WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar thermal photovoltaics

  1. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  2. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  3. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  4. Photovoltaic Thermal panels in collective thermal solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.; De Lange, E.T.N.; Smit, W.F.

    2003-12-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to assess the options to apply photovoltaic/thermal panels (PVT-panels) in collective solar thermal systems in urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was focused on the technical (architecture and installations) and the economical feasibility of collective PVT-systems in comparison with conventional solar thermal systems and combinations of photovoltaic (PV) panels and solar collectors. The results of the study also give insight into cost and the market for PVT-panels. Three case studies in which collective solar collector systems were applied are analyzed again by simulating the installation of a PVT-panels system and a separate solar thermal PV system [nl

  5. Performance analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV/T) air heater is a collector that combines thermal and photovoltaic systems in one single hybrid generating unit. It generators both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously. A new design of a double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPC and fins was successfully developed and fabricated at Universiti Kebangsaam Malaysia. This collector tested under actual environmental conditions to study its performance over a range of operating conditions. The test set-up, instrumentation and measurement are described further. It was found that the performance of the collector was in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Results of the outdoors test are presented and discussed(Author)

  6. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  7. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  8. Transient analysis of the double pass photovoltaic thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfegi, Ebrahim M.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Abakr, Yousif A.

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model of a double pass photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar collector is reported in this work. It is composed of five couple unsteady nonlinear partial differential equations which are solved by using Gear implicit numerical scheme. That model was validated against experimental data and was found to accurately predict the temperature of the circulated air as well as the temperature distribution of every static elements in a two-pass PV/T solar collector.(Author)

  9. Thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system analysis using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The energy demand in Jordan is primarily met by petroleum products. As such, the development of renewable energy systems is quite attractive. In particular, solar energy is a promising renewable energy source in Jordan and has been used for food canning, paper production, air-conditioning and sterilization. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have received significant attention due to their capabilities in forecasting, modelling of complex nonlinear systems and control. ANNs have been used for forecasting solar energy. This paper presented a study that examined a thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system that was built in Jordan. Historical input-output system data that was collected experimentally was used to train an ANN that predicted the collector, PV module, pump and total efficiencies. The model predicted the efficiencies well and can therefore be utilized to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. The paper provided a description of the photovoltaic solar system including equations for PV module efficiency; pump efficiency; and total efficiency. The paper also presented data relevant to the system performance and neural networks. The results of a neural net model were also presented based on the thermal PV solar integrated system data that was collected. It was concluded that the neural net model of the thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system set the background for achieving the best system performance. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity;Le Photovoltaique. Le solaire thermique. L'heliothermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  11. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  12. Comparative Study of Two New Configurations of Solar Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    K. Touafek; A. Khelifa; E. H. Khettaf; A. Embarek

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar system comprises a solar collector which is disposed on photovoltaic solar cells. The disadvantage of a conventional photovoltaic cell is that its performance decreases as the temperature increases. Indeed, part of the solar radiation is converted into electricity and is dissipated as heat, increasing the temperature of the photovoltaic cell with respect to the ambient temperature. The objective of this work is to study experimentally and implement a h...

  13. A comparative study on three types of solar utilization technologies for buildings: Photovoltaic, solar thermal and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huide, Fu; Xuxin, Zhao; Lei, Ma; Tao, Zhang; Qixing, Wu; Hongyuan, Sun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of Solar thermal, Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/thermal systems are developed. • Experiments are performed to validate the simulation results. • Annual performances of the three solar systems used in china are predicted. • Energy comparison between the three solar systems is analyzed. - Abstract: Buildings need energy including heat and electricity, and both of them can be provided by the solar systems. Solar thermal and photovoltaic systems absorb the solar energy and can supply the heat and electricity for buildings, respectively. However, for the urban residential buildings, the limited available area makes installation of the solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules together impossible. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system can simultaneously generate heat and electricity, which is deemed to be quite suitable for the urban residential buildings application. And yet, for a rural house of China, the available area for installation of the solar collectors is large but daily domestic hot water demand of a rural family is generally not exceeded 300 L. If only the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors are installed on the whole available area, this will lead to an overproduction of the thermal energy, especially in summer. Moreover, buildings requiring for the heat and electricity are different in different regions and different seasons. In this paper, simulation models of the solar thermal, photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal systems are presented, and experiments are also performed to validate the simulation results. Using the validated models, performances of the three solar systems for residential applications were predicted. And energy comparison between the three solar systems used in Hongkong, Lhasa, Shanghai and Beijing of China, respectively, were also studied. Results show that, for the urban residential building with limited available installation space, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system may have the

  14. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  15. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  16. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  17. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  18. Modelling and system analysis of new photovoltaic thermal solar collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katiyar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This project report is a deliverable within the scope of WenSDak project, which is being carried out by a consortium of a number of photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) panel manufacturers and knowledge institutes. This project is financed by RVO (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) – project number

  19. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  20. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  1. A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of research and development work on the photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) technology has been done since the 1970s. Many innovative systems and products have been put forward and their quality evaluated by academics and professionals. A range of theoretical models has been introduced and their appropriateness validated by experimental data. Important design parameters are identified. Collaborations have been underway amongst institutions or countries, helping to sort out the suitable products and systems with the best marketing potential. This article gives a review of the trend of development of the technology, in particular the advancements in recent years and the future work required. (author)

  2. A review of installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacities in relation to solar potential for the EU-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ali Naci; Muneer, Tariq; Clarke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the energy statistics of 15 European Union countries (EU-15), giving special emphasis to the installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacity. The installed capacities per capita are analysed in relation to the solar radiation income of respective countries with the view to explore the relationship between the solar income and its utilisation as of the year 2006. In terms of the installed solar thermal collector capacity, Austria leads the statistics amongst the countries studied with 223W th collector capacity per capita, followed by Greece with 207W th . Except for Greece, it is observed that the countries with high solar radiation income are lacking to realise their solar potential. Regarding the installed photovoltaic power per capita, Luxembourg leads the pack by a wide margin with 47W p capacity, followed by Germany with 30W p . Fiscal instruments to invigorate the deployment of solar energy have also been identified in this work. (author)

  3. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  4. Numerical model for the thermal yield estimation of unglazed photovoltaic-thermal collectors using indoor solar simulator testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katiyar, M.; van Balkom, M.W.; Rindt, C.C.M.; de Keizer, C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    It is a common practice to test solar thermal and photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors outdoors. This requires testing over several weeks to account for different weather conditions encountered throughout the year, which is costly and time consuming. The outcome of these tests is an estimation of

  5. Acceleration of the solar-thermal energy development but still some brakes upon photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    France shows today the highest growth rate for solar thermal energy with respect to other European countries. This market is structuring and tries to favour quality. A label for systems certification has been presented in January 2007. Photovoltaic conversion has been tied up for a long time by poorly attractive power repurchase tariffs. It benefits now from a propitious framework for its development even if some financial incentive questions relative to the integration of solar panels to buildings remain unanswered. (J.S.)

  6. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  8. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  9. Studies of a photovoltaic-thermal solar during system for rural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Y.; Yatim, B.; Bakar, N.A. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Center for Applied Physics Studies; Sopian, K. [Kebangsaan Malaysia Univ., Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Material Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar drying is increasing in areas where the use of abundant, renewable and clean solar energy is advantageous. Particularly in developing countries and in rural areas, the traditional open-air drying methods are being substituted by the more effective and more economic solar drying technologies. Since the air collector is the most important component of a solar food drying system, improvement of the design of collectors would lead to better performance of the system. This paper presented a new design of a photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) solar drying system. In order to achieve an efficient design of an air collector suitable for a solar dryer, the results of an experimental study of PVT solar air collector was conducted and presented. The paper presented the methodology and discussed a series of experiments that were conducted under Malaysian climatic conditions. The paper discussed the design of a double pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and fins. The collector design concept and the collector array were demonstrated. The performance of the collector was examined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the test were then presented and discussed. It was concluded that the performance of the solar collector was satisfactory. The quality attributes such as colour, flavour, and taste were significantly improved since it was protected from rain, dust, and insects, in contrast to sun drying. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Value of solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants to Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company has performed a study using historical solar radiation and system load data to (1) estimate the effects of six types of solar generation on system reliability, (2) estimate the central station value of each to its system, (3) and to assess the potential of each of those technologies to provide bulk power to its system in the 2000 time frame. Technologies included three solar thermal (central receiver, dish Stirling, and parabolic trough) and three flat plate photovoltaic plants (fixed position, one axis, and two axis tracking)

  11. Predicting the performance of amorphous and crystalline silicon based photovoltaic solar thermal collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghigh, Ronak; Ibrahim, Adnan; Jin, Goh Li; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2011-01-01

    BIPVT is an application where solar PV/T modules are integrated into the building structure. System design parameters such as thermal conductivity and fin efficiency, type of cells, type of coolant and operating conditions are factors which influence the performance of BIPVT. Attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT). A new design concept of water-based PVT collector for building-integrated applications has been designed and evaluated. The results of simulation study of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV/T and crystalline silicon (c-Si) module types are based on the metrological condition of Malaysia for a typical day in March. At a flow rate of 0.02 kg/s, solar radiation level between 700 and 900 W/m 2 and ambient temperature between 22 and 32 o C, the electrical, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies for the PV/T (a-Si) were 4.9%, 72% and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electrical, thermal and combined photovoltaic thermal efficiencies of the PV/T (c-Si) were 11.6%, 51% and 63%.

  12. Solar radiation transfer and performance analysis of an optimum photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiafei; Song Yongchen; Lam, Wei-Haur; Liu Weiguo; Liu Yu; Zhang Yi; Wang DaYong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design optimization of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system using both non-concentrated and concentrated solar radiation. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) module using silicon solar cell and a thermal unit based on the direct absorption collector (DAC) concept. First, the working fluid of the thermal unit absorbs the solar infrared radiation. Then, the remaining visible light is transmitted and converted into electricity by the solar cell. This arrangement prevents excessive heating of the solar cell which would otherwise negatively affects its electrical efficiency. The optical properties of the working fluid were modeled based on the damped oscillator Lorentz-Drude model satisfying the Kramers-Kroenig relations. The coefficients of the model were retrieved by inverse method based on genetic algorithm, in order to (i) maximize transmission of solar radiation between 200 nm and 800 nm and (ii) maximize absorption in the infrared part of the spectrum from 800 nm to 2000 nm. The results indicate that the optimum system can effectively and separately use the visible and infrared part of solar radiation. The thermal unit absorbs 89% of the infrared radiation for photothermal conversion and transmits 84% of visible light to the solar cell for photoelectric conversion. When reducing the mass flow rate, the outflow temperature of the working fluid reaches 74 o C, the temperature of the PV module remains around 31 o C at a constant electrical efficiency about 9.6%. Furthermore, when the incident solar irradiance increases from 800 W/m 2 to 8000 W/m 2 , the system generates 196 o C working fluid with constant thermal efficiency around 40%, and the exergetic efficiency increases from 12% to 22%.

  13. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  14. Studies of a photovoltaic-thermal solar dryi system for rural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Yusof; Yatim, Baharudin; Abu Bakar, Mohd Nazari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2006-01-01

    Importance of solar drying in increasing worldwide. especially in areas where the use of abundant, renewable and clean solar energy is essentially advantageous. In developing countries and in rural areas the traditional open-air drying methods should be substituted by the more effective and more economic solar drying technologies. In the present work, a new design of a photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar drying system was fabricated. An experimental study of PV/T solar air collector has been performed towards achieving n efficient design of air collector suitable foe a solar dryer. A series of experiments were conducted based on the ASHRAE standard, under Malaysia Climatic conditions. The performance of the collector is examined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the test are presented and discussed.(Author)

  15. Graphene-enhanced thermal interface materials for heat removal from photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, M.; Gamalath, D.; Hernandez, E.; Balandin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The increase in the temperature of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells affects negatively their power conversion efficiency and decreases their lifetime. The negative effects are particularly pronounced in concentrator solar cells. Therefore, it is crucial to limit the PV cell temperature by effectively removing the excess heat. Conventional thermal phase change materials (PCMs) and thermal interface materials (TIMs) do not possess the thermal conductivity values sufficient for thermal management of the next generation of PV cells. In this paper, we report the results of investigation of the increased efficiency of PV cells with the use of graphene-enhanced TIMs. Graphene reveals the highest values of the intrinsic thermal conductivity. It was also shown that the thermal conductivity of composites can be increased via utilization of graphene fillers. We prepared TIMs with up to 6% of graphene designed specifically for PV cell application. The solar cells were tested using the solar simulation module. It was found that the drop in the output voltage of the solar panel under two-sun concentrated illumination can be reduced from 19% to 6% when grapheneenhanced TIMs are used. The proposed method can recover up to 75% of the power loss in solar cells.

  16. Performance investigation of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A common design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator was presented. • The gallium arsenide high concentrated solar was used as the receiver. • High efficiency of electric generating could be achieved at noon. • Fresnel solar concentrator was studied and compared in hazy weather and clear weather. - Abstract: A design method of a cycloidal transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator which can provide a certain width focal line was presented in this study. Based on the optical principle of refraction, the dimensions of each wedge-shaped element of Fresnel lens are calculated. An optical simulation has been done to obtain the optical efficiency of the concentrator for different tracking error and axial incidence angle. It has been found that about 80% of the incident sunlight can still be gathered by the absorber when the tracking error is within 0.7°. When the axial angle of incidence is within 10°, it almost has no influence to the receiving rate. The concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator has been designed in this paper. Take the gallium arsenide high concentrated battery as the receiver, experimental research about cylindrical Fresnel concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is undertaken in the real sky. Main parameters are tested such as the temperature distribution on receiver, electric energy and thermal energy outputs of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system, the efficiency of multipurpose utilization of electric and heat, and so on. The test results in clear weather show that maximum electric generating efficiency is about 18% at noon, the maximum heat receiving rate of cooling water is about 45%. At noon time (11:00–13:00), the total efficiency of thermal and electricity can reach more than 55%. Performance of this concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with transmissive Fresnel solar concentrator is studied and compared in two types typical weather, hazy

  17. Solar cooling between thermal and photovoltaic: An energy and economic comparative study in the Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noro, M.; Lazzarin, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers different cooling systems and investigates the most promising alternatives when solar energy is to be used to supply the cooling demand. All the systems are evaluated during a summer cooling season by the energetic and economic point of view by dynamic simulation for two different climates. For Milan (Cfb climate) the highest OSE (overall system efficiency) is reached by LiBr (lithium-bromide) double effect absorption chiller driven by parabolic through collector (0.53). In terms of the collecting surface area, the best systems for Milan feature 0.08 m 2  MJ −1 per day both for electric system (mono-crystalline photovoltaic coupled to water cooled chiller) and thermal system (PTC (parabolic trough collectors) coupled to double effect water-LiBr absorption chiller). Southern latitudes like Trapani (Csa climate) allow a quite better performance for thermal solar cooling solutions. The NPV (net present worths) of electric solar cooling solutions are favorable with respect to the traditional solution and the DPV (discounted payback periods) are all lower than the period of economic analysis above all for water cooled chillers. Finally a sensitivity analysis of the specific investment cost (€ MJ −1 per day) is carried out regarding the investment cost of collectors, the solar ratio and the interest rate. - Highlights: • Solar cooling is obtained with solar thermal or PV (photovoltaic) with easy available equipment. • In the past PV driven systems for solar cooling were not considered as too expensive. • An energy/economic comparison is carried out for the various solar cooling systems. • Sensitivity analyses are carried out varying different parameters

  18. Inventory of the solar thermal and photovoltaic energy potential in the Ardennes district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, Henri-Louis

    2010-03-01

    Based on the use of cartographic tool, the objective of this study was to assess the potential production of solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems, social-economic data, regulatory data, and environmental, heritage-related, and urban constraints, and natural risks. For each type of installation, the possible reachable potential has been assessed while taking these constraints, building typology (housing, industrial, heritage, and so on), building orientation, project construction dynamics into account. The report analyses solar resource, housing characteristics, building typology, regulatory constraints related to the protection of the built environment, exploitation constraints (shade), building orientation constraints. It presents an assessment of net resources for both sectors, an assessment of plausible production potentials by 2030. It also presents and discusses environmental (avoided emissions) and financial indicators related to both solar sectors

  19. Solar cooling for small office buildings: Comparison of solar thermal and photovoltaic options for two different European climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, N. [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Glueck, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fluid Machinery (FSM), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schmidt, F.P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fluid Machinery (FSM), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    We present a comparison of solar thermal and solar electric cooling for a typical small office building exposed to two different European climates (Freiburg and Madrid). The investigation is based on load series for heating and cooling obtained previously from annual building simulations in TRNSYS. A conventional compression chiller is used as the reference system against which the solar options are evaluated with respect to primary energy savings and additional cost. A parametric study on collector and storage size is carried out for the solar thermal system to reach achieve the minimal cost per unit of primary energy saved. The simulated solar electric system consists of the reference system, equipped with a grid connected photovoltaic module, which can be varied in size. For cost comparison of the two systems, the electric grid is assumed to function as a cost-free storage. A method to include macroeconomic effects in the comparison is presented and discussed. Within the system parameters and assumptions used here, the grid coupled PV system leads to lower costs of primary energy savings than the solar thermal system at both locations. The presumed macroeconomic advantages of the solar thermal system, due to the non-usage of energy during peak demand, can be confirmed for Madrid. (author)

  20. Optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, F.; Sarhaddi, F.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still is carried out. Analytical expressions for glass cover temperature, basin temperature, brackish water temperature and fresh water productivity are obtained by writing energy balance for different components of PV/T active solar still. The output electrical power of PV/T active solar still is calculated by four-parameter I–V (current–voltage) model. Objective function in present study is the energy efficiency of PV/T active solar still. A computer simulation program has been developed in order to obtain thermal and electrical parameters, respectively. The simulation results of the present study are in fair agreement with the experimental data of previous literatures. Finally, the optimization of PV/T active solar still has been carried out and the optimized value of mass flow rate, number of PV/T collector and the objective function have been obtained. Furthermore, the effect of various operating parameters on energy efficiency have been investigated. - Highlights: • The comprehensive optimization of a PV/T active solar still is carried out. • Present study is based on numerical simulation. • A modified energy efficiency for PV/T active solar still is obtained. • The effect of design and operating parameters is investigated on energy efficiency

  1. Performance study of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Ji, Xu; Li, Guoliang; Wei, Shengxian; Li, YingFeng; Shi, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied. → The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were studied by experiments. → The influences between the solar cell's performance and the series resistances, the working temperature, solar irradiation intensity were explored. - Abstract: The performances of solar cell arrays based on a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system have been studied via both experiment and theoretical calculation. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell arrays and the output performances of the TCPV/T system demonstrated that among the investigated four types of solar cell arrays, the triple junction GaAs cells possessed good performance characteristics and the polysilicon cells exhibited poor performance characteristics under concentrating conditions. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cell, the Super cells and the GaAs cells were also studied by experiments. The optimum concentration ratios for the single crystalline silicon cells and Super cells were 4.23 and 8.46 respectively, and the triple junction GaAs cells could work well at higher concentration ratio. Besides, some theoretical calculations and experiments were performed to explore the influences of the series resistances and the working temperature. When the series resistances R s changed from 0 Ω to 1 Ω, the maximum power P m of the single crystalline silicon, the polycrystalline silicon, the Super cell and the GaAs cell arrays decreased by 67.78%, 74.93%, 77.30% and 58.07% respectively. When the cell temperature increased by 1 K, the short circuit current of the four types of solar cell arrays decreased by 0.11818 A, 0.05364 A, 0.01387 A and 0.00215 A respectively. The research results demonstrated that the output performance of the solar cell arrays with lower

  2. Exergy analysis of photovoltaic solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopian, K.; Othman, M.Y.Hj.

    1998-01-01

    The exergy analysis (availability or second law analysis) is applied to the photovoltaic thermal solar collector. Photovoltaic thermal collector is a special type of solar collector where electricity and heat are produced simultaneously. The electricity produced from the photovoltaic thermal collector is all converted into useful work. The available quantity of the heat collected can readily be determined by taking into account both the quantity (heat quantity) and quality ( a function of temperature) of the thermal energy. Therefore, using the concept of exergy allows heat produced from the thermal collector and the electricity generated from the photovoltaic cells to be compared or to be evaluated on the basis of a common measure such as the effectiveness on solar energy collection or the total amount of available energy. In this paper, the effectiveness of solar energy collection is called combined photovoltaic thermal exergy efficiency. An experimental setup of a double pas photovoltaic thermal solar collector has been deigned, fabricated and tested. (author)

  3. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  4. Thermal and photovoltaic solar system in Urban hotel; Sistema solar termico y fotovoltaico en hotel urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.; Perpinan, O.; Ramirez, F.; Eyras, R.; Vega, J.

    2004-07-01

    The article describes the Solar Energy installations that are being carried out in the Hotel Monte Malaga promoted by the Gabriel Rojas Group. We can consider this project to be pioneer in Spain since it uses Photovoltaic Solar Panels as parasols in facades in order to reduce its frozen load and with the intention of producing electric energy that will be injected to the grid. In addition, solar collectors over roof are being used distributed in a totally integrated way with the building for the preheating of the sanitary hot water producing a saving of around 90% of the natural gas consume. This entire project is carried out in an ultramodern design using different bioclimatic techniques that turns this building into a singular one. (Author)

  5. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal Systems (PV/T Systems) combine Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies into one system with both electrical and thermal energy output. PV/T systems have several perceived advantages to stand-alone PV or solar-thermal systems. The increased efficiency and dual nature of the systems make suitable for situations where installation space is limited, and for homeowners who are forced to decide between meeting thermal or electrical needs. The financial benefit of the combined system is also significant, as the long payback of PV systems is joined with a relatively short payback of solar thermal systems. A background of PV/T was presented, with details of classifications and the International Energy Association's program to evaluate the technical status of PV/T systems and formulate a roadmap for future development. It was noted that input from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) is needed to help identify market barriers in PV/T systems. This paper reviewed existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status, and reported on the methodology established by IEA group 35. The systems were grouped according to thermal collector types of unglazed water collectors, glazed water collectors, unglazed air collectors, glazed air collectors, air-flow windows, and concentrating collectors. It was noted that a number of new systems are currently being developed, including concentrating collectors with water and air heating, unglazed air heating systems, and unglazed water heating systems. It was noted that apart from technical barriers, efficient design and performance prediction are also problematic, as tools for predicting performance do not exist. The same tools will be used to optimize PV/T system designs. It was suggested that standardized reporting methods, simulation and sizing tools and demonstration products need to be created and that regional certification issues need to be identified. Environmental

  6. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  7. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collectors: Features and performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto; Korolija, Ivan; Greenough, Richard; Wright, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells ranges between 5–25%. One of the most important parameters that affects the electrical efficiency of a PV collector is the temperature of its cells: the higher temperature, the lower is the efficiency. Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technology is a potential solution to ensure an acceptable solar energy conversion. The PV/T technology produces both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. It is suitable for low temperature applications (25–40 o C) and overall efficiency increases compared to individual collectors. This paper describes an installation in a single-family house where PV/T collectors are coupled with a ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for domestic hot water and space heating purposes. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the features of the PV/T technology are analyzed. Second, a model of a flat-plate PV/T water collector was developed in TRNSYS in order to analyze collectors performance. (author)

  8. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M., E-mail: liming@ynnu.edu.c [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China); Li, G.L. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Yunnan Normal University, 650092 Kunming (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. {yields} Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. {yields} The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m{sup 2} Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m{sup 2} TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating

  9. The performance analysis of the Trough Concentrating Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, G.L.; Ji, X.; Yin, F.; Xu, L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system is built, a single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. → Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. → The economic performance analysis show the electricity generating cost of the TCPV/T system with the concentrating silicon cell array can catch up with flat-plate PV system. -- Abstract: The electrical and thermal performance of a 2 m 2 Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal (TCPV/T) system with an energy flux ratio 10.27 are characterized by experiments. A single crystalline silicon solar cell array, a polycrystalline silicon cell array, a Super cell array and a GaAs cell array are respectively used in the experiments. The experimental results show that the electrical performance of the system with the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays. The superior output performance of the GaAs cell array mainly benefits from its lower series resistance. But the thermal performances of the system using the single crystal silicon solar cell array and the polycrystalline silicon solar cell array are better. It results from the widths of the two types of cells in the system close to that of the focal line. Another 10 m 2 TCPV/T system with an energy flux ratio of 20 using the GaAs cell array and a concentrating silicon cell array are also constructed and characterized. The experimental results indicate that the photoelectric efficiency of the GaAs cell array is 23.83%, and the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system are 9.88% and 49.84% respectively. While the instantaneous electrical efficiency and thermal efficiency of the system using the low-cost concentrating silicon cell array are 7.51% and 42

  10. Characterization of Air-Based Photovoltaic Thermal Panels with Bifacial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ooshaksaraei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels account for a majority of the cost of photovoltaic thermal (PVT panels. Bifacial silicon solar panels are attractive for PVT panels because of their potential to enhance electrical power generation from the same silicon wafer compared with conventional monofacial solar panels. This paper examines the performance of air-based bifacial PVT panels with regard to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Four air-based bifacial PVT panels were designed. The maximum efficiencies of 45% to 63% were observed for the double-path-parallel bifacial PVT panel based on the first law of thermodynamics. Single-path bifacial PVT panel represents the highest exergy efficiency (10%. Double-path-parallel bifacial PVT panel is the second preferred design as it generates up to 20% additional total energy compared with the single-path panel. However, the daily average exergy efficiency of a double-path-parallel panel is 0.35% lower than that of a single-path panel.

  11. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  12. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  13. Study and modeling of energy performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar collector: Configuration suitable for an indirect solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Bahria, Sofiane; Kurucz, Ildikó; Aouli, M’heni; Sellami, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The simulation results are in compliance with the experimental measurements indicated in the previous literature. • The accuracy of the numerical model is due to the presented energy analysis and also to the well-adopted correlations. • A comparative study between two solar photovoltaic/thermal air collectors was carried out. • The thermal efficiency of the analyzed hybrid collector increased by 30.85% compared to the basic configuration. • The air temperature supplied by a double-pass photovoltaic/thermal collector is very suitable for solar drying. - Abstract: In this paper, a configuration of photovoltaic-thermal hybrid solar collector embeddable in an indirect solar dryer system is studied. In the present structure of the solar photovoltaic/thermal air collector, the air goes through a double pass below and above the photovoltaic module. A system of electrical and thermal balance equations is developed and analyzed governing various electric and heat transfer parameters in the solar hybrid air collector. The numerical model planned for this study gives a good precision of results, which are close to the experimental ones (of previous literature), and makes it possible to have a good assessment of energy performance regarding the studied configuration (temperature, electric and thermal powers, electrical and thermal efficiencies, etc.). The numerical results show the energy effectiveness of this hybrid collector configuration and particularly its interesting use in an indirect solar dryer system that provides a more suitable air temperature for drying agricultural products. The values of the electrical, thermal and overall energy efficiencies reaches 10.5%, 70% and 90% respectively, with a mass flow rate of 0.0155 kg/s and weather data sample for the month of June in the Algiers site. The results presented in this study also reveal how important the effect of certain parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the hybrid

  14. Investigating the Effect of Thermal Annealing Process on the Photovoltaic Performance of the Graphene-Silicon Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-silicon (Gr-Si Schottky solar cell has attracted much attention recently as promising candidate for low-cost photovoltaic application. For the fabrication of Gr-Si solar cell, the Gr film is usually transferred onto the Si substrate by wet transfer process. However, the impurities induced by this process at the graphene/silicon (Gr/Si interface, such as H2O and O2, degrade the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell. We found that the thermal annealing process can effectively improve the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell by removing these impurities at the Gr/Si interface. More interestingly, the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell can be improved, furthermore, when exposed to air environment after the thermal annealing process. Through investigating the characteristics of the Gr-Si solar cell and the properties of the Gr film (carrier density and sheet resistance, we point out that this phenomenon is caused by the natural doping effect of the Gr film.

  15. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  16. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  17. A review of concentrated photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems with waste heat recovery (WHR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Ju; Chao Xu; Zhirong Liao; Xiaoze Du; Gaosheng Wei; Zhifeng Wang; Yongping Yang

    2017-01-01

    In conventional photovoltaic (PV) systems,a large portion of solar energy is dissipated as waste heat since the generating efficiency is usually less than 30%.As the dissipated heat can be recovered for various applications,the wasted heat recovery concentrator PV/thermal (WHR CPVT) hybrid systems have been developed.They can provide both electricity and usable heat by combining thermal systems with concentrator PV (CPV) module,which dramatically improves the overall conversion efficiency of solar energy.This paper systematically and comprehensively reviews the research and development ofWHR CPVT systems.WHR CPVT systems with innovative design configurations,different theoretical evaluation models and experimental test processes for several implementations are presented in an integrated manner.We aim to provide a global point of view on the research trends,market potential,technical obstacles,and the future work which is required in the development of WHR CPVT technology.Possibly,it will offer a generic guide to the investigators who are interested in the study of WHR CPVT systems.

  18. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  20. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  1. Energetic and economic evaluation of solar thermal and photovoltaic cooling system in Cuban hotel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Torres, Yamile; Valdivia Nodal, Yarelis; Castellanos Molina, Luis Miguel; Torres del Toro, Migdalia; Monteagudo Llanes, José

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses the energetic and economic feasibility of using two configurations of solar cooling in a Cuban Hotel. The air conditioning hybrid system schemes are: conventional system (Chiller) interconnected in parallel with a solar- powered absorption cooling system (SACS); and a photovoltaic cooling system (PCS). There were analyzed by methodologies and thermodynamic principles governing these technologies. The results show that their uses are alternatives for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. (full text)

  2. Model and analysis of solar thermal generators to reduce the intermittency of photovoltaic systems with the use of spectrum splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Santiago, Raphael P.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we introduce an approach to damping intermittency in photovoltaic (PV) system output due to fluctuations in solar illumination generated by use of a hybrid PV-thermal electric (TE) generation system. We describe the necessary constrains of the PV-TE system based on its thermodynamic characteristics. The basis for the approach is that the thermal time constant for the TE device is much longer than that of a PV cell. When used in combination with an optimized thermal storage device short periods of intermittency (several minutes) in PV output due to passing clouds can be compensated. A comparison of different spectrum splitting systems to efficiently utilize the incident solar spectrum between the PV and TE converters are also examined. The time-dependent behavior of a hybrid PV-TE converter with a thermal storage element is computed with SMARTS modeled irradiance data and compared to real weather and irradiation conditions for Tucson, Arizona.

  3. Performance study of heat-pipe solar photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongbing; Zhang, Lei; Jie, Pengfei; Xiong, Yaxuan; Xu, Peng; Zhai, Huixing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The testing device of HPS PV/T heat pump system was established by a finished product of PV panel. • A detailed mathematical model of heat pump was established to investigate the performance of each component. • The dynamic and static method was combined to solve the mathematical model of HPS PV/T heat pump system. • The HPS PV/T heat pump system was optimized by the mathematical model. • The influence of six factors on the performance of HPS PV/T heat pump system was analyzed. - Abstract: A heat-pipe solar (HPS) photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) heat pump system, combining HPS PV/T collector with heat pump, is proposed in this paper. The HPS PV/T collector integrates heat pipes with PV panel, which can simultaneously generate electricity and thermal energy. The extracted heat from HPS PV/T collector can be used by heat pump, and then the photoelectric conversion efficiency is substantially improved because of the low temperature of PV cells. A mathematical model of the system is established in this paper. The model consists of a dynamic distributed parameter model of the HPS PV/T collection system and a quasi-steady state distributed parameter model of the heat pump. The mathematical model is validated by testing data, and the dynamic performance of the HPS PV/T heat pump system is discussed based on the validated model. Using the mathematical model, a reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s dynamic performance with a relative error within ±15.0% can be obtained. The capacity of heat pump and the number of HPS collectors are optimized to improve the system performance based on the mathematical model. Six working modes are proposed and discussed to investigate the effect of solar radiation, ambient temperature, supply water temperature in condenser, PV packing factor, heat pipe pitch and PV backboard absorptivity on system performance by the validated model. It is found that the increase of solar radiation, ambient temperature and PV

  4. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  5. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  6. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  7. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  8. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Photo of a large silicon solar

  9. Solar energy developments: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivoththaman, S.

    2006-01-01

    The annual photovoltaic (PV) energy production crossed the 1 Gigawatt mark a couple of years ago, and continues to grow at rates exceeding 40%. The cost of PV has been continuously dropping due to increased production and also thanks to the technological advances made over the past two decades at the material, device, and system levels. Although PV is still considered expensive, cost-competitiveness is expected to be achieved in the next 5-10 years. With the current PV market 90% dominated by crystalline silicon (Si) material, advances are being made in tackling the Si shortage issue, and new approaches in feedstock refinement are getting shape. On the other hand, progress is being made on thin film-based advanced devices and on novel organic semiconductors. Novel concepts based on quantum physics and nanotechnology do have the ability to improve device performance beyond traditional theoretical limits. The domination of Si is expected to shift when these next generation technologies mature into industry-level scalability. On the system level, advanced back-end electronics provides more efficient power conditioning for modern PV modules. Systems level combinations such as solar thermal/PV hybrids and PV/hydrogen systems are also promising. An overview of recent technology developments will be presented with highlights in the Canadian scenario. (author)

  10. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  11. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  12. Combined photovoltaic and solar-thermal systems: overcoming barriers to market acceptance. Paper no. IGEC-1-136

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the International Energy Association's (IEA) Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (PVSP) initiated IEA Task 7 to evaluate the technical status of combined Photovoltaic and Solar-Thermal systems (PV/T), and to formulate a roadmap for future development. Because the Task was initiated by the PVSP, however, individuals from the Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) were not invited to participate, and the Task Group lacked any significant expertise with solar-thermal systems. When the Task submitted its final report in 2002, it consisted of an accounting of existing systems and a list of the perceived market barriers. Without input from the SHCP, however, no move could be made to actually address those barriers. IEA Task 7, however, did recognize that the participation of the SHCP was needed, and in 1999 made an effort to initiate some discussion between the PVSP and the SHCP. The result was IEA Task 35 - PV/T Systems, which met for the first time in January of 2005. The new group intends to reevaluate the findings of Task 7, and to develop the means by which these market barriers can be overcome. The current discussion will provide an overview of existing and potential PV/T systems and their technical status. Further, it will report on the methodology established by the Task 35 work group to overcome the aforementioned market barriers. (author)

  13. A novel solar-assisted heat pump driven by photovoltaic/thermal collectors: Dynamic simulation and thermoeconomic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Dentice d'Accadia, Massimo; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model and a thermo-economic analysis of a novel polygeneration system based on a solar-assisted heat pump and an adsorption chiller, both driven by PVT (photovoltaic/thermal) collectors. The aim of this work is to design and dynamically simulate a novel ultra-high efficient solar heating and cooling system. The overall plant layout is designed to supply electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water for a small residential building. The system combines solar cooling, solar-assisted heat pump and photovoltaic/thermal collector technologies in a novel solar polygeneration system. In fact, the polygeneration system is based on a PVT solar field, coupled with a water-to-water electric heat pump or to an adsorption chiller. PVT collectors simultaneously produce electricity and thermal energy. During the winter, hot water produced by PVT collectors primarily supplies the evaporator of the heat pump, whereas in summer, solar energy supplies an adsorption chiller providing the required space cooling. All year long, solar thermal energy in excess is converted into DHW (domestic hot water). The system model was developed in TRNSYS environment. 1-year dynamic simulations are performed for different case studies in various weather conditions. The results are analysed on different time bases presenting energetic, environmental and economic performance data. Finally, a sensitivity analysis and a thermoeconomic optimization were performed, in order to determine the set of system design/control parameters that minimize the simple pay-back period. The results showed a total energy efficiency of the PVT of 49%, a heat pump yearly coefficient of performance for heating mode above 4 and a coefficient of performance of the adsorption chiller of 0.55. Finally, it is also concluded that system performance is highly sensitive to the PVT field area. The system is profitable when a capital investment subsidy of 50% is considered

  14. Study of the development of solar energy in Rhone-Alpes. Presentation of the photovoltaic sector, Presentation of the solar thermal sector, Sunshine mapping, Assessment of installations by the end 2009, Development potential for solar thermal energy, Development potential for solar photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    A first part proposes a wide presentation of the photovoltaic sector with an overview of largest plants, a market analysis (on the 2001-2009 period in the World, Europe and France, per technology, in terms of industrial tissue and R and D activity in France, evolution per region and per technology), a presentation of the different technologies (from the first to the third generation, in terms of costs, and of perspective for the different sectors), an environmental assessment of the different sectors (CO 2 emissions and avoided emissions), a presentation of the main actors of the photovoltaic sector (silicon producers, cell producers, thin layer producers, developers), a presentation of tracking technologies (trackers gains), and a perspective for the photovoltaic sector in Europe and in the World. In a same way, a second part presents the solar thermal sector: market analysis, active and passive technologies, solar concentration technology, environmental assessment, future perspective in Europe and in the World. A sunshine mapping is then proposed for the Rhone-Alpes region. The next part discusses various stakes: regulation for roof-based installations and for ground-based photovoltaic plants with respect to various issues (land planning, environment, biodiversity, agriculture, landscape, cultural heritage, natural risks). The next part proposes an assessment of solar thermal and photovoltaic installations at the end of 2009

  15. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  16. Performance Study of Photovoltaic-Thermal (Pv/T) Solar Collector with ·-Grooved Absorber Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jin, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar collector has been designed, built and its performance has been studied. The advantage of the collector is that it can generate electricity and heat simultaneously. Photovoltaic module SHARP NE-80E2EA with maximum output power of 80 W was used to generate electricity. The module also acts as heat absorber of the collector. Single pass ·-groove collector made of aluminium sheet with 0.7 mm thickness has been used to collect heat generated. Study was conducted under a designed halogen lamps solar simulator with intensities set at 386 ± 8 Wm -2 and 817 ± 8 Wm -2 . The speed of air passing through the collector was set between (69.6 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s to (695.8 ± 2.2) x 10 -4 kg/s. The objective of the study is to compare the performance of PV/T collector with and without ·-groove absorber. The study found that the PV/T collector with ·-groove absorber plate has higher efficiency than the PV/T without ·-groove absorber. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are also increased when radiation intensity and speed of air increase. (author)

  17. Development and evaluation of a ceiling ventilation system enhanced by solar photovoltaic thermal collectors and phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenye; Ma, Zhenjun; Sohel, M. Imroz; Cooper, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ceiling ventilation system enhanced by PVT and PCMs was proposed. • PCM was used to increase the local thermal mass and to serve as a storage unit. • The proposed system can enhance indoor thermal comfort in winter and summer. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a novel ceiling ventilation system integrated with solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors and phase change materials (PCMs). The PVT collectors are used to generate electricity and provide low grade heating and cooling energy for buildings by using winter daytime solar radiation and summer night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PCM is integrated into the building ceiling as a part of the ceiling insulation and at the same time, as a centralized thermal energy storage to temporally store low grade energy collected from the PVT collectors. The performance of the proposed system was numerically evaluated based on a Solar Decathlon house using TRNSYS. The results showed that, in winter conditions, the proposed PVT–PCM integrated ventilation system can significantly improve the indoor thermal comfort of passive buildings without using air-conditioning systems with a maximum air temperature rise of 23.1 °C from the PVT collectors. Compared with the system using PCM but without using PVT collectors, the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the kitchen, dining room and living room of the case building studied using the proposed system improved from almost zero to 0.9823 while the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the study room improved from 0.0060 to 0.9921. In summer conditions, the proposed system can also enhance indoor thermal comfort through night-time sky radiative cooling

  18. Integration of photovoltaic and concentrated solar thermal technologies for H2 production by the hybrid sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Ferrara, Mariarosaria; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-06-01

    It is widely agreed that hydrogen used as energy carrier and/or storage media may significantly contribute in the reduction of emissions, especially if produced by renewable energy sources. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle is considered as one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen through the water-splitting process. The FP7 project SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) investigates innovative material and process solutions for the use of solar heat and power in the HyS process. A significant part of the SOL2HY2 project is devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar and chemical (hydrogen production) plants. In this context, this work investigates the possibility to integrate different solar technologies, namely photovoltaic, solar central receiver and solar troughs, to optimize their use in the HyS cycle for a green hydrogen production, both in the open and closed process configurations. The analysis carried out accounts for different combinations of geographical location and plant sizing criteria. The use of a sulfur burner, which can serve both as thermal backup and SO2 source for the open cycle, is also considered.

  19. Design and dynamic simulation of a novel solar trigeneration system based on hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors (PVT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheet and tube photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector are investigated. ► PVT is integrated in a novel solar trigeneration system. ► The trigeneration system is dynamically investigated for a mediterranean climate. ► PVT performance is excellent during the summer. ► During the winter PVT thermal energy significantly decreases. - Abstract: In this paper, a Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) system including photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collectors is considered, implementing a novel polygeneration system producing electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. In particular, PVT collectors operating up to 80 °C are considered. A case study for a university building located in Naples (Italy) is developed and discussed. The system is mainly composed by: PVT collectors, a single-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller, storage tanks and auxiliary heaters. The system also includes additional balance-of-plant devices: heat exchangers, pumps, controllers, cooling tower, etc. The PVT produces electricity which is utilized in part by the building lights and equipments and in part by the system parasitic loads; the rest is eventually sold to the grid. Simultaneously, the PVT system provides the heat required to drive the absorption chiller. The system performance is analyzed from both energetic and economic points of view by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed with TRNSYS. The economic results show that the system under investigation can be profitable, provided that an appropriate funding policy is available. In addition, the overall energetic and economic results are comparable to those reported in literature for similar systems.

  20. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wantz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8% and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance. 

  1. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  2. Experimental study of refrigeration performance based on linear Fresnel solar thermal photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinghui; Yuan, Hui; Xia, Yunfeng; Kan, Weimin; Deng, Xiaowen; Liu, Shi; Liang, Wanlong; Deng, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces the working principle and system constitution of the linear Fresnel solar lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle, and elaborates several typical structures of absorption refrigeration cycle, including single-effect, two-stage cycle and double-effect lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle A 1.n effect absorption chiller system based on the best parameters was introduced and applied to a linear Fresnel solar absorption chiller system. Through the field refrigerator performance test, the results show: Based on this heat cycle design and processing 1.n lithium bromide absorption refrigeration power up to 35.2KW, It can meet the theoretical expectations and has good flexibility and reliability, provides guidance for the use of solar thermal energy.

  3. Performance Characterisation of a Hybrid Flat-Plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Power Module in Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Y. A. Oyieke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flat-plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic and Thermal (VIPV/T system has been thermodynamically simulated and experimentally evaluated to assess the thermal and electrical performance as well as energy conversion efficiencies under a subtropical climate. A simulation model made of specified components is developed in Transient Systems (TRNSYS environment into which numerical energy balance equations are implemented. The influence of vacuum insulation on the system’s electrical and thermal yields has been evaluated using temperatures, current, voltage, and power flows over daily and annual cycles under local meteorological conditions. The results from an experiment conducted under steady-state conditions in Durban, South Africa, are compared with the simulation based on the actual daily weather data. The VIPV/T has shown improved overall and thermal efficiencies of 9.5% and 16.8%, respectively, while electrical efficiency marginally reduced by 0.02% compared to the conventional PV/T. The simulated annual overall efficiency of 29% (i.e., 18% thermal and 11% electrical has been realised, in addition to the solar fraction, overall exergy, and primary energy saving efficiencies of 39%, 29%, and 27%, respectively.

  4. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing; Solaire a concentration et solaire photovoltaique: la main dans la main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-11-15

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  5. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  6. The solar photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication first outlines challenges and stakes related to the development of renewable energies, and more particularly of photovoltaic solar energy in France and in the World. Principles and applications (connected and autonomous systems) are briefly presented. Some key data regarding installed capacity and its evolution in France and in other countries are briefly commented. The knowledge status of this technology is discussed in terms of strengths (environmental and energetic benefits, modularity, fast decreasing costs, integration into building envelope, local investment and consumer commitment, an added value and job generating sector), and weaknesses (fluctuating production and impact on the supply-demand balance, local impact on the distribution grid, land use, cautions, a sector with some environmental impact, evolutions of the support arrangement in France). Actions undertaken by the ADEME in different areas (support to research and innovation, installation quality, promotion of technologies with less environmental impacts) are reviewed

  7. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  8. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Peter H [Glendale, CA; Brandt, Randolph J [Palmdale, CA

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  9. Economical and environmental analysis of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy as source of heat for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Aparicio, Elena; Lillo-Bravo, Isidoro; Moreno-Tejera, Sara; Silva-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Thermal energy for industrial processes can be generated using thermal (ST) or photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. ST energy has traditionally been the most favorable option due to its cost and efficiency. Current costs and efficiencies values make the PV solar energy become an alternative to ST energy as supplier of industrial process heat. The aim of this study is to provide a useful tool to decide in each case which option is economically and environmentally the most suitable alternative. The methodology used to compare ST and PV systems is based on the calculation of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) avoided by using renewable technologies instead of conventional sources of energy. In both cases, these calculations depend on costs and efficiencies associated with ST or PV systems and the conversion factor from thermal or electrical energy to GHG. To make these calculations, a series of hypotheses are assumed related to consumer and energy prices, operation, maintenance and replacement costs, lifetime of the system or working temperature of the industrial process. This study applies the methodology at five different sites which have been selected taking into account their radiometric and meteorological characteristics. In the case of ST energy three technologies are taken into account, compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC). The PV option includes two ways of use of generated electricity, an electrical resistance or a combination of an electrical resistance and a heat pump (HP). Current values of costs and efficiencies make ST system remains as the most favorable option. These parameters may vary significantly over time. The evolution of these parameters may convert PV systems into the most favorable option for particular applications.

  10. Influence of thermal annealing-induced molecular aggregation on film properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a squaraine dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Ling, Zhitian; Chen, Guo; Wei, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Squaraine (SQ) dyes have been considered as efficient photoactive materials for organic solar cells. In this work, we purposely controlled the molecular aggregation of an SQ dye, 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dibutylamino)-2-dihydroxyphenyl] SQ (DBSQ-(OH)2) in the DBSQ(OH)2:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend film by using the thermal annealing method, to study the influence of the molecular aggregation on film properties as well as the photovoltaic performance of DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Our results demonstrate that thermal annealing may change the aggregation behavior of DBSQ(OH)2 in the DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM film, and thus significantly influence the surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of the blend film, as well as the photovoltaic performance of DBSQ(OH)2:PCBM BHJ cells.

  11. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  12. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  13. Improving Thermal and Electrical Efficiency in Photovoltaic Thermal Systems for Sustainable Cooling System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alobaid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into photovoltaic thermal systems is important in solar technologies as photovoltaic thermal systems are designed to produce both electrical and thermal energy, this can lead to improved performance of the overall system. The performance of photovoltaic thermal systems is based on several factors that include photovoltaic thermal materials, design, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperature and photovoltaic cell temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of photovoltaic thermal outlet water temperatures and solar cell temperature on both electrical and thermal efficiency for different range of inlet water temperature. To achieve this, a mathematical model of a photovoltaic thermal system was developed to calculate the anticipated system performance. The factors that affect the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal collectors were discussed and the outlet fluid temperature from the photovoltaic thermal is investigated in order to reach the highest overall efficiency for the solar cooling system. An average thermal and electrical efficiency of 65% and 13.7%, respectively, was achieved and the photovoltaic thermal mathematical model was validated with experimental data from literature.

  14. Effect of thermal annealing in vacuum on the photovoltaic properties of electrodeposited Cu2O-absorber solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by electrochemical deposition of p-type, cuprous oxide (Cu2O absorber on sputtered, n-type ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the as-deposited absorber consists mainly of Cu2O, but appreciable amounts of metallic Cu and cupric oxide (CuO are also present. These undesired oxidation states are incorporated during the deposition process and have a detrimental effect on the photovoltaic properties of the cells. The open circuit voltage (VOC, short circuit current density (jSC, fill factor (FF and power conversion efficiency (η of the as-deposited cells are 0.37 V, 3.71 mA/cm2, 35.7% and 0.49%, respectively, under AM1.5G illumination. We show that by thermal annealing in vacuum, at temperatures up to 300 °C, compositional purity of the Cu2O absorber could be obtained. A general improvement of the heterojunction and bulk materials quality is observed, reflected upon the smallest influence of the shunt and series resistance on the transport properties of the cells in dark and under illumination. Independent of the annealing temperature, transport is dominated by the space-charge layer generation-recombination current. After annealing at 300 °C the solar cell parameters could be significantly improved to the values of: VOC = 0.505 V, jSC = 4.67 mA/cm2, FF = 47.1% and η = 1.12%.

  15. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Abhishek; Goel, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has be...

  16. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity......The energy consumption in buildings accounts for a large part of the World’s CO2 emissions. Much energy is used for appliances, domestic hot water preparation and space heating. In solar heating systems, heat is captured by solar collectors when the sun is shining and used for heating purposes...

  17. Radioisotope thermal photovoltaic application of the GaSb solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M. D.; Horne, W. E.; Day, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An examination of a RTVP (radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic) conceptual design has shown a high potential for power densities well above those achievable with radioisotopic thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. An efficiency of 14.4 percent and system specific power of 9.25 watts/kg were predicted for a system with sixteen GPHS (general purpose heat source) sources operating at 1100 C. The models also showed a 500 watt system power by the strontium-90 isotope at 1200 C at an efficiency of 17.0 percent and a system specific power of 11.8 watts/kg. The key to this level of performance is a high-quality photovoltaic cell with narrow bandgap and a reflective rear contact. Recent work at Boeing on GaSb cells and transparent back GaAs cells indicate that such a cell is well within reach.

  18. Solar photovoltaic: a better tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    This article comments statements and works performed by a professional body (Enerplan) and a think tank (FTS, France Territoire Solaire) which describe a glorious future for solar photovoltaic energy even though the present situation is rather dull. They foresee ground-based solar plants of more than 1 MW, and assess the potential production for very large, medium and small sized roofs, for domestic installations

  19. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  20. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  1. Photovoltaic solar; Solaire photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to observe, from european examples, the local governments policies in matter of the photovoltaic development. This approach is very different for each town. The first part evaluates the initiatives, the second part is devoted to the global situation in Europe and the third part brings recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  2. Photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouratoglou, P.; Therond, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  3. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  4. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  5. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  6. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McNutt, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Heinicke, David [Group14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  7. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  8. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  9. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Chioncel; Cristian Paul Chioncel; Nicoleta Gillich

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  10. Outdoor performance analysis of a 1090× point-focus Fresnel high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal system with triple-junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Ji, Jie; Sun, Wei; Han, Lisheng; Chen, Haifei; Jin, Zhuling

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, respectively. Experimental results show that direct irradiation affects the electrical performance of the system dominantly. Fitting results of electrical performance offer simple and reliable methods to analyze the system performance. - Highlights: • A point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic/thermal system is proposed and studied. • The system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28%. • The system has a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%. • Direct irradiation has the dominant effect on the electrical performance. • Fitting results offer simple and reliable methods to analyze system performances. - Abstract: A high concentrator photovoltaic/thermal (HCPV/T) system based on point-focus Fresnel lens has been set up in this work. The concentrator has a geometric concentration ratio of 1090× and uniform irradiation distribution can be obtained on solar cells. The system produces both electricity and heat. Performance of the system has been investigated based on the outdoor measurement in a clear day. The HCPV/T system presents an instantaneous electrical efficiency of 28% and a highest instantaneous thermal efficiency of 54%, which means the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80%. A mathematical model for calculating cell temperature is proposed to solve difficult measurement of cell temperature in a system. Moreover, characteristics of electrical performance under various direct

  11. Design and simulation of a low concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosell, J.I.; Vallverdu, X.; Lechon, M.A.; Ibanez, M.

    2005-01-01

    The advantages of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and low solar concentration technologies are combined into a photovoltaic/thermal system to increase the solar energy conversion efficiency. This paper presents a prototype 11X concentration rate and two axis tracking system. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel concentrator with a channel photovoltaic/thermal collector. An analytical model to simulate the thermal behaviour of the prototype is proposed and validated. Measured thermal performance of the solar system gives values above 60%. Theoretical analysis confirms that thermal conduction between the PV cells and the absorber plate is a critical parameter

  12. Modeling the thermal absorption factor of photovoltaic/thermal combi-panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santbergen, R.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In a photovoltaic/thermal combi-panel solar cells generate electricity while residual heat is extracted to be used for tap water heating or room heating. In such a panel the entire solar spectrum can be used in principle. Unfortunately long wavelength solar irradiance is poorly absorbed by the

  13. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  14. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  15. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  16. Comparison of solar photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation%太阳能光伏与光热发电对比简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    太阳能的利用主要分为两类;一类是光伏,一类是光热。由于二者的发电原理不同,所以其系统形式也有很大区别。如果要真正承担未来世界能源消费格局,太阳能将会是地球上最大的一个可再生能源。%The utilization of solar energy is mainly divided into two categories: photovoltaic as well as light and heat. On account of the two power generation principle is different, so the system form also has a big difference. The solar energy will be the largest renewable energy on the planet.

  17. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  18. A novel polygeneration system integrating photovoltaic/thermal collectors, solar assisted heat pump, adsorption chiller and electrical energy storage: Dynamic and energy-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating/cooling, domestic hot water and electrical energy are provided by the system. • Two different users are investigated: fitness center and office. • The influence of the battery system on system economic performance is scarce. • Net metering contract is more profitable compared to simplified purchase/resale arrangement one. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic simulation model and a thermo-economic analysis of a novel polygeneration system are presented. The system includes photovoltaic/thermal collectors coupled with a solar-assisted heat pump, an adsorption chiller and an electrical energy storage. The modelled plant supplies electrical energy, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. The produced solar thermal energy is used during the winter to supply the heat pump evaporator, providing the required space heating. In summer, solar thermal energy is used to drive an adsorption chiller providing the required space cooling. All year long, solar thermal energy in excess, with respect to the space heating and cooling demand, is used to produce domestic hot water. The produced electrical energy is self-consumed by both user and system auxiliary equipment and/or supplied to the grid. The system model includes a detailed electrical energy model for user storage and exchange with the grid along with a detailed building model. This study is a continuation of previous works recently presented by the authors. In particular, the present paper focuses on the real electrical demands of several types of users and on the analysis of the comfort of building users. Differently from the works previously published by the authors, the present work bases the calculations on measured electrical demands of real users (fitness center and offices). The system performance is analyzed with two different electricity supply contracts: net metering and simplified purchase/resale arrangement. Daily, weekly and yearly results are presented. Finally, a

  19. Voltage Quality Improvement Using Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Galzina

    2015-06-01

    This paper briefly shows the methods of power quality improvement, and then the results of on-site power quality measurements in the grid before and after the connection of the solar photovoltaic system.

  20. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...

  1. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  2. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  3. Terawatt solar photovoltaics roadblocks and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

  4. Photovoltaic solar energy: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Attention is paid to developments in the Netherlands of all aspects of photovoltaic (PV) energy: solar cells, components, PV-systems and all kinds of applications. Efficiencies of the present solar cell types still increase, varying from more than 10% for organic/TiO 2 solar cells to 33% for GaAs/GaSb concentrator tandem solar cells. 3 figs., 2 ills., 1 tab

  5. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snegirjovs A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW. In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  8. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  9. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  10. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepperd, L.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Richards, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  11. Perspectives for solar thermal applications in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan has long depended on imported fossil energy. The government is thus actively promoting the use of renewable energy. Since 2000, domestic installations of solar water heaters have increased substantially because of the long-term subsidies provided for such systems. However, data on the annual installation area of solar collectors in recent years indicated that the solar thermal industry in Taiwan has reached a bottleneck. The long-term policy providing subsidies must thus be revised. It is proposed that future thermal applications in Taiwan should focus on building-integrated solar thermal, photovoltaic/thermal, and industrial heating processes. Regarding building-integrated solar thermal systems, the current subsidy model can be continued (according to area of solar collectors); nevertheless, the application of photovoltaic/thermal and industrial heating systems must be determined according to the thermal output of such systems. - Highlights: •The long-term subsidization for solar water heaters has lost effectiveness. •Solar thermal applications include BIST, PV/T and industrial heating process. •A performance-based subsidy policy should be implemented.

  12. Mathematical models for photovoltaic solar panel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Airton A. dos; Gnoatto, Estor; Fischborn, Marcos; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], Emails: airton@utfpr.edu.br, gnoatto@utfpr.edu.br, fisch@utfpr.edu.br, kavanagh@utfpr.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    A photovoltaic generator is subject to several variations of solar intensity, ambient temperature or load, that change your point of operation. This way, your behavior should be analyzed by such alterations, to optimize your operation. The present work sought to simulate a photovoltaic generator, of polycrystalline silicon, by characteristics supplied by the manufacturer, and to compare the results of two mathematical models with obtained values of field, in the city of Cascavel, for a period of one year. (author)

  13. Thermal solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  14. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    After the bad year of 2002, the european solar thermal market returned to double-digit growth rate in 2003: 22%. Nevertheless, the sector still has not recovered the growth rate it had in the early 2000 and European Commission targets are still far from being reached. This paper presents the thermal solar industry barometer. Data on the evolution of annually installed surfaces in the european union since 1993, the cumulated capacity of thermal collectors installed in the European Union, the estimation of the annual energy production associated to european solar thermal capacities and the main companies of the European Union thermal solar sector are presented and discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  16. Solar photovoltaic markets, economics, technology, and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, J.M.J.; Molinski, T.S. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)]|[Emerging Energy Systems, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Solar Photovoltaics (PV) are solid state semiconductor electronic devices that transform infrared, visible, or ultraviolet light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy. Selenium was used to create the first solar cell in 1883. In 1954, Bell Laboratories developed the modern day silicon solar cell, whereby impurities were added to silicon through a process called doping. Silicon doped with boron results in a positive electrical charge, while silicon doped with phosphorous results in a negative electrical charge. The atom collision from photons in sunlight provides the necessary energy to free a trapped electron in the doped silicon, which then may flow through a wire creating an electric current. Many different materials besides silicon are used to create solar cells, such as plastics, organic compounds, and theoretically even special paints, while other doping agents besides boron and phosphorous are also used, such as arsenic and gallium. This paper provided an introduction to solar PV and world solar PV growth and markets. A review of solar PV economics was also included. In 2008, the total installed costs of solar photovoltaic cells were in the range of 7 to 10 Canadian dollars. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of solar PV were presented. Solar technologies under research and development were also discussed and assessed. It was concluded that although solar PV was one of the most expensive forms of renewable generation, there is great potential for solar PV to gain broader based application as costs continue to drop. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: characterization and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diasa, P.R.; Benevita, M.G.; Veita, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The search for alternative power generation sources has been intensified in recent years. One of these alternatives is solar energy, since it is a virtually inexhaustible source and generates relatively small environmental impact compared to other traditional generation sources. The collection of solar energy and its conversion into thermal or electrical energy is only possible through the use of photovoltaic panels. These panels have a limited lifespan and will eventually be replaced by new ones. Thus, in the near future, large amounts of solar modules can be discarded as waste electronics. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reducing production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such materials is important. In this paper, photovoltaic module components were characterized through visual inspection, FRX, EDS and AAS. The glass was identified as ordinary glass (soda-lime glass), which allows reuse without any previous treatment and the metallic filaments were identified as tin- lead coated copper. (author)

  18. Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo G, Gerardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work, a short description of the basic aspect of the performance of homojunction solar cells and of the technological aspects of the fabrication of low cost thin film solar cells is made. Special emphasis on the historical aspects of the evolution of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, Cd Te and CulnSe 2 is also made. The state of art of the technology of photovoltaic devices and modules is additionally presented. The contribution to the development of high efficiency solar cells and modules, carried out by research centers of universities such us: Stuttgart university (Germany), Stockholm university (Sweden), University of South Florida (USA), university of south gales (Australia), by the national renewable energy laboratory of USA and by research centers of companies such us: Matsushita (Japan), BP-solar (England), Boeing (USA), Arco solar (USA), Siemens (Germany) etc. are specially emphasized. Additionally, a section concerning economical aspect of the photovoltaic generation of electric energy is enclosed. In this section an overview of the evolution of price and world market of photovoltaic system is presented

  19. 电热协同作用下太阳能热电联供系统输出特性分析%Output Characteristics Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal System in Cooperation Between Thermal and Electric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史志国; 闫素英; 田瑞; 郭嘉; 李彦洁

    2015-01-01

    根据光伏/光热(PV/T)系统的能量平衡和能量转换原理,建立了 PV/T 系统的热电模型,针对 PV/T 系统的热电效率、电池板温度间的耦合问题,通过 MATLAB 迭代求解法,解决了 PV/T系统中热电参数耦合求解问题,得到了 PV/T 系统的效率曲线,分析计算了系统组件长度和工质流速等参数对性能曲线的影响;同时,针对 PV/T 系统与普通光伏组件进行了实验研究,试验测试了两系统的电压、电流、功率、板背温度等特性参数,并与仿真结果进行了对比。%Based on the energy balance and conversion principle,a thermal and electrical model for the solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system is developed to solve coupled thermal and electrical parameters by using the iteration method of MATLAB.The variation of thermal and electrical efficiency is given and the influence of the PV/T system assembly length and working medium velocity change on the performance curve of the PV/T system is analyzed.Experimental study is conducted to compare the simulated results with the experiment data of general photovoltaic assembly including voltage,current,power and temperature of the back panel.

  20. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  2. Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broad summary of phase change materials based cooling for photovoltaic modules. • Compendium on phase change materials that are mostly used in photovoltaic systems. • Extension of heat availability period by 75–100% with phase change material. • Heat storage potential improves by 33–50% more with phase change material. • Future trend and move in photovoltaic thermal research. - Abstract: This communication lays out an appraisal on the recent works of phase change materials based thermal management techniques for photovoltaic systems with special focus on the so called photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system. Attempt has also been made to draw wide-ranging classification of both photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems and their conventional cooling or heat harvesting methods developed so far so that feasible phase change materials application area in these systems can be pointed out. In addition, a brief literature on phase change materials with particular focus on their solar application has also been presented. Overview of the researches and studies establish that using phase change materials for photovoltaic thermal control is technically viable if some issues like thermal conductivity or phase stability are properly addressed. The photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems are found to offer 33% (maximum 50%) more heat storage potential than the conventional photovoltaic-thermal water system and that with 75–100% extended heat availability period and around 9% escalation in output. Reduction in temperature attained with photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system is better than that with regular photovoltaic-thermal water system, too. Studies also show the potential of another emerging technology of photovoltaic thermal-microencapsulated phase change material system that makes use of microencapsulated phase change materials in thermal regulation. Future focus areas on photovoltaic thermal-phase change

  3. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  4. Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

    1994-01-01

    A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

  5. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  6. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  7. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  8. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianze; Lu Hengwei; Jiang Chuan; Hou Luan; Zhang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  9. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  10. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  11. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  12. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  13. Photovoltaic: state of the arts in France and in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurczak, Ch.; Leclerq, M.

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes the photovoltaic world solar market. He discusses the photovoltaic solar electricity production cost and more particularly the photovoltaic solar industry in France and the thermal solar. (A.L.B.)

  14. Architectural integration of solar thermal systems and photovoltaic: study of Spanish legislation by thermal collectors in buildings; Integracion arquitectonica de sistemas solares termicos y fotovoltaicos: estudio de la legislacion espanola sobre captadores termicos en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosqued, G. R.; Heras, C. M. R.

    2004-07-01

    In this article the legal dispositions are studied relating to architectural integration and urban landscape, considered in the different mandatories and Spanish local legislation on the use of thermal solar systems in construction, new and rehabilitated. As consequence some of the multiple possibilities that exist, are analyzed to place the external part of the system, the solar collectors, in the envelop of the building, without any aesthetic reduction on the building and urban set, and in this way fulfill with specified in the normative to contribute to a bigger respect to the environment. (Author)

  15. Solar thermal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives details of Plan Soleil established in 2000 by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management and its identification of solar hot water systems and combined domestic solar hot water and space heating as promising sectors for development. The setting up of a support scheme for investment by Plan Soleil is discussed along with subsidies and grants, manufacturers and importers, the guarantee of solar results, and the quality of plants, components, and installers. The costs of thermal solar equipment, and results of the French assessment programme are considered. The need for quality standards is stressed

  16. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  17. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  18. You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight…

  19. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  20. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  1. PowerShades. Transparent photovoltaics and solar shading. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzel, E. (PhotoSolar ApS, Taastrup (Denmark)); Univ. of Neuchatel, Institute of Microtechnology, Neuchatel (CH)); Savcor Denmark A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Chem-Tec Plating A/S, Uldum (Denmark)); Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    This report marks the end of the PSO funded R and D project PowerShades. The objective of the project has been to establish knowledge about the manufacturing of PowerShade transparent photovoltaics and to demonstrate the viability of PowerShade, both as a product and when considered a building element. It has not been the objective to demonstrate a full-scale manufacturing of PowerShade, but to establish the knowledge that enables industrial manufacturing. The overall objective of the project has been achieved, and the large majority of the milestones defined have been met to full extent. It has been shown that PowerShade photovoltaic cells with an electrical efficiency of 5% can be reached, and it is expected that future work will lead to even better efficiency. Also, it has been demonstrated by full size side by side comparison that PowerShade transparent photovoltaics may replace exterior solar shading devices without compromise to the thermal properties of the building. The project has identified a number of work areas that must be addressed before an industrial manufacturing can be established. The efficiency of the photovoltaic generator must be increased and the stability of the entire product documented. Also, some of the identified processing steps must be scaled in capacity before manufacturing can be considered. (author)

  2. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-connected PV systems and water pumping PV systems.It is designed using a set of S4 classes whose core is a group of slots with multivariate time series. The classes share a variety of methods to access the information and several visualization methods. In addition, the package provides a tool for the visual statistical analysis of the performance of a large PV plant composed of several systems.Although solaR is primarily designed for time series associated to a location defined by its latitude/longitude values and the temperature and irradiation conditions, it can be easily combined with spatial packages for space-time analysis.

  3. Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for Fresnel linear concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, D.; Ibanez, M.; Rosell, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A combined domed Fresnel lens - CPC PVT system is designed and characterized. → Electrical and thermal experiments have been performed. → CFD analysis has been used to determine thermal characteristic dimensionless numbers. - Abstract: An advanced solar unit is designed to match the needs of building integration and concentrating photovoltaic/thermal generation. The unit proposed accurately combines three elements: a domed linear Fresnel lens as primary concentrator, a compound parabolic reflector as secondary concentrator and a photovoltaic-thermal module. In this work the photovoltaic-thermal generator is built, analysed and characterized. Models for the electrical and thermal behaviour of the module are developed and validated experimentally. Applying a thermal resistances approach the results from both models are combined. Finally, efficiency electrical and thermal curves are derived from theoretical analysis showing good agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Interactive Visual Analysis for Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abouelhassan, Amal A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than

  5. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  6. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  7. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  8. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  9. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  10. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work. Keywords: Photovoltaic thermal collectors, Electrical performance, Thermal performance, Compound parabolic concentrator, Jet impingement

  11. Experimental investigation of an optical water filter for Photovoltaic/Thermal conversion module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shohani, Wisam A.M.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad; Butt, Haider

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New design of Photovoltaic/Thermal system is proposed. • Using the optical water layer as a spectrum splitter is tested experimentally. • Optical rig is developed to study the optical performance of water layer. • Energy conversion under different water layer thicknesses is determined. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of a novel optical water filter used for Photovoltaic/Thermal and Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal modules. A water layer is used as a spectrum splitter of solar radiation placed above the photovoltaic cells and as a thermal working fluid simultaneously. The water layer absorbs the ultraviolet and part of infrared, which are not used by the photovoltaic, but transmits the visible and some of infrared to the solar cell surface which are used by the photovoltaic. In this work, the transmittance of the optical water filter was measured for different water thicknesses (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm) and radiation wavelength ranging from 0.35 to 1 μm. Results show that there is a significant effect of the water layer thickness on the transmittance of the spectra where the transmittance decreases as the water layer increases. Moreover, energy conversion rate of photovoltaic with the optical water filter at different water layer thicknesses has been determined.

  12. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, N.C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m 2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  13. Recent advances in solar photovoltaic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro Hamakawa

    2000-01-01

    The current state of the art in recent progress of Japanese photovoltaic activities are overviewed. Firstly, a new strategy for the renewable energy promotion so called Fundamental Principle to promote New Energy Developments and Utilization, and its action planning for PV technology up to year of 2010 are introduced. The program structure and some tangible actions such as tax reduction for investment in the renewable energy plants, government financial support of 2/3 subsidy of PV system developments for public facilities namely as PV Field Test Experiments, and a 1/2 subsidy for the private solar house as PV House Monitor Plan are presented. Secondly, some new topics in the field of solar cell production technology in Japan and also statistics of the solar cell module productions for three kinds of silicon basis solar cells are summarized. Progress of the conversion efficiency in various types of solar cells are also surveyed. In the final part of paper possible new roles to contribute to the global environmental issues by the PV system developments are proposed. (Author)

  14. A thermal model for photovoltaic panels under varying atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, S.; Hurley, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The response of the photovoltaic (PV) panel temperature is dynamic with respect to the changes in the incoming solar radiation. During periods of rapidly changing conditions, a steady state model of the operating temperature cannot be justified because the response time of the PV panel temperature becomes significant due to its large thermal mass. Therefore, it is of interest to determine the thermal response time of the PV panel. Previous attempts to determine the thermal response time have used indoor measurements, controlling the wind flow over the surface of the panel with fans or conducting the experiments in darkness to avoid radiative heat loss effects. In real operating conditions, the effective PV panel temperature is subjected to randomly varying ambient temperature and fluctuating wind speeds and directions; parameters that are not replicated in controlled, indoor experiments. A new thermal model is proposed that incorporates atmospheric conditions; effects of PV panel material composition and mounting structure. Experimental results are presented which verify the thermal behaviour of a photovoltaic panel for low to strong winds.

  15. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 450000 m 2 less year-on-year. The main reasons of the decrease is the financial crisis and the low oil price, other reasons more specific to the country exist, for instance the property crisis has dragged the Spanish market down. In 2009, the solar thermal collector surface area in service in the European Union is of the magnitude of 32.6 million m 2 , equivalent to a capacity of 22.8 GWTh. The solar thermal sector is one of the renewable sectors that creates the highest number of jobs and wealth, partly because the vast majority of the system components sold in Europe are produced in Europe and partly because the sale, installation fitting and maintenance are labour-intensive. In 2009, there were 50000 direct or indirect jobs in the European solar thermal sector. The main European actors in this sector are GREENoneTEC, Bosch-Thermotechnik, Viessmann, Vaillant and Solvis. No clear recovery is expected before 2011. (A.C.)

  16. The thermal solar energy - September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2010-01-01

    The author first notices that the use of solar heat to produce electricity is much lesser known than the production of electricity by photovoltaic effect. He also notices that few efforts have been made in France to develop this technology (thermal solar energy, also called helio-thermodynamics). He evokes the Themis project and also some initiatives in Spain and in California. He recalls some data about solar heat, presents the solar concentration technique which either uses a parabolic configuration (point focus concentration) or a cylindrical and parabolic configuration (line concentration system). He briefly presents the different techniques used to transform solar heat into electricity and to store the electricity. He briefly presents different solutions which have been tested over the past years in France, Germany, Spain, California and Israel (tower and air, gas and Stirling cycle, tower and direct vapour production, cylindrical-parabolic collector). He discusses the effect of intermittency and the French context, and questions and discusses the choice between thermal and photovoltaic solar energy (advantages and drawbacks)

  17. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  18. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Lun; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Kozlov, Alexandr

    2015-08-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-M), Gas Technology Institute, and Dr. Eli Yablonovitch of University of California at Berkeley developed a novel hybrid concentrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record single-junction Gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV components integrated with particle laden gas as thermal transfer and storage media, to simultaneously generate electricity and high temperature dispatchable heat. The collector transforms a parabolic trough, commonly used in CSP plants, into an integrated spectrum-splitting device. This places a spectrum-sensitive topping element on a secondary reflector that is registered to the thermal collection loop. The secondary reflector transmits higher energy photons for PV topping while diverting the remaining lower energy photons to the thermal media, achieving temperatures of around 400°C even under partial utilization of the solar spectrum. The collector uses the spectral selectivity property of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells to maximize the exergy output of the system, resulting in an estimated exergy efficiency of 48%. The thermal media is composed of fine particles of high melting point material in an inert gas that increases heat transfer and effectively stores excess heat in hot particles for later on-demand use.

  19. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells applied in photovoltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; M. Giedroć; M. Macek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to fabricate the monocrystalline silicon solar cells using the conventional technology by means of screen printing process and to make of them photovoltaic system.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation of current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated under Standard Test Condition. Photovoltaic module was produced from solar cells with the largest short-circuit curren...

  20. Performance analysis of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fudholi, Ahmad; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Yazdi, Mohammad H.; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Ibrahim, Adnan; Kazem, Hussein A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances analysis of PVT collector based on energy efficiencies. • New absorber designs of PVT collectors were presented. • Comparison present study with other absorber collector designs was presented. • High efficiencies were obtained for spiral flow absorber. - Abstract: The electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) water collectors were determined under 500–800 W/m 2 solar radiation levels. At each solar radiation level, mass flow rates ranging from 0.011 kg/s to 0.041 kg/s were introduced. The PVT collectors were tested with respect to PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and a combination of both (PVT efficiency). The results show that the spiral flow absorber exhibited the highest performance at a solar radiation level of 800 W/m 2 and mass flow rate of 0.041 kg/s. This absorber produced a PVT efficiency of 68.4%, a PV efficiency of 13.8%, and a thermal efficiency of 54.6%. It also produced a primary-energy saving efficiency ranging from 79% to 91% at a mass flow rate of 0.011–0.041 kg/s

  1. Experimental Comparison of Two Configurations of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled Toufeka; Mourad Haddadib; Ali Mkc

    2011-01-01

    The combination of a thermal collector and a photovoltaic module in a single system allows for increased efficiency of the total conversion of solar energy. A synergistic effect can be obtained in a structure combining these two devices in a judicious manner to those of thermal and photovoltaic system installed separately. Production of total energy from hybrid collector depends on the input (that is to say, the. energy of solar radiation, air temperature and wind speed) and output which is the electric production and the temperature of the system. Thin production also depends on the mode of heal extraction. In this paper, an experimental Study of two configurations of hybrid collectors is described. The configuration that the absorber is made by galvanized steel and in the second, the absorber is a copper serpentine. The advantages of the first configuration are mainly due to low cost and simplicity but the second configuration has the advantage of promoting the heat transfer between cells and fluid. (authors)

  2. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.; Milko, J.; Danielewicz, J.; Sayegh, M.A.; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Ramos, J.B.; Lester, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the system with the PV layer on it. The effect of cooling on the solar/electrical energy conversion efficiency was also investigated and an efficiency increase of about 15% was recorded for the cooled PV system due to the provided homogenous cooling. The new flat heat pipe solar collector is given the name “heat mat” and, in addition to being an efficient solar collector type, it is also designed to convert a building envelope materials to become energy-active. A full size roof that utilise this new building envelope material is reported in this paper to demonstrate the way this new collector is integrated as a building envelope material to form a roof. A thermal absorption test, in a controlled environment, from the ambient to the heat mat with no solar radiation is also reported. The test has proved the heat mat as an efficient thermal absorber from the ambient to the intermediate fluid that deliver the heat energy to the heat pump system. - Highlights: • A new flat heat pipe PV/T system that can be used as building materials is reported. • The new solar collector enhanced the performance of the PV by about 15%. • The new solar collector is capable of absorbing heat from ambient efficiently. • The new system is efficient from the solar/thermal conversion point of view.

  3. Solar engineering of thermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duffie, John A

    2013-01-01

    The updated fourth edition of the ""bible"" of solar energy theory and applications Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice. An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well

  4. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  5. Solar photovoltaic water pumping for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meah, Kala; Fletcher, Steven; Ula, Sadrul

    2008-01-01

    Many parts of the world as well as the western US are rural in nature and consequently do not have electrical distribution lines in many parts of villages, farms, and ranches. Distribution line extension costs can run from USD 10,000 to USD 16,000/km, thereby making availability of electricity to small water pumping projects economically unattractive. But, ground water and sunlight are available, which make solar photovoltaic (SPV) powered water pumping more cost effective in these areas' small scale applications. Many western states including Wyoming are passing through the sixth year of drought with the consequent shortages of water for many applications. The Wyoming State Climatologist is predicting a possible 5-10 years of drought. Drought impacts the surface water right away, while it takes much longer to impact the underground aquifers. To mitigate the effect on the livestock and wildlife, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal initiated a solar water pumping initiative in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, County Conservation Districts, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and ranching organizations. Solar water pumping has several advantages over traditional systems; for example, diesel or propane engines require not only expensive fuels, they also create noise and air pollution in many remote pristine areas. Solar systems are environment friendly, low maintenance, and have no fuel cost. In this paper the design, installation, site selection, and performance monitoring of the solar system for small-scale remote water pumping will be presented. This paper also presents technical, environmental, and economic benefits of the SPV water pumping system compared to stand alone generator and electric utility. (author)

  6. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  7. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  8. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The european solar thermal system market grew spectacularly in 2008 with over 4,6 million m 2 installed as against less than 3,1 million in 2007. This was largely due to the doubling of the German market, bu strong growth in Southern Europe also played a vital part. While 2009 is looking uncertain, the medium and long term growth prospects are still very exciting. This barometer provides statistical data on the production, market, capacity and enterprises. (A.L.B.)

  9. Modeling of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system under the influence of panel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinathambi Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system was improved by maintaining the cell temperature in the range between 30°C and 40°C. Experiments have been conducted on a laboratory experimental set-up installed with 6.4 m2 solar panel (by providing air cooling either on the top surface or over the beneath surface of the panel to operate a centrifugal pump with a rated capacity of 0.5 HP. The performance characteristics of the photovoltaic panel (such as, cell temperature, photovoltaic panel output, and photovoltaic efficiency, pump performance characteristics (such as pump efficiency and discharge, and system performance characteristics are observed with reference to solar irradiation, ambient temperature and wind velocity. A thermal model has been developed to predict the variations of photovoltaic cell temperature based on the measured glass and tedlar temperatures. The influences of cell temperature and solar irradiation on the performance of the system are described. The results concluded that cooling of photovoltaic panel on beneath surface has maintained the cell temperature in the range between 30°C and 40°C and improved the overall efficiency by about 1.8% when compared to the system without panel cooling.

  10. 太阳能光电热系统换热器性能实验研究%Experimental Research on Performance of Solar Energy Photovoltaic/thermal System in Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄春龙; 杨小凤; 张洪宇; 张连山

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of semicircle pipe⁃type stainless steel heat exchanger has been designed for solar energy photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)application system. The PV/T characteristics of the PV/T module utilized in Chongqing area are analyzed through the comparative experiment of new kind of PV/T heat collection module with PV module system. The results show that the battery output power of PV/T system made of the semicircle pipe⁃type stainless steel heat exchanger is larger than that of photo⁃thermal (PV)system 26.48%,and the efficiency of radiant heat utility is larger than that of PV system about 23.70%under sunshiny cir⁃cumstance. The general energy efficiency(photovoltaic/thermal+thermal)of the PV/T reaches 25.70%. The new semicircle pipe⁃type heat exchanger increases the thermal area and raises the thermal efficiency,which provides the instructive reference to the inte⁃grative application of the solar photovoltaic/thermal in the feeblish solar radiation area like Chongqing.%  设计了新型半圆管形式的不锈钢板式换热器,对其作为太阳能光电热综合利用一体化系统集热组件的性能进行实验研究。通过新型集热光电热组件及光电组件系统的对比实验,研究该光电热组件在重庆地区夏季应用情况,分析其光电和光热特性。结果表明:在以晴朗为主的天气,半圆管形式的不锈钢板式光电热组件电热系统的电热性能与光电组件系统的相比较,前者的太阳能电池输出功率提高约26.48%,热利用效率提高23.70%以上,新型半圆管形式的光电热组件整体光电热(光电+光热)综合效率可达到25.70%,有效提高了光电热系统的综合效率。新型半圆管形式不锈钢板式换热器的换热面积增大,提高了换热效率,为太阳能光电热综合利用一体化系统在重庆等太阳辐射强度较小地区的应用提供了参考。

  11. Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

  12. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  13. Modeling the thermal absorption factor of photovoltaic/thermal combi-panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santbergen, R.; Zolingen, R.J.Ch. van

    2006-01-01

    In a photovoltaic/thermal combi-panel solar cells generate electricity while residual heat is extracted to be used for tap water heating or room heating. In such a panel the entire solar spectrum can be used in principle. Unfortunately long wavelength solar irradiance is poorly absorbed by the semiconductor material in standard solar cells. A computer model was developed to determine the thermal absorption factor of crystalline silicon solar cells. It was found that for a standard untextured solar cell with a silver back contact a relatively large amount of long wavelength irradiance is lost by reflection resulting in an absorption factor of only 74%. The model was then used to investigate ways to increase this absorption factor. One way is absorbing long wavelength irradiance in a second absorber behind a semi-transparent solar cell. According to the model this will increase the total absorption factor to 87%. The second way is to absorb irradiance in the back contact of the solar cell by using rough interfaces in combination with a non-standard metal as back contact. Theoretically the absorption factor can then be increased to 85%

  14. Solar photovoltaics development. Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenhann, J.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the status and long-term perspectives for the development of solar photovoltaics, contributing to the Macro Task E1 on production cost for fusion and alternative technologies, part of the programme for Socio-Economic Research on Fusion. After a short introduction about the most promising PV technologies the report concentrates on the present market trends showing that the PV sales has been growing 16% over the last 9 years, 28% over the last 3 years and expanded by 43% last year to a global total of 126.7 MWp 1n 1997. The annual shipment is largest in U.S. with 53 MWp followed by Japan and EU. Until now off-grid installation have dominated the solar PV market, since they are already economically competitive. However, often the financial mechanisms and necessary organisational set-up are missing. At the moment many big PV manufacturers are working to get good successful reference cases in developing countries. But now the on-grid installations in developed countries are beginning to increase. The main growth area in on-grid domestic installations, where there are big programs running in Japan (5000 MWp installed in 2010), U.S. (3000 MWp in 2010) and the Netherlands (1450 MWp in 2020). Looking at the perspectives a continuation of the high growth in solar PV production will continue supported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. The PV industry has already announced increases in production capacity large enough for a continuation of last year high growth. The report shows status and perspectives for production costs for solar PV until 2050. (au) 13 refs.

  15. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Plant for the 'Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of a solar photovoltaic plant for the 'Eftimie Murgu' University, with an estimation of the yearly medium energy production. The substantiation of the plant designed is based on the many years measurements obtained in the laboratory for monitoring the solar photovoltaic energy of the university and the favorable conditions of promoting the energy production from renewable sources, assured in the new legislation.

  17. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  18. Thermal Change for Photovoltaic Panels and Energy Effects

    OpenAIRE

    İmal, Nazım; Hasar, Şahabettin; Çınar, Harun; Şener, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic panels (solar cells), they receive photon energy from sunlight, convert them to electrical energy by the semiconductor structural features. Photovoltaic panels produce a voltage, depending on the change of functional sunlight exposure. Produced voltage and determining of provided electrical power, must be dealt with the physical parameters that uses the concepts of light and temperature. In this study, usage of monocrystalline and polycrystalline structured photovoltaic panels el...

  19. Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarbi, M.; Haddouche, K.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach for estimating the model parameters of a photovoltaic solar panel according to the irradiance and temperature. The parameters of the one diode model are given from the knowledge of three operating points: short-circuit, open circuit, and maximum power. In the first step, the adopted approach concerns the resolution of the system of equations constituting the three operating points to write all the model parameters according to series resistance. Secondly, we make an iterative resolution at the optimal operating point by using the Newton-Raphson method to calculate the series resistance value as well as the model parameters. Once the panel model is identified, we consider other equations for taking into account the irradiance and temperature effect. The simulation results show the convergence speed of the model parameters and the possibility of visualizing the electrical behaviour of the panel according to the irradiance and temperature. Let us note that a sensitivity of the algorithm at the optimal operating point was observed owing to the fact that a small variation of the optimal voltage value leads to a very great variation of the identified parameters values. With the identified model, we can develop algorithms of maximum power point tracking, and make simulations of a solar water pumping system.(Author)

  20. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  1. Renewable energy distributed power system with photovoltaic/ thermal and bio gas power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M.U.; Rehman, S.U.

    2011-01-01

    The energy shortage and environmental pollution is becoming an important problem in these days. Hence it is very much important to use renewable power technologies to get rid of these problems. The important renewable energy sources are Bio-Energy, Wind Energy, Hydrogen Energy, Tide Energy, Terrestrial Heat Energy, Solar Energy, Thermal Energy and so on. Pakistan is rich in all these aspects particularly in Solar and Thermal Energies. In major areas of Pakistan like in South Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan the weather condition are very friendly for these types of Renewable Energies. In these areas Solar Energy can be utilized by solar panels in conjunction with thermal panels. The Photovoltaic cells are used to convert Solar Energy directly to Electrical Energy and thermal panels can be uses to convert solar energy into heat energy and this heat energy will be used to drive some turbine to get Electrical Energy. The Solar Energy can be absorbed more efficiently by any given area of Solar Panel if these two technologies can be combined in such a way that they can work together. The first part of this paper shows that how these technologies can be combined. Furthermore it is known to all that photovoltaic/thermal panels depend entirely on weather conditions. So in order to maintain constant power a biogas generator is used in conjunction with these. (author)

  2. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction

  3. Research Progress of utilization in Solar Photovoltaic and Photothermal%太阳能光伏光热利用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 陈林

    2015-01-01

    Solar is the new renewable energy that we have been trying to develop, the mature solar photovoltaic technology that related to solar energy are mainly photovoltaic power generation and solar water heaters, etc. This paper explained research progress of the utilization of solar photovoltaic solar thermal through the analysis of utilization of solar photovoltaic solar thermal.%太阳能是我们一直在尽力开发的、全新的可再生能源,目前发展比较成熟的、与太阳能有关的主要有太阳能光伏发电技术、太阳能热水器等,通过分析太阳能光伏光热的利用情况,说明太阳能光伏光热利用的研究进展。

  4. Enhanced Photovoltaic Properties of Gradient Doping Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Lei; Du Hui-Jing; Zhu Jian-Zhuo; Xu Tian-Fu; Fang Xiao-Yong

    2012-01-01

    An optimum design of a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p) heterojunction solar cell is realized with 24.27% conversion efficiency by gradient doping of the a-Si:H(n) layer. The photovoltaic properties are simulated by the AFORSHET software. Besides the additional electric field caused by the gradient doping, the enhanced and widen spectral response also improves the solar cell performance compared with the uniform-doping mode. The simulation shows that the gradient doping is efficient to improve the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells. The study is valuable for the solar cell design with excellent performances

  5. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  6. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  7. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  8. Dynamic thermal model of photovoltaic cell illuminated by laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic cell is one of the most important components of laser powered unmanned aerial vehicle. Illuminated by high power laser beam, photovoltaic cell temperature increases significantly, which leads to efficiency drop, or even physical damage. To avoid such situation, the temperature of photovoltaic cell must be predicted precisely. A dynamic thermal model of photovoltaic cell is established in this paper, and the relationships between photovoltaic cell temperature and laser power, wind speed, ambient temperature are also analyzed. Simulation result indicates that illuminated by a laser beam, the temperature of photovoltaic cell rises gradually and reach to a constant maximum value. There is an approximately linear rise in photovoltaic cell temperature as the laser flux gets higher. The higher wind speed is, the stronger forced convection is, and then the lower photovoltaic cell temperature is. But the relationship between photovoltaic cell temperature and wind speed is not linear. Photovoltaic cell temperature is proportional to the ambient temperature. For each increase of 1 degree of ambient temperature, there is approximate 1 degree increase in photovoltaic cell temperature. The result will provide fundamentals to take reasonable measures to control photovoltaic cell temperature.

  9. Solar Thermal Barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; Mozaffarian, M.

    2008-09-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market (taking all technologies including unglazed flexible collectors into account) marked time in 2007 with 6.9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end, this market reached 2.9 million m 2 vs. 3.1 million m 2 in 2006, i.e. an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the German market, the largest market of the European Union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates

  10. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market marked time in 2007 with 6,9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end this market reached 2,9 million m 2 facing 3,1 million m 2 in 2006, an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the german market, the largest market of the european union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates. (A.L.B.)

  11. Realistic generation cost of solar photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet

    2010-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 cents /kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 cents /kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 cents /kWh in base year to 88.63 cents /kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 cents /kWh and not 28.92 cents /kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required

  12. Thermal analysis of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink for cooling concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyabi, Idris Al; Shanks, Katie; Mallick, Tapas; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2017-09-01

    Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) technology is increasingly being considered as an alternative option for solar electricity generation. However, increasing the light concentration ratio could decrease the system output power due to the increase in the temperature of the cells. The performance of a multi-layer microchannel heat sink configuration was evaluated using numerical analysis. In this analysis, three dimensional incompressible laminar steady flow model was solved numerically. An electrical and thermal solar cell model was coupled for solar cell temperature and efficiency calculations. Thermal resistance, solar cell temperature and pumping power were used for the system efficiency evaluation. An increase in the number of microchannel layers exhibited the best overall performance in terms of the thermal resistance, solar cell temperature uniformity and pressure drop. The channel height and width has no effect on the solar cell maximum temperature. However, increasing channel height leads to a reduction in the pressure drop and hence less fluid pumping power.

  13. Temperature and Solar Radiation Effects on Photovoltaic Panel Power

    OpenAIRE

    Karafil, Akif; Ozbay, Harun; Kesler, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy is converted to electrical energy directly by semi-conductors materials used in Photovoltaic (PV) panels. Although, there has been great advancements in semi-conductor material technology in recent years panel efficiency is very lower. There are many factors affecting the panel efficiency such as tilt angle, shading, dust, solar radiation level, temperature and wiring losses. Among these factors, solar radiation level and temperature are more prominent. The solar radiation level ...

  14. Market: why is thermal solar power down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2010-01-01

    After a 10 year period of steady growth the French market of the thermal solar power dropped by 15% in 2009. Only 265.000 m 2 were installed instead of 313.000 m 2 in 2008. The main reason of this decrease is the economic crisis: the European market for thermal solar energy dropped by 10%. The second reason is the unfair competition of the photovoltaic power that benefits from very favourable electricity purchase prices, from higher subsidies and from a better image in the public's eye. Another competitor on the market is the new equipment called 'thermodynamic water heater' that involves a heat pump, this equipment is cheaper but only on a short term basis. (A.C.)

  15. Outdoor thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Current and future investors in photovoltaic systems are interested in how well the system performs, and how predictable this is over the expected lifetime. To do so, models have been developed and measurements of photovoltaic systems have been done. This dissertation presents the outdoor measurement set-up that has been developed for thermal and electrical characterisation of photovoltaic modules and systems, aimed at measuring transient effects and changes. The main design decisions and ...

  16. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  17. APSA - A new generation of photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, P. M.; Kurland, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides details on the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) wing design, fabrication, and testing. The impact of array size change on performance and mechanical characteristics is discussed. Projections for future performance enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells presently under development are examined.

  18. Modular assembly of a photovoltaic solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Robert M.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.; Graae, Johan E. A.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a modular assembly of a solar energy concentrator having a photovoltaic energy receiver with passive cooling. Solar cell means are fixedly coupled to a radiant energy concentrator. Tension means bias a large area heat sink against the cell thereby allowing the cell to expand or contract with respect to the heat sink due to differential heat expansion.

  19. Diversity in solar photovoltaic energy: Implications for innovation and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We undertake a qualitative empirical study of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to investigate the role of diversity in stimulating innovation and diffusion. Based on evolutionary-economic concepts, we identify the main dimensions and components of diversity in the solar PV industry.

  20. Printing Processes Used to Manufacture Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Tina E.; Xu, Renmei

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for renewable energy sources, and solar power is a good option in many instances. Photovoltaic solar panels are now being manufactured via various methods, and different printing processes are being incorporated into the manufacturing process. Screen printing has been used most prevalently in the printing process to make…

  1. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-06-01

    The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV) could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT) where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work.

  2. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  4. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  5. Experiment Investigation on Electrical and Thermal Performances of a Semitransparent Photovoltaic/Thermal System with Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from the semitransparent building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T system with air cooling, the semitransparent BIPV/T system with water cooling is rare, especially based on the silicon solar cells. In this paper, a semitransparent photovoltaic/thermal system (SPV/T with water cooling was set up, which not only would provide the electrical power and hot water, but also could attain the natural illumination for the building. The PV efficiency, thermal efficiency, and exergy analysis were all adopted to illustrate the performance of SPV/T system. The results showed that the PV efficiency and the thermal efficiency were about 11.5% and 39.5%, respectively, on the typical sunny day. Furthermore, the PV and thermal efficiencies fit curves were made to demonstrate the SPV/T performance more comprehensively. The performance analysis indicated that the SPV/T system has a good application prospect for building.

  6. Solar thermal - the new dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This booklet is intended to engineering consultants and construction professionals and aims at showing them the real interest of solar thermal energy. It notably highlights the very high efficiency which can be reached, the high performance value compared to gas, the high rank of solar thermal energy in terms of profitability over a 20-year period, the fact that solar thermal energy is almost always the most economic solution for buildings and the less expensive in comparison with non renewable energies. It outlines that, as far as purchase is concerned, solar thermal energy is more than competitive, is also a leader as far as financing issues are concerned. It finally briefly describes how the SOCOL initiative can be a support at any step of a solar thermal project

  7. Investigation of solar photovoltaic module power output by various models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhrani, A.Q.; Othman, A.K.; Rigit, A.R.H.; Baini, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the power output of a solar photovoltaic module by various models and to formulate a suitable model for predicting the performance of solar photovoltaic modules. The model was used to correct the configurations of solar photovoltaic systems for sustainable power supply. Different types of models namely the efficiency, power, fill factor and current-voltage characteristic curve models have been reviewed. It was found that the examined models predicted a 40% yield of the rated power in cloudy weather conditions and up to 80% in clear skies. The models performed well in terms of electrical efficiency in cloudy days if the influence of low irradiance were incorporated. Both analytical and numerical methods were employed in the formulation of improved model which gave +- 2% error when compared with the rated power output of solar photovoltaic module. The proposed model is more practical in terms of number of variables used and acceptable performance in humid atmospheres. Therefore, it could be useful for the estimation of power output of the solar photovoltaic systems in Sarawak region. (author)

  8. Review and summary of Solar Thermal Conversion Program planning assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Conversion Program comprises a major part of the national solar energy program which must be continuously reviewed and modified where necessary. Modifications are typically required to reflect technical achievements and uncertainties which arise from within the program or from other technical programs, changes in budgets available for supporting the program as well as internal program funding priorities, changing goals such as through acceleration or stretch-out of the program schedule, significant organizational changes involving responsible governmental agencies, the introduction of new project management support contractors, and required budget or schedule changes occurring within individual projects that make up the Solar Thermal Conversion Program. The Aerospace Corporation has provided data to assist in planning, review, coordination, and documentation of the overall Solar Thermal Conversion Program. The Solar Thermal Conversion Program Plan is described in detail. Sections 2.0 through 5.0 cover the discussion and detail planning covering the objectives, justification, basic and alternative plans, budgets, and schedules for the Solar Thermal sub-unit portion of the Solar Electric Applications effort. Appendices B1, B2, and B3 include the March 21, March 28, and April 5, 1975, Program Plan submissions of the complete Solar Electric Applications effort. In Appendix B the Solar Thermal, Solar Photovoltaic, Wind Energy, and Ocean Thermal sub-unit texts have been condensed and formatted for integration in the overall ERDA budget package. (WHK)

  9. A new concept of hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector with natural circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Longsheng; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xiaokang

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic module into a conventional solar thermal collector. Generally, the traditional design of a PVT collector has solar cells fixed on the top surface of an absorber in a flat-plate solar thermal collector. In this work, we presented a new concept of water-based PVT collector in which solar cells were directly placed on the bottom surface of its glass cover. A dynamic numerical model of this new PVT is developed and validated by experimental tests. With numerical analysis, it is found that at same covering factor, the electricity conversion efficiency of solar cells of the new PVT exceed that of the traditional PVT by nearly 10% while its thermal efficiency is approximately 30% lower than that of the traditional PVT. When the covering factor changes from 0.05 to 1, the thermal efficiency of the new PVT drops nearly 70%. The thermal efficiency of both the new PVT and the traditional PVT rise up as the water mass in tank increases. Meanwhile, the final water temperature in tank of the traditional PVT collector declines more than 17 °C, whereas that of the new PVT declines less than 6 °C, when the water mass increases from 100 to 300 kg.

  10. Exergy analysis of building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (BiSPVT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an exergy analysis of building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (BiSPVT system has been carried out. In the proposed system, the room below building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal system has been considered as an air-conditioned (constant room temperature. Energy balance equation for each components namely semitransparent photovoltaic roof, floor and room air have been given. Based on energy balance, an analytical expression for room air, solar cell and room floor temperatures have been derived along with solar cell electrical efficiency. Further by considering the day lighting parameters, an overall exergy of the proposed system has been derived for different number of air change between the room and ambient air. It has been observed that there is reduction in room air and solar cell temperatures with an increase of number of air changes. However, solar cell electrical efficiency increases with decrease in temperature of solar cell. Further, it is found that an electrical power and illumination inside the room are more dominating in comparison with thermal exergy. An increase of 1.15% in an overall exergy is observed for the number of air changes varies from 0 to 4. Experimental validation of theoretical model has also been carried out.

  11. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  12. Efficiency of solar radiation conversion in photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Kurpaska Sławomir; Knaga Jarosław; Latała Hubert; Sikora Jakub; Tomczyk Wiesław

    2018-01-01

    This paper included analysis the conversion efficiency in photovoltaic panels. The tests were done between February and June at a test stand equipped with three commonly used types of photovoltaic panels: poly- and monocrystalline silicon and with semi-conductive layer made of copper (Cu), indium (In), gallium (Ga) and selenium (Se) (CIGS). Five days of each month were selected for a detailed analysis. They were close to the so-called recommended day for calculations in solar power engineerin...

  13. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  14. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  15. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  16. Solar Thermal | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    building can still be designed and constructed to be solar ready with roof exposures and slopes that accept Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar thermal applications can be simple, cost effective, and diverse for research campuses. The following links go to sections that describe when and where solar thermal

  17. Performance of Polycrystalline Photovoltaic and Thermal Collector (PVT on Serpentine-Parallel Absorbers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Mustofa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an unglazed polycrystalline photovoltaic-thermal PVT on 0.045 kg/s mass flow rate. PVT combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receive solar radiation and produces heat and electricity simultaneously. The collector figures out serpentine-parallel tubes that can prolong fluid heat conductivity from morning till afternoon. During testing, cell PV, inlet and outlet fluid temperaturs were recorded by thermocouple digital LM35 Arduino Mega 2560. Panel voltage and electric current were also noted in which they were connected to computer and presented each second data recorded. But, in this performance only shows in the certain significant time data. This because the electric current was only noted by multimeter device not the digital one. Based on these testing data, average cell efficieny was about 19%, while thermal efficiency of above 50% and correspondeng cell efficiency of 11%, respectively

  18. Performance of Polycrystalline Photovoltaic and Thermal Collector (PVT on Serpentine-Parallel Absor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an unglazed polycrystalline photovoltaic-thermal PVT on 0.045 kg/s mass flow rate. PVT combine photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors, forming a single device that receive solar radiation and produces heat and electricity simultaneously. The collector figures out serpentine-parallel tubes that can prolong fluid heat conductivity from morning till afternoon. During testing, cell PV, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures were recorded by thermocouple digital LM35 Arduino Mega 2560. Panel voltage and electric current were also noted in which they were connected to computer and presented each second data recorded. But, in this performance only shows in the certain significant time data. This because the electric current was only noted by multimeter device not the digital one. Based on these testing data, average cell efficiency was about 19%, while thermal efficiency of above 50% and correspondent cell efficiency of 11%, respectively.

  19. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  20. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  1. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  2. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  3. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: characterization and separation; Paineis solares fotovoltaicos de silicio cristalino: caracterizacao e separacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diasa, P.R.; Benevita, M.G.; Veita, H.M., E-mail: pablo.dias@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACOR/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Corrosao, Protecao e Reciclagem de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The search for alternative power generation sources has been intensified in recent years. One of these alternatives is solar energy, since it is a virtually inexhaustible source and generates relatively small environmental impact compared to other traditional generation sources. The collection of solar energy and its conversion into thermal or electrical energy is only possible through the use of photovoltaic panels. These panels have a limited lifespan and will eventually be replaced by new ones. Thus, in the near future, large amounts of solar modules can be discarded as waste electronics. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reducing production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such materials is important. In this paper, photovoltaic module components were characterized through visual inspection, FRX, EDS and AAS. The glass was identified as ordinary glass (soda-lime glass), which allows reuse without any previous treatment and the metallic filaments were identified as tin- lead coated copper. (author)

  4. Voltage variation due to solar photovoltaic in distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, H I; Ramachandaramurthy, V K; Maleki, Hesamaldin

    2013-01-01

    Grid integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) plant offers reduction in greenhouse emissions and independence from fossil fuels for power generation. The integration of such forms of power generation also brings with it a variety of policy and technical issues. One of the technical issues is the variation in grid voltages in the presence of solar photovoltaic (PV) plant, resulting in degradation of power quality. In this paper, the application of a dq current controller to limit the voltage variation at the point of common coupling (PCC) due to a 2 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) plant will be discussed. The controller's goal is to ensure that the voltage variation meets the momentary voltage change limits specified in TNB's Technical Guidebook for the connection of distributed generation. The proposed dq current controller is shown to be able to limit the voltage variation.

  5. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Palideh, Vahid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  6. 75 FR 61509 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Determination Concerning Solar Photovoltaic Panel Systems AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... Procurement; Title III, Trade Agreements Act of 1979; Country of Origin of solar photovoltaic panel system... solar photovoltaic (``PV'') panel systems contain both U.S. and foreign-origin raw materials and...

  7. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  8. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  9. Tracking strategy for photovoltaic solar systems in high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Guillermo; Guillon, Laura; Rousse, Daniel R.; Mehrtash, Mostafa; Dutil, Yvan; Paradis, Pierre-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In cloudy conditions tracking the sun is ineffective. • A methodology to estimate a theoretical threshold for solar tracking was developed. • A tracking strategy to maximize electricity production was proposed. - Abstract: Several studies show that from about 20% to 50% more solar energy can be recovered by using photovoltaic systems that track the sun rather than systems set at a fixed angle. For overcast or cloudy days, recent studies propose the use of a set position in which each photovoltaic panel faces toward the zenith (horizontal position). Compared to a panel that follows the sun’s path, this approach claims that a horizontal panel increases the amount of solar radiation captured and subsequently the quantity of electricity produced. The present work assesses a solar tracking photovoltaic panel hourly and seasonally in high latitudes. A theoretical method based on an isotropic sky model was formulated, implemented, and used in a case study analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic system in Montreal, Canada. The results obtained, based on the definition of a critical hourly global solar radiation, were validated numerically and experimentally. The study confirmed that a zenith-set sun tracking strategy for overcast or mostly cloudy days in summer is not advantageous

  10. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dynamic thermal analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrett, John T., II; Cain, Stephen C.; Pochet, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Concentrated photovoltaic (PV) technology represents a growing market in the field of terrestrial solar energy production. As the demand for renewable energy technologies increases, further importance is placed upon the modeling, design, and simulation of these systems. Given the U.S. Air Force cultural shift towards energy awareness and conservation, several concentrated PV systems have been installed on Air Force installations across the country. However, there has been a dearth of research within the Air Force devoted to understanding these systems in order to possibly improve the existing technologies. This research presents a new model for a simple concentrated PV system. This model accurately determines the steady state operating temperature as a function of the concentration factor for the optical part of the concentrated PV system, in order to calculate the optimum concentration that maximizes power output and efficiency. The dynamic thermal model derived is validated experimentally using a commercial polysilicon solar cell, and is shown to accurately predict the steady state temperature and ideal concentration factor.

  12. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  13. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility in the United States of its type. This unique facility provides experimental engineering...

  14. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  15. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz; Husam Abdulrasool Hasan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Abdul Amir H. Kadhum; Tayser Sumer Gaaz; Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar ce...

  16. Characteristics Study of Photovoltaic Thermal System with Emphasis on Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chuah Yee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is typically collected through photovoltaic (PV to generate electricity or through thermal collectors as heat energy, they are generally utilised separately. This project is done with the purpose of integrating the two systems to improve the energy efficiency. The idea of this photovoltaic-thermal (PVT setup design is to simultaneously cool the PV panel so it can operate at a lower temperature thus higher electrical efficiency and also store the thermal energy. The experimental data shows that the PVT setup increased the electrical efficiency of the standard PV setup from 1.64% to 2.15%. The integration of the thermal collector also allowed 37.25% of solar energy to be stored as thermal energy. The standard PV setup harnessed only 1.64% of the solar energy, whereas the PVT setup achieved 39.4%. Different flowrates were tested to determine its effects on the PVT setup’s electrical and thermal efficiency. The various flowrate does not significantly impact the electrical efficiency since it did not significantly impact the cooling of the panel. The various flowrates resulted in fluctuating thermal efficiencies, the relation between the two is inconclusive in this project.

  17. Measurements of thermal parameters of solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, K; Krac, E

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the methods of measuring thermal parameters of photovoltaic panels - transient thermal impedance and the absorption factor of light-radiation are presented. The manner of realising these methods is described and the results of measurements of the considered thermal parameters of selected photovoltaic panels are presented. The influence of such selected factors as a type of the investigated panel and its mounting manner on transient thermal impedance of the considered panels is also discussed. (paper)

  18. Photovoltaic enhancement of Si solar cells by assembled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F.Zhang; Y.F.Wang; N.Chen; Y.Y.Wang; Y.Z.Zhang; Z.H.Zhou; L.M.Wei

    2010-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion was enhanced by directly assemble of a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs) onto the surface of n-p junction silicon solar cells. When the density of SWNTs increased from 50 to 400 tubes μm-2, an enhancement of 3.92% in energy conversion efficiency was typically obtained. The effect of the SWNTs network is proposed for trapping incident photons and assisting electronic transportation at the interface of silicon solar cells.

  19. 新型PV/T太阳能利用复合系统的实验研究%Experimental Study on A Novel Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光明; 刘祖明; 李景天; 廖华; 朱勋梦; 张卫东

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid photovoltaic /thermal solar system,which combining flat stainless steel box as solar heat collectors with aluminum alloy backplane monocrystalline silicon PV components,and using the thermally conductive silica-gel for adhesion,was designed to improve the energy efficiency and to supply hot water and electricity.The system performed good adhesion,insulation and heat conduction between the collector and PV module.The electrical and thermal efficiency of the system are tested through experiments conducted in Kunming area with different water mass and under different conditions.The results show that the total efficiency and general energy efficiency of novel PV/T system is higher in 75kg water mass sunny weather.Its electrical efficiency,thermal efficiency,total efficiency and general energy efficiency are 14%,37%,51%,and 70.72%,respectively.Compared with in 50kg water mass sunny or 75kg water mass cloudy weather,the general efficiency has been enhanced by 11.86% or 2.09%.Compared with pure PV system or the nature circulation of the solar water collector,The novel PV/T systems has several advantages,including smaller occupied area,higher utilization of solar energy and lower expenditure.%为提高PV/T系统太阳能利用率,同时获得可利用的热水和电力,将铝合金背板型单晶硅光伏组件和自行设计制作的不锈钢扁盒式集热板相结合,用导热硅胶加以粘接制成新型光伏光热一体化(PV/T)复合系统,该系统实现了光伏组件与集热板之间良好的粘接性、绝缘性和热传导,并在昆明地区对系统进行测试,分析了系统在不同水箱水容量及不同天气工况下运行的光电光热性能.结果表明,系统在75kg水箱水容量(m)晴天工况下运行效率更高,系统的平均电效率、热效率、综合效率及综合性能效率分别在14%、37%、51%、70.72%左右,与系统在50kg水箱水容量晴天或75kg水箱水容量多云工况下运行相比,

  20. Solar photovoltaic system design optimization by shading analysis to maximize energy generation from limited urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachchh, Ravi; Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Scheme to maximize total number of solar panels in a given area. • Enhanced energy output from a fixed area without compromising the efficiency. • Capacity and generated energy are enhanced by more than 25%. - Abstract: In the urban areas the demand of solar power is increasing due to better awareness about the emission of green house gases from conventional thermal power plants and significant decrease in the installation cost of residential solar power plants. But the land cost and the under utilization of available space is hindering its further growth. Under these circumstances, solar photovoltaic system installation needs to accommodate the maximum number of solar panels in either roof-top or land-mounted category. In this article a new approach is suggested to maximize the total number of solar panels in a given area with enhanced energy output without compromising the overall efficiency of the system. The number of solar panels can be maximized in a solar photovoltaic energy generation system by optimizing installation parameters such as tilt angle, pitch, gain factor, altitude angle and shading to improve the energy yield. In this paper mathematical analysis is done to show that the capacity and generated energy can be enhanced by more than 25% for a given land area by optimization various parameters.

  1. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module’s electrolumin...

  2. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  3. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Aerodynamical study of a photovoltaic solar tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Castillo, José Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the aerodynamic features of ground-mounted solar trackers under atmospheric boundary layer flows. Study and identify the aerodynamical interactions of solar trackers when they are displayed as an array. State of the art. Literature review about CFD applied to solar panels. Analytic approach of the problem. Application of CFD analysis. Validation of the results. Discussion of the results. Improvements proposal.

  5. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2 . The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  6. Going 'green': trade specialisation dynamics in the solar photovoltaic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algieri, Bernardina; Aquino, Antonio; Succurro, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of trade flows and the domestic value creation of the major solar photovoltaic industry at the world level. Solar technologies convert light and heat from the sun into useful energy. The use of the sun's energy can not only reduce the consumption of conventional fuels, thus reducing the emission of detrimental greenhouse gases, but it can also enable a gain in enhanced fuel and energy security along with lessening costs. In addition, green technologies and industries can promote economic growth and international competitiveness, and can offer new business and employment opportunities. It becomes, therefore, extremely important to deeply explore the dynamics of the solar photovoltaic sector. Specifically, the present work analyses the main global trends of this sector and sketches the key players on the world market, including producers, installers, and top traders. Based on an analysis of trade flows at the 6-digit level, the international specialisation patterns are investigated, and the role of various market and trade drivers, including subsidies in the uptake of solar technologies, is identified and examined. - Highlights: → Trade specialisation in solar photovoltaics is examined using an index analysis. → Trade of the US, UK and Germany has an intra-industry nature. → Trade of Italy, Greece and Japan is more inter-industry oriented. → There is a long-run relationship between PV exports, foreign income and prices.

  7. Photovoltaics - solar power stations. Prospects of a cutting edge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, M.

    2002-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the sector of the future in this millennium. The process of human urbanization has led to a high demand for electricity; at the same time high-density urban settlement offers an enormous surface area that could be used for photovoltaic equipment. Such surfaces include rooftops, building facades, parking lots for automobiles, train stations and solar soundproofing walls. According to conservative estimates, Austria has sufficient surface area for a peak solar output of 4,000 MW. This would be sufficient to supply some 1.6 million households with electricity from unlimited solar energy. However, a tremendous marketing effort will be required in order to achieve generation on such a scale. (author)

  8. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system using a new linear actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Castro, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a photovoltaic solar pumping system using a new linear actuator is presented. This linear actuator is a double-sided flat two-phase variable-reluctance linear stepper motor that moves a piston-type water pump with the help of a rope, a pulley and a counterweight. The entire actuator pump ensemble is controlled by a simple electronic unit that manages the electric power generated by a photovoltaic array. The proposed system is suitable for rural communities in developing...

  9. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  10. Concentration of solar radiation by white backed photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, G; Hamill, P

    1984-12-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the concentration achieved by white backed photovoltaic panels. Concentration is due to the trapping by light scattered in the refractive plate to which the solar cell is bonded. Using the reciprocity relation and assuming the ideal case of a Lambertian distribution, a detailed model is formulated that includes the effects of the thickness and walls of the concentrator. This model converges to the thermodynamic limit and is found to be consistent with experimental results for a wide range of cell sizes. Finally, the model is generalized to multiple-cell photovoltaic panels.

  11. Redrawing the solar map of South Africa for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munzhedzi, R.; Sebitosi, A.B. [Electrical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rm 522.2 Menzies Building, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    The South African solar map has been redrawn to make it applicable to photovoltaic installations. This has been done with the aim of reducing the cost of solar PV installations in South Africa through accurate energy resource assessment and competent system design. Climate data software as well as solar design software was used to aid this process. The new map provides an alternative to the map in current use, which only considers radiation, whereas many more factors affect the output of a panel, such as wind, cloud cover and humidity. All these are taken into account when drawing the new map. (author)

  12. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  13. Production of solar photovoltaic cells on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, David R.; Ignatiev, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Solar energy is directly available on the sunward lunar surface. Most, if not all, the materials are available on the Moon to make silicon based solar photovoltaic cells. A few additional types are possible. There is a small but growing literature on production of lunar derived solar cells. This literature is reviewed. Topics explored include trade-offs of local production versus import of key materials, processing options, the scale and nature of production equipment, implications of storage requirements, and the end-uses of the energy. Directions for future research and demonstrations are indicated.

  14. Optical design of a solar flux homogenizer for concentrator photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Kathi

    2002-04-01

    An optical solution is described for the redistribution of the light reflected from a 400-m2 paraboloidal solar concentrating dish as uniformly as possible over an approximately 1-m2 plane. Concentrator photovoltaic cells will be mounted at this plane, and they require a uniform light distribution for high efficiency. It is proposed that the solar cells will be mounted at the output of a rectangular receiver box with reflective sidewalls (i.e., a kaleidoscope), which will redistribute the light. I discuss the receiver box properties that influence the light distribution reaching the solar cells.

  15. Constructal Optimization of Top Contact Metallization of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, Aditya; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-01-01

    A top contact metallization of a photovoltaic solar cell collects the current generated by incident solar radiation. Several power-loss mechanisms are associated with the current flow through the front contact grid. The design of the top metal contact grid is one of the most important areas of efficient photovoltaic solar cell design. In this paper, an approach based on the constructal theory is proposed to design the grid pattern in a photovoltaic solar cell, minimizing total resistive losse...

  16. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  17. Thermal performances of ETFE cushion roof integrated amorphous silicon photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianhui; Chen, Wujun; Qiu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Bing; Zhou, Jinyu; Qu, Yegao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of a three layer ETFE cushion integrated a-Si PV is evaluated. • Temperature of a-Si PV obviously affects temperature field and temperature boundary. • The maximum temperature difference of 3.4 K between measured and numerical results. • Main transport mechanisms in upper and lower chambers are convection and conduction. • Heat transfer coefficients of this roof are less than those of other ETFE cushion roofs. - Abstract: Thermal performances of the ETFE cushion roof integrated amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si PV) are essential to estimate building performances, such as temperature distribution and heat transfer coefficient. To investigate these thermal performances, an experimental mock-up composed of a-Si PV and a three-layer ETFE cushion roof was built and the experiment was carried out under summer sunny condition. Meanwhile, numerical model with real boundary conditions was performed in this paper. The experimental results show that the temperature sequence of the three layers was the middle, top and bottom layer and that the PV temperature caused by solar irradiance was 353.8 K. This gives evidence that the PV has a significant effect on the temperature distribution. The experimental temperature was in good agreement with the corresponding location of the numerical temperature since the maximum temperature difference was only 3.4 K. Therefore, the numerical results were justified and then used to analyze the airflow characteristics and calculate the thermal performances. For the airflow characteristics, it is found that the temperature distribution was not uniform and the main transport mechanisms in the upper and lower chambers formed by the three layers were the convection and conduction, respectively. For the thermal performances, the surface convective heat transfer coefficients were obtained, which have validated that thermal performances of the three-layer ETFE cushion integrated a-Si PV are better than

  18. Volumetric solar thermal receiver principles and technological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagie, D.; Gruntman, S.; Taragan, E.; Danino, M.; Weiss, S.; Mimon, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solar energy has received much interest in recent years, being a clean free of pollution or other environmental dotage), and inexhaustible energy source. It is also considered safer than some other non conventional energy sources (like nuclear energy). The interest in solar energy is motivated mainly by the growing awareness of the environmental problems associated with the use of . conventional keels. However, solar energy may become a serious alternative only if it can be used efficiently in major energy consuming industries (like the chemical industry), or be used for electricity generation. Those facilities are nowadays solely depend on fossil fuels as the prime source of energy . The solar energy, reaches file Earth as radiation, can be utilized either by direct quantum conversion using photo-voltaic solar cells, or by converting the radiation into thermal energy, to be used directly for heating, or to feed a thermal to electric converting cycle. Alter three decades of huge spending on the development of photo-voltaic systems those devices are commercially competitive only on very small energy scale, while solar thermal commercial applications are evident. The prominent examples are the domestic heating water receivers (direct thermal), and LUZ International electricity generation plants which are currently operated on a commercial basis, supplying 80 MWe per plant. Direct thermal exploitation of solar energy is naturally more efficient than converting to electricity but is limited to specific applications and locations especially since thermal storage at high temperature is not commercially viable. Efficient electricity production at competitive price is clearly the biggest opportunity for solar energy. (authors)

  19. The development of a volumetric solar thermal receiver: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagie, D.

    1996-01-01

    Solar energy has received much interest in recent years, being a clean (free of pollution or other environmental damage) and inexhaustible energy source. It is also considered safer than some other non conventional energy sources (like nuclear energy). The interest in solar energy is motivated mainly by the growing awareness of the environmental problems associated with the use of conventional fuels. However, solar energy may become a serious alternative only if it can be used efficiently in major energy consuming industries (like the chemical industry), or be used for electricity generation. Those facilities are nowadays solely dependent on fossil fuels as the prime source of energy. The solar energy, reaching the earth in the form of radiation, can be utilized either by direct quantum conversion using photo-voltaic solar cells, or by converting the radiation into thermal energy, to be used directly for heating, or to feed a thermal to electric converting cycle. After three decades of huge spending on the development of photo-voltaic systems those devices are commercially competitive only on a very small energy scale, while solar thermal commercial applications are more attractive. Prominent examples are the domestic heating water receivers (direct thermal), and LUZ International electricity generation plants which are currently operated on a commercial basis, supplying 80 MWe per plant. Direct thermal exploitation of solar energy is naturally more efficient than converting to electricity, but is limited to specific applications and locations especially since thermal storage at high temperature is not commercially viable. Efficient electricity production at a competitive price is clearly the biggest opportunity for solar energy . (author)

  20. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  1. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, Andre; Jacquin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The overall power of installed PV systems in France in 2007 was 31,3 MW which represents a significant growth compared to 2006. This increase is mainly due to the national fiscal measures (new feed-in tariff and tax credit) launched in 2006. The implemented feed-in tariff model application supports building integration of photovoltaic generators with a much higher financial incentive than other type of photovoltaic installations. In the same way, local authorities like regional councils and departmental councils developed new policies to promote photovoltaics through specific grants. As the building integration of photovoltaic generators is encouraged by a feed-in tariff bonus, innovative products are appearing on the market or are under development. In parallel, actors like architects, designers, engineers are now paying attention to building integration of photovoltaic components (BIPV). New actors such as financial institutions, energy operators, and private investors have developed ambitious projects. With the increase of the market, new firms have been created including engineering, consultancies, electricity producers, PV products distributors and retailers, installation and maintenance companies. Photovoltaic industrial sector is getting stronger and large investments have been undertaken in order to develop a vertical integration of the photovoltaic value chain, from feedstock silicon production to final photovoltaic products. A new private-public consortium called 'PV Alliance Lab Fab' has been set up and an important R and D project under the name of 'Solar Nano Crystal' should start by the end of 2008. At the same time, R and D activities focus on photovoltaic silicon cells/modules conversion efficiency and long term reliability, production costs, new materials and device design, yield, environmental impact of industrial processes and optimisation of control and monitoring of photovoltaic systems. In addition to the ADEME and ANR

  2. Solar thermal–photovoltaic powered potato cold storage – Conceptual design and performance analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Dipankar N.; Ganguly, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Loss of food crop is a huge problem in India due to the shortage of cold storage. • Conceptual design of a power system using solar energy for a potato cold storage. • Integration of flat plate collector and SPV module with suitable operating strategy. • System provides a net energy surplus of about 36 MW h over a calendar year. • Rudimentary economic analysis found payback period of less than four years. - Abstract: Wastage of food crops due to the dearth of proper cold storage facilities is a huge problem in underdeveloped and developing countries of the world. Conceptual design of a potato cold storage is presented here, along with performance appraisal over a calendar year. The microclimate inside the cold storage is regulated using a water–lithium bromide absorption system. Proposed system utilizes both solar thermal and photovoltaic generated electrical energy for its operation. A suitable operation strategy is devised and the performance of the integrated system is analyzed from energy and exergy point of view to identify the required numbers of thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules. The proposed system is found to provide a net surplus of about 36 MW h energy over a calendar year, after meeting the in-house requirements. A rudimentary economic analysis is also performed to check the financial viability of the proposed system. Both the thermal and photovoltaic components are found to have payback periods less than four years.

  3. Development and basic photovoltaic characteristics of a solar generator with double-sided silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, R.; Mansurov, Kh.

    2015-01-01

    A new solar generator consisting of double-sided silicon sensing elements is described. The basic photovoltaic parameters of solar generators are made of mono- and polycrystalline silicon solar cells. (author)

  4. Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Plus-Energy House via Photovoltaic/Thermal Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Sevela, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Present work addresses the HVAC and energy concerns of the Technical University of Denmark's house, Fold, for the competition Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative solutions are investigated; photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels, utilization of ground as a heat source/sink and phase change...... two separate systems. PV/T panels enable the house to perform as a plus-energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively. The ground heat exchanger acts as the heat sink/source of the house. Free cooling enables the same cooling effect...

  5. Simulated hail impact testing of photovoltaic solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D.; Wilson, A.; Ross, R.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques used to simulate and study the effect of hail on photovoltaic solar panels are described. Simulated hail stones (frozen ice spheres projected at terminal velocity) or steel balls were applied by air guns, gravity drop, or static loading. Tests with simulated hail and steel balls yielded different results. The impact strength of 10 commercially available flat-plate photovoltaic modules was tested. It was found that none of the six panel designs incorporating clear potting silicone material as the outermost layer remained undamaged by 1-in. simulated hailstones, while a photovoltaic module equipped with a 0.188-in.-thick acrylic cover sheet would be able to withstand the impact of a 2-in.-diameter hailstone.

  6. Observatory of photovoltaic solar energy in France - 20. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    After an overview of important events in the World regarding the development of photovoltaic solar energy in 2016, and predictions regarding new connected installations in 2016, this document present graphs and figures which illustrate the evolution of the photovoltaic fleet in the World, the comparison of production costs of new electric power generation capacities, the evolution of the French photovoltaic power production since 2009, the evolution of the distribution of the French fleet in terms of installation power (from large projects to residential), of connections to the grid, of number of connections and purchase tariffs for the different types of installations (residential, medium roofs, large roofs, very large roofs, very large ground-based or roof-based projects) and for queuing projects, in terms of evolution of purchase tariffs since 2011, and of evolution of impact on the CSPE financing system

  7. Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-06-01

    This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.

  8. Drainback solar thermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botpaev, R.; Louvet, Y.; Perers, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Although solar drainback systems have been used for a long time, they are still generating questions regarding smooth functioning. This paper summarises publications on drainback systems and compiles the current knowledge, experiences, and ideas on the technology. The collective research exhibits...... of this technology has been developed, with a brief description of each hydraulic typology. The operating modes have been split into three stages: filling, operation, and draining, which have been studied separately. A difference in the minimal filling velocities for a siphon development in the solar loop has been...

  9. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  10. Photovoltaics: sunny spells ahead for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, James

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies presents an overview of the photovoltaic (PV) sector in the UK covering PV technology, the manufacture of monocrystalline silicon and thin-film PV cells, and PV applications in stand-alone systems and grid-connected systems. The steady growth in the UK PV industry, the building integrated market, and the government's concern over the UK's slow progress are discussed. The announcement of the Department of Trade and Industry's market stimulation programme, reduced value added tax (VAT) on PV systems, and showcase PV installations such as the Sydney 2000 Olympics project are listed as recent highlights

  11. The Italian programme in photovoltaic solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, U.

    Italian programs and goals for developing a photovoltaic (PV) industry and market are outlined. It is suggested that only a few megawatts of PVs will be produced for domestic consumption in the next few years, while the largest market is for developing nations where costly diesel-fueled generators are used. The installation of PV systems in developing areas will permit testing and scaling up of production capacities from several MW to several hundred MW and then to GW annual production. Approximately 55,000,000 was devoted to government research in PV in 1982 and a PV research laboratory is being built near Naples.

  12. Community-scale solar photovoltaics: housing and public development examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komoto, K.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at community-scale photovoltaics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. This report provides examples of housing developments and incorporated townships that have integrated multiple stakeholder values into business solutions. The authors are of the opinion that builders, developers, architects and engineers need to consider orientation, aesthetics, load diversity, energy efficiency, grid infrastructure and end use. Residential and commercial building owners or occupants need to consider the design of electric services relative to loads, green image, and economic opportunities such as feed-in tariffs. Local government should give preference to granting permission to high-performance building projects. It is suggested that the finance and insurance sector consider the operational savings in overall debt allowances. System manufacturers and integrators should develop standardised systems. In the emerging PV community market, utilities are quickly gaining awareness of business opportunities. The need for professionals and skilled labour is quoted as having grown as drastically as the PV market itself.

  13. Efficiency of solar radiation conversion in photovoltaic panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpaska Sławomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper included analysis the conversion efficiency in photovoltaic panels. The tests were done between February and June at a test stand equipped with three commonly used types of photovoltaic panels: poly- and monocrystalline silicon and with semi-conductive layer made of copper (Cu, indium (In, gallium (Ga and selenium (Se (CIGS. Five days of each month were selected for a detailed analysis. They were close to the so-called recommended day for calculations in solar power engineering. Efficiency, calculated as the yield of electrical energy in relation to solar radiation energy reaching the panels was made conditional upon solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature. It was found that as solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature increase, the efficiency of solar radiation conversion into electricity is reduced. Correlation dependence was determined for the test data obtained, describing temperature change of panels depending on climatic conditions. It was found that as panel temperature increases, the conversion efficiency is reduced. Within the tested scope of experiment conditions, the efficiency was reduced in the range between 20.1 and 22.8%. The authors also determined the average efficiency values in individual test months together with average ambient conditions of the environment where the process of solar radiation conversion took place.

  14. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  15. Current challenges in organic photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Cody W; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant interest in utilizing conjugated organic molecules for solid-state solar to electric conversion has produced rapid improvement in device efficiencies. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are attractive for their compatibility with low-cost processing techniques and thin-film applicability to flexible and conformal applications. However, many of the processes that lead to power losses in these systems still remain poorly understood, posing a significant challenge for the future efficiency improvements required to make these devices an attractive solar technology. While semiconductor band models have been employed to describe OPV operation, a more appropriate molecular picture of the pertinent processes is beginning to emerge. This chapter presents mechanisms of OPV device operation, based on the bound molecular nature of the involved transient species. With the intention to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics that dictate photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics is also discussed.

  16. Experimental Performance Investigation of Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV–T System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic solar cells convert light energy from the sun into electricity. Photovoltaic cells are produced by semi-conducting materials to convert the energy into electricity and during this process heat is absorbed by the solar radiation. This heat causes a loss of electricity generation efficiencies.In this study, an experimental setup was designed and established to test two separate photovoltaic panel systems with alone PV and with water cooling system PV/T to examine the heat effect on PV systems. The absorbed heat energy behind the photovoltaic cell's surface in insulated ambient was removed by means of a water cooling system and the tests for both systems were simultaneously performed along the July 2011. It is found that without active water cooling, the temperature of the PV module was higher during day time and solar cells could only achieve around 8% conversion efficiency. On the other hand, when the PV module was operated with active water cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly, leading to an increase in the efficiency of solarcells as much as 13.6%. Gained from absorbed solar heat and maximum thermal conversion efficiencies of the system are determined as 49% and 51% for two different mass flow rates. It is observed that water flow rate is effective on the increasing the conversion efficiency as well as absorption and transitionrates of cover glass in PV/T (PV–Thermal collector, the insulation material and cell efficiency. As a conclusion, the conversion efficiency of the PV system with water cooling might be improved on average about 10%. Therefore, it is recommended that PV system should be designed with most efficient type cooling system to enhance the efficiency and to decrease the payback period.

  17. Better chances for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of solar energy based on the policy to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and acidifying pollutants, and the desire to save energy, in particular with regard to the increase of energy consumption, which can be expected to occur in the near future in developing countries. After a brief introduction on the efficiencies of monocrystalline silicon (m-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells realized sofar, attention is paid to two remarkable developments in solar cell research. One is at Texas Instruments where silicon balls in aluminium foil are fabricated, for which the average energy efficiency realized sofar is 10% for small surfaces (10 cm 2 ). The cell is called the spheral solar cell. A second development is at the Federal Institute for Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, where the researchers O'Regan and Graetzel reported on the development of a photo-electrochemical solar cell with a high efficiency and good stability. Their cell is dye sensitized, which means that the light absorption function of the cell is separated from the load transport function. Finally brief attention is paid to the introduction and use of solar home systems in Indonesia. 5 figs

  18. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiangchun; Lin, Qingqing; Zhou, Xuedong; Yang, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province, fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient. Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy. This needs modern irrigation method. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture, and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developi...

  19. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC OUTPUT POWER FORECASTING USING BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jency Paulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy is an important renewable and unlimited source of energy. Solar photovoltaic power forecasting, is an estimation of the expected power production, that help the grid operators to better manage the electric balance between power demand and supply. Neural network is a computational model that can predict new outcomes from past trends. The artificial neural network is used for photovoltaic plant energy forecasting. The output power for solar photovoltaic cell is predicted on hourly basis. In historical dataset collection process, two dataset was collected and used for analysis. The dataset was provided with three independent attributes and one dependent attributes. The implementation of Artificial Neural Network structure is done by Multilayer Perceptron (MLP and training procedure for neural network is done by error Back Propagation (BP. In order to train and test the neural network, the datasets are divided in the ratio 70:30. The accuracy of prediction can be done by using various error measurement criteria and the performance of neural network is to be noted.

  20. Didactic trainer. Solar photovoltaic panels analysis; Analisis de paneles solares fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.; Ruiz, J.; Gorjon, J.; Quiles, J. A.; Cavaller, N.; Bodega, J.; Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.

    2009-07-01

    The Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) and the Instituto de Ensenanza Secundaria Virgen de la Paloma (IES VP), through their respective Metrology and Electricity-Electronics departments, have established a first agreement of co-operation with the aim of introducing and enhancing the solar photovoltaic energy within the professional teachings field. This agreements is a result of the compromise of designing entirely in the Electricity-electronics department of IES VP a didactic trainer prototype which enables to analyze cells and photovoltaic panels, all under the supervision and logistic-technical support of CIEMAT Photovoltaic Laboratory. (Author)

  1. Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chihhui; Neuner III, Burton; Shvets, Gennady; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley–Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above T e = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for T e = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented

  2. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    The flat-plate solar cell array program which increases the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules used for terrestrial energy applications is discussed. The current-voltage response characteristics of the solar cells encapsulated in the modules degrade with service time and this degradation places a limitation on the useful lifetime of the modules. The most desirable flat-plate array system involves solar cells consisting of highly polarizable materials with similar electrochemical potentials where the cells are encapsulated in polymers in which ionic concentrations and mobilities are negligibly small. Another possible mechanism limiting the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules is the gradual loss of the electrical insulation characteristics of the polymer pottant due to water absorption or due to polymer degradation from light or heat effects. The mechanical properties of various polymer pottant materials and of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell material are as follows: (1) electrical and ionic resistivity; (2) water absorption kinetics and water solubility limits; and (3) corrosion characterization of various metallization systems used in solar cell construction.

  3. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  4. Substitution of Ethynyl-Thiophene Chromophores on Ruthenium Sensitizers: Influence on Thermal and Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new high molar extinction coefficient ruthenium(II bipyridyl complex, “Ru(2,2-bipyridine-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid(4,4′-bis((3-hexylthiophen-2-ylethynyl-2,2′-bipyridine(NCS2 (N(C4H94, MC101” was synthesized and fully characterized by 1H-NMR, ESI-MASS, FT-IR, UV-Vis., and fluorescence spectroscopes. The dye showed relatively high molar extinction coefficient of 25.0 × 103 M-1 cm-1 at λ maximum of 544 nm, while the reference C101 has shown 15.8 × 103 M-1cm-1 at λ maximum 528 nm. The monochromatic incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiency of 44.1% was obtained for MC101 over the entire visible range, while the C101 sensitized solar cell fabricated and evaluated under identical conditions exhibited 40.1%. The DSSCs fabricated with 0.54 cm2 active area TiO2 electrodes and high efficient electrolyte (E01, from the sensitizers MC101 and C101 exhibited energy conversion efficiencies of 3.25% (short-circuit current density (JSC = 7.32 mA/cm2, VOC = 610 mV, ff = 0.725 and 2.94% (JSC = 6.60 mA/cm2; VOC = 630 mV; ff = 0.709, respectively, under air mass of 1.5 sunlight.

  5. Solar photovoltaic projects in the mainstream power market

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Develop large-scale solar photovoltaic projects with this book, to feed power into a grid. Contains case studies of the Waldpolenz Energy Park, Germany, Lopburi Solar Plant in Thailand and what will be the world's largest PV plant, the Topaz Solar Farm in California. Also included are interviews from leading figures in the PV industry.Contents cover:planning and structuring projectssiting, planning and connection issuesbuilding and operating projectstechnology basicseconomies of PVhistory and business of PVfinancing and regulationtechnical aspects of system design.Supported by figures and photographs, this is for anyone wanting to master the commercial, professional, financial, engineering or political aspects of developing mega-watt solar PV projects in a mainstream power market.

  6. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    /emission spectra of an organic luminescent dye (LR305), the transmission coefficient and refractive index of acrylic as parameters that describe the system. Simulations suggest that for LR305, 8-10cm of luminescent material surrounding the PV cell yields the highest increase in power gain per unit area of LSC added, thereby determining the ideal spacing between PV cells in the panel. The model also predicts that for different PV cell dimensions, there exists an optimum waveguide thickness which efficiently transports photon collected by the waveguide to the PV cell with minimal loss, and maintains an even distribution of photons across the cell surface. For the case of the 12.5 by 1cm rectangular cells used in this work, the calculated waveguide thickness is 3mm. For larger cells, every 1cm increment in PV cell width should be accompanied by a 0.75mm increase in waveguide thickness to preserve peak performance. In line with the goal of pushing for cost competitive photovoltaics, the last part of this work shifts to the study of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A combination of low temperature, highly scalable fabrication process and reduced material usage for thin films offers us a means to produce flexible and cheap solar cells. Tagging on to existing work already performed on germanium quantum dot solar cells, additional work was carried out to further characterize the material. The effect of film thickness, nano-particle surface conditions and thermal anneal were investigated. There is evidence to suggest that the quantum dot devices contain high levels of parasitic resistances. Short circuit current densities increase by up to two times with two spin-cast layers compared to four, leading to the conjecture that charge carrier life time is low with high levels of recombination. Annealing to improve carrier mobility produces devices with current densities up to 301microA, a fourfold increase, but output voltages saw a sharp decrease from 0.12V to 0.015V. In tandem with the work

  7. Competing in the Global Solar Photovoltaic Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The top five solar cell supply countries in the world in sequential order are China, Taiwan, the United States of America, Japan, and Germany. The capacity of Taiwanese solar cell production is ranked top two in the globe. The competitive advantage of the Taiwanese electronics firms has facilitated the rapid developments to its solar photovoltaic industry. The Taiwanese solar photovoltaic industry possesses a large size and a complete value chain of upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors. In this study, I analyzed the trends and developments of the solar photovoltaic industry in Taiwan and in the globe. And I also investigated the positioning and competitive advantage of Taiwanese firms in the value chain of the global solar photovoltaic industry. I found that Taiwanese firms continue to have an important and indispensable role in the global solar photovoltaic industry by either differentiation or cost advantage.

  8. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  9. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  10. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemska, E.

    2009-01-01

    The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV) converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is highly desirable to obtain efficiency increase. The total efficiency of 60-80% can be achieved with the whole PV/T system provided that the T system is operated near ambient temperature. The value of the low-T heat energy is typically much smaller than the value of the PV electricity. The PV/T systems can exist in many designs, but the most common models are with the use of water or air as a working fuid. Efficiency is the most valuable parameter for the economic analysis. It has substantial meaning in the case of installations with great nominal power, as air-cooled Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV). In this paper the performance analysis of a hybrid PV/T system is presented: an energetic analysis as well as an exergetic analysis. Exergy is always destroyed when a process involves a temperature change. This destruction is proportional to the entropy increase of the system together with its surroundings the destroyed exergy has been called energy. Exergy analysis identifies the location, the magnitude, and the sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a system. This information, which cannot be provided by other means (e.g., an energy analysis), is very useful for the improvement and cost-effectiveness of the system. Calculations were carried out for the tested water-cooled ASE-100-DGL-SM Solar watt module.

  11. Comparative analysis of concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies: Technical and environmental evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, U.; Zepparelli, F.; Morettini, V.; Garroni, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Life cycle was assessed for both concentrated solar power and photovoltaic systems. ► The PV plant has a higher environmental impact than the CSP plant. ► The Global Warming Potential is lower for the CSP than for the PV plant. ► The energy payback time is lower for the CSP than for the PV plant. -- Abstract: Solar energy is an important alternative energy source to fossil fuels and theoretically the most available energy source on the earth. Solar energy can be converted into electric energy by using two different processes: by means of thermodynamic cycles and the photovoltaic conversion. Solar thermal technologies, sometimes called thermodynamic solar technologies, operating at medium (about 500 °C) and high temperatures (about 1000 °C), have recently attracted a renewed interest and have become one of the most promising alternatives in the field of solar energy utilization. Photovoltaic conversion is very interesting, although still quite expensive, because of the absence of moving components and the reduced operating and management costs. The main objectives of the present work are: •to carry out comparative technical evaluations on the amount of electricity produced by two hypothetical plants, located on the same site, for which a preliminary design was made: a solar thermal power plant with parabolic trough collectors and a photovoltaic plant with a single-axis tracking system; •to carry out a comparative analysis of the environmental impact derived from the processes of electricity generation during the whole life cycle of the two hypothetical power plants. First a technical comparison between the two plants was made assuming that they have the same nominal electric power and then the same total covered surface. The methodology chosen to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the power plants is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). It allows to analyze all the phases of the life cycle of the plants, from the extraction of

  12. Joint energy demand and thermal comfort optimization in photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Simone; Karagevrekis, Athanasios; Michailidis, Iakovos T.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficient operation of photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids. • Optimized energy demand for a block of heterogeneous buildings with different sizes. • Multiobjective optimization: matching demand and supply taking into account thermal comfort. • Intelligent control mechanism for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning units. • Optimization of energy consumption and thermal comfort at the aggregate microgrid level. - Abstract: Electrical smart microgrids equipped with small-scale renewable-energy generation systems are emerging progressively as an alternative or an enhancement to the central electrical grid: due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources, appropriate algorithms are required to integrate these two typologies of grids and, in particular, to perform efficiently dynamic energy demand and distributed generation management, while guaranteeing satisfactory thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents a novel control algorithm for joint energy demand and thermal comfort optimization in photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids. Energy demand shaping is achieved via an intelligent control mechanism for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning units. The intelligent control mechanism takes into account the available solar energy, the building dynamics and the thermal comfort of the buildings’ occupants. The control design is accomplished in a simulation-based fashion using an energy simulation model, developed in EnergyPlus, of an interconnected microgrid. Rather than focusing only on how each building behaves individually, the optimization algorithm employs a central controller that allows interaction among the buildings of the microgrid. The control objective is to optimize the aggregate microgrid performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimization algorithm efficiently integrates the microgrid with the photovoltaic system that provides free electric energy: in

  13. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  14. Energy Efficiency Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Solar-Thermal Components lntegrating with Double Source Heat Pump System%太阳能光伏光热组件与双源热泵一体化系统节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新锐; 陈剑波; 王成武

    2018-01-01

    The integration of distributed solar photovoltaic solar -thermal components and double source heat pump system is a system combined with a variety of energy - saving technology, so it is necessary to study its energy saving property. Based on the comparison with the solar heat pump and air-source heat pump, through opening the double source mode and separately opening the water source mode,or running air source mode,the water-heating time of heating water tank and the input power of the heat pump are compared,it is concluded that the double heat source heat pump unit has higher energy efficiency than the single air source heat pump and the conventional solar heat pump unit.%考虑到分布式太阳能光伏光热组件与双源热泵一体化系统是一种结合多种节能技术的系统,有必要对其节能性进行研究.在对该系统与常规太阳能热泵、空气源热泵比较的基础上,选取冬天开启双源模式和单独开启水源模式、空气源模式时的3种工况,通过比较供热水箱完成制热水的时间和热泵输入功率,分析得出双热源热泵机组比单一的空气源热泵、常规太阳能热泵机组具有较高的节能性.

  15. Field trial of rural solar photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, P.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Banerjee, T.; Das, S.; Saha, H.

    Experience, costs, and performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems set up in a remote Indian village to power an adult literacy center and an irrigation pump are described. The center was furnished with a 14-module, 200 W array to power a television and three fluorescent lamps. The pumping installation has 20 modules for a 300 W output directly coupled to a 300-W dc pump motor. Data were gathered on the open circuit voltage, short circuit current, specific gravity of the battery fluid, degradation of the cells, nominal operating temperature of the cells, load currents, Amp-hours, water flow rate (pump), and the static head and draw down rate (pump). Monitoring of the array performances in the dusty environment showed that once/week cleaning is necessary. Al-substrates cracked at the center installation and sealant evaporation caused condensation which degraded the light transmissivity and thereby the short-circuit current of the modules. The combination of low-efficiency (5 pct) cells and cheap labor demonstrated economic operation without high-efficiency cells.

  16. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  17. Standard Specification for Solar Simulation for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This specification provides means for classifying solar simulators intended for indoor testing of photovoltaic devices (solar cells or modules), according to their spectral match to a reference spectral irradiance, non-uniformity of spatial irradiance, and temporal instability of irradiance. 1.2 Testing of photovoltaic devices may require the use of solar simulators. Test Methods that require specific classification of simulators as defined in this specification include Test Methods E948, E1036, and E1362. 1.3 This standard is applicable to both pulsed and steady state simulators and includes recommended test requirements used for classifying such simulators. 1.4 A solar simulator usually consists of three major components: (1) light source(s) and associated power supply; (2) any optics and filters required to modify the output beam to meet the classification requirements in Section 4; and (3) the necessary controls to operate the simulator, adjust irradiance, etc. 1.5 A light source that does not mee...

  18. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  19. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray imaging applied to solar photovoltaic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafford, T A; Villanova, J; Plassat, N; Dubois, S; Camel, D

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell performance is dictated by the material of the cell, its quality and purity, the type, quantity, size and distribution of defects, as well as surface treatments, deposited layers and contacts. A synchrotron offers unique opportunities for a variety of complementary X-ray techniques, given the brilliance, spectrum, energy tunability and potential for (sub-) micron-sized beams. Material properties are revealed within in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. X-ray Diffraction Imaging (X-ray Topography), Rocking Curve Imaging and Section Topography reveal defects such as dislocations, inclusions, misorientations and strain in the bulk and at surfaces. Simultaneous measurement of micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro-X-ray Beam Induced Current (μ-XBIC) gives direct correlation between impurities and PV performance. Together with techniques such as microscopy and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) measurements, the correlation between structural properties and photovoltaic performance can be deduced, as well as the relative influence of parameters such as defect type, size, spatial distribution and density (e.g [1]). Measurements may be applied at different stages of solar cell processing in order to follow the evolution of the material and its properties through the manufacturing process. Various grades of silicon are under study, including electronic and metallurgical grades in mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and mono-like forms. This paper aims to introduce synchrotron imaging to non-specialists, giving example results on selected solar photovoltaic silicon samples.

  1. The solar generation childhood and adolescence of terrestrial photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip R

    2018-01-01

    The first book to address the early development of the photovoltaic industry, and the pioneering researchers and companies in the sector. Well before the end of this century, solar power will be the world's dominant power source. This book looks at the origins of this smart sustainable energy technology, tracing the pioneering years from its inception following the 1973 oil crisis to the end of the last millennium—just as the sector was poised for explosive growth. It focuses on the progress of the early terrestrial photovoltaic sector, often in the face of skepticism or apathy. It also covers the research and achievements of people and organizations within the PV business. Written by a leader in the field with more than 40 years of experience and an international reputation in the sustainable energy industry, The Solar Generation: Childhood and Adolescence of Terrestrial Photovoltaics offers enlightening coverage on the terrestrial PV industry. The first part of this 3-volume set provides a historical bac...

  2. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deming; Xu Gang

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  3. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  4. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Bertoluzzi, Luca [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Bisquert, Juan, E-mail: bisquert@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Coll, Mariona [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Huang, Jinsong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States); Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg–Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico [INRS—Center Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Yuan, Yongbo [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  5. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  6. Public acceptance of residential solar photovoltaic technology in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Gaining independence from fossil fuels and combating climate change are the main factors to increase the generation of electricity from renewable fuels. Amongst the renewable technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV is believed to have the largest potential. However, the number of people adopting solar PV technologies is still relatively low. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the household consumers’ acceptance of solar PV technology being installed on their premises. Design/methodology/approach – To examine the solar PV technology acceptance, this study uses technology acceptance model (TAM as a reference framework. A survey was conducted to gather data and to validate the research model. Out of 780 questionnaires distributed across Malaysia, 663 were returned and validated. Findings – The analysis revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude to use significantly influenced behavioural intention to use solar PV technology. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes by extending the understanding of public inclination towards the adoption of solar PV technology. Also, this study contributes in identifying the areas which need to be examined further. However, collecting data from urban peninsular Malaysian respondents only limits the generalization of the results. Practical implications – On the policy front, this study reveals that governmental support is needed to trigger PV acceptance. Originality/value – This paper uses TAM to analyse the uptake of solar PV technology in Malaysian context.

  7. Enhancement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells by surface plasmon effect of palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Atyaoui, Atef; Khalifa, Marwen; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the surface Plasmon effect of Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on the photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells. Pd NPs were deposited on the p-type silicon base of the n+/p junction using a chemical deposition method in an aqueous solution containing Palladium (II) Nitrate (PdNO3)2 and Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH) followed by a thermal treatment at 500 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Chemical composition and surface morphology of the treated silicon base were examined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The effect of the deposited Pd NPs on the electrical properties was evaluated by the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The results indicate that the formation of the Pd NPs is accompanied by an enhanced light absorption and improved photovoltaic parameters.

  8. Cost reductions in photovoltaics - Solar selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzing, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of the economic recession on the solar industry. Whilst certain companies fight to survive, margins are sinking and badly-positioned companies and expensive technologies are being pushed out of the market. The author goes on to take a look at business figures and the throttling back of production, even in China. Sinking module prices and sufficient supplies of silicon are commented on. Top companies that provide good value for money are noted and markets such as that in the USA will, according to the author, develop further, thanks to government funding

  9. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  10. Thermal Analysis of Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Nicolas; de Correia, João Pedro Magalhães; Ahzi, Saïd; Khaleel, Mohammad Ahmed

    In this work, we propose to analyze the thermal behavior of PV panels using finite element simulations (FEM). We applied this analysis to compute the temperature distribution in a PV panel BP 350 subjected to different atmospheric conditions. This analysis takes into account existing formulations in the literature and, based on NOCT conditions, meteorological data was used to validate our approach for different wind speed and solar irradiance. The electrical performance of the PV panel was also studied. The proposed 2D FEM analysis is applied to different region's climates and was also used to consider the role of thermal inertia on the optimization of the PV device efficiency.

  11. Hydrogen as the solar energy translator. [in photochemical and photovoltaic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Many concepts are being investigated to convert sunlight to workable energy forms with emphasis on electricity and thermal energy. The electrical alternatives include direct conversion of photons to electricity via photovoltaic solar cells and solar/thermal production of electricity via heat-energy cycles. Solar cells, when commercialized, are expected to have efficiencies of about 12 to 14 percent. The cells would be active about eight hours per day. However, solar-operated water-splitting process research, initiated through JPL, shows promise for direct production of hydrogen from sunlight with efficiencies of up to 35 to 40 percent. The hydrogen, a valuable commodity in itself, can also serve as a storable energy form, easily and efficiently converted to electricity by fuel cells and other advanced-technology devices on a 24-hour basis or on demand with an overall efficiency of 25 to 30 percent. Thus, hydrogen serves as the fundamental translator of energy from its solar form to electrical form more effectively, and possibly more efficiently, than direct conversion. Hydrogen also can produce other chemical energy forms using solar energy.

  12. Detecting photovoltaic solar panels using hyperspectral imagery and estimating solar power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirjak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.

  13. A miniature concentrating photovoltaic and thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Kaftori, Daniel; Mittelman, Gur; Hirshfeld, Amir; Flitsanov, Yuri; Dayan, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    A novel miniature concentrating PV (MCPV) system is presented and analyzed. The system is producing both electrical and thermal energy, which is supplied to a nearby consumer. In contrast to PV/thermal (PV/T) flat collectors, the heat from an MCPV collector is not limited to low-temperature applications. The work reported here refers to the evaluation and preliminary design of the MCPV approach. The heat transport system, the electric and thermal performance, the manufacturing cost, and the resulting cost of energy in case of domestic water heating have been analyzed. The results show that the new approach has promising prospects

  14. Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Radziemska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present commercial photovoltaic solar cells (PV converts solar energy into electricity with a relatively low efficiency, less than 20%. More than 80% of the absorbed solar energy is dumped to the surroundings again after photovoltaic conversion. Hybrid PV/T systems consist of PV modules coupled with the heat extraction devices. The PV/T collectors generate electric power and heat simultaneously. Stabilizing temperature of photovoltaic modules at low level is higly desirable to obtain efficiency increase. The total efficiency of 60–80% can be achieved with the whole PV/T system provided that the T system is operated near ambient temperature. The value of the low-T heat energy is typically much smaller than the value of the PV electricity. The PV/T systems can exist in many designs, but the most common models are with the use of water or air as a working fuid. Efficiency is the most valuable parameter for the economic analysis. It has substantial meaning in the case of installations with great nominal power, as air-cooled Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems (BIPV. In this paper the performance analysis of a hybrid PV/T system is presented: an energetic analysis as well as an exergetic analysis. Exergy is always destroyed when a process involves a temperature change. This destruction is proportional to the entropy increase of the system together with its surroundings—the destroyed exergy has been called anergy. Exergy analysis identifies the location, the magnitude, and the sources of thermodynamic inefficiences in a system. This information, which cannot be provided by other means (e.g., an energy analysis, is very useful for the improvement and cost-effictiveness of the system. Calculations were carried out for the tested water-cooled ASE-100-DGL-SM Solarwatt module.

  15. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  16. Experimental study of a photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, H.D.; Pei, G.; Ji, J.; Long, H.; Zhang, T.; Chow, T.T.

    2012-01-01

    A practical design for a heat pump with heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is presented. The hybrid system is called the photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe (PV-SAHP/HP) system. To focus on both actual demand and energy savings, the PV-SAHP/HP system was designed to be capable of operating in three different modes, namely, the heat-pipe, solar-assisted heat pump, and air-source heat-pump modes. Based on solar radiation, the system operates in an optimal mode. A series of experiments were conducted in Hong Kong to study the performance of the system when operating in the heat-pipe and the solar-assisted heat-pump modes. Moreover, energy and exergy analyses were used to investigate the total PV/T performance of the system. - Highlights: ► A novel PV-SAHP/HP system with three different operating modes was proposed. ► Performance of the PV-SAHP/HP system was studied experimentally. ► A optimal operating mode of the PV-SAHP/HP system was suggested in this paper.

  17. Development of a solar tracker for photovoltaic applications; Desenvolvimento de um rastreador solar para aplicacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Daniel Rizzo; Lacerda Filho, Adilio Flauzino de; Resende, Ricardo C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: daniel.carvalho@ufv.br; Possi, Maurilio A [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao; Ferreira, Ana Paula S [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2012-11-01

    In this work are presented the design, construction and relevant results related to the production of electricity using a photovoltaic panel attached to the solar tracking mechanism. The objective was to develop a tracking device with high accuracy, reliable, low cost, high efficiency and easy operation, aiming at the possibility of residential, agricultural and industrial use of solar photovoltaic technologies with high efficiency of conversion. Was evaluated the performance of the tracker, comparing it to a fixed system and based on results analyzed, was observed a significant increase in energy production of photovoltaic panel attached to the tracking system, in relation to the fixed system the slope of the local latitude. Its performance was satisfactory, electromechanical structure requires no maintenance during the trial even when exposed to various weather conditions. The system showed great potential for application, usability and effectivity. (author)

  18. The market of solar and photovoltaic energies. Grid parity, new support mechanisms, and innovations in financing modes: perspectives by 2018 and overview of actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This study first proposes an analysis and a discussion of perspectives for the sector of solar and photovoltaic energies. It identifies the main determining factors of the sector activity, proposes an overview of the sector activity between 2006 and 2015 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, production of photovoltaic electricity, installations on private dwellings, electricity price, foreign trade of photovoltaic arrays, turnover for the solar thermal and photovoltaic sector), discusses perspectives by 2018 in terms of installed power, of turnover, and of opportunities and threats. The second part proposes a description of the sector context: analysis of structural brakes and drivers, overview of the world market, installed power and photovoltaic electricity production in Europe, and overview of the French context of photovoltaic solar energy (energy policy, commitment of public authorities, electricity purchase tariff, and competitiveness of photovoltaic electricity). The third part evokes highlights of the sector and discusses the offer evolution: emergence of new financing modes, technological innovations, diversification of activity, international activity of French actors, and takeovers and optimisation of organisations. The fourth part reports an analysis of the competition context: competition pressure on array manufacturers, pressure on solar plant operators, and analysis of substitutes to solar energy. The fifth part proposes an overview of the economic structure and existing competing forces of the sector in France, and provides sheets of data for the main French actors. The last part proposes economic and financial indicators to assess and compare the performance of 200 enterprises belonging to this sector

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  20. Efficiencies and improvement potential of building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Fudholi, Ahmad; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances analysis of BIPVT solar collector based on energy and exergy analyses. • A new absorber design of BIPVT solar collector is presented. • BIPVT solar collector is produced primary-energy saving efficiency from about 73% to 81%. • PVT energy efficiency varies between 55% and 62% where as the variation in the PVT exergy efficiency is from 12% to 14%. • The improvement potential is between 98 and 404 W. - Abstract: Building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) system has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water and later integrated to building. The hot water is produced at the useful temperatures for the applications in Malaysia such as building integrated heating system and domestic hot water system as well as many industrial including agricultural and commercial applications. The photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system comprises of a high efficiency multicrystal photovoltaic (PV) module and spiral flow absorber for BIPVT application, have been performed and investigated. In this study, it was assumed that the absorber was attached underneath the flat plate single glazing sheet of polycrystalline silicon PV module and water has been used as a heat transfer medium in absorber. Performances analysis of BIPVT system based on energy and exergy analyses. It was based on efficiencies including energy and exergy, and exergetic improvement potential (IP) based on the metrological condition of Malaysia has been carried out. Results show that the hourly variation for BIPVT system, the PVT energy efficiency of 55–62% is higher than the PVT exergy efficiency of 12–14%. The improvement potential increases with increasing solar radiation, it is between 98 and 404 W. On the other hand, BIPVT system was produced primary-energy saving efficiency from about 73% to 81%

  1. Competing in the Global Solar Photovoltaic Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Su

    2013-01-01

    The top five solar cell supply countries in the world in sequential order are China, Taiwan, the United States of America, Japan, and Germany. The capacity of Taiwanese solar cell production is ranked top two in the globe. The competitive advantage of the Taiwanese electronics firms has facilitated the rapid developments to its solar photovoltaic industry. The Taiwanese solar photovoltaic industry possesses a large size and a complete value chain of upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors...

  2. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetzel, M. [Institut de Chimie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic DC Systems: Basics and Safety: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, Peter F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sekulic, William R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dreifuerst, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - retired

    2018-04-02

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and growing with 42.4 GW installed capacity in U.S. (almost 15 GW added in 2016). This paper will help electrical workers, and emergency responders understand the basic operating principles and hazards of PV DC arrays. We briefly discuss the following aspects of solar photovoltaic (PV) DC systems: the effects of solar radiation and temperature on output power; PV module testing standards; common system configurations; a simple PV array sizing example; NEC guidelines and other safety features; DC array commissioning, periodic maintenance and testing; arc-flash hazard potential; how electrical workers and emergency responders can and do work safely around PV arrays; do moonlight and artificial lighting pose a real danger; typical safe operating procedures; and other potential DC-system hazards to be aware of. We also present some statistics on PV DC array electrical incidents and injuries. Safe PV array operation is possible with a good understanding of PV DC arrays basics and having good safe operating procedures in place.

  4. New Prototype of Photovoltaic Solar Tracker Based on Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The global increase in energy demand and exponential exhaustion of fossil recourses has favored the development of new systems of electricity production. Photovoltaic solar energy is undoubtedly one that has the highest application in housings, due to its simplicity and easy implementation. In this work, a new prototype of photovoltaic solar tracker with Arduino platform was developed. Feedback control system that allows carrying out solar tracking with two axes using a stepper motor and linear actuator was established through an electronic circuit based on photodiodes. Moreover, real construction of the prototype was carried out, where the effectiveness of the design and its capacity to draw a maximum benefit of an incident radiation can be observed, placing the panel perpendicularly to the received energy and improving its performance for its application in future installations in housings. Results obtained from the comparison between the developed prototype and a static panel oriented according to the latitude of the area, show about 18% energy gain.

  5. Turning the Moon into a Solar Photovoltaic Paradise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Alex; Alemu, Andenet; Williams, Lawrence; Nakamura, Takashi; Sibille, Laurent; Curren, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Lunar resource utilization has focused principally on the extraction of oxygen from the lunar regolith. A number of schemes have been proposed for oxygen extraction from Ilmenite and Anorthite. Serendipitously, these schemes have as their by-products (or more directly as their "waste products"), materials needed for the fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells. Thus lunar surface possesses both the elemental components needed for the fabrication of silicon solar cells and a vacuum environment that allows for vacuum deposition of thin film solar cells directly on the surface of the Moon without the need for vacuum chambers. In support of the US space exploration initiative a new architecture for the production of thin film solar cells on directly on the lunar surface is proposed. The paper discusses experimental data on the fabrication and properties of lunar glass substrates, evaporated lunar regolith thin films (anti-reflect coatings and insulators), and preliminary attempts in the fabrication of thin film (silicon/II-VI) photovoltaic materials on lunar regolith glass substrates. A conceptual design for a solar powered robotic rover capable of fabricating solar cells directly on the lunar surface is provided. Technical challenges in the development of such a facility and strategies to alleviate perceived difficulties are discussed.

  6. Solar-Thermal Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen; Salvail, Pat; Haynes, Davy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle. collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (I(sub sp)). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemical vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine 'module' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to Supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine I(sub sp). In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational

  7. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells with excellent sub-bandgap transmission for third generation photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2013-10-07

    Semi-transparent organic photovoltaics are of interest for a variety of photovoltaic applications, including solar windows and hybrid tandem photovoltaics. The figure shows a photograph of our semi-transparent solar cell, which has a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, with an above bandgap transmission of 34% and a sub-bandgap transmission of 81%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A comparison of performance of flat and bent photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vishwanathan, B.; Reinders, A. H.M.E.; de Boer, D.K.G.; Desmet, L.; Ras, A. J.M.; Zahn, F. H.; Debije, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    To employ new solar photovoltaic technologies in products and buildings, many systems need to be adapted. Inspired by the cylindrical shape, in this work we have evaluated the performance of luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC-PV) elements with narrow PV cell strips that could be

  9. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  10. Securitization of residential solar photovoltaic assets: Costs, risks and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alafita, T.; Pearce, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Limited access to low-cost financing is an impediment to high-velocity technological diffusion and high grid penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Securitization of solar assets provides a potential solution to this problem. This paper assesses the viability of solar asset-backed securities (ABS) as a lower cost financing mechanism and identifies policies that could facilitate implementation of securitization. First, traditional solar financing is examined to provide a baseline for cost comparisons. Next, the securitization process is modeled. The model enables identification of several junctures at which risk and uncertainty influence costs. Next, parameter values are assigned and used to generate cost estimates. Results show that, under reasonable assumptions, securitization of solar power purchase agreements (PPA) can significantly reduce project financing costs, suggesting that securitization is a viable mechanism for improving the financing of PV projects. The clear impediment to the successful launch of a solar ABS is measuring and understanding the riskiness of underlying assets. This study identifies three classes of policy intervention that lower the cost of ABS by reducing risk or by improving the measurement of risk: (i) standardization of contracts and the contracting process, (ii) improved access to contract and equipment performance data, and (iii) geographic diversification. - Highlights: • Limited access to low-cost financing is hampering penetration of solar PV. • Solar asset-backed securities (ABS) provide a low cost financing mechanism. • Results for securitization of solar leases and power purchase agreements (PPA). • Securitization can significantly reduce project financing costs. • Identifies policy intervention that lower cost of ABS by reducing risk

  11. Thermal characteristics of a medium-level concentration photovoltaic unit with evaporation cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotov, Yuri V.; Reyz, Michael A.; Fisher, Yossi

    2009-08-01

    The results of thermal analysis and experiments are presented for a 1-kW brand new medium-level (8X) concentration photovoltaic (CPV) unit that is cooled by evaporation and built as an elongated floating solar unit. The unit keeps the silicon PV elements at low and stable temperature around the clock, significantly outperforms competitors' systems in terms of the power output and the life span of identical PV elements. It is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that the PV element temperature level exceeds the temperature level of water in the water basin (used as a heat sink) by just a few degrees.

  12. Optical and mechanical tolerances in hybrid concentrated thermal-PV solar trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liliana Ruiz; Cocilovo, Byron; Miles, Alexander; Pan, Wei; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Norwood, Robert A

    2018-05-14

    Hybrid thermal-PV solar trough collectors combine concentrated photovoltaics and concentrated solar power technology to harvest and store solar energy. In this work, the optical and mechanical requirements for optimal efficiency are analyzed using non-sequential ray tracing techniques. The results are used to generate opto-mechanical tolerances that can be compared to those of traditional solar collectors. We also explore ideas on how to relieve tracking tolerances for single-axis solar collectors. The objective is to establish a basis for tolerances required for the fabrication and manufacturing of hybrid solar trough collectors.

  13. Solar Thermal Utilization: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    SO•C NON-FOCUSSING FLAT PLATE / (FPC) 100- 150•C For low temperature 50- 200•C COMPOUND applications PARABOLIC EVACUATED CONCENTRATOR ~ (ETC...2030 Ø 200GW BY 2050 Ø 20 MILLION SQ.METER SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS (20GW power) Ø 20 MILLION SOLAR LIGHTS LAUNCHING OF SOLAR INDIA SOLAR THERMAL...Temperature (20oC- 80oC) NALSUN ApplicationsThermal Conversion range SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTORS 40- GO•C UNGLAZED COLLECTORS 60- 90•C SOLAR POND 60

  14. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  15. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  16. Automatic data acquisition system for a photovoltaic solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Barrio, C.L.; Guerra, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    An autonomous monitoring system for photovoltaic solar plants is described. The system is able to collect data about the plant's physical and electrical characteristics and also about the environmental conditions. It may present the results on a display, if requested, but its main function is measuring periodically a set of parameters, including several points in the panel I-V characteristics, in an unattended mode. The data are stored on a magnetic tape for later processing on a computer. The system hardware and software are described, as well as their main functions.

  17. Concrete Embedded Dye-Synthesized Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, T.; Flores-Vivian, I.; Sobolev, K.; Kouklin, N.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190?mV and ISC of ~9??A, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46?mW confirmed...

  18. The solarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, G.D.; Grasse, W.

    1997-01-01

    IEA(International Energy Agency)/SolarPACES(Solar Power and Chemical Energy systems)represents a world wide coalition for information sharing and collaboration on applications of concentrated solar energy. The current SolarPACES community has built up solar thermal system know-how over 15 years, is operating the three main solar test centres in the world. Its main activities are in the following four fields: solar thermal electric power systems, solar chemistry, solar technology and advanced applications and non-technical activities. The article presents the talk on the strategy of solarPACES given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. (A.A.D.)

  19. Energy and exergy analysis of photovoltaic-thermal collector with and without glass cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.; Pei, G.; Fong, K.F.; Lin, Z.; Chan, A.L.S.; Ji, J.

    2009-01-01

    In photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) technology, the use of glass cover on the flat-plate hybrid solar collector is favorable to the photothermic process but not to the photovoltaic process. Because of the difference in the usefulness of electricity and thermal energy, there is often no straight forward answer on whether a glazed or unglazed collector system is more suitable for a specific application. This glazing issue was tackled in this paper from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Based on experimental data and validated numerical models, a study of the appropriateness of glass cover on a thermosyphon-based water-heating PV/T system was carried out. The influences of six selected operating parameters were evaluated. From the first law point of view, a glazed PV/T system is found always suitable if we are to maximize the quantity of either the thermal or the overall energy output. From the exergy analysis point of view however, the increase of PV cell efficiency, packing factor, water mass to collector area ratio, and wind velocity are found favorable to go for an unglazed system, whereas the increase of on-site solar radiation and ambient temperature are favorable for a glazed system

  20. Residential Photovoltaic/Thermal Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed system supplies house with both heat and electricity. Pair of reports describes concept for self-sufficient heating, cooling, and power-generating system for house. Panels on walls of house provide hot water, space heating, and heat to charge heat-storage system, and generate electricity for circulation pumps and fans. Roof panels generate electricity for household, operate heat pump for summer cooling, and provide supplementary winter heating via heat pump, using solar-cell cooling-fluid loop. Wall and roof panels used independently.

  1. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  2. Geometric photovoltaics applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Timothy

    Geometrically generalized analytical expressions for device transport are derived from first principles for a photovoltaic junction. Subsequently, conventional planar and unconventional coaxial and hemispherical photovoltaic architectures are applied to detail the device physics of the junction based on their respective geometry. For the conventional planar cell, the one-dimensional transport equations governing carrier dynamics are recovered. For the unconventional coaxial and hemispherical junction designs, new multi-dimensional transport equations are revealed. Physical effects such as carrier generation and recombination are compared for each cell architecture, providing insight as to how non-planar junctions may potentially enable greater energy conversion efficiencies. Numerical simulations are performed for arrays of vertically aligned, nanostructured coaxial and hemispherical amorphous silicon solar cells and results are compared to those from simulations performed for the standard planar junction. Results indicate that fundamental physical changes in the spatial dependence of the energy band profile across the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon p-i-n junction manifest as an increase in recombination current for non-planar photovoltaic architectures. Despite an increase in recombination current, however, the coaxial architecture still appears to be able to surpass the efficiency predicted for the planar geometry, due to the geometry of the junction leading to a decoupling of optics and electronics.

  3. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic panel driven refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, C. S.; Singh, Dharmendra; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) panel driven refrigeration system employs solar PV panel and play a vital role when combined with storage batteries. The variation in performance of solar PV panel driven refrigeration system has been experimentally investigated in this paper. The change in battery voltage is analyzed with respect to panel size. Different series and parallel combinations have been applied on four solar PV panels of 35W each to get 24V. With the above combination a current in the range of 3-5 ampere has been obtained depending upon the solar intensity. A refrigerator of 110 W and 50 liters is used in the present investigation which requires 0.80 ampere AC at 230 V. The required current and voltage has been obtained from an inverter which draws about 7 ampere DC from the battery bank at 24V. The compressor of the refrigerator consumed 110W which required a PV panel size of 176 W approximately. It is important to note that the compressor consumed about 300W for first 50 milliseconds, 130 W for next five seconds and gradually comes to 110 W in 65 seconds. Thus panel size should be such that it may compensate for the initial load requirement.

  4. Assessment of high penetration of solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)

  5. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage. PMID:27796309

  6. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  7. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic study of the properties of various polymer pottant materials and of the electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell materials is required for advancing the technology of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. The items of specific concern in this sponsored research activity involve: (1) kinetics of plasticizer loss in PVB, (2) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in PVB, (3) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in EVA, (4) the electrical properties at PVB as a function of temperature and humidity, (5) the electrical properties of EVA as a function of temperature and humidity, (6) solar cell corrosion characteristics, (7) water absorption effects in PVB and EVA, and (8) ion implantation and radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  8. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Hussain, Sajid

    Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2 -water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  9. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  10. Advances in solar thermal energy in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Noceto, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the law 18585 which declared de solar thermal energy as national interest. This law establishes the obligation to incorporate solar heating systems in health care centers, hotels and sports clubs.

  11. Optically Transparent Thermally Insulating Silica Aerogels for Solar Thermal Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Kim, Hannah; Nagarajan, Naveen; Lopez, Mateusz; Kantharaj, Rajath; Alsaati, Albraa; Marconnet, Amy; Lenert, Andrej; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2018-04-18

    Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance (i.e., 1 sun). The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses. Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize reradiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces. Silica based aerogels coated on black surfaces have the potential to act as simple and inexpensive solar thermal collectors because of their high transmission to solar radiation and low transmission to thermal radiation. To demonstrate their heat-trapping properties, we fabricated tetramethyl orthosilicate-based silica aerogels. A hydrophilic aerogel with a thickness of 1 cm exhibited a solar-averaged transmission of 76% and thermally averaged transmission of ≈1% (at 100 °C). To minimize unwanted solar absorption by O-H groups, we functionalized the aerogel to be hydrophobic, resulting in a solar-averaged transmission of 88%. To provide a deeper understanding of the link between aerogel properties and overall efficiency, we developed a coupled radiative-conductive heat transfer model and used it to predict solar thermal performance. Instantaneous solar thermal efficiencies approaching 55% at 1 sun and 80 °C were predicted. This study sheds light on the applicability of silica aerogels on black coatings for solar thermal collectors and offers design priorities for next-generation solar thermal aerogels.

  12. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  13. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  14. Design, modeling and performance analysis of dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module in the cold environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay; Avasthi, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent PVT hybrid module. • Exergy and carbon credit analysis has been performed. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar (India). • There are improvements in results for case-I as compared to case-II. - Abstract: In this work, thermal modeling and performance analysis of the dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (DCSPVT) module has been carried out. For extracting heat associated with the lower and upper surface of the solar cell, two channels have been proposed; (i) one is above the solar cell called upper channel and (ii) second is below the solar cell called lower channel. Firstly, thermal modeling of DCSPVT module has been developed. After that, performance analysis of the above system has been carried out for Srinagar, Indian climatic condition. Performance in terms of electrical gain (EG), thermal gain (TG), overall exergy gain (OEG), overall thermal gain (OTG), electrical efficiency (EE) and overall exergy efficiency (OEE) of the DCSPVT module (case-I) have been compared with single channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (SCSPVT) hybrid module (case-II). The average improvement in EG, TG, OEG, OTG of the case-I have been observed by 71.51%, 34.57%, 5.78% and 35.41% respectively as compared to case-II.

  15. A dynamic model for air-based photovoltaic thermal systems working under real operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohel, M. Imroz; Ma, Zhenjun; Cooper, Paul; Adams, Jamie; Scott, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic model suitable for air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. • The model is validated with PVT data from two unique buildings. • The simulated output variables match very well with the experimental data. • The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is analysed. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic model suitable for simulating real operating conditions of air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. The performance of the model is validated by using the operational data collected from the building integrated photovoltaic (PVT) systems installed in two unique buildings. The modelled air outlet temperature and electrical power match very well with the experimental data. In Solar Decathlon house PVT, the average (RMS) error in air outlet temperatures was 4.2%. The average (RMS) error in electrical power was also 4.2%. In the Sustainable Buildings Research Centre PVT, the average errors (RMS) of PV and air temperatures were 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is also analysed in this paper. The analysis includes the effect of ambient air temperature, air inlet temperature, air flow rate and solar irradiation on thermal, electrical, first law and second law efficiencies. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies almost linearly increased with the increase of the ambient temperature. However, the PVT electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency decreased with the increase of the ambient temperature. All efficiencies expect the second law efficiency decreased with increase of the PVT air inlet temperature. The second law efficiency first increased and then reduced. With increasing the air flow rate all the efficiencies increased. The electrical and second law efficiencies become less sensitive when the air flow rate exceeded 300 l/s. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies decreased while the electrical

  16. Flexible all-carbon photovoltaics with improved thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet; Chen, Yen-Chang; Siordia, Andrew; Martini, Ashlie; Tung, Vincent C., E-mail: ctung@ucmerced.edu

    2015-04-15

    The structurally robust nature of nanocarbon allotropes, e.g., semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and C{sub 60}s, makes them tantalizing candidates for thermally stable and mechanically flexible photovoltaic applications. However, C{sub 60}s rapidly dissociate away from the basal of SWCNTs under thermal stimuli as a result of weak intermolecular forces that “lock up” the binary assemblies. Here, we explore use of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as geometrically tailored protecting layers to suppress the unwanted dissociation of C{sub 60}s. The underlying mechanisms are explained using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and transition state theory, revealing the temperature dependent disassociation of C{sub 60}s from the SWCNT basal plane. Our strategy provides fundamental guidelines for integrating all-carbon based nano-p/n junctions with optimized structural and thermal stability. External quantum efficiency and output current–voltage characteristics are used to experimentally quantify the effectiveness of GNR membranes under high temperature annealing. Further, the resulting C{sub 60}:SWCNT:GNR ternary composites display excellent mechanical stability, even after iterative bending tests. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of solvent resistant, mechanically flexible and electrically addressable 2-D soft graphene nanoribbons facilitates the assembly of photoconductive carbon nano-p/n junctions for thermally stable and flexible photovoltaic cells.

  17. Flexible all-carbon photovoltaics with improved thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chun; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Sodhi, Jaskiranjeet; Chen, Yen-Chang; Siordia, Andrew; Martini, Ashlie; Tung, Vincent C.

    2015-01-01

    The structurally robust nature of nanocarbon allotropes, e.g., semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and C 60 s, makes them tantalizing candidates for thermally stable and mechanically flexible photovoltaic applications. However, C 60 s rapidly dissociate away from the basal of SWCNTs under thermal stimuli as a result of weak intermolecular forces that “lock up” the binary assemblies. Here, we explore use of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as geometrically tailored protecting layers to suppress the unwanted dissociation of C 60 s. The underlying mechanisms are explained using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and transition state theory, revealing the temperature dependent disassociation of C 60 s from the SWCNT basal plane. Our strategy provides fundamental guidelines for integrating all-carbon based nano-p/n junctions with optimized structural and thermal stability. External quantum efficiency and output current–voltage characteristics are used to experimentally quantify the effectiveness of GNR membranes under high temperature annealing. Further, the resulting C 60 :SWCNT:GNR ternary composites display excellent mechanical stability, even after iterative bending tests. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of solvent resistant, mechanically flexible and electrically addressable 2-D soft graphene nanoribbons facilitates the assembly of photoconductive carbon nano-p/n junctions for thermally stable and flexible photovoltaic cells.

  18. Hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrizal, N.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal dynamic model is presented. ► The model, once calibrated, can predict the power output for any set of climate data. ► The physical electrical model includes explicitly thermal and irradiance dependences. ► The results agree with those obtained through steady-state characterization. ► The model approaches the junction cell temperature through the system energy balance. -- Abstract: A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal transient model has been developed and validated experimentally. The methodology extends the quasi-dynamic thermal model stated in the EN 12975 in order to involve the electrical performance and consider the dynamic behavior minimizing constraints when characterizing the collector. A backward moving average filtering procedure has been applied to improve the model response for variable working conditions. Concerning the electrical part, the model includes the thermal and radiation dependences in its variables. The results revealed that the characteristic parameters included in the model agree reasonably well with the experimental values obtained from the standard steady-state and IV characteristic curve measurements. After a calibration process, the model is a suitable tool to predict the thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid solar collector, for a specific weather data set.

  19. Polymeric materials for solar thermal applications

    CERN Document Server

    Köhl, Michael; Papillon, Philippe; Wallner, Gernot M; Saile, Sandrin

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications.Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, dis

  20. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  1. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  2. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  3. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Mahmood

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2-water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary. Keywords: Solar energy, Thermal collectors, Maxwell-nanofluid, Thermal radiation, Partial slip, Variable thermal conductivity

  4. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  5. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Solvent additives for tuning the photovoltaic properties of polymer – fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sio, Antonietta De; Madena, Thomas; Huber, Ralph; Deschler, Felix; Como, Enrico Da; Esposito, Salvatore; Hauff, Elizabeth Von

    2011-01-01

    We use solvent additives as a simple method to tune the photovoltaic performance of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojuncton solar cells. 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) was used as the reference solvent; chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2,3,4-

  6. Solar warming systems of water installed in Colombia. Photovoltaic solar systems installed in the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    Between the systems that operate as of solar energy, the solar collectors to heat water have had wide use and application in the Country. Basically, a solar collector is constituted by: Box, thermal insulator, ducts and transparent roof. Generally, the used materials are the following: As thermal insulator: Polyurethane or glass fiber; as absorbent plate: Copper or aluminum, painting in dull black or selective surfaces; for the ducts: Generally it is used copper pipeline; and for the cover: Common glass or temperate glass

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Applications in France. National Survey Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Yvonnick; Jacquin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    According to a report by the French Renewable Energy Syndicate (SER), France had an installed photovoltaic fleet of 180 MW in late 2008, a substantial increase from 2007 (75 MW). This growth is largely due to the government's market-supporting policy that implemented a tax and tariff policy which encourages individuals to invest in so-called 'building integrated' systems; the goal of this policy is to bring together innovation in the building industry and the development of renewable energy among the French energy mix. The key event for the future of renewable energy and the photovoltaic sector in France was the 'Grenelle of the Environment'. This government initiative, launched in late 2007, became the subject of public debate and afterwards led to a bill which set the conditions under which France wishes to grow solar power's share of its energy mix. Working committees that bring together representatives from government authorities and industrial and public renewable energy stakeholders have proposed benchmarks. A few proposals with particular significance for photovoltaic power have been adopted by the government: - objectives for PV cumulative installed capacity in France of 1 100 MW in 2012 and 5 400 MW in 2020; - confirmation until 2012 of the current feed-in tariffs and the creation of an additional one targeting installations on large buildings such as commercial and industrial sheds. This tariff shall be set approximately at 0,45 EUR per kWh; - a call for tenders for the construction by 2011 of at least one solar photovoltaic power plant in each French region, for a total installed capacity of 300 MW. The nationally initiated actions for growing the market are heavily relayed by public assistance to regional councils, general councils, communities of communes and communes themselves, in accordance with their own particular specifications. The incentive to purchase electricity produced by built-in installations has caused a

  8. Photovoltaic thermal module concepts and their performance analysis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M. Arif; Sumathy, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the available literature covering the latest module aspects of different photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and their performances in terms of electrical as well as thermal output. The review covers detailed description of flat-plate and concentrating PV/T systems, using liquid or air as the working fluid, numerical model analysis, experimental work and qualitative evaluation of thermal and electrical output. Also an in-depth review on the performance parameters such as, optimum mass flow rate, PV/T dimensions, air channel geometry is presented in this study. Based on the thorough review, it is clear that PV/T modules are very promising devices and there exists lot of scope to further improve their performances. Appropriate recommendations are made which will aid PV/T systems to improve their efficiency and reducing their cost, making them more competitive in the present market. (author)

  9. Photovoltaic thermal module concepts and their performance analysis: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, M. Arif; Sumathy, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents a review of the available literature covering the latest module aspects of different photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and their performances in terms of electrical as well as thermal output. The review covers detailed description of flat-plate and concentrating PV/T systems, using liquid or air as the working fluid, numerical model analysis, experimental work and qualitative evaluation of thermal and electrical output. Also an in-depth review on the performance parameters such as, optimum mass flow rate, PV/T dimensions, air channel geometry is presented in this study. Based on the thorough review, it is clear that PV/T modules are very promising devices and there exists lot of scope to further improve their performances. Appropriate recommendations are made which will aid PV/T systems to improve their efficiency and reducing their cost, making them more competitive in the present market. (author)

  10. The Importance of Accurate Solar Data for Designing Solar Photovoltaic Systems—Case Studies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Jiménez-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies have experienced a great growth in recent years, and nowadays participate in the set of energies used in developed and developing countries to produce electricity. Among these technologies, photovoltaic energy, which produces clean electricity from the Sun, is the one that has grown faster, and its implementation all over the world is a guarantee of a solid and efficient energy technology. Nevertheless, in order to design very efficient solar energy systems, it is crucial to have a good solar radiation database. There are databases where it is possible to find information on solar radiation, but only for horizontal surfaces. Afterwards, it is necessary to transform the horizontal solar radiation data to tilt solar radiation data. This transformation is not easy, and the application of complex mathematical equations, and expressions, and difficult algorithms must be done. An application called virtual laboratory “OrientSol 3.0” which allows the user to easily obtain the solar radiation for any tilt surface has been developed by us. Thus, our main objectives in this paper are to present the developed virtual laboratory and to explain its main features and core functionalities. In order to point out the difficulties and complexity of the transformation of horizontal solar radiation data to tilt solar radiation data, we will present some examples of the results this application provides and compare the solar radiation data supplied with this application with some other solar radiation data obtained from other databases.

  11. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

  12. Dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Shen, Jingchun; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A transient model was developed to predict dynamic performance of new PV/LHP system. • The model accuracy was validated by experiment giving less than 9% in error. • The new system had basic and advanced performance coefficients of 5.51 and 8.71. • The new system had a COP 1.5–4 times that for conventional heat pump systems. • The new system had higher exergetic efficiency than PV and solar collector systems. - Abstract: Objective of the paper is to present an investigation into the dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for potential use in space heating or hot water generation. The methods used include theoretical computer simulation, experimental verification, analysis and comparison. The fundamental equations governing the transient processes of solar transmission, heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic (PV) power generation were appropriately integrated to address the energy balances occurring in different parts of the system, e.g., glazing cover, PV cells, fin sheet, loop heat pipe, heat pump cycle and water tank. A dedicated computer model was developed to resolve the above grouping equations and consequently predict the system’s dynamic performance. An experimental rig was constructed and operated under the real weather conditions for over one week in Shanghai to evaluate the system living performance, which was undertaken by measurement of various operational parameters, e.g., solar radiation, photovoltaic power generation, temperatures and heat pump compressor consumption. On the basis of the first- (energetic) and second- (exergetic) thermodynamic laws, an overall evaluation approach was proposed and applied to conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the PV/LHP module’s efficiency, which involved use of the basic thermal performance coefficient (COP th ) and the advanced performance coefficient (COP PV/T ) of such a system. Moreover, a simple comparison

  13. Solar thermal electricity production. A building block for the energy turnaround?; Solarthermische Stromerzeugung. Ein Baustein fuer die Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) e.V., Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung

    2012-12-15

    Whereas in Germany enthusiasm for solar thermal power plants has subsided following the inglorious insolvency of Solar Millennium AG, internationally the market is livening up again. This has to do with the fact that many countries have now understood that security of supply cannot be founded on photovoltaics and wind alone in the long term. Solar thermal power could thus yet become an important building block in Germany's energy supply system as it continues to pursue the energy turnaround.

  14. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  15. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic solar panels of crystalline silicon: Characterization and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo Ribeiro; Benevit, Mariana Gonçalves; Veit, Hugo Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Photovoltaic panels have a limited lifespan and estimates show large amounts of solar modules will be discarded as electronic waste in a near future. In order to retrieve important raw materials, reduce production costs and environmental impacts, recycling such devices is important. Initially, this article investigates which silicon photovoltaic module's components are recyclable through their characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Next, different separation methods are tested to favour further recycling processes. The glass was identified as soda-lime glass, the metallic filaments were identified as tin-lead coated copper, the panel cells were made of silicon and had silver filaments attached to it and the modules' frames were identified as aluminium, all of which are recyclable. Moreover, three different components segregation methods have been studied. Mechanical milling followed by sieving was able to separate silver from copper while chemical separation using sulphuric acid was able to detach the semiconductor material. A thermo gravimetric analysis was performed to evaluate the use of a pyrolysis step prior to the component's removal. The analysis showed all polymeric fractions present degrade at 500 °C. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Performance of Photovoltaic Modules of Different Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Gaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt of performance evaluation of semitransparent and opaque photovoltaic (PV modules of different generation solar cells, having the maximum efficiencies reported in the literature at standard test conditions (STC, has been carried out particularly for the months of January and June. The outdoor performance is also evaluated for the commercially available semitransparent and opaque PV modules. Annual electrical energy, capitalized cost, annualized uniform cost (unacost, and cost per unit electrical energy for both types of solar modules, namely, semitransparent and opaque have also been computed along with their characteristics curves. Semitransparent PV modules have shown higher efficiencies compared to the opaque ones. Calculations show that for the PV modules made in laboratory, CdTe exhibits the maximum annual electrical energy generation resulting into minimum cost per unit electrical energy, whereas a-Si/nc-Si possesses the maximum annual electrical energy generation giving minimum cost per unit electrical energy when commercially available solar modules are concerned. CIGS has shown the lowest capitalized cost over all other PV technologies.

  18. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  19. Designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system in adjunct with a silicon photovoltaic panel for a solar competition car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Rosales, Andrés.; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Solar competition cars are a very interesting research laboratory for the development of new technologies heading to their further implementation in either commercial passenger vehicles or related applications. Besides, worldwide competitions allow the spreading of such ideas where the best and experienced teams bet on innovation and leading edge technologies, in order to develop more efficient vehicles. In these vehicles, some aspects generally make the difference such as aerodynamics, shape, weight, wheels and the main solar panels. Therefore, seeking to innovate in a competitive advantage, the first Colombian solar vehicle "Primavera", competitor at the World Solar Challenge (WSC)-2013, has implemented the usage of a Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) system as a complementary solar energy module to the common silicon photovoltaic panel. By harvesting sunlight with concentrating optical devices, CPVs are capable of maximizing the allowable photovoltaic area. However, the entire CPV system weight must be less harmful than the benefit of the extra electric energy generated, which in adjunct with added manufacture and design complexity, has intervened in the fact that CPVs had never been implemented in a solar car in such a scale as the one described in this work. Design considerations, the system development process and implementation are presented in this document considering both the restrictions of the context and the interaction of the CPV system with the solar car setup. The measured data evidences the advantage of using this complementary system during the competition and the potential this technology has for further developments.

  20. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  1. Concrete embedded dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, T; Flores-Vivian, I; Sobolev, K; Kouklin, N

    2013-09-25

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190 mV and ISC of ~9 μA, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46 mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64 μW with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology.

  2. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  3. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Bansal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  4. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Panel with Phase Change Materials under Different Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV panels depends on the solar irradiation flux and the operating temperature of the solar cell. To increase the power generation efficiency of a PV system, this study evaluated the feasibility of phase change materials (PCMs to reduce the temperature rise of solar cells operating under the climate in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, two PCMs with different phase change characteristics were prepared and the phase change temperatures and thermal conductivities were compared. The diurnal thermal behavior of PV panels with PCMs under the Seoul climate was evaluated using a 2-D transient thermal analysis program. This paper discusses the heat flow characteristics though the PV cell with PCMs and the effects of the PCM types and macro-packed PCM (MPPCM methods on the operating temperatures under different weather conditions. Selection of the PCM type was more important than the MMPCM methods when PCMs were used to enhance the performance of PV panels and the mean operating temperature of PV cell and total heat flux from the surface could be reduced by increasing the heat transfer rate through the honeycomb grid steel container for PCMs. Considering the mean operating temperature reduction of 4 °C by PCM in this study, an efficiency improvement of approximately 2% can be estimated under the weather conditions of Seoul.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Study on Energy Performance of Photovoltaic-Heat Pipe Solar Collector in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that the decrease of photovoltaic (PV cell temperature would increase the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. Water type PV/thermal (PV/T system was a good choice but it could become freezing in cold areas of Northern China. This paper proposed a simple combination of common-used PV panel and heat pipe, called PV-heat pipe (PV-HP solar collector, for both electrical and thermal energy generation. A simplified one-dimensional steady state model was developed to study the electrical and thermal performance of the PV-HP solar collector under different solar radiations, water flow rates, and water temperatures at the inlet of manifold. A testing rig was conducted to verify the model and the testing data matched very well with the simulation values. The results indicated that the thermal efficiency could be minus in the afternoon. The thermal and electrical efficiencies decreased linearly as the inlet water temperature and water flow rate increased. The thermal efficiency increased while the electrical efficiency decreased linearly as the solar radiation increased.

  6. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  7. Coupled thermal model of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid panel for sample cities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Sera, Dezso; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    of the hybrid system under different weather conditions. The model takes into account solar irradiation, wind speed and ambient temperature as well as convective and radiated heat losses from the front and rear surfaces of the panel. The model is developed for three sample cities in Europe with different......In general, modeling of photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV/TEG) hybrid panels have been mostly simplified and disconnected from the actual ambient conditions and thermal losses from the panel. In this study, a thermally coupled model of PV/TEG panel is established to precisely predict performance...... weather conditions. The results show that radiated heat loss from the front surface and the convective heat loss due to the wind speed are the most critical parameters on performance of the hybrid panel performance. The results also indicate that, with existing thermoelectric materials, the power...

  8. GIS methodology and case study regarding assessment of the solar potential at territorial level: PV or thermal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Quiquerez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based methodology for assessing solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal potentials in urban environment. The consideration of spatial and temporal dimensions of energy resource and demand allows, for two different territories of the Geneva region, to determine the suitable building roof areas for solar installations, the solar irradiance on these areas and, finally, the electrical and/or thermal energy potentials related to the demand. Results show that the choice of combining PV and solar thermal for domestic hot water (DHW is relevant in both territories. Actually, the installation of properly sized solar thermal collectors doesn’t decrease much the solar PV potential, while allowing significant thermal production. However, solar collectors for combined DHW and space heating (SH require a much larger surface and, therefore, have a more important influence on the PV potential.

  9. Photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan solar home systems market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.D.; Jacobson, A.; Kammen, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    As one of the largest unsubsidized markets for solar home systems (SHSs) in the world, Kenya represents a promising model for rural electrification based on private purchases of clean decentralized photovoltaic technologies. Small amorphous-silicon modules dominate the market and most brands provide high quality and affordable service. Product quality varies widely, however, and the public has limited capacity to distinguish among competing brands. This imposes direct hardships on households with the misfortune to purchase low-quality equipment, and it constrains sales as some customers refrain from purchasing solar equipment due to the associated performance uncertainty. This article analyzes market failure associated with photovoltaic module quality in the Kenyan SHS market and develops strategies to address the problem - emphasizing that similar quality problems may exist for other SHS components and in other markets. The principal conclusion is that domestic product testing with public disclosure represents an inexpensive low-risk strategy, but it may prove inadequate. Mandatory product quality standards based on international testing regimes (e.g. IEC standards), augmented with a basic domestic testing option, would provide stronger assurance, but the risks associated with this intervention suggest caution. An emerging multilateral SHS market support effort (PVMTI) should ensure quality for the credit-based sales it promotes in Kenya; however, the long-term impact of this approach is not yet clear and it is unlikely to address quality problems associated with the unsubsidized sales-based markets for SHSs. Finally, fee-for-service models would decisively address quality problems, but launching this model in the Kenyan market would likely require large subsidies. (author)

  10. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    , imposes a minimum collection rate, and implements higher tip fees would encourage exhaustive material recovery for solar photovoltaic modules at end-of-life, beyond New York State. These results have important implications for policy makers and waste managers especially in locations where there is rapid adoption of renewable energy technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical Analysis of Two Novel Hybrid Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Systems Based on Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Bruno; Contento, Gaetano; Sabatelli, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Antonella; Narducci, Dario

    2017-03-01

    The development and commercialization of Photovoltaic (PV) cells with good cost-efficiency trade-off not using critical raw materials (CRMs) is one of the strategies chosen by the European Community (EC) to address the Energy Roadmap 2050. In this context Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells are attracting a major interest since they have the potential to combine low price with relatively high conversion efficiencies. Although a ≈9% lab scale efficiency has already been reported for CZTS this technology is still far from being competitive in terms of cost per peak-power (€/Wp) with other common materials. One possible near-future solution to increase the CZTS competiveness comes from thermoelectrics. Actually it has already been shown that Hybrid Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Systems (HTEPVs) based on CIGS, another kesterite very similar to CZTS, can lead to a significant efficiency improvement. However it has been also clarified how the optimal hybridization strategy cannot come from the simple coupling of solar cells with commercial TEGs, but special layouts have to be implemented. Furthermore, since solar cell performances are well known to decrease with temperature, thermal decoupling strategies of the PV and TEG sections have to be taken. To address these issues, we developed a model for two different HTEPV solutions, both coupled with CZTS solar cells. In the first case we considered a Thermally-Coupled HTEPV device (TC-HTEPV) in which the TEG is placed underneath the solar cell and in thermal contact with it. The second system consists instead of an Optically-Coupled but thermally decoupled device (OC-HTEPV) in which part of the solar spectrum is focused by a non-imaging optical concentrator on the TEG hot side. For both solutions the model returns conversion efficiencies higher than that of the CZTS solar cell alone. Specifically, increases of ≈30% are predicted for both kind of systems considered.

  12. Analysis on the Performance of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Based Photovoltaic Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the efficiency improvement of Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS Photovoltaic (PV and also solar thermal collector. Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T can improve overall efficiency for PV and also solve the problem of limited roof space at urban area. Objective of this study is to clarify the effect of mass flow rate on the efficiency of the PV/T system. A CIGS solar cell is used with rated output power 65 W and 1.18 m2 of area. 4 set of experiments were carried out, which were: thermal collector with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate, PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate and PV. It was found that PV/T with 0.12 kg/s flow rate had the highest electrical efficiency, 2.92 %. PV/T with 0.09 kg/s flow rate had the lowest electrical efficiency, 2.68 %. It also had 2 % higher overall efficiency. The efficiency gained is low due to several factors. The rated output power of the PV is low for the area of 1.18 m2. The packing factor of the PV also need to be considered as it may not be operated at the optimal packing factor. Furthermore, aluminium sheet of the PV may affect the PV temperature due to high thermal conductivity. Further study on more values of mass flow rate and also other parameters that affect the efficiency of the PV/T is necessary.

  13. Photovoltaic commercialization: an analysis of legal issues affecting a government-accelerated solar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Photovoltaics Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 is discussed. Legal issues, including solar access, the need for performance standards, the effects of building codes on photovoltaic system use and commercialization, and manufacturer and installer performance guarantees, are examined. Electric utility policies are examined, including interconnection, and rates and legal issues affecting them. (LEW)

  14. Highly efficient tandem polymer solar cells with a photovoltaic response in the visible light range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Maojie; Zhao, Kang; Ye, Long; Chen, Yu; Yang, Bei; Hou, Jianhui

    2015-02-18

    Highly efficient polymer solar cells with a tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion -efficiencies over 10% can be realized with a photovoltaic response within 800 nm. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants : A Project Developer’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and ena...

  16. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  17. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel L. Alboteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM. Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests.

  18. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  19. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  20. A finite-volume model of a parabolic trough photovoltaic/thermal collector: Energetic and exergetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Palombo, Adolfo; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed finite-volume model of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector. The PVT solar collector consists in a parabolic trough concentrator and a linear triangular receiver. The bottom surfaces of the triangular receiver are equipped with triple-junction cells whereas the top surface is covered by an absorbing surface. The cooling fluid (water) flows inside a channel along the longitudinal direction of the PVT collector. The system was discretized along its axis and, for each slice of the discretized computational domain, mass and energy balances were considered. The model allows one to evaluate both thermodynamic and electrical parameters along the axis of the PVT collector. Then, for each slice of the computational domain, exergy balances were also considered in order to evaluate the corresponding exergy destruction rate and exergetic efficiency. Therefore, the model also calculates the magnitude of the irreversibilities inside the collector and it allows one to detect where these irreversibilities occur. A sensitivity analysis is also performed with the scope to evaluate the effect of the variation of the main design/environmental parameters on the energetic and exergetic performance of the PVT collector. -- Highlights: ► The paper investigates an innovative concentrating photovoltaic thermal solar collector. ► The collector is equipped with triple-junction photovoltaic layers. ► A local exergetic analysis is performed in order to detect sources of irreversibilities. ► Irreversibilities are mainly due to the heat transfer between sun and PVT collector.

  1. Rural electrification with photovoltaic solar technology using solar home system; Eletrificacao rural com tecnologia solar fotovoltaica utilizando sistemas isolados autonomos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salviano, Carlos Jose Caldas

    1999-02-01

    The utilization of solar energy, inexhaustible on the earthly scale of time, as heat and light source, today is one of the energetics alternatives more to confront the challenges of the new millennium. Remarkable is the impulse that power generation photovoltaic has received in Brazil. In Pernambuco, state of Brazil, the CELPE - Electric Power Company of Pernambuco, already implanted more than 750 photovoltaic solar home system (95 kW installed) for power supply to rural communities far from the grid connection that come across in commercial operation since 1994. Eight configurations were studied with modifications in their components (panel, battery and charge) with the objective to evaluate the performance and the adequacy of the size these configurations. The parameters utilized for this evaluation were: solar energy diary incident on the panel plat, diary efficiency generator, output voltage on the generator and state of charge the batteries bank. A system of data acquisition automated was fined to measure in real conditions the function of each components, the following parameters: solar radiation incident and temperature on the photovoltaic generator, voltage and generator current, batteries bank and charge and ambient temperature. About the configurations studied, it follows that analysis the operational of characteristics capacity and battery capacity of the SHS utilized, simulating the rural electrification conditions. It was possible to certify the adequate configurations for the load profile will be supply. (author)

  2. Key technical and non-technical challenges for mass deployment of photovoltaic solar energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2001-12-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is used for direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. It is not to be confused with low-temperature thermal solar energy (e.g. solar domestic hot water systems) and with solar electricity production using a conventional high-temperature steam cycle (using parabolic troughs or 'power towers'). Important features of PV are: inherently renewable; sustainable if well designed, manufactured, used, and disposed; no moving parts, quiet; reliable if well designed and engineered; modular (from milliwatts to multi-megawatts); suitable for a wide variety of applications (stand-alone and grid-connected); large potential (regionally and globally); intermittent; capacity factor (ratio of average system power to installed (=peak) power) =0.08-0.24. PV is among the major renewable energy technologies in all well known energy scenarios, although a substantial role in % of the total energy production can only be achieved on the long term (typically 40-60 years years). Fortunately, long before that the PV market may be a rapidly growing, multi-billion euro business, providing enormous economic opportunities and many jobs

  3. Understanding the Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite-Spirobifluorene Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Wentao; Liao, Cheng; Mei, Jun

    2017-11-03

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells with remarkable power conversion efficiency have attracted much attention in recent years. However, there still exist many problems with their use that are not completely understood, and further studies are needed. Herein, the hole-transport layer dependence of the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells is investigated in detail. It is found that devices freshly prepared using pristine 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) and Li-doped spiro-OMeTAD as hole-transport layers exhibit S-shaped current density-voltage curves with poor fill factors. The devices show progressively improved fill factors and efficiencies upon exposure to air, which is attributed to air-induced conductivity improvement in the spiro-OMeTAD layer. After introducing a cobalt salt dopant (FK209) into the spiro-OMeTAD layer, the corresponding devices show remarkable performance without the need of air exposure. These results confirm that the dopant not only increases the conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD layer, but also tunes the surface potential, which helps to improve charge transport and reduce the recombination loss. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Luminescent solar concentrators for building-integrated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Bruni, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    The transition to fully energetically sustainable architecture through the realization of so-called net zero-energy buildings is currently in progress in areas with low population density. However, this is not yet true in cities, where the cost of land for the installation of ground photovoltaic (PV) is prohibitively high and the rooftop space is too scarce to accommodate the PV modules necessary for sustaining the electrical requirements of tall buildings. Thus, new technologies are being investigated to integrate solar-harvesting devices into building façades in the form of PV windows or envelope elements. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are the most promising technology for semi-transparent, electrodeless PV glazing systems that can be integrated 'invisibly' into the built environment without detrimental effects to the aesthetics of the building or the quality of life of the inhabitants. After 40 years of research, recent breakthroughs in the realization of reabsorption-free emitters with broadband absorption have boosted the performance of LSCs to such a degree that they might be commercialized in the near future. In this Perspective, we explore the successful strategies that have allowed this change of pace, examining and comparing the different types of chromophores and waveguide materials, and discuss the issues that remain to be investigated for further progress.

  5. Photovoltaic characteristics of natural light harvesting dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H. S.; Shenouda, S. S.; Fadel, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40 nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complete photovoltaic characteristics including (current, voltage, outpower, and responsivity) of the natural anthocyanin based dye sensitized solar cell have been investigated under different illumination intensity ranging from 10 to 100 mW.cm- 2. The cell responsivity and efficiency of the fabricated solar cell under different illumination intensity were found to be in the range (R = 15.6-23.8 mA.W- 1 and η = 0.13-0.25) at AM = 1.5 conditions. This study is important for enhancing the future applications of the promising DSSC technology.

  6. Photovoltaic characteristics of natural light harvesting dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H S; Shenouda, S S; Fadel, M

    2018-03-05

    In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO 2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complete photovoltaic characteristics including (current, voltage, outpower, and responsivity) of the natural anthocyanin based dye sensitized solar cell have been investigated under different illumination intensity ranging from 10 to 100mW.cm -2 . The cell responsivity and efficiency of the fabricated solar cell under different illumination intensity were found to be in the range (R=15.6-23.8mA.W -1 and η=0.13-0.25) at AM=1.5 conditions. This study is important for enhancing the future applications of the promising DSSC technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  8. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  9. Parametric performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation system equipped with a thermal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz Hussain, M.; Lee, Gwi Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both thermal and electrical powers varied by changing surface area of collector. • Thermal stratification and total system power were increased at critical flow rate. • Parametric analysis of the CPVC system offers to determine the desired outcome. • Thermal and electrical outputs varied by changing the focal length of Fresnel lens. - Abstract: This article presents a parametric study of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation (CPVC) system with an attached thermal storage tank. The CPVC system utilized dual-axis tracker and multiple solar energy collector (SEC) modules and forced cooling system. Each SEC module comprised 16 triple-junction solar cells, copper tube absorbers, and 16 Fresnel lenses were aligned against each solar cell. This study investigated all possible parameters that can affect the CPVC system performance, including the collector area, solar irradiation, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate. The surface area of the collector and the thermal power were increased by increasing the number of SEC modules connected in series; however, the electrical power output decreased from the first to the fourth SEC module consecutively. At the measured optimal flow rate, mixing and thermal diffusion in the storage tank were decreased, and the total power generation from the CPVC system was increased. Variations in the thermal and electrical power outputs were also observed when the focal length of the Fresnel lens was changed. This parametric analysis enables the CPVC system to obtain the desired output by varying the combination of operational and geometrical parameters

  10. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  11. Photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  12. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  13. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  14. Comparative analyses on dynamic performances of photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors integrated with phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Di; Jia, Yuting; Alva, Guruprasad; Liu, Lingkun; Fang, Guiyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The dynamic model of photovoltaic–thermal collector with phase change material was developed. • The performances of photovoltaic–thermal collector are performed comparative analyses. • The performances of photovoltaic–thermal collector with phase change material were evaluated. • Upper phase change material mode can improve performances of photovoltaic–thermal collector. - Abstract: The operating conditions (especially temperature) of photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors have significant influence on dynamic performance of the hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collectors. Only a small percentage of incoming solar radiation can be converted into electricity, and the rest is converted into heat. This heat leads to a decrease in efficiency of the photovoltaic module. In order to improve the performance of the hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collector, we performed comparative analyses on a hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar collector integrated with phase change material. Electrical and thermal parameters like solar cell temperature, outlet temperature of air, electrical power, thermal power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency are simulated and analyzed to evaluate the dynamic performance of the hybrid photovoltaic–thermal collector. It is found that the position of phase change material layer in the photovoltaic–thermal collector has a significant effect on the performance of the photovoltaic–thermal collector. The results indicate that upper phase change material mode in the photovoltaic–thermal collector can significantly improve the thermal and electrical performance of photovoltaic–thermal collector. It is found that overall efficiency of photovoltaic–thermal collector in ‘upper phase change material’ mode is 10.7% higher than that in ‘no phase change material’ mode. Further, for a photovoltaic–thermal collector with upper phase change material, it is verified that 3 cm

  15. Influence of Thermal Processing Protocol upon the Crystallization and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Lead Trihalide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Michael; Tan, Kwan Wee; Sai, Hiroaki; Moore, David T.; Scott, Trent; Zhang, Wei; Estroff, Lara A.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the thermally induced morphological and crystalline development of methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH 3NH3PbI3-xClx) thin films and photovoltaic device performance with meso-superstructured and planar heterojunction architectures. We observe that a short rapid thermal annealing at 130 °C leads to the growth of large micron-sized textured perovskite domains and improved the short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies up to 13.5% for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. This work highlights the criticality of controlling the thin film crystallization mechanism of hybrid perovskite materials for high-performing photovoltaic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Influence of Thermal Processing Protocol upon the Crystallization and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Lead Trihalide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Michael

    2014-07-31

    We investigate the thermally induced morphological and crystalline development of methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH 3NH3PbI3-xClx) thin films and photovoltaic device performance with meso-superstructured and planar heterojunction architectures. We observe that a short rapid thermal annealing at 130 °C leads to the growth of large micron-sized textured perovskite domains and improved the short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies up to 13.5% for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. This work highlights the criticality of controlling the thin film crystallization mechanism of hybrid perovskite materials for high-performing photovoltaic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  17. Employment of single-diode model to elucidate the variations in photovoltaic parameters under different electrical and thermal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi F Muhammad

    Full Text Available In this research work, numerical simulations are performed to correlate the photovoltaic parameters with various internal and external factors influencing the performance of solar cells. Single-diode modeling approach is utilized for this purpose and theoretical investigations are compared with the reported experimental evidences for organic and inorganic solar cells at various electrical and thermal conditions. Electrical parameters include parasitic resistances (Rs and Rp and ideality factor (n, while thermal parameters can be defined by the cells temperature (T. A comprehensive analysis concerning broad spectral variations in the short circuit current (Isc, open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF and efficiency (η is presented and discussed. It was generally concluded that there exists a good agreement between the simulated results and experimental findings. Nevertheless, the controversial consequence of temperature impact on the performance of organic solar cells necessitates the development of a complementary model which is capable of well simulating the temperature impact on these devices performance.

  18. Dissemination of solar photovoltaics: a study on the government programme to promote solar lantern in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velayudhan, S.K. [Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad (India)

    2003-11-01

    The study examines the reasons for the limited dissemination of solar lanterns in India. It uses ''diffusion of innovation'' framework to examine the dissemination process. The impact of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and also the communication within the community about the product are examined. To understand the influence of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and the information source used by adopters, a survey of 188 users across 15 locations is carried out. The study shows that the benefits promoted by the government programme for disseminating solar lantern are not the reasons for purchase in most cases. The results suggest that the emphasis on subsidy by the support programme shifts the focus to the cost of the solar lantern than its benefits. Contrary to expectation there is no significant difference in the profile of early and late adopters. The subsidy for solar lanterns and the targets set for government officials are the possible influence on the observed profile for adopter categories. The early majority who can afford the solar lantern and take up the innovation on its merits are expected to disseminate the innovation. The programme on the contrary not only fails to identify and promote to the early adopters, but focus on the disadvantaged groups. There are therefore no champions for the innovation and an absence of word-of-mouth communication. The information source is restricted to government agencies, while the potential user looks for evaluative information on the product from existing users. The application of ''diffusion of innovation'' framework to understand the dissemination process of solar lantern suggests reworking the support programmes designed to promote solar lanterns. The lessons can be extended to programmes designed for dissemination of other solar photovoltaic products. (author)

  19. Dissemination of solar photovoltaics: a study on the government programme to promote solar lantern in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velayudhan, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The study examines the reasons for the limited dissemination of solar lanterns in India. It uses 'diffusion of innovation' framework to examine the dissemination process. The impact of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and also the communication within the community about the product are examined. To understand the influence of the characteristics of solar lantern on dissemination and the information source used by adopters, a survey of 188 users across 15 locations is carried out. The study shows that the benefits promoted by the government programme for disseminating solar lantern are not the reasons for purchase in most cases. The results suggest that the emphasis on subsidy by the support programme shifts the focus to the cost of the solar lantern than its benefits. Contrary to expectation there is no significant difference in the profile of early and late adopters. The subsidy for solar lanterns and the targets set for government officials are the possible influence on the observed profile for adopter categories. The early majority who can afford the solar lantern and take up the innovation on its merits are expected to disseminate the innovation. The programme on the contrary not only fails to identify and promote to the early adopters, but focus on the disadvantaged groups. There are therefore no champions for the innovation and an absence of word-of-mouth communication. The information source is restricted to government agencies, while the potential user looks for evaluative information on the product from existing users. The application of 'diffusion of innovation' framework to understand the dissemination process of solar lantern suggests reworking the support programmes designed to promote solar lanterns. The lessons can be extended to programmes designed for dissemination of other solar photovoltaic products

  20. The SolarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, G.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our national solar thermal research programs and our combined efforts conducted through IEA/SolarPACES have brought about many breakthroughs in the development of solar thermal technology. We have components and systems that are much more efficient, much more reliable, and can be built much more cost-efficiently than just a few years ago. As our technology development proceeds, we undoubtedly will continue to make significant progress, breakthroughs in fact, in all these areas - progress that will bring us even closer to economic parity with more conventional forms of energy. And while this progress is absolutely necessary, the question is whether it will be enough to allow solar thermal to break into the mainstream of global energy supply. Our new IEA/SolarPACES strategy, crafted and approved over the course of the past year, has recognized the changes we must face and given us license to begin to make those changes. We must begin addressing financial hurdles, work to create a more favorable regulatory and tax environment, support development of international partnerships, and expand the visibility and excitement of solar thermal technology to achieve the final breakthroughs we need to allow solar thermal energy to live up to its vast potential. (orig./AKF)

  1. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, Hashim A; Numan, Ali H; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%). (paper)

  2. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J. Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-07-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m-2) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity.

  3. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2011-05-01

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  4. Restoration and construction (buildings). Solar electric power. How to complete a photovoltaic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene; Juniere, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic but comprehensive outlook on the way to complete a solar photovoltaic project in the cases of the restoration or the construction of a building. After a presentation of solar energy, its transformation into electric power, and the installation of solar photovoltaic panels and equipment, the brochure exposes the various steps of a photovoltaic project: economic analysis (cost estimation, budgets, financing incentives, power prices, the choice between selling or using electric power, the contracts, etc.), the planning of the project, the administrative procedure, the selection of a professional installer, how to run the photovoltaic system, how to run the business, etc

  5. The characteristic analysis of the solar energy photovoltaic power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Li, K.; Niu, D. D.; Jin, Y. A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is an inexhaustible, clean, renewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells are a key component in solar power generation, so thorough research on output characteristics is of far-reaching importance. In this paper, an illumination model and a photovoltaic power station output power model were established, and simulation analysis was conducted using Matlab and other software. The analysis evaluated the condition of solar energy resources in the Baicheng region in the western part of Jilin province, China. The characteristic curve of the power output from a photovoltaic power station was obtained by simulation calculation. It was shown that the monthly average output power of the photovoltaic power station is affected by seasonal changes; the output power is higher in summer and autumn, and lower in spring and winter.

  6. Ultrafast Thermal Cycling of Solar Panels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, T

    1998-01-01

    Two new cyclers that utilize a novel hybrid approach to perform fast thermal cycling of solar panels have been built and are now operational in the Mechanics and Materials Technology Center at The Aerospace Corporation...

  7. Cheap effective thermal solar-energy collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highgate, D.J.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1996-04-01

    A light-weight flexible solar-collector, with a wavelength-selective absorption surface and an insolation-transparent thermal-insulation protecter for its aperture, was built and tested. Its cheapness and high performance, relative to a conventional flat-plate solar-collector, provide a prima-facie case for the more widespread adoption of its design. (author)

  8. Towards a local learning (innovation) model of solar photovoltaic deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2008-01-01

    It is by now familiar that in the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, the cost dynamics of major system component like solar cell/module is subjected to experience curve effects driven by production learning and research and development at the supplier side. What is less clear, however, is the economics of system integration or system deployment that takes place locally close to the user, involving other market players, in the downstream solar PV value chain. Experts have agreed that suppliers of solar PV system must customize their flexible characteristics to address local unique users' and applications requirements and compete on price/performance basis. A lack of understanding of the drivers of the economics of system customization therefore is a deficiency in our understanding of the overall economics of this renewable energy technology option. We studied the non-module BOS cost for grid-connected small PV system using the experience curve framework. Preliminary analysis of PV statistics of the US from IEA seems to suggest that learning in one application type is taking place with respect to the cumulative installation among all types of grid-connected small PV projects. The effectiveness of this learning is also improving over time. A novel aspect is the interpretation of such experience curve effect or learning pattern. We draw upon the notion of product platform in the industrial management literature and consider different types of local small-scale grid-tied PV customization projects as adapting a standard platform to different idiosyncratic and local application requirements. Economics of system customization, which is user-oriented, involves then a refined notion of inter-projects learning, rather than volume-driven learning by doing. We formalized such inter-projects learning as a dynamic economy of scope, which can potentially be leveraged to manage the local and downstream aspect of PV deployment. This dynamic economy may serve as a focus

  9. Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module using fuzzyfied genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module. • Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of dual channel photovoltaic thermal module. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar, Jodhpur, Bangalore and New Delhi (India). • There are improvements in results for optimized system as compared to un-optimized system. - Abstract: The work has been carried out in two steps; firstly the parameters of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module has been optimized using a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. During the course of optimization, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function and different design parameters of the proposed module have been optimized. Fuzzy controller is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithms and the approach is called as a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. In the second step, the performance of the module has been analyzed for four cities of India such as Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi. The performance of the module has been evaluated for daytime 08:00 AM to 05:00 PM and annually from January to December. It is to be noted that, an average improvement occurs in electrical efficiency of the optimized module, simultaneously there is also a reduction in solar cell temperature as compared to un-optimized module.

  10. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  11. Grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2018-06-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  12. Temperature and color management of silicon solar cells for building integrated photovoltaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Mohamed; Mandorlo, Fabien; Couderc, Romain; Gerenton, Félix; Lemiti, Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Color management of integrated photovoltaics must meet two criteria of performance: provide maximum conversion efficiency and allow getting the chosen colors with an appropriate brightness, more particularly when using side by side solar cells of different colors. As the cooling conditions are not necessarily optimal, we need to take into account the influence of the heat transfer and temperature. In this article, we focus on the color space and brightness achieved by varying the antireflective properties of flat silicon solar cells. We demonstrate that taking into account the thermal effects allows freely choosing the color and adapting the brightness with a small impact on the conversion efficiency, except for dark blue solar cells. This behavior is especially true when heat exchange by convection is low. Our optical simulations show that the perceived color, for single layer ARC, is not varying with the position of the observer, whatever the chosen color. The use of a double layer ARC adds flexibility to tune the wanted color since the color space is greatly increased in the green and yellow directions. Last, choosing the accurate material allows both bright colors and high conversion efficiency at the same time.

  13. Materials for Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems: Optical Properties and Solar Radiation Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. H.; Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; Lemon, M. F.; Romano, E. C.; Boydell, P.

    2010-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are designed to operate over a wide range of solar concentrations, from low concentrations of ˜1 to 12 Suns to medium concentrations in the range from 12 to 200 Suns, to high concentration CPV systems going up to 2000 Suns. Many transparent optical materials are used for a wide variety of functions ranging from refractive and reflective optics to homogenizers, encapsulants and even thermal management. The classes of materials used also span a wide spectrum from hydrocarbon polymers (HCP) and fluoropolymers (FP) to silicon containing polymers and polyimides (PI). The optical properties of these materials are essential to the optical behavior of the system. At the same time radiation durability of these materials under the extremely wide range of solar concentrations is a critical performance requirement for the required lifetime of a CPV system. As part of our research on materials for CPV we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of various polymeric materials to define the optimum material combinations for various CPV systems.

  14. Temperature and color management of silicon solar cells for building integrated photovoltaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Color management of integrated photovoltaics must meet two criteria of performance: provide maximum conversion efficiency and allow getting the chosen colors with an appropriate brightness, more particularly when using side by side solar cells of different colors. As the cooling conditions are not necessarily optimal, we need to take into account the influence of the heat transfer and temperature. In this article, we focus on the color space and brightness achieved by varying the antireflective properties of flat silicon solar cells. We demonstrate that taking into account the thermal effects allows freely choosing the color and adapting the brightness with a small impact on the conversion efficiency, except for dark blue solar cells. This behavior is especially true when heat exchange by convection is low. Our optical simulations show that the perceived color, for single layer ARC, is not varying with the position of the observer, whatever the chosen color. The use of a double layer ARC adds flexibility to tune the wanted color since the color space is greatly increased in the green and yellow directions. Last, choosing the accurate material allows both bright colors and high conversion efficiency at the same time.

  15. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Hasan, Husam Abdulrasool; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m² and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C). It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV) module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current I SC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.

  16. Outdoor Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT Collector with Jet Impingement and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahed Hameed Jaaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m2 and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C. It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current ISC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.

  17. Study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters for grid-connected photovoltaic systems; Estudo de caracteristicas eletricas e termicas de inversores para sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampinelli, Giuliano Arns

    2010-12-15

    Grid-connected photovoltaic systems directly convert solar energy into electrical energy delivering to the distribution grid a clean and renewable energy. These systems are basically formed by an array of photovoltaic modules and inverters. The inverters are responsible for converting direct current to alternating current. A study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters used in grid-connected photovoltaic systems from a theoretical and experimental analysis. The inverters tests were carried out in two stages: the first stage was performed at Solar Energy Lab. of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil, where it was used a 4,8 kW{sub p} grid-connected photovoltaic system and ten inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters electrical characteristics measured and analyzed were: direct current to alternating current conversion efficiency, maximum power point tracker efficiency, power factor and harmonic distortion in current and voltage. Inverters thermal testing was also conducted and its results are presented ana analyzed. The second stage of the experimental tests was performed at Photovoltaic Solar Energy Lab. at CIEMAT in Spain. It was used 3 kW{sub p} photovoltaic system and seven inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters are single-phase, up to 5 kW and different topologies (high frequency transformer, low frequency transformer and transformerless). The influence of DC voltage input in the behavior of DC to AC conversion efficiency and power factor was analyzed. The results of the tests allowed the development of mathematical models that describe the electrical and thermal behavior of the inverters. The proposed mathematical models were inserted into computer simulation software developed at UFRGS named FVConect. The evolution of the simulation results compared to the experimental results validates the proposed models. The analysis of the behavior of the inverters improves the understanding of the operating os

  18. Modelling of auctioning mechanism for solar photovoltaic capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullikkas, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a modified optimisation model for the integration of renewable energy sources for power-generation (RES-E) technologies in power-generation systems on a unit commitment basis is developed. The purpose of the modified optimisation procedure is to account for RES-E capacity auctions for different solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity electricity prices. The optimisation model developed uses a genetic algorithm (GA) technique for the calculation of the required RES-E levy (or green tax) in the electricity bills. Also, the procedure enables the estimation of the level of the adequate (or eligible) feed-in-tariff to be offered to future RES-E systems, which do not participate in the capacity auctioning procedure. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the optimisation procedure developed the case of PV capacity auctioning for commercial systems is examined. The results indicated that the required green tax, in order to promote the use of RES-E technologies, which is charged to the electricity customers through their electricity bills, is reduced with the reduction in the final auctioning price. This has a significant effect related to the reduction of electricity bills.

  19. Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin; Corkish, Richard; Cho, Young; Cho, Eun-Chel; Jiang, Chu-Wei; Fangsuwannarak, Thipwan; Pink, Edwin; Huang, Yidan; Puzzer, Tom; Trupke, Thorsten; Richards, Bryce; Shalav, Avi; Lin, Kuo-lung

    2006-01-01

    The concept of third generation photovoltaics is to significantly increase device efficiencies whilst still using thin film processes and abundant non-toxic materials. This can be achieved by circumventing the Shockley-Queisser limit for single band gap devices, using multiple energy threshold approaches. At University of NSW, as part of our work on Third Generation devices, we are using the energy confinement of silicon based quantum dot nanostructures to engineer wide band gap materials to be used as upper cell elements in Si based tandem cells. HRTEM data shows Si nanocrystal formation in oxide and nitride matrixes with a controlled nanocrystal size, grown by layered reactive sputtering and layered PECVD. Photoluminescence evidence for quantum confinement in the Si quantum dots in oxide agrees with the calculated increase in PL energy with reduction in dot size. Resistivity measurements with temperature give tentative proof of conduction and we are investigating junction formation in these materials. We are also using similar Si quantum dot structures in double barrier resonant tunneling structures for use in hot carrier solar cell contacts. These must collect carriers over a limited energy range. Negative differential resistance has been observed in room temperature I-V on these samples, a necessary proof of concept for selective energy filter contacts

  20. Efficient scale for photovoltaic systems and Florida's solar rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Christopher S.; Arguea, Nestor M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a critical view of Florida's photovoltaic (PV) subsidy system and proposes an econometric model of PV system installation and generation costs. Using information on currently installed systems, average installation cost relations for residential and commercial systems are estimated and cost-efficient scales of installation panel wattage are identified. Productive efficiency in annual generating capacity is also examined under flexible panel efficiency assumptions. We identify potential gains in efficiency and suggest changes in subsidy system constraints, providing important guidance for the implementation of future incentive programs. Specifically, we find that the subsidy system discouraged residential applicants from installing at the cost-efficient scale but over-incentivized commercial applicants, resulting in inefficiently sized installations. - Highlights: ► Describe a PV solar incentive system in the U.S. state of Florida. ► Combine geocoded installation site data with a detailed irradiance map. ► Estimate installation and production costs across a large sample. ► Identify inefficiencies in the incentive system. ► Suggest changes to policy that would improve economic efficiency.

  1. Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Ruether, R.; Pereira, E.B.; Abreu, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV-Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban areas of the interconnected Brazilian electricity system. The potential for using PV is huge, and can be estimated in tens to hundreds of MWp in the Amazon region alone, even if only a fraction of the existing Diesel-fired plants with a total installed capacity of over 620 MVA would fit to run in an optimum Diesel/PV mix. Most of the major cities in Brazil present greater electricity demand in summertime with the demand peak happening in the daytime period. This energy profile match the actual solar resource assessment provided by SWERA Data Archive, enabling grid-connected PV systems to provide an important contribution to the utility's capacity

  2. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  3. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  4. Monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic luminescent solar concentrator with 4.2% power conversion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, L.; Ras, A.J.M.; Boer, de D.K.G.; Debije, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We report conversion efficiencies of experimental single and dual light guide luminescent solar concentrators. We have built several 5¿¿cm×5¿¿cm and 10¿¿cm×10¿¿cm luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) demonstrators consisting of c-Si photovoltaic cells attached to luminescent light guides of Lumogen

  5. EH AND S ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWERMAN, B.; FTHENAKIS, V.

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells based on a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide photoelectrode have been researched and reported since the early 1990's. Commercial production of dye-sensitized photovoltaic solar cells has recently been reported in Australia. In this report, current manufacturing methods are described, and estimates are made of annual chemical use and emissions during production. Environmental, health and safety considerations for handling these materials are discussed. This preliminary EH and S evaluation of dye-sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells indicates that some precautions will be necessary to mitigate hazards that could result in worker exposure. Additional information required for a more complete assessment is identified

  6. Workforce challenges and opportunities in the solar photovoltaic industry in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saneinejad, Sheyda

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, the city of Toronto adopted principles and targets for the city's sustainable energy future. The city plans to install 2 MW of solar photovoltaic panels in its facilities. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of such a project, as well as further expansion of solar photovoltaic energy generation, from the economic development perspective. A literature review, online surveys and interviews with solar industries were carried out and a job estimation model was developed. Results showed that the 2 MW installation would create 53 person years of employment locally while expansion of the technology throughout the city could generate 100,000 local jobs. However this research also pointed out a lack of suitably qualified and experienced personnel Canada-wide. This study demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic industry has the potential to provide significant economic benefits in Toronto but that certification programs must be put in place to address the lack of qualified personnel.

  7. Study on the optimum tilted angle of solar panels in Hainan tropical photovoltaic facility agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxuan; Ge, Zhiwu; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Chunhua; Lin, Yanxia

    2017-04-01

    Photovoltaic facility agriculture system can effectively alleviate the contradiction between limited land and Photovoltaic power generation. It’s flexible to create suitable environment for crop growth, and generate electricity over the same land at the same time. It’s necessary to set appropriate solar panel angle to get more solar energy. Through detailed analysis and comparison, we chose the Hay’s model as solar radiation model. Based on the official meteorological data got from Haikou Meteorological Bureau, and by comparing the amount of radiation obtained at different tilted angles per month, the optimal placement angle of PV panels at different seasons in Haikou was obtained through calculation, and the optimal placement angle from April to October was also obtained. Through optimized angle and arrangement of solar photovoltaic panels, we can get greater power efficiency.

  8. STDAC: Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center annual report fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia is a resource provided by the DOE Solar Thermal Program. The STDAC`s major objective is to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems by providing direct technical assistance to users in industry, government, and foreign countries; cooperating with industry to test, evaluate, and develop renewable energy systems and components; and educating public and private professionals, administrators, and decision makers. This FY94 report highlights the activities and accomplishments of the STDAC. In 1994, the STDAC continued to provide significant direct technical assistance to domestic and international organizations in industry, government, and education, Applying solar thermal technology to solve energy problems is a vital element of direct technical assistance. The STDAC provides information on the status of new, existing, and developing solar technologies; helps users screen applications; predicts the performance of components and systems; and incorporates the experience of Sandia`s solar energy personnel and facilities to provide expert guidance. The STDAC directly enhances the US solar industry`s ability to successfully bring improved systems to the marketplace. By collaborating with Sandia`s Photovoltaic Design Assistance Center and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory the STDAC is able to offer each customer complete service in applying solar thermal technology. At the National Solar Thermal Test Facility the STDAC tests and evaluates new and innovative solar thermal technologies. Evaluations are conducted in dose cooperation with manufacturers, and the results are used to improve the product and/or quantify its performance characteristics. Manufacturers, in turn, benefit from the improved design, economic performance, and operation of their solar thermal technology. The STDAC provides cost sharing and in-kind service to manufacturers in the development and improvement of solar technology.

  9. Performance of a photovoltaic panel connected to a solar tracking; Desempenho de um painel fotovoltaico acoplado a um rastreador solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Alcione Rodrigo; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de; Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: artessaro@pop.com.br; Ferruzi, Yuri [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The used photovoltaic panels currently, still possess low an efficiency, around 8,84%. As this efficiency is characteristic of the photovoltaic plate, it was used in this research, a different system of the conventional. This differentiated system nothing more is that a mechanism that makes with that the photovoltaic panel if puts into motion of form to always keep its perpendicular photovoltaic cells to the sun. Of ownership of two monocrystals photovoltaic panels, of same mark and model, it was possible to mount two systems of solar capitation. One of them, installed of the form established in the memorandum of understanding, directed northward geographic to an inclination of 37 deg in relation to the ground, and the other panel mounted in top of a tracking mechanism, that tends to keep the perpendicular photovoltaic cell to the solar rays. The chain samples and tension, had been extracted, in the two systems, conventional and dredge, in intervals of time of forty minutes, being effected in the period of the eight hours of the morning until the six hours of the afternoon, tantalizing 16 samples. The ambient temperature also was collected in these intervals of time. The results had been more satisfactory in the tracking system, more evidenced an energy exploitation of 20,74% and an efficiency of 2,052% than in the system with the conventionally mounted photovoltaic module. (author)

  10. Thermal solar energy, towards a sunny interval?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    While its market results are continuously decreasing, the thermal solar sector regains confidence with the perspectives of a new thermal legislation in France, a higher carbon tax and the growing volume of installed equipment. This document contains 5 articles, which themes are: The renewal of the thermal solar energy sector in France, notably for the building market, due to a new regulation and a reduction in costs; Several companies are developing large capacity thermal solar plant for industrial facilities (one of them covers 10000 m 2 ) while another company is developing an all-in-one containerised system (less than 1 MW); Another example is given with a Caribbean chemical company which use thermal solar energy for its processes, with a reduction of the fuel consumption by a 2.5 factor; The return of experience show that hybrid solar panels present some limitations, especially in terms of performances and sizing; A collective building (35 apartments) in the West of France has 100 pc of its heating needs (hot water production and space heating) satisfied with solar energy

  11. Solar thermal production of zinc: Program strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, A; Weidenkaff, A; Moeller, S; Palumbo, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The solar thermal production of zinc is considered for the conversion of solar energy into storable and transportable chemical fuels. The ultimate objective is to develop a technically and economically viable technology that can produce solar zinc. The program strategy for achieving such a goal involves research on two paths: a direct path via the solar thermal splitting of ZnO in the absence of fossil fuels, and an indirect path via the solar carbothermal/CH{sub 4}-thermal reduction of Zn O, with fossil fuels (coke or natural gas) as chemical reducing agents. Both paths make use of concentrated solar energy for high-temperature process heat. The direct path brings us to the complete substitution of fossil fuels with solar fuels for a sustainable energy supply system. The indirect path creates a link between today`s fossil-fuel-based technology and tomorrow`s solar chemical technology and builds bridges between present and future energy economies. (author) 1 fig., 15 refs.

  12. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  13. Ba(OH)2·8H2O composite phase-change material and its heat release characteristics in solar photovoltaic/photo-thermal collectors%Ba(OH)2·8H2O复合相变材料及其在太阳能光伏/热集热器上的释热特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪珺; 刘宇飞; 任迎蕾; 华维三; 章学来

    2017-01-01

    开发了一种熔点为78℃的八水氢氧化钡复合相变材料,通过添加成核剂使复合相变材料的过冷度降低3~5℃,结合纳米技术使材料的热导率提高了11.7%.基于包含复合相变蓄热材料与石蜡、水蓄热的梯级蓄热太阳能光伏、光热集热器,对该新型材料的释热特性进行了实验,实验结果表明,八水氢氧化钡复合相变蓄热材料无过冷,在其相变温度上相变平稳.在水流量为90 L·h-1,环境温度为20℃时,集热系统可以有效地储存太阳能,以50℃为参考点放热时间长达60 min以上,且在放水前20 min内,系统的出水温度都高于70℃,因此该系统能够在降低太阳电池工作温度的同时,满足日常生活需求.%A new barium hydroxide octahydrate composite phase-change material with melting point of 78℃ was developed, and its super cooling degree was reduced by 3—5℃ with the nucleating additive and its thermal conductivity can be enhanced by 11.7% combined with nanotechnology. Heat release characteristics of the new material were investigated on the experimental solar photovoltaic/photo-thermal (PV/T) collectors with cascade heat storage through paraffin wax, water and the new material. The system experimental results show that the new material has no super cooling and performs stable during phase-change. Under the circumstances that the water flow is 90 L·h-1 and the environment temperature is 20℃, the solar collecting system can effectively store solar energy and water temperature can be maintained above 50℃ for more than 60 min, and meanwhile in the first 20 min, the outlet hot water temperature is above 70℃. Thus, the solar energy storage system can reduce the solar cell temperature, and at the same time meet the requirements of daily life.

  14. A Hybrid Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Photovoltaic Solar Plant Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to decaying fossil resource and increasing environmental consciousness, the demand of renewable energy resources is escalating these days. Photovoltaic solar energy is one of the most popular renewable energy resources in places where sunlight is abundant. The selection of a desirable location for constructing a photovoltaic solar plant is the first and one of the most important stages in the plant construction to provide a long-term energy production. In this paper, a comprehensive multiple-criteria decision-making model, which incorporates the interpretive structural modeling (ISM, fuzzy analytic network process (FANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska OptimizacijaI Kompromisno Resenje in Serbian,meaning multi-criteria optimization and compromise solution, is proposed to select the most suitable photovoltaic solar plant location. The ISM is applied first to determine the interrelationships among the criteria and among the sub-criteria,andtheresults are used to construct a decision-making network. The FANP is applied next to solve the network and to calculate the importance weights of the sub-criteria. Finally, the VIKOR is adopted to determine the ranking of the photovoltaic solar plant locations. The proposed model is applied in a case study in evaluating photovoltaic solar plant locations in Taiwan. By applying the proposed model, decision makers can have a better thinking process and make more appropriate decisions justifiably.

  15. Solar photovoltaic: 25 per cent of world low carbon electricity by 2050. Situation and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Nicolas; Cohen, Marion; Grandjean, Alain; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Ballif, Ch.; Barbaro, X.; Brewster, M.; Burtin, A.; Chaperon, A.; Cuomo, A.; Danielo, O.; Broglie, G. de; Deblois, L.; Deprest, I.; Dupre La Tour, S.; Gauly, N.; Lascaud, S.; Lemaignan, B.; Lincot, D.; Malbranche, P.; Marchal, D.; Mine, A.; Paquier, O.; Philibert, C.; Prieto, Pedro A.; Roesch, A.; Roudil, JP.; Scotto, E.; Sharma, R.; Sidat, P.; Tarascon, J.M.; Vermot Desroches, G.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study has been to assess to which extent solar photovoltaic energy will represent a significant part of world electric power consumption by 2050, while notably taking the economic dimension, resource availability and problems related to intermittency management into account. After a recall of the relative correlation between solar radiation and human settlement, of the involved fundamental physical concepts, and of the different technologies and applications of photovoltaic energy production, the authors propose an overview of the present situation and perspectives for the development of photovoltaic energy production (evolution and emergence of a competitive industry in several countries, recent and future evolutions of photovoltaic cell costs, needs of investments in massive electric power production). Then, they address the intermittency issue: integration into networks, consumption steering, perspective of a revolution in storage. They examine whether industrials are ready to face potential future revolutions

  16. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  17. Numerical model analysis of thermal performance for a dye-sensitized solar cell module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuanghong; Huang, Yang; Weng, Jian; Fan, Xiaqin; Mo, Lie; Pan, Bin; Dai, Songyuan

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is one of the major factors that influence a dye-sensitized solar cell's (DSC's) photovoltaic efficiency. Temperature control is very important when solar cell modules are designed. In the present paper, a numerical model of a DSC module is built for the simulation of the solar cell's temperature. In this model, energy balance and three methods of heat transfer (conduction, convection, and radiation) are taken into account, and the simulation results are consistent with the experimental results. The influence of wind speeds and interfacial thermal resistance on the temperature inside the DSC modules is discussed in detail based on theoretical analysis. (paper)

  18. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, Rainer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Price, Henry W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  19. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  20. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  1. Equilibrium thermal characteristics of a building integrated photovoltaic tiled roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, L.; Gottschalg, R.; Loveday, D.L. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Davies, D.; Berry, M. [Solarcentury, 91-94 Lower Marsh Waterloo, London, SE1 7AB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules attain high temperatures when exposed to a combination of high radiation levels and elevated ambient temperatures. The temperature rise can be particularly problematic for fully building integrated PV (BIPV) roof tile systems if back ventilation is restricted. PV laminates could suffer yield degradation and accelerated aging in these conditions. This paper presents a laboratory based experimental investigation undertaken to determine the potential for high temperature operation in such a BIPV installation. This is achieved by ascertaining the dependence of the PV roof tile temperature on incident radiation and ambient temperature. A theory based correction was developed to account for the unrealistic sky temperature of the solar simulator used in the experiments. The particular PV roof tiles used are warranted up to an operational temperature of 85 C, anything above this temperature will void the warranty because of potential damage to the integrity of the encapsulation. As a guide for installers, a map of southern Europe has been generated indicating locations where excessive module temperatures might be expected and thus where installation is inadvisable. (author)

  2. Testing, Performance and Reliability Evaluation of Charge Controllers for Solar Photovoltaic Home Lighting System in India

    OpenAIRE

    Adarsh Kumar; ChandraShekhar Sharma; Dr. Rajesh Kumar; Avinashkumar haldkar

    2016-01-01

    :Charge controller is the most important part of a Solar Photovoltaic Home LightingSystem (SPVHLS) which controls the charging ofbattery from photovoltaic (PV) module and discharging of battery through load. This paper analyzes testresults of fourteen charge controllers (CC) available in Indiaaccording to the Ministry of New and RenewableEnergy (MNRE) specification. The different parameters of charge controllers to be tested arebattery high voltage disconnect (HVD), lo...

  3. Lightning Surge Analysis on a Large Scale Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hazirah Zaini; Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab. Kadir; Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi; Mahdi Izadi; Norhafiz Azis; Nor Izzati Ahmad; Mohd Solehin Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) farms currently play a vital role in the generation of electrical power in different countries, such as Malaysia, which is moving toward the use of renewable energy. Malaysia is one of the countries with abundant sunlight and thus can use solar PV farms as alternative sources for electricity generation. However, lightning strikes frequently occur in the country. Being installed in open and flat areas, solar PV farms, especially their electronic components, are at great...

  4. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis; Solaire photovoltaique: quelles realites pour 2020?. Synthese resumee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  5. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  6. Photovoltaic reciprocity and quasi-Fermi level splitting in nanostructure-based solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2017-04-01

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions [1]. So far, the theory has been verified for a wide range of devices and material systems and forms the basis of a growing number of luminesecence imaging techniques used in the characterization of photovoltaic materials, cells and modules [2-5]. However, there are also some examples where the theory fails, such as in the case of amorphous silicon. In our contribution, we critically assess the assumptions made in the derivation of the theory and compare its predictions with rigorous formal relations as well as numerical computations in the framework of a comprehensive quantum-kinetic theory of photovoltaics [6] as applied to ultra-thin absorber architectures [7]. One of the main applications of the photovoltaic reciprocity relation is the determination of quasi-Fermi level splittings (QFLS) in solar cells from the measurement of luminescence. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic architectures, the determination of QFLS is challenging, but instrumental to assess the performance potential of the concepts. Here, we use our quasi-Fermi level-free theory to investigate existence and size of QFLS in quantum well and quantum dot solar cells. [1] Uwe Rau. Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electrolumines- cent emission of solar cells. Phys. Rev. B, 76(8):085303, 2007. [2] Thomas Kirchartz and Uwe Rau. Electroluminescence analysis of high efficiency cu(in,ga)se2 solar cells. J. Appl. Phys., 102(10), 2007. [3] Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau, Martin Hermle, Andreas W. Bett, Anke Helbig, and Jrgen H. Werner. Internal voltages in GaInP-GaInAs-Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electro- luminescence measurements. Appl. Phys. Lett., 92(12), 2008. [4] Thomas Kirchartz, Anke Helbig, Wilfried Reetz, Michael Reuter, Jürgen H. Werner, and

  7. High-Performance GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells for Flexible and Transparent Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-16

    Among many available photovoltaic technologies at present, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the recognized leaders for performance and reliability; however, it is still a great challenge to achieve cost-effective GaAs solar cells for smart systems such as transparent and flexible photovoltaics. In this study, highly crystalline long GaAs nanowires (NWs) with minimal crystal defects are synthesized economically by chemical vapor deposition and configured into novel Schottky photovoltaic structures by simply using asymmetric Au-Al contacts. Without any doping profiles such as p-n junction and complicated coaxial junction structures, the single NW Schottky device shows a record high apparent energy conversion efficiency of 16% under air mass 1.5 global illumination by normalizing to the projection area of the NW. The corresponding photovoltaic output can be further enhanced by connecting individual cells in series and in parallel as well as by fabricating NW array solar cells via contact printing showing an overall efficiency of 1.6%. Importantly, these Schottky cells can be easily integrated on the glass and plastic substrates for transparent and flexible photovoltaics, which explicitly demonstrate the outstanding versatility and promising perspective of these GaAs NW Schottky photovoltaics for next-generation smart solar energy harvesting devices.

  8. Technical Appraisal Of Solar Photovoltaic Pumping In Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okonta, A.D; Akinwumi, I.O; Siyanbola, W.O.

    2004-01-01

    Water is essential for life and its portability ensures good health for users. In rural communities of developing countries, solar photovoltaic water pumping (PVP) is becoming a reliable and cost-effective alternative to conventional method off providing potable water from boreholes and deep wells. This paper has reported the outcome of a technical appraisal carried out in Nigeria. It involved an inventorization exercise, administration of questionnaires, physical inspection of some system sites and personal interaction with contractors, government officials and beneficiaries of such system. the data were analysed using graphical displays, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 10.0) and student t-test statistic. During the fifteen years period (1988 to 2003) covered by the study, it was found that a total of about 600 PVP systems wee installed in Nigeria; 96.2 percent by the government and its agencies and 3.8 percent by the Government Organizations. The mean number of modules per systems was found to be 24, the mean array power is 1564 Wp and the mean borehole depth is 51.3m. The average number of people a system is designed for is 1750. the factor found to be responsible for poor system performance include the usage of low quality component parts, poor system design, low borehole yield and poor construction/installation work. It is recommended that for the sustainable development and dissemination of this technology, pilot projects must be installed in different geographical locations of county. These must be intensively monitored in terms of system and component performance efficiencies and data bank be established to provide information of further research and development

  9. Solar thermal market in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The long-duration of national programs has been the driving force behind the expansion of the local market of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan in the last two decades. This study examines the potential market for SWHs using the statistical data from end users and the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The current effective utilization rate of residential SWHs in terms of potential number of systems installed is estimated to be 11.8%. The analyses also show that the current national subsidy program has recently lost its momentum in expanding the market. Therefore, regional subsidy programs should become the main force in influencing the growth in sales. In addition, SWHs of larger scale would be particularly effective in industries. To promote such applications, a combination of performance-based and direct subsidy schemes or tax deductions can be offered to end users to promote the applications of SWHs in the commercial sector. Solar-assisted cooling systems are considered to be another potential application of solar energy, which is associated with energy saving and power consumption in commercial and residential buildings. A short review of the R and D activities is also given in this paper. - Highlights: ► Regional subsidy programs will be the main force in influencing the growth in sales. ► A revised program is needed to promote solar water heaters for industry applications. ► Solar-assisted cooling systems are potential applications of solar energy in Taiwan

  10. Interactive Visual Analysis for Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abouelhassan, Amal A.

    2017-12-05

    Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than are currently available, which is the goal of this thesis. One promising approach in the OPV field is to control the effective material of the OPV device, which is known as the Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) morphology. The BHJ morphology has a complex composition. Current BHJ exploration techniques deal with the morphologies as black boxes with no perception of the photoelectric current in the BHJ morphology. Therefore, this method depends on a trial-and-error approach and does not efficiently characterize complex BHJ morphologies. On the other hand, current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are based on the global quantification of morphological features. Accordingly, scientists in OPV research are still lacking a sufficient understanding of the best material design. To remove these limitations, we propose a new approach for knowledge-assisted visual exploration and analysis in the OPV domain. We develop new techniques for enabling efficient OPV charge transport path analysis. We employ, adapt, and develop techniques from scientific visualization, geometric modeling, clustering, and visual interaction to obtain new designs of visualization tools that are specifically tailored for the needs of OPV scientists. At the molecular scale, the user can use semantic rules to define clusters of atoms with certain geometric properties. At the nanoscale, we propose a novel framework for visual characterization and exploration of local structure-performance correlations. We also propose a new approach for correlating structural features to performance bottlenecks. We employ a visual feedback strategy that allows scientists to make intuitive choices about fabrication parameters. We furthermore propose a

  11. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  12. Life cycle energy metrics and CO 2 credit analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal greenhouse dryer

    OpenAIRE

    P. Barnwal; G. N. Tiwari

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, life cycle energy metrics, such as energy payback time (EPBT), energy production factor (EPF) and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE), and mitigation of CO 2 emissions for a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) greenhouse dryer have been analyzed. The hybrid PV/T greenhouse (roof type even span) dryer, designed and constructed at Solar Energy Park, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (28°35′N, 77°12′E, 216 m above MSL), India, has a 2.50 m × 2.60 m floor area, 1.80 m ce...

  13. Exergetic evaluation on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel; Taiyoko netsu hybrid panel no exergy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaki, H; Morita, Y; Fujisawa, T; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel (PV/T) is an energy converter that was designed for the composite use of electricity and heat. In this paper, the validity of PV/T designed for trial was evaluated based on an exergetic theory. As the result of an experiment, the electric exergetic value of PV/T and PV is each 65.8 kWh/m{sup 2} and 58.6 kWh/m{sup 2}. The former is higher than the latter by 11.2%. The total exergetic value of PV/T is also 1.2 and 8.2 times as high as those of a PV and solar collector (SC), respectively. The calculation result of the optimum temperature operation showed that the exergetic value of PV/T is 3.1 times as high as the electric exergetic value. Therefore, the operation must be performed with the electric and thermal exergetic values set in a ratio of 3.1 to 1. In this paper, the operating mode is handled in which importance was more attached to the electric exergy than the thermal exergy. The flow rate of a heating medium on PV/T is not thus the flow control that maximizes the PV/T exergy. In the future, studies including these points will be promoted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  15. 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Munich 22.-26.10.2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed

  16. SOFAS market inquiry 1998. Solar collectors and photovoltaic modules in the year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    1999-04-01

    Beginning 1984, the Swiss Professional Association of Solar Energy Firms (SOFAS) collects data on solar collector and photovoltaic module sales in Switzerland. The data enter the 'Swiss statistics of renewable energy sources' in the annual report of the action programme 'Energy 2000' as well as the 'General energy statistics' of the Swiss government. In this way, the total energy output of solar heating systems (for domestic hot water preparation, space heating, swimming pool heating, and hay drying) as well as that of photovoltaic systems is available since 1993 in Switzerland. For years, the installed collector and module area is growing continuously. Especially for photovoltaics the subsidy programme of the government has a clear impact on the market tabs., figs [de

  17. Optimization and modeling of a photovoltaic solar integrated system by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh'd Sami S.

    2008-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar integrated system is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN's). Data relevant to the system performance was collected on April, 4th 1993 and every 15 min during the day. This input-output data is used to train the ANN. The ANN approximates the data well and therefore can be relied on in predicting the system performance, namely, system efficiencies. The solar system consists of a solar trainer which contains a photovoltaic panel, a DC centrifugal pump, flat plate collectors, storage tank, a flowmeter for measuring the water mass flow rate, pipes, pyranometer for measuring the solar intensity, thermocouples for measuring various system temperatures and wind speed meter. The complex method constrained optimization is applied to the solar system ANN model to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. This information will be very hard to obtain by just looking at the available historical input-output data

  18. Optimization and modeling of a photovoltaic solar integrated system by neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, Moh' d Sami S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    A photovoltaic solar integrated system is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN's). Data relevant to the system performance was collected on April, 4th 1993 and every 15 min during the day. This input-output data is used to train the ANN. The ANN approximates the data well and therefore can be relied on in predicting the system performance, namely, system efficiencies. The solar system consists of a solar trainer which contains a photovoltaic panel, a DC centrifugal pump, flat plate collectors, storage tank, a flowmeter for measuring the water mass flow rate, pipes, pyranometer for measuring the solar intensity, thermocouples for measuring various system temperatures and wind speed meter. The complex method constrained optimization is applied to the solar system ANN model to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. This information will be very hard to obtain by just looking at the available historical input-output data. (author)

  19. Experimental investigation of a two-inlet air-based building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tingting; Athienitis, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BIPV/T system thermal efficiency is 5% higher using two inlets compared to one. • BIPV/T thermal efficiency is 7.6% higher using semi-transparent than opaque PV. • Detailed air temperature profile in BIPV/T channel is obtained. • Nusselt number correlations are developed. - Abstract: An experimental study of thermal characteristics of a novel two-inlet air-based open-loop building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system using a full-scale solar simulator is presented. Experimental prototypes of one-inlet and two-inlet BIPV/T systems were constructed for conducting comparative experiments. Variations of BIPV/T systems are also investigated including systems employing opaque mono-crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels and systems employing semi-transparent mono-crystalline PV panels. Experimental results demonstrate that an equivalent two-inlet system with frameless PV panels can increase the thermal efficiency by 5% compared to a conventional one-inlet system, and that the BIPV/T system with semi-transparent PV panels achieves 7.6% higher thermal efficiency due to the absorption of some solar radiation at the bottom surface in the BIPV/T system cavity. Also, the two-inlet BIPV/T design is easily implemented and does not add significant cost. Detailed air temperature measurements reveal that the mixing of the warm outlet air from the first section and the cool ambient air drawn in from the second inlet contributes to the improved performance of the two-inlet system. Based on a thermal network model of the BIPV/T system and experimental data, correlations are developed for the convective heat transfer coefficients in the two sections. These are necessary for further analysis and development of BIPV/T system with multiple inlets.

  20. Solar-cell interconnect design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Useful solar cell interconnect reliability design and life prediction algorithms are presented, together with experimental data indicating that the classical strain cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material does not account for the statistical scatter that is required in reliability predictions. This shortcoming is presently addressed by fitting a functional form to experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data, which thereby yields statistical fatigue curves enabling not only the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, but also the quantitative interpretation of data from accelerated thermal cycling tests. Optimal interconnect cost reliability design algorithms are also derived which may allow the minimization of energy cost over the design life of the array field.