and frequency of power outages due to rapid fluctuation of solar irradiance throughout the year. It is shown that the outage depends not only on the solar irradiance fluctuation, but also on the grid parameters of the connected distribution grid. A practical case study has been done on a 500 kilo Watt peak (kWp solar PV power plant for validation of the proposed methodology. It is observed that the energy non-availability for this plant is about 13% per year. This can be reduced to 8% by incorporating a solar smoother. A financial analysis of this outage and its mitigation has also been carried out.

  10. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  11. Univariate Time Series Prediction of Solar Power Using a Hybrid Wavelet-ARMA-NARX Prediction Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Wang, Yubo; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Pota, Hemanshu; Gadh, Rajit

    2016-05-02

    This paper proposes a new hybrid method for super short-term solar power prediction. Solar output power usually has a complex, nonstationary, and nonlinear characteristic due to intermittent and time varying behavior of solar radiance. In addition, solar power dynamics is fast and is inertia less. An accurate super short-time prediction is required to compensate for the fluctuations and reduce the impact of solar power penetration on the power system. The objective is to predict one step-ahead solar power generation based only on historical solar power time series data. The proposed method incorporates discrete wavelet transform (DWT), Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), while the RNN architecture is based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive models with eXogenous inputs (NARX). The wavelet transform is utilized to decompose the solar power time series into a set of richer-behaved forming series for prediction. ARMA model is employed as a linear predictor while NARX is used as a nonlinear pattern recognition tool to estimate and compensate the error of wavelet-ARMA prediction. The proposed method is applied to the data captured from UCLA solar PV panels and the results are compared with some of the common and most recent solar power prediction methods. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and show a considerable improvement in the prediction precision.

  12. Simulation of solar-powered absorption cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaca, I.; Yigit, A. [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    With developing technology and the rapid increase in world population, the demand for energy is ever increasing. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling. In this study, a solar-powered, single stage, absorption cooling system, using a water-lithium bromide solution, is simulated. A modular computer program has been developed for the absorption system to simulate various cycle configurations and solar energy parameters for Antalya, Turkey. So, the effects of hot water inlet temperatures on the coefficient of performance (COP) and the surface area of the absorption cooling components are studied. In addition, reference temperatures which are the minimum allowable hot water inlet temperatures are determined and their effect on the fraction of the total load met by non-purchased energy (FNP) and the coefficient of performance are researched. Also, the effects of the collector type and storage tank mass are investigated in detail. (author)

  13. Concentrated Solar Power as part of the European energy supply. The realization of large-scale solar power plants. Options, constraints and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwmans, I.; Carton, L.J.; Dijkema, G.P.J.; Stikkelman, R.M.; De Vries, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Next to solar cells and solar collectors for decentralized power generation Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology is available and proven for large-scale application of solar energy. However, after 20 years of demonstration projects and semi-commercial installations, CSP is still not widely used. In this quick-scan an overview is given of strong and weak points of CSP, as well as its' options and constraints with regard to a sustainable energy supply, focusing on technical, economical and administrative constraints and chances in Europe and European Union member states [nl

  14. Design and analysis of solar thermoelectric power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharasathien, Narong; Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph; Daguenet, Michel

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on the design and performance analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation plant (STEPG). The system considers both truncated compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) with a flat receiver and conventional flat-plate collectors, thermoelectric (TE) cooling and power generator modules and appropriate connecting pipes and control devices. The design tool uses TRNSYS IIsibat-15 program with a new component we developed for the TE modules. The main input data of the system are the specifications of TE module, the maximum hot side temperature of TE modules, and the desired power output. Examples of the design using truncated CPC and flat-plate collectors are reported and discussed for various slope angle and half-acceptance angle of CPC. To minimize system cost, seasonal adjustment of the slope angle between 0° and 30° was considered, which could give relatively high power output under Bangkok ambient condition. Two small-scale STEPGs were built. One of them uses electrical heater, whereas the other used a CPC with locally made aluminum foil reflector. Measured data showed reasonable agreement with the model outputs. TE cooling modules were found to be more appropriate. Therefore, the TRNSYS software and the developed TE component offer an extremely powerful tool for the design and performance analysis of STEPG plant.

  15. Data-driven modeling of solar-powered urban microgrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Scala, Antonio; Khiyami, Abdulaziz; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Distributed generation takes center stage in today's rapidly changing energy landscape. Particularly, locally matching demand and generation in the form of microgrids is becoming a promising alternative to the central distribution paradigm. Infrastructure networks have long been a major focus of complex networks research with their spatial considerations. We present a systemic study of solar-powered microgrids in the urban context, obeying real hourly consumption patterns and spatial constraints of the city. We propose a microgrid model and study its citywide implementation, identifying the self-sufficiency and temporal properties of microgrids. Using a simple optimization scheme, we find microgrid configurations that result in increased resilience under cost constraints. We characterize load-related failures solving power flows in the networks, and we show the robustness behavior of urban microgrids with respect to optimization using percolation methods. Our findings hint at the existence of an optimal balance between cost and robustness in urban microgrids.

  16. The use of solar energy for powering a portable autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, M N; Chandak, A; Phute, S U; Khadse, R K; Adchitre, H R; Kulkarni, S D

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels have forced the developed world to look for clean energy alternatives. Solar cooking is developing in Asian and African countries blessed with ample sun, but is still at an early stage. A portable autoclave was developed in India using this technology. The Prince-40 Concentrator provided adequate capacity to autoclave culture media and treat biomedical waste in a small laboratory set-up, and could save electricity worth Rs. 15,000 (188.10 GBP)/year or LPG worth Rs. 37,500 (470.25 GBP)/year. This technology would be of immense use in health centres in rural areas with frequent power cuts or no power supply. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the enablers in solar power developments in the current scenario using fuzzy DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Kharb, Ravinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining solar power initiatives and developments for a country as large as India is difficult due to the involvement of different enablers. The decisions of these enablers will influence the formulation of strategies to encourage solar power development in India. The present research work...... critically analyzes Indian solar power developments to recognize and to evaluate key enablers that will encourage greater usage in Indias current scenario. A literature review that explores the Indian solar power sector is included, with a focus on need potential, and an examination of the key enablers....... This work identifies sixteen solar power enablers based on relevant literature and experts inputs. To evaluate and to categorize the recognized solar power development key enablers, a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) based methodology is utilized. The fuzzy DEMATEL approach...

  18. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  19. Space solar power satellite systems with a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.); Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in mankind's access to outer space. If the SE's promise of low-cost access to space can be realized, the economics of space-based business endeavors becomes much more feasible. In this paper, we describe a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system and estimate its costs within the context of an SE. We also offer technical as well as financial comparisons between SPS and terrestrial solar photovoltaic technologies. Even though SPS systems have been designed for over 35 years, technologies pertinent to SPS systems are continually evolving. One of the designs we present includes an evolving technology, optical rectennas. SPS systems could be a long-term energy source that is clean, technologically feasible, and virtually limitless. Moreover, electrical energy could be distributed inexpensively to remote areas where such power does not currently exist, thereby raising the quality of life of the people living in those areas. The energy 'playing field' will be leveled across the world and the resulting economic growth will improve the lot of humankind everywhere.

  20. Concentrated solar power (CSP innovation analysis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig, Toyosi Onalapo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa aims to generate 42 per cent of its electricity from renewable energy technology sources by 2030. Concentrating solar power (CSP is one of the major renewable energy technologies that have been prioritised by South Africa, given the abundant solar resources available in the region. Seven CSP plants have been, or are being, built; three of them are already connected to the national grid. However, the impacts of this technology on South African research, development, and innovation have not been investigated to date. This paper thus analyses the CSP technologies in South Africa in terms of the existing technology adoption models and diffusion strategies, used by government and its agencies, to improve the development and deployment of these technologies. It is found that CSP has been treated generally like other renewable energy technologies through the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP, although a tariff plan for CSP plants of the future has been made. No specific technology diffusion or adoption model for CSP was found; so this paper explores how it can be developed.

  1. Designing a solar powered Stirling heat engine based on multiple criteria: Maximized thermal efficiency and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Dehghani, Saeed; Hosseinzade, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model of a solar-dish Stirling engine was presented. • Thermal efficiency and output power of the engine were simultaneously maximized. • A final optimal solution was selected using several decision-making methods. • An optimal solution with least deviation from the ideal design was obtained. • Optimal solutions showed high sensitivity against variation of system parameters. - Abstract: A solar-powered high temperature differential Stirling engine was considered for optimization using multiple criteria. A thermal model was developed so that the output power and thermal efficiency of the solar Stirling system with finite rate of heat transfer, regenerative heat loss, conductive thermal bridging loss, finite regeneration process time and imperfect performance of the dish collector could be obtained. The output power and overall thermal efficiency were considered for simultaneous maximization. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) based on the NSGA-II algorithm were employed while the solar absorber temperature and the highest and lowest temperatures of the working fluid were considered the decision variables. The Pareto optimal frontier was obtained and a final optimal solution was also selected using various decision-making methods including the fuzzy Bellman–Zadeh, LINMAP and TOPSIS. It was found that multi-objective optimization could yield results with a relatively low deviation from the ideal solution in comparison to the conventional single objective approach. Furthermore, it was shown that, if the weight of thermal efficiency as one of the objective functions is considered to be greater than weight of the power objective, lower absorber temperature and low temperature ratio should be considered in the design of the Stirling engine

  2. Power generation enhancement in a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant using thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Saadat, Mohammad; Palideh, Vahid; Afzal, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric generator was used and simulated within a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant. • Results showed that the thermoelectric generator can be able to enhance the power plant efficiency. • Results showed that the presented models can be able to produce generation even in the cold months. • The optimum size of area of solar pond based on its effect on efficiency is 50,000 m 2 . - Abstract: Salinity-gradient solar pond (SGSP) has been a reliable supply of heat source for power generation when it has been integrated with low temperature thermodynamics cycles like organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Also, thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a critical role in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper investigates the potential of thermoelectric generator as a power generation system using heat from SGSP. In this work, thermoelectric generator was used instead of condenser of ORC with the purpose of improving the performance of system. Two new models of SGSP have been presented as: (1) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC without heat exchanger and (2) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC with heat exchanger. These proposed systems was evaluated through computer simulations. The ambient conditions were collected from beach of Urmia lake in IRAN. Simulation results indicated that, for identical conditions, the model 1 has higher performance than other model 2. For models 1 and 2 in T LCZ = 90 °C, the overall thermal efficiency of the solar pond power plant, were obtained 0.21% and 0.2% more than ORC without TEG, respectively.

  3. Cost and Performance Report: Solar-Powered Remediation and pH Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    parallel, with two batteries in each series, providing a 24 V DC power supply. A solar charge controller regulated the charging of the batteries when...ER-201033) Solar -Powered Remediation and pH Control April 2017 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A...Technol. 32:1817-1824. CB&I Federal Services. 2017. Final Report. Solar Powered Remediation and pH Control . ESTCP Project ER-201033. April. Cheng, S

  4. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observed in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris. Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  5. A study on evaluating the power generation of solar-wind hybrid systems in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulgen, K. [Ege Univ., Solar Energy Inst., Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-03-15

    Turkey is abundant in terms of renewable energy resources. Residential and industrial utilization of solar energy started in the 1980s, while the first Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) windmill park, located at Alacati, Izmir, was commissioned in 1998. Additionally, power generation through solar-wind hybrid systems has recently appeared on the Turkish market. This study investigates the wind and solar thermal power availability in Izmir, located in the western part of Turkey. Simple models were developed to determine wind, solar, and hybrid power resources per unit area. Experimental data, consisting of hourly records over a 5 yr period, 1995-1999, were measured in the Solar/Wind Meteorological Station of the Solar Energy Institute at Ege University. Correlations between solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, a daily, and a monthly basis. It can be concluded that possible applications of hybrid systems could be considered for the efficient utilization of these resources. (Author)

  6. The effects of operation parameter on the performance of a solar-powered adsorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Huilong; Wang, Ruzhu; Dai, Yanjun

    2010-01-01

    A solar-powered adsorption chiller with heat and mass recovery cycle was designed and constructed. It consists of a solar water heating unit, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller, a cooling tower and a fan coil unit. The adsorption chiller includes two identical adsorption units and a second stage evaporator with methanol working fluid. The effects of operation parameter on system performance were tested successfully. Test results indicated that the COP (coefficient of performance) and cooling power of the solar-powered adsorption chiller could be improved greatly by optimizing the key operation parameters, such as solar hot water temperature, heating/cooling time, mass recovery time, and chilled water temperature. Under the climatic conditions of daily solar radiation being about 16-21 MJ/m 2 , this solar-powered adsorption chiller can produce a cooling capacity about 66-90 W per m 2 collector area, its daily solar cooling COP is about 0.1-0.13.

  7. Fuzzy Controller for a Voltage-Regulated Solar-Powered MPPT System for Hybrid Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fuzzy-logic-based voltage-regulated solar power maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for applications involving hybrid power systems. The system contains a solar power system and battery as the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. The solar system alone supplies power to the electric motor and maintains the output voltage at a predetermined level when it has sufficient power. When the solar power is insufficient, the solar system is operated at its maximum power point (MPP and the battery is engaged to compensate for the insufficiency. First, a variant of the incremental conductance MPP condition was established. Under the MPP condition, the voltage-regulated MPPT system was formulated as a feedback control system, where the MPP condition and voltage regulation requirements were used as the system inputs. Next, a fuzzy controller was developed to perform the voltage-regulated MPPT function for the hybrid power system. A simulation model based on Matrix laboratory (MATLAB/SIMULINK (a block diagram environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design and a piecewise linear electric circuit simulation (PLECS tool for controlling the dc motor velocity was developed to verify the voltage-regulated solar power MPPT system.

  8. Exergoeconomic analysis of a solar-powered/fuel assisted Rankine cycle for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Eduardo J.C.; Motta, Henrique Pereira

    2015-01-01

    A Rankine System assisted for solar radiation and fuel combustion which produces 57 kW electrical power are evaluated from exergoeconomic point of view. The Parabolic trough collector efficiency has been performed to investigate its effect as heat source. The exergoeconomic parameters as the relative cost difference and the exergoeconomic factor for each component are evaluated. The analysis is based on the SPECO (Specific Exergy Costing) approach. The simulation of system on March, June, September and December 21st from 7 am to 4 pm for Natal/Brazil using real data was carried out. The results reveal the daily average values of collector efficiencies, ratio of the useful solar energy, electricity produced, the specific cost per exergy unit of the produced electricity and others heat rates. The system is advantageous for higher solar radiation. The outcome of the analysis can be useful in design, optimization of operating parameters and help to take decision of investment. - Highlights: • As the solar irradiation decreases, the electricity cost per exergy unit increases. • The cost rate is high at collector field due to higher purchase cost. • The system is advantageous when the solar radiation is high. • Further aspect as environmental impact is important

  9. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  10. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  11. Radio Astronomers Get Their First Glimpse of Powerful Solar Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Astronomers have made the first radio-telescope images of a powerful coronal mass ejection on the Sun, giving them a long-sought glimpse of hitherto unseen aspects of these potentially dangerous events. "These observations are going to provide us with a new and unique tool for deciphering the mechanisms of coronal mass ejections and how they are related to other solar events," said Tim Bastian, an astronomer at the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia. Radio image of coronal mass ejection; circle indicates the size and location of the Sun. White dots are where radio spectral measurements were made. Bastian, along with Monique Pick, Alain Kerdraon and Dalmiro Maia of the Paris Observatory, and Angelos Vourlidas of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., used a solar radio telescope in Nancay, France, to study a coronal mass ejection that occurred on April 20, 1998. Their results will be published in the September 1 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Coronal mass ejections are powerful magnetic explosions in the Sun's corona, or outer atmosphere, that can blast billions of tons of charged particles into interplanetary space at tremendous speeds. If the ejection is aimed in the direction of Earth, the speeding particles interact with our planet's magnetic field to cause auroral displays, radio-communication blackouts, and potentially damage satellites and electric-power systems. "Coronal mass ejections have been observed for many years, but only with visible-light telescopes, usually in space. While previous radio observations have provided us with powerful diagnostics of mass ejections and associated phenomena in the corona, this is the first time that one has been directly imaged in wavelengths other than visible light," Bastian said. "These new data from the radio observations give us important clues about how these very energetic events work," he added. The radio images show an

  12. A Novel Extension Decision-Making Method for Selecting Solar Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex parameters of a solar power system, the designer not only must think about the load demand but also needs to consider the price, weight, and annual power generating capacity (APGC and maximum power of the solar system. It is an important task to find the optimal solar power system with many parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a novel decision-making method based on the extension theory; we call it extension decision-making method (EDMM. Using the EDMM can make it quick to select the optimal solar power system. The paper proposed this method not only to provide a useful estimated tool for the solar system engineers but also to supply the important reference with the installation of solar systems to the consumer.

  13. Control of Solar Power Plants Connected Grid with Simple Calculation Method on Residential Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananda, Kiki; Nazir, Refdinal

    2017-12-01

    One of the most compatible renewable energy in all regions to apply is solar energy. Solar power plants can be built connected to existing or stand-alone power grids. In assisting the residential electricity in which there is a power grid, then a small scale solar energy power plants is very appropriate. However, the general constraint of solar energy power plants is still low in terms of efficiency. Therefore, this study will explain how to control the power of solar power plants more optimally, which is expected to reactive power to zero to raise efficiency. This is a continuation of previous research using Newton Rapshon control method. In this study we introduce a simple method by using ordinary mathematical calculations of solar-related equations. In this model, 10 PV modules type of ND T060M1 with a 60 Wp capacity are used. The calculations performed using MATLAB Simulink provide excellent value. For PCC voltage values obtained a stable quantity of approximately 220 V. At a maximum irradiation condition of 1000 W / m2, the reactive power value of Q solar generating system maximum 20.48 Var and maximum active power of 417.5 W. In the condition of lower irradiation, value of reactive power Q almost close to zero 0.77Var. This simple mathematical method can provide excellent quality control power values.

  14. Retrofitting a Geothermal Plant with Solar and Storage to Increase Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McTigue, Joshua Dominic P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Castro, Jose [Coso Operating Co.; Mungas, Greg [Hyperlight Energy; Kramer, Nick [Hyperlight Energy; King, John [Hyperlight Energy

    2017-10-04

    Solar hybridization using concentrating solar power (CSP) can be an effective approach to augment the power generation and power cycle efficiency of a geothermal power plant with a declining resource. Thermal storage can further increase the dispatchability of a geothermal/solar hybrid system, which is particularly valued for a national grid with high renewable penetration. In this paper, a hybrid plant design with thermal storage is proposed based on the requirements of the Coso geothermal field in China Lake, California. The objective is to increase the power production by 4 MWe. In this system, a portion of the injection brine is recirculated through a heat exchanger with the solar heat transfer fluid, before being mixed with the production well brine. In the solar heating loop the brine should be heated to at least 155 degrees C to increase the net power. The solar field and storage were sized based on solar data for China Lake. Thermal storage is used to store excess power at the high-solar-irradiation hours and generate additional power during the evenings. The solar field size, the type and capacity of thermal storage and the operating temperatures are critical factors in determining the most economic hybrid system. Further investigations are required to optimize the hybrid system and evaluate its economic feasibility.

  15. Comparison of sensorless dimming control based on building modeling and solar power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Naeun; Kim, Jonghun; Jang, Cheolyong; Sung, Yoondong; Jeong, Hakgeun

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting in office buildings accounts for about 30% of the total building energy consumption. Lighting energy is important to reduce building energy consumption since artificial lighting typically has a relatively large energy conversion factor. Therefore, previous studies have proposed a dimming control using daylight. When applied dimming control, method based on building modeling does not need illuminance sensors. Thus, it can be applied to existing buildings that do not have illuminance sensors. However, this method does not accurately reflect real-time weather conditions. On the other hand, solar power generation from a PV (photovoltaic) panel reflects real-time weather conditions. The PV panel as the sensor improves the accuracy of dimming control by reflecting disturbance. Therefore, we compared and analyzed two types of sensorless dimming controls: those based on the building modeling and those that based on solar power generation using PV panels. In terms of energy savings, we found that a dimming control based on building modeling is more effective than that based on solar power generation by about 6%. However, dimming control based on solar power generation minimizes the inconvenience to occupants and can also react to changes in solar radiation entering the building caused by dirty window. - Highlights: • We conducted sensorless dimming control based on solar power generation. • Dimming controls using building modeling and solar power generation were compared. • The real time weather conditions can be considered by using solar power generation. • Dimming control using solar power generation minimizes inconvenience to occupants

  16. The effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is a renewable (non-conventional) source of energy supply that has been used as a reliable energy source in view of its economic importance and its wide range of applications. In this study the effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power system has been investigated. A solar panel of 45 ...

  17. Basic model and governing equation of solar cells used in power and control applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadian, A.; Pourtaherian, A.; Motahari, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modeling of a group of commercially available solar cells to ease the study of solar powered electric systems. The models solar cells can be accurately used to predict the behavior of the system operation under different conditions.

  18. Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants : A Project Developer’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and ena...

  19. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.

  20. Application of solar energy; Proceedings of the First Southeastern Conference, Huntsville, Ala., March 24-26, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Christensen, D. L.; Head, R. R.; Whitacre, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Topics related to architectural and institutional considerations are discussed along with studies of components and subsystems. Subjects in the area of system design and analysis are also explored. Residential and commercial applications are considered, taking into account hot-water usage in a typical single-family residence, solar heating and cooling of mobile homes, aspects of design and performance in the case of a solar heating system using a reflective pyramid optical condenser, solar heating in a Boston school, a performance analysis of solar service hot water systems, comparative performance analyses of three solar heated and cooled buildings, and the use of solar energy in a soybeam processing operation. Applications related to power generation are also examined, giving attention to solar thermal electric power systems and photovoltaic research. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  1. Design and simulation of front end power converter for a microgrid with fuel cells and solar power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevargi, Chetankumar; Lodhi, Anuj; Sateeshkumar, Allu; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    The need for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is increasing due to increased demand for the supply of power and it is also environment friendly.In the recent few years, the cost of generation of the power from the RES has been decreased. This paper aims to design the front end power converter which is required for integrating the fuel cells and solar power sources to the micro grid. The simulation of the designed front end converter is carried out in the PSIM 9.1.1 software. The results show that the designed front end power converter is sufficient for integrating the micro grid with fuel cells and solar power sources.

  2. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Using Solar Power to Supplement Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Connected Charging Scenarios Building-mounted solar panels are ideal for companies with buildings -mounted solar panels can also be beneficial for employers with limited ground space. Samsung Electronics , located in urban Rancho Dominguez, California, has paired building-mounted solar panels with its charging

  4. Construction and characterization of spherical Si solar cells combined with SiC electric power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Hiramatsu, Kouichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    Spherical silicon (Si) photovoltaic solar cell systems combined with an electric power inverter using silicon carbide (SiC) field-effect transistor (FET) were constructed and characterized, which were compared with an ordinary Si-based converter. The SiC-FET devices were introduced in the direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) converter, which was connected with the solar panels. The spherical Si solar cells were used as the power sources, and the spherical Si panels are lighter and more flexible compared with the ordinary flat Si solar panels. Conversion efficiencies of the spherical Si solar cells were improved by using the SiC-FET.

  5. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  6. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  7. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  8. A solar powered wireless computer mouse. Industrial design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S. [Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Landbergstraat 15, 2628 CE Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared the following: appropriate selection of integrated PV type, battery capacity and type, possible electronic circuitries for PV-battery coupling, and material properties concerning mechanical incorporation of PV into the encasing. Besides technical requirements, ergonomic aspects and design aesthetics with respect to good 'sun-harvesting' properties influenced the design process. This is particularly important as simulations show users can positively influence energy balances by 'sun-bathing' the PV mouse. A total of 15 SPM prototypes were manufactured and tested by actual users. Although user satisfaction proved the SPM concept to be feasible, future research still needs to address user acceptance related to product dimensions and user willingness to pro-actively 'sun-bath' PV powered products in greater detail. (author)

  9. Shiraz solar power plant operation with steam engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, M.; Azizian, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present industrial developments and daily growing need of energy, as well as economical and environmental problem caused by fossil fuels consumption, resulted certain constraint for the future demand of energy. During the past two decades great attention has been made to use renewable energy for different sectors. In this regard for the first time in Iran, design and construction of a 250 K W Solar power plant in Shiraz, Iran is being carried out and it will go to operation within next year. The important elements of this power plant is an oil cycle and a steam cycle, and several studies have been done about design and operation of this power plant, both for steady state and transient conditions. For the steam cycle, initially a steam turbine was chosen and due to certain limitation it has been replaced by a steam engine. The steam engine is able to produce electricity with hot or saturated vapor at different pressures and temperatures. In this article, the effects of installing a steam engine and changing its vapor inlet pressure and also the effects of sending hot or saturated vapor to generate electricity are studied. Various cycle performance and daily electricity production are determined. The effects of oil cycle temperature on the collector field efficiency, and daily, monthly and annual amount of electricity production is calculated. Results are compared with the steam cycle output when it contains a steam turbine. It is found that with a steam engine it is possible to produce more annual electricity for certain conditions

  10. Recommendations for the market introduction of solar thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, F.; Nitsch, J.

    1998-01-01

    Until 2010, solar thermal power stations based on parabolic trough concentrating collectors can become a competitive option on the world's electricity market, if the market extension of this mature technology is supported by a concerted, long-term programme capable of bundling the forces of industry, finance, insurance and politics. Technical improvements based on the experience of over ten years of successful operation, series production and economies of scale will lead to a further cost reduction of 50% and to electricity costs of 0.06 - 0.04 US$/kWh for hybrid steam cycles and hybrid combined cycles, respectively. Until 2010, a capacity of 7 GW will be installed, avoiding 16 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. The programme comprises an investment of 16 billion US$ and requires external funding of 6%. (author)

  11. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  12. Thermal design of a fully equipped solar-powered desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual design and thermodynamic analysis of a solar-powered desert home. The home is airconditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated

  13. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Dominik [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) and Frankfurt International Graduate School for Science, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); von Bremen, Lueder [ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg, Marie-Curie-Str. 1, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Greiner, Martin [Corporate Research and Technology, Siemens AG, D-81730 Muenchen (Germany); Aarhus School of Engineering and Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 118, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hoffmann, Clemens [Corporate Research and Technology, Siemens AG, D-81730 Muenchen (Germany); Speckmann, Markus; Bofinger, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Koenigstor 59, D-34119 Kassel (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases. (author)

  14. Efficient Lightweight AC-AC Power Control for Solar UAV, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A highly efficient and lightweight dual bridge matrix power controller development is proposed that will provide high performance to a solar powered high altitude...

  15. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J.; Carrington, C.; Day, G.

    2004-12-01

    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class free-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of Space Solar Power (SSP) technology experiments.

  16. The using of alternative energy sources: the case of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants and the natural gas fuelled thermal electric power plants; O uso de fontes alternativas de energia: o caso das Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (PCHs) e das termoeletricas movidas a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Patricia Aparecida Pereira; Mauad, Frederico Fabio [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Centro de Recursos Hidricos e Ecologia Aplicada; Leme, Alessandro Andre [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Sociais; Valencio, Norma Felicidade Lopes da Silva [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Sociais

    2002-07-01

    This paper emphasizes the modifications occurred in the brazilian electric sector at the end of the twenty century. The work also highlight the alternative sources (Small hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants) as the most feasible in the political and institutional scenery for the complementation of the generator park.

  17. Prospects for investment in large-scale, grid-connected solar power in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    since the 1990s have changed the competiveness of solar PV in all markets, ranging from individual households via institutions to mini-grids and grid-connected installations. In volume and investment, the market for large-scale grid-connected solar power plants is by far the most important......-scale investments in grid-connected solar power plants and local assembly facilities for PV panels, have exceeded even optimistic scenarios. Finally, therefore, there seem to be bright prospects for investment in large-scale grid-connected solar power in Africa....

  18. Ultra-Portable Solar-Powered 3D Printers for Onsite Manufacturing of Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y

    2015-09-01

    The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer is powered by solar photovoltaics. This study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy to power a FDM 3D printer to manufacture medical resources at the Mars Desert Research Station and to design an ultra-portable solar-powered 3D printer for off-grid environments. Six solar panels in a 3×2 configuration, a voltage regulator/capacitor improvised from a power adapter, and two 12V batteries in series were connected to power a FDM 3D printer. Three designs were printed onsite and evaluated by experts post analogue mission. A solar-powered 3D printer composed of off-the-shelf components was designed to be transported in airline carry-on luggage. During the analogue mission, the solar-powered printer could only be operated for solar-powered 3D printer was designed that could print an estimated 16 dental tools or 8 mallet finger splints or 7 scalpel handles on one fully charged 12V 150Wh battery with a 110V AC converter. It is feasible to use solar energy to power a 3D printer to manufacture functional and personalized medical resources at a Mars analogue research station. Based on these findings, a solar-powered suitcase 3D printing system containing solar panels, 12V battery with charge controller and AC inverter, and back-up solar charge controller and inverter was designed for transport to and use in off-grid communities.

  19. Microgrid Control Strategy Utlizing Thermal Energy Storage With Renewable Solar And Wind Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited MICROGRID CONTROL STRATEGY UTLIZING THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE WITH RENEWABLE SOLAR AND WIND... control tracks increasing power generation in the morning. The batteries require a large amount of electrical power to charge every morning, as charge ...is 37 lost throughout the night. This causes the solar panels to output their maximum power generation. The MPPT control records when power

  20. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  1. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  2. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  3. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Wu, M. S.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system

  4. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on Settlement AGENCY: U.S...

  5. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  6. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  7. Duty-based control of maximum power point regulation for power converter in solar fan system with battery storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, J.-L.; Hong, P.-J. [National Kaohsiung First Univ. of Science and Technology, Nantze, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engineering; Chao, K.-L. [National Kaohsiung Univ. of Applied Sciences, Nantze, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Wang, T.-Y. [Chang-Gung Univ., Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Solar energy is a popular renewable energy source for the future because it does not produce any pollution. In addition, it is unlimited and a clean source of energy. This paper discussed a photovoltaic solar fan system that could be used inside the house with the potential of cooling the indoor temperature. The solar cell module is located at the eaves of the house and could block the sunlight directly into the house, and convert solar power into electric power through the battery. The paper described software implementation and hardware circuit design in detail. The paper also illustrated a different algorithm to calculate the maximum power point regulation. The conventional algorithm calculates the solar cell module output power by multiplying the input voltage and input current for the solar cell module directly. By changing the input voltage variable into duty variable, the voltage sensor is not required under the proposed scheme. Only the duty and current variables are needed to calculate the maximum power. The microchip dsPIC microcontroller was used to implement the algorithm. Different DC link levels were verified and implemented for comparison. It was concluded that the characteristics of the solar cell module could be measured automatically, and the maximum power point could be guaranteed by the proposed algorithm. 9 refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  9. System and method for aligning heliostats of a solar power tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar power tower heliostat alignment system and method that includes a solar power tower with a focal area, a plurality of heliostats that each reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower, an off-focal area location substantially close to the focal area of the solar power tower, a communication link between the off-focal area location and a misaligned heliostat, and a processor that interprets the communication between the off-focal area location and the misaligned heliostat to identify the misaligned heliostat from the plurality of heliostats and that determines a correction for the identified misaligned heliostat to realign the misaligned heliostat to reflect sunlight towards the focal area of the solar power tower.

  10. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  11. Contribution of Strong Discontinuities to the Power Spectrum of the Solar Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Eight and a half years of magnetic field measurements (2 22 samples) from the ACE spacecraft in the solar wind at 1 A.U. are analyzed. Strong (large-rotation-angle) discontinuities in the solar wind are collected and measured. An artificial time series is created that preserves the timing and amplitudes of the discontinuities. The power spectral density of the discontinuity series is calculated and compared with the power spectral density of the solar-wind magnetic field. The strong discontinuities produce a power-law spectrum in the ''inertial subrange'' with a spectral index near the Kolmogorov -5/3 index. The discontinuity spectrum contains about half of the power of the full solar-wind magnetic field over this ''inertial subrange.'' Warnings are issued about the significant contribution of discontinuities to the spectrum of the solar wind, complicating interpretation of spectral power and spectral indices.

  12. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, D.; Rae, I.J.; Mann, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillations in the Pc 4-5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind-IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996-2004) of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature), plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  13. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF oscillations in the Pc 4–5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind–IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996–2004 of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature, plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind–magnetosphere coupling.

  14. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  15. Beamed Energy and the Economics of Space Based Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Henson, H.

    2010-05-01

    For space based solar power to replace fossil fuel, it must sell for 1-2 cents per kWh. To reach this sales price requires a launch cost to GEO of ˜100/kg. Proposed to reach this cost figure at 100 tonne/hour are two stages to GEO where a Skylon-rocket-plane first stage provides five km/sec and a laser stage provides 6.64 km/sec. The combination appears to reduce the cost to GEO to under 100/kg at a materials flow rate of ˜1 million tonnes per year, enough to initially construct 200 GW per year of power satellites. An extended Pro Forma business case indicates that peak investment to profitability might be ˜65 B. Over a 25-year period, production rises to two TW per year to undercut and replace most other sources of energy. Energy on this scale solves other supply problems such as water and liquid fuels. It could even allow removal of CO2 from the air and storage of carbon as synthetic oil in empty oil fields.

  16. Microwave energy transmission system for solar power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1988-05-05

    This paper deals with a microwave wireless energy transmission system which will be required for a solar power station under investigation, particularly, it describes its foundation and future investigation. It is supposed that for realization of microwave wireless transmission techniques, it is most important to investigate the effect of strong microwave beams on a plasma environment, establish control techniques for microwave beams in which a retro-directive system is combined with a computer control system, and develop a semiconductor transmission module. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) made an experiment on the effect of microwaves on ionospheric plasma by using an observatory rocket. The institute has planned to make an experiment on a microwave energy transmission system which is to be mounted to a small-scale space flyer unit in order to examine the control of microwave beams and 10 KW power transmission, in addition to investigation on the interaction of microwave energy beams with a plasma environment. (4 figs, 3 tabs, 20 refs)

  17. Modeling Small Scale Solar Powered ORC Unit for Standalone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bocci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When the electricity from the grid is not available, the generation of electricity in remote areas is an essential challenge to satisfy important needs. In many developing countries the power generation from Diesel engines is the applied technical solution. However the cost and supply of fuel make a strong dependency of the communities on the external support. Alternatives to fuel combustion can be found in photovoltaic generators, and, with suitable conditions, small wind turbines or microhydroplants. The aim of the paper is to simulate the power generation of a generating unit using the Rankine Cycle and using refrigerant R245fa as a working fluid. The generation unit has thermal solar panels as heat source and photovoltaic modules for the needs of the auxiliary items (pumps, electronics, etc.. The paper illustrates the modeling of the system using TRNSYS platform, highlighting standard and “ad hoc” developed components as well as the global system efficiency. In the future the results of the simulation will be compared with the data collected from the 3 kW prototype under construction in the Tuscia University in Italy.

  18. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV el ) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV el of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV el (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV el of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV el of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  19. Numerical simulation of the integrated solar/North Benghazi combined power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldali, Y.; Morad, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic and economic evaluation of power plant have been studied. • Saving and boosting modes are considered as the same solar field area. • Two modes of operation have been used and simulated on Libyan climate conditions. • The benefit/cost ratios are 1.74 and 1.30 for fuel saving and power boosting mode. • Fuel saving mode is more economical than power boosting mode. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the thermodynamic performance of a proposed integrated solar/North Benghazi combined power plant under Libyan climatic conditions. The parabolic trough collector field with direct steam generation was considered as solar system. Two modes of operations with the same solar field area are considered: fuel saving mode in which the generated solar steam was used to preheat the combustion air in the gas turbine unit and power boosting mode in which the generated solar steam was added into the steam turbine for boosting the electrical power generated from steam turbine unit. Moreover, the economic impact of solar energy is assessed in the form of benefit/cost ratio to justify the substitution potential of such clean energy. This study shows that, for fuel saving mode: the annual saving of natural gas consumption and CO_2 emission are approximately 3001.56 and 7972.25 tons, respectively, in comparison with the conventional North Benghazi combined cycle power plant. For power boosting mode: the annual solar share of electrical energy is approximately 93.33 GW h. The economic analysis of solar supported plant has indicated that the benefit/cost ratios are 1.74 and 1.30 for fuel saving and power boosting mode, therefore, then fuel saving mode is more economical than power boosting mode for the same solar field area, moreover, it reduces the greenhouse CO_2 emission in order to avoid a collapse of the word climate.

  20. Solar power for a brewery; Mit der Sonne gebraut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, I.

    2008-05-19

    At Eichstaett in southern Bavaria, the Hofmuehl brewery is constructing a solar process heat system. Brewery provider Krones and solar provider Solarbayer intend to offer the system as a turnkey project worldwide. (orig.)

  1. NREL, Swiss Scientists Power Past Solar Efficiency Records | NREL | News |

    Science.gov (United States)

    -based multijunction cells that reach nearly 36% efficiency A woman stands in front of solar panels. NREL front of an array of solar panels. Credit: Dennis Schroeder Collaboration between researchers at the U.S

  2. Stochastic Short-term High-resolution Prediction of Solar Irradiance and Photovoltaic Power Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M. [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M. [ORNL; Zhang, Yichen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2017-09-01

    The increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy sources into electric grids has increased the need for accurate modeling and prediction of solar irradiance and power production. Existing modeling and prediction techniques focus on long-term low-resolution prediction over minutes to years. This paper examines the stochastic modeling and short-term high-resolution prediction of solar irradiance and PV power output. We propose a stochastic state-space model to characterize the behaviors of solar irradiance and PV power output. This prediction model is suitable for the development of optimal power controllers for PV sources. A filter-based expectation-maximization and Kalman filtering mechanism is employed to estimate the parameters and states in the state-space model. The mechanism results in a finite dimensional filter which only uses the first and second order statistics. The structure of the scheme contributes to a direct prediction of the solar irradiance and PV power output without any linearization process or simplifying assumptions of the signal’s model. This enables the system to accurately predict small as well as large fluctuations of the solar signals. The mechanism is recursive allowing the solar irradiance and PV power to be predicted online from measurements. The mechanism is tested using solar irradiance and PV power measurement data collected locally in our lab.

  3. A Low-Power and Low-Voltage Power Management Strategy for On-Chip Micro Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Cevik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental characteristics of on-chip micro solar cell (MSC structures were investigated in this study. Several MSC structures using different layers in three different CMOS processes were designed and fabricated. Effects of PN junction structure and process technology on solar cell performance were measured. Parameters for low-power and low-voltage implementation of power management strategy and boost converter based circuits utilizing fractional voltage maximum power point tracking (FVMPPT algorithm were determined. The FVMPPT algorithm works based on the fraction between the maximum power point operation voltage and the open circuit voltage of the solar cell structure. This ratio is typically between 0.72 and 0.78 for commercially available poly crystalline silicon solar cells that produce several watts of power under typical daylight illumination. Measurements showed that the fractional voltage ratio is much higher and fairly constant between 0.82 and 0.85 for on-chip mono crystalline silicon micro solar cell structures that produce micro watts of power. Mono crystalline silicon solar cell structures were observed to result in better power fill factor (PFF that is higher than 74% indicating a higher energy harvesting efficiency.

  4. Temperature and Solar Radiation Effects on Photovoltaic Panel Power

    OpenAIRE

    Karafil, Akif; Ozbay, Harun; Kesler, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy is converted to electrical energy directly by semi-conductors materials used in Photovoltaic (PV) panels. Although, there has been great advancements in semi-conductor material technology in recent years panel efficiency is very lower. There are many factors affecting the panel efficiency such as tilt angle, shading, dust, solar radiation level, temperature and wiring losses. Among these factors, solar radiation level and temperature are more prominent. The solar radiation level ...

  5. Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Solar Powered Stirling Engine with Heat Transfer Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-En Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimization of the performance of a solar powered Stirling engine based on finite-time thermodynamics. Heat transference in the heat exchangers between a concentrating solar collector and the Stirling engine is studied. The irreversibility of a Stirling engine is considered with the heat transfer following Newton's law. The power generated by a Stirling engine is used as an objective function for maximum power output design with the concentrating solar collector temperature and the engine thermal efficiency as the optimization parameters. The maximum output power of engine and its corresponding system parameters are determined using a genetic algorithm.

  6. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  7. Evaluation of power block arrangements for 100MW scale concentrated solar thermal power generation using top-down design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Alexander; Beath, Andrew; Sauret, Emilie; Persky, Rodney

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power generation poses a unique situation for power block selection, in which a capital intensive heat source is subject to daily and seasonal fluctuations in intensity. In this study, a method is developed to easily evaluate the favourability of different power blocks for converting the heat supplied by a concentrated solar thermal plant into power at the 100MWe scale based on several key parameters. The method is then applied to a range of commercially available power cycles that operate over different temperatures and efficiencies, and with differing capital costs, each with performance and economic parameters selected to be typical of their technology type, as reported in literature. Using this method, the power cycle is identified among those examined that is most likely to result in a minimum levelised cost of energy of a solar thermal plant.

  8. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  9. Solar photovoltaic research and development program of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. [silicon solar cell applicable to satellite power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: laser weapon effects, solar silicon solar cell concepts, and high voltage hardened, high power system technology. Emphasis is placed on solar cells with increased energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance characteristics for application to satellite power systems.

  10. Development of a thin film solar cell interconnect for the PowerSphere concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James H.; Giants, Thomas W.; Garcia, Alexander; Liu, Simon; Rawal, Suraj P.; Perry, Alan R.; Marshall, Craig H.; Lin, John K.; Scarborough, Stephen E.; Curtis, Henry B.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Peterson, Todd T.

    2005-01-01

    Progressive development of microsatellite technologies has resulted in increased demand for lightweight electrical power subsystems including solar arrays. The use of thin film photovoltaics has been recognized as a key solution to meet the power needs. The lightweight cells can generate sufficient power and still meet critical mass requirements. Commercially available solar cells produced on lightweight substrates are being studied as an option to fulfill the power needs. The commercially available solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have a high payoff potential. Commercially available thin film solar cells are primarily being produced for terrestrial applications. The need to convert the solar cell from a terrestrial to a space compatible application is the primary challenge. Solar cell contacts, grids and interconnects need to be designed to be atomic oxygen resistant and withstand rapid thermal cycling environments. A mechanically robust solar cell interconnect is also required in order to withstand handling during fabrication and survive during launch. The need to produce the solar cell interconnects has been identified as a primary goal of the PowerSphere program and is the topic of this paper. Details of the trade study leading to the final design involving the solar cell wrap around contact, flex blanket, welding process, and frame will be presented at the conference

  11. Evaluation end-of-life power generation of a satellite solar array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherbaneh, Mohsen; Ghafooifard, H.; Rezaie, A.H.; Rahimi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We present detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission. → All sources of losses and degradation of the solar panels are fully taken into account. → We introduce a comprehensive novel approach to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. → We use a simple model to calculate the operating temperature range of the solar panels. → We also calculate Mission End-of-Life electrone fluence using SPENVIS. -- Abstract: Knowing the power generated by of solar arrays in a space missions shall satisfy mission requirements; prediction of the power generated by a solar array used in a space mission is very important and necessary. In this research, a detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission is presented. All sources of losses and degradation of solar panels are fully taken into account. This research emphasizes on investigation, analysis and verification of a manufactured solar assembly for a satellite before launch. Solar panels' generated power should be estimated at the end of the mission. For this purpose, radiation values and temperature operating range are specified for the mission. Panels' temperature operating rate is determined through considering a simple model and different spins for the satellite. Mission end-of-life 1 MeV equivalent dose is calculated by SPENVIS suite software. Finally, a comprehensive novel approach is introduced to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. This approach can be implemented in MATLAB environment to obtain output power characteristics of the solar panels for each specific mission. The results are in full accordance with the mission requirements either in beginning-of-life or end-of-life. Therefore, the power prediction of the designed solar array for the mentioned satellite completely satisfies its mission requirements.

  12. Study of s-component of the solar radio emission and short-term quantitative prediction of powerful solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseynov, Sh; Gakhramanov, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : All living and non-living things on Earth is dependent on the processes occurring in the Sun. Therefore the study of the Sun with the aim to predict powerful solar flares is of great scientific and practical importance. It is known that the main drawback of modern forecasting of solar flares and the low reliability of forecasts is the lack of use of the physical concepts of the mechanism of flares

  13. Linkages from DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D to Commercial Renewable Power from Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NJ (United States)

    2011-04-01

    DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D Subprogram promotes the development of cost-effective systems for directly converting solar energy into electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. This study was commissioned to assess the extent to which the knowledge outputs of R&D funded by the DOE Solar PV subprogram are linked to downstream developments in commercial renewable power. A second purpose was to identify spillovers of the resulting knowledge to other areas of application. A third purpose was to lend support to a parallel benefit-cost study by contributing evidence of attribution of benefits to DOE.

  14. Solar fed DC-DC single ended primary inductance converter for low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendranath, K. V.; Viswanath, Y.; Babu, K. Suresh; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents 34 to 36 volts. SEPIC converter for solar fed applications. Now days, there has been tremendous increase in the usage of solar energy and this solar energy is most valuable energy source available all around the world. The solar energy system require a Dc-Dc converter in order to modulate and govern the changing output of the panel. In this paper, a system comprising of Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter [SEPIC] integrated with solar panel is proposed. This paper proposes SEPIC power converter design that will secure high performance and cost efficiency while powering up a LAMP load. This power converter designed with low output ripple voltage, higher efficiency and less electrical pressure on the power switching elements. The simulation and prototype hardware results are presented in this paper.

  15. 1480 W Plts Solar Power Plant Architecture With Solar Tracker For Controlling Microcontroller-Based Solar Panel In Tigaraja Village Sub-District Of Tigadolok Regency Of Simalungun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Samosir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy has become a basic need for human being. In some remote areas however electricity is unreachable and poses a taboo subject and cannot be enjoyed by local people such as in Tigaraja Village Sub-District of Tigadolok Regency of Simalungun. The sun is a renewable energy that it is beneficial for power plant use. With PLTS solar energy can be changed into the sun through the solar panel. Battery Charge Regulator BCR operates stabilizing voltage from solar panel to battery. The battery will save electrical power to be distributed for household consumption. Since battery power has direct current however Inverter operates changing its direct current into alternating current. To optimize absorption of solar energy a servo motor is used to make solar panel moving by following the suns path. Arduino Uno as direct control of solar panel using solar sensor gives current for servo motor. Then the servo motor can move in reverse and forward. Therefore Household goods like water pumps lamps and televisions have been worked when people come home from their work.

  16. The New Solar System: China’s Evolving Solar Industry and Its Implications for Competitive Solar Power in the United States and the World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Jeffrey [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Reicher, Dan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Sun, Xiaojing [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Pollock, Caitlin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Solar power is undergoing a revolution. Over the past decade, an energy source as old as the planet and theoretically all but limitless has plummeted in cost and begun in some places to be harnessed in large volume. This dynamic is disrupting the modern energy system and, as energy disruptions always do, rattling the geopolitical order. In the process, the industry that produces the equipment to convert sunlight into electricity is simultaneously reeling, consolidating, and surging. These twin transformations—one of the global energy system, one of the global solar industry—carry profound implications for national economies and for the planet. At the center of both transformations sits China. The New Solar System illuminates key and little- understood changes that are remaking the solar enterprise—in China and thus in the world. Based on this analysis, it recommends changes in U.S. solar policy—particularly timely with a new U.S. administration and Congress—that would put solar power on a more economically sensible path toward environmentally significant growth. The New Solar System does not seek to enable any country to beat another in the global solar industry. It seeks instead to help all countries find their most effective places. By better understanding and playing to their comparative strengths in the solar business, countries would achieve two key objectives. They would reduce the cost for the world of scaling up solar power. And they would be better positioned to fashion policies that maximized the long-term benefit to their own economies from solar’s global growth.

  17. The characteristic analysis of the solar energy photovoltaic power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Li, K.; Niu, D. D.; Jin, Y. A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is an inexhaustible, clean, renewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells are a key component in solar power generation, so thorough research on output characteristics is of far-reaching importance. In this paper, an illumination model and a photovoltaic power station output power model were established, and simulation analysis was conducted using Matlab and other software. The analysis evaluated the condition of solar energy resources in the Baicheng region in the western part of Jilin province, China. The characteristic curve of the power output from a photovoltaic power station was obtained by simulation calculation. It was shown that the monthly average output power of the photovoltaic power station is affected by seasonal changes; the output power is higher in summer and autumn, and lower in spring and winter.

  18. Economic Justification of Concentrating Solar Power in High Renewable Energy Penetrated Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Du, Ershun [Tsinghua University; Zhang, Ning [Tsinghua University; Kang, Chongqing [Tsinghua University; Xia, Qing [Tsinghua University

    2018-04-24

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are able to provide both renewable energy and operational flexibility at the same time due to its thermal energy storage (TES). It is ideal generation to power systems lacking in flexibility to accommodate variable renewable energy (VRE) generation such as wind power and photovoltaics. However, its investment cost currently is too high to justify its benefit in terms of providing renewable energy only. In this paper we evaluate the economic benefit of CSP in high renewable energy penetrated power systems from two aspects: generating renewable energy and providing operational flexibility to help accommodating VRE. In order to keep the same renewable energy penetration level during evaluation, we compare the economic costs between the system with a high share of VRE and another in which some part of the VRE generation is replaced by CSP generation. The generation cost of a power system is analyzed through chronological operation simulation over a whole year. The benefit of CSP is quantified into two parts: (1) energy benefit - the saving investment of substituted VRE generation and (2) flexibility benefit - the reduction in operating cost due to substituting VRE with CSP. The break-even investment cost of CSP is further discussed. The methodology is tested on a modified IEEE RTS-79 system. The economic justifications of CSP are demonstrated in two practical provincial power systems with high penetration of renewable energy in northwestern China, Qinghai and Gansu, where the former province has massive inflexible thermal power plants but later one has high share of flexible hydro power. The results suggest that the CSP is more beneficial in Gansu system than in Qinghai. The levelized benefit of CSP, including both energy benefit and flexibility benefit, is about 0.177-0.191 $/kWh in Qinghai and about 0.238-0.300 $/kWh in Gansu, when replacing 5-20% VRE generation with CSP generation.

  19. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar heat power generation); 1976 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Taiyonetsu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Research was made on solar heat power generation following last fiscal year, as a part of solar energy utilization technologies. In this fiscal year, in particular, research was made on the following: selection of suitable sites for solar heat power plants in Japan, estimation of expected power supply, positioning of a solar heat power system among future power systems, operation policy of solar heat power systems, survey on suitable sites for the 1,000kW pilot power plant, operation characteristics of the small test plant, design of the 1,000kW pilot power plant, test methods and facilities for every element equipment of solar heat power systems, an environmental test method for mostly solar collectors, and the profitability of solar heat power systems. Optimum operation temperature levels were nearly 350 degrees C for distributed systems and nearly 400 degrees C for centralized ones. The distributed system is profitable in a unit capacity range less than 5-10MWe, while the centralized system is profitable in a range over 10MWe. Under some assumptions, the power cost of solar heat power systems was estimated to be 20-30yen/kWH. (NEDO)

  20. A Co-Powered Biomass and Concentrated Solar Power Rankine Cycle Concept for Small Size Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Tortora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the matching of an advanced small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP Rankine cycle plant with end-user thermal and electric load. The power plant consists of a concentrated solar power field co-powered by a biomass furnace to produce steam in a Rankine cycle, with a CHP configuration. A hotel was selected as the end user due to its high thermal to electric consumption ratio. The power plant design and its operation were modelled and investigated by adopting transient simulations with an hourly distribution. The study of the load matching of the proposed renewable power technology and the final user has been carried out by comparing two different load tracking scenarios, i.e., the thermal and the electric demands. As a result, the power output follows fairly well the given load curves, supplying, on a selected winter day, about 50 GJ/d of thermal energy and the 6 GJ/d of electric energy, with reduced energy dumps when matching the load.