WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar terrestrial dispatch

  1. Dispatchable Solar Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Henry [Solar Dynamics LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    As penetration of intermittent renewable power increases, grid operators must manage greater variability in the supply and demand on the grid. One result is that utilities are planning to build many new natural gas peaking power plants that provide added flexibility needed for grid management. This report discusses the development of a dispatchable solar power (DSP) plant that can be used in place of natural gas peakers. Specifically, a new molten-salt tower (MST) plant has been developed that is designed to allow much more flexible operation than typically considered in concentrating solar power plants. As a result, this plant can provide most of the capacity and ancillary benefits of a conventional natural gas peaker plant but without the carbon emissions. The DSP system presented was designed to meet the specific needs of the Arizona Public Service (APS) utility 2017 peaking capacity request for proposals (RFP). The goal of the effort was to design a MST peaker plant that had the operational capabilities required to meet the peaking requirements of the utility and be cost competitive with the natural gas alternative. The effort also addresses many perceived barriers facing the commercial deployment of MST technology in the US today. These include MST project development issues such as permitting, avian impacts, visual impacts of tower CSP projects, project schedule, and water consumption. The DSP plant design is based on considerable analyses using sophisticated solar system design tools and in-depth preliminary engineering design. The resulting DSP plant design uses a 250 MW steam power cycle, with solar field designed to fit on a square mile plot of land that has a design point thermal rating of 400 MWt. The DSP plant has an annual capacity factor of about 16% tailored to deliver greater than 90% capacity during the critical Arizona summer afternoon peak. The table below compares the All-In energy cost and capacity payment of conventional combustion turbines

  2. Economic load dispatch of wind-solar-thermal system using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is an essential optimization problem ..... The data for radiation and average ambient temperature is adopted as per (Solar Radiation Hand Book, et al.,2008) ..... Reference temperature for cell efficiency.

  3. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  4. Solar hybrid power plants: Solar energy contribution in reaching full dispatchability and firmness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; López, Diego; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Rocha, Alberto R.; Pereira, Daniel; Gonzalez, Lucía

    2016-05-01

    Renewable energies for electricity generation have always been considered as a risk for the electricity system due to its lack of dispatchability and firmness. Renewable energies penetration is constrained to strong grids or else its production must be limited to ensure grid stability, which is kept by the usage of hydropower energy or fossil-fueled power plants. CSP technology has an opportunity to arise not only as a dispatchable and firm technology, but also as an alternative that improves grid stability. To achieve that objective, solar hybrid configurations are being developed, being the most representative three different solutions: SAPG, ISCC and HYSOL. A reference scenario in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been defined to compare these solutions, which have been modelled, simulated and evaluated in terms of dispatchability and firmness using ratios defined by the authors. The results show that: a) SAPG obtains the highest firmness KPI values, but no operation constraints have been considered for the coal boiler and the solar energy contribution is limited to 1.7%, b) ISCC provides dispatchable and firm electricity production but its solar energy contribution is limited to a 6.4%, and c) HYSOL presents the higher solar energy contribution of all the technologies considered: 66.0% while providing dispatchable and firm generation in similar conditions as SAPG and ISCC.

  5. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kahler, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    ...) particle events, the solar wind, and geomagnetic storms. The investigators, working at Hanscom AFB, MA, have used many different kinds of space- and ground-based observations and have collaborated with workers at various institutions in this work...

  6. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  7. Combined emission economic dispatch of power system including solar photo voltaic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Awan, Ahmed Bilal; Mahmood, Anzar; Razzaq, Sohail; Zafar, Adnan; Sidhu, Guftaar Ahmed Sardar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined Emission Economic Dispatch Problem has been solved with inclusion of solar power plants. • Mixed Integer Optimization Problem has been solved using Particle Swarm Optimization. • Static and dynamic case studies have been considered. • Clouds effect with 15% and 30% reduced radiations has also been taken into account. • Simulation results prove the effectiveness of proposed model. - Abstract: Reliable and inexpensive electricity provision is one of the significant research objectives since decades. Various Economic Dispatch (ED) methods have been developed in order to address the challenge of continuous and sustainable electricity provision at optimized cost. Rapid escalation of fuel prices, depletion of fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns have compelled us to incorporate the Renewable Energy (RE) resources in the energy mix. This paper presents Combined Emission Economic Dispatch (CEED) models developed for a system consisting of multiple Photo Voltaic (PV) plants and thermal units. Based on the nature of decision variables, our proposed model is essentially a Mixed Integer Optimization Problem (MIOP). Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to solve the optimization problem for a scenario involving six conventional and thirteen PV plants. Two test cases, Combined Static Emission Economic Dispatch (SCEED) and Combined Dynamic Emission Economic Dispatch (DCEED), have been considered. SCEED is performed for full solar radiation level as well as for reduced radiation level due to clouds effect. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed model

  8. Optimized dispatch in a first-principles concentrating solar power production model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Michael J.; Newman, Alexandra M.; Hamilton, William T.; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-10-01

    Concentrating solar power towers, which include a steam-Rankine cycle with molten salt thermal energy storage, is an emerging technology whose maximum effectiveness relies on an optimal operational and dispatch policy. Given parameters such as start-up and shut-down penalties, expected electricity price profiles, solar availability, and system interoperability requirements, this paper seeks a profit-maximizing solution that determines start-up and shut-down times for the power cycle and solar receiver, and the times at which to dispatch stored and instantaneous quantities of energy over a 48-h horizon at hourly fidelity. The mixed-integer linear program (MIP) is subject to constraints including: (i) minimum and maximum rates of start-up and shut-down, (ii) energy balance, including energetic state of the system as a whole and its components, (iii) logical rules governing the operational modes of the power cycle and solar receiver, and (iv) operational consistency between time periods. The novelty in this work lies in the successful integration of a dispatch optimization model into a detailed techno-economic analysis tool, specifically, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM). The MIP produces an optimized operating strategy, historically determined via a heuristic. Using several market electricity pricing profiles, we present comparative results for a system with and without dispatch optimization, indicating that dispatch optimization can improve plant profitability by 5-20% and thereby alter the economics of concentrating solar power technology. While we examine a molten salt power tower system, this analysis is equally applicable to the more mature concentrating solar parabolic trough system with thermal energy storage.

  9. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  10. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  11. Grand scheme for solar-terrestrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The study of solar wind and its interaction with magnetic fields and electrical currents is examined. The effects of magnetic storms caused by solar wind interaction with magnetic fields in the magnetosphere and ionosphere are described. The effect of magnetospheric plasma processes on spacecraft operations and the operation of ground-based systems are explained. The development of an International Solar Terrestrial Physics program, which will be designed to place diagnostic experiments on a collection of spacecraft positioned near space is discussed; the components of the program are described

  12. Solar cosmic rays in the system of solar terrestrial relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.

    2008-02-01

    In this brief review, we discuss a number of geophysical effects of solar energetic particles (SEPs) or solar cosmic rays (SCR). We concentrate mainly on the observational evidence and proposed mechanisms of some expected effects and/or poor-studied phenomena discovered within the last three decades, in particular, depletion of the ozone layer, perturbations in the global electric current, effects on the winter storm vorticity, change of the atmospheric transparency and production of nitrates. Some "archaeological" data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by SEPs are also discussed. Due attention is paid to the periodicities in the solar particle fluxes. Actually, many solar, heliospheric and terrestrial parameters changing generally in phase with the solar activity are subjected to a temporary depression close to the solar maximum ("Gnevyshev Gap"). A similar gap has been found recently in the yearly numbers of the >10 MeV proton events. All the above-mentioned findings are evidently of great importance in the studies of general proton emissivity of the Sun and long-term trends in the behaviour of solar magnetic fields. In addition, these data can be very helpful for elaborating the methods for prediction of the radiation conditions in space and for estimation of the SEPs' contribution to solar effects on the geosphere, their relative role in the formation of terrestrial weather and climate and in the problem of solar-terrestrial relations (STR) on the whole.

  13. Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kamide, Y

    2007-01-01

    The Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment is a unique compendium. Recognized international leaders in their field contribute chapters on basic topics of solar physics, space plasmas and the Earth's magnetosphere, and on applied topics like the aurora, magnetospheric storms, space weather, space climatology and planetary science. This book will be of highest value as a reference for researchers working in the area of planetary and space science. However, it is also written in a style accessible to graduate students majoring in those fields.

  14. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  15. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  16. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  17. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  18. Solar generators in terrestrial communication technology. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, E

    1978-01-01

    To begin with, the basic terms solar cell, solar cell module, solar generator, and solar generator system are defined and illustrated by examples. After this, the advantages and disadvantages of solar generators in power supply for terrestrial communications as compared to dry cell batteries, diesel generators and mains operation are discussed with a view to technical, economic, and ecological aspects. After some hints for an optimum design of systems, a comprehensive, general list of possible applications is given. The second part will give a detailed description of typical and exemplary applications.

  19. Indexes and parameters of activity in solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, G.S.; Minasyants, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The daily variation of different indexes and parameters of the solar-terrestrial physics at the 23 cycle were considered to find the most important from them for the forecast of geomagnetic activity. The validity of application of the Wolf numbers in quality of the characteristic of solar activity at sunspots is confirmed. The best geo-effective parameter in the arrival of the interplanetary shock from coronal mass ejection to an orbit of the Earth. (author)

  20. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  1. On Non-Universality of Solar-Terrestrial Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Yom Din, Gregory

    The discussion on the principal possibility of a causal chain from solar activity and space weather to the earth weather and agriculture price dynamics continues over 200 years from the first publication of Herschel (1801) up to the current time. We analyze main arguments of the two sides and show that the root of the critics of this possibility lies in the wide accepted conception of the universality of the solar-terrestrial connection (that can appear, for example, in daily and seasonal variations) what suggest that the effect can be observed in any historical period and in any region. We show that this expectation is not correct because of the solar-terrestrial connections generated by different sides of solar activity with different agents of solar magnetic dynamo process that have different and non-stable phase patterns. We remind that the realization of the causal chain “solar activity/space weather” - “earth weather” - “crops” -“market reaction” may have a place only in specific historical periods and in specific zones where and when the three necessary conditions hold true. This limitation leads to one of four possible scenarios of the market reaction. We show that the critical arguments used for rejecting a principal possibility of the causal connection “solar activity” - Earth agriculture markets” are based on neglecting the three necessary conditions for realization of this connection, and on analyzing periods and regions when and where the necessary conditions are not hold.

  2. Solar-terrestrial disturbances in June-September 1982, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori

    1985-01-01

    The x-ray detector on the SMS-GOES satellite observed 77 solar x-ray flares (1 - 8A) with flux above 10 -5 W/m 2 in June, 1982, and 33 SIDs with importance above 2 were observed in Hiraiso, Japan. However, the geomagnetic storm with Dst above 100 nT did not occur at that time since most solar flares occurred near the east rim of the sun. These solar active regions lasted for 5 solar rotations, then, the great geomagnetic storms with Dst above 100 nT occurred on July 13 - 15, September 5 - 7 and September 21 - 23, 1982. These geomagnetic storms were preceded by the solar flares of importance above 2B occurred in the central part of the solar disc. From September 26 to 27, 1982, a great geomagnetic storm which was not accompanied by solar flare occurred. This paper summarized the studies on solar-terrestrial events from June to September, 1982, made by the space physics and aeronomy groups of the Radio Research Laboratories, Japan. The solar flares occurred on July 12, September 4 and 19, 1982, the geomagnetic storms corresponding to them, the cosmic ray storms observed on July 13 - 19, September 6 - 9 and 21 - 26, 1982, global equivalent current system and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Effects of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The general intent of this essay is to discuss the effect of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment. Instead of giving a systematic approach considering all environment processes where solar emission is the primary energy source and all important materials which have been generated by solar driven processes, the author sketches an impression of the range of the effects of solar radiation on the environment by surveying a number of topics of particular current interest, in varying levels of detail. These include atmospheric chemistry, some aspects of the transfer of radiation within the atmosphere, global energy balance and climate feedbacks, especially those due to clouds, impacts of fossil fuel energy use, evolution of early life processes, photosynthesis and plant productivity as it relates to photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle. (Auth.)

  4. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ohbu, Kouji; Ouchi, Choshichi; Isobe, Takeshi; Hori, Toshihiro; Ouchi, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    The outline of the solar activity during the period from June to September 1982 is given. During this period, several extremely developed active regions appeared on the solar disk and produced severe solar-terrestrial disturbances which we had not experienced since August 1972. In June and July, significant solar activities were brought about by the active regions 3763, 3776, and 3804. These regions frequently produced large flares of the highest class of importances in both Hsub(a) and X-ray intensities. However, the geomagnetic disturbances scarcely developed in June. The 3B/X7 flare on July 12 occurred in the region 3804 and caused the largest proton event and geomagnetic storm in this solar cycle. In August and September, flare occurrences were fewer than before. The 2B/M6 and 3N/M4 flares occurred in the region 3886 on September 4, and 2B/C9 flare occurred in the region 3907 on September 19. They are considered to cause two major geomagnetic storms which started on September 5 and 21, respectively. It seems remarkable that significant flares which occurred during these periods were produced by the same active region maintaining activities for more than ten solar rotations; 3776, 3804, and 3886 belonged to the same region in different solar rotations. (author)

  5. Effect of solar-terrestrial phenomena on solar cell's efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahee, K. B.; Ansari, W.A.; Raza, S.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that the solar cell efficiency of PV device is closely related to the solar irradiance, consider the solar parameter Global Solar Irradiance (G) and the meteorological parameters like daily data of Earth Skin Temperature (E), Average Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H) and Dew Frost Point (D), for the coastal city Karachi and a non-coastal city Jacobabad, K and J is used as a subscripts for parameters of Karachi and Jacobabad respectively. All variables used here are dependent on the location (latitude and longitude) of our stations except G. To employ ARIMA modeling, the first eighteen years data is used for modeling and forecast is done for the last five years data. In most cases results show good correlation among monthly actual and monthly forecasted values of all the predictors. Next, multiple linear regression is employed to the data obtained by ARIMA modeling and models for mean monthly observed G values are constructed. For each station, two equations are constructed, the R values are above 93% for each model, showing adequacy of the fit. Our computations show that solar cell efficiency can be increased if better modeling for meteorological predictors governs the process. (author)

  6. The solar generation childhood and adolescence of terrestrial photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip R

    2018-01-01

    The first book to address the early development of the photovoltaic industry, and the pioneering researchers and companies in the sector. Well before the end of this century, solar power will be the world's dominant power source. This book looks at the origins of this smart sustainable energy technology, tracing the pioneering years from its inception following the 1973 oil crisis to the end of the last millennium—just as the sector was poised for explosive growth. It focuses on the progress of the early terrestrial photovoltaic sector, often in the face of skepticism or apathy. It also covers the research and achievements of people and organizations within the PV business. Written by a leader in the field with more than 40 years of experience and an international reputation in the sustainable energy industry, The Solar Generation: Childhood and Adolescence of Terrestrial Photovoltaics offers enlightening coverage on the terrestrial PV industry. The first part of this 3-volume set provides a historical bac...

  7. SEARCHING FOR THE SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN SOLAR ANALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S.; Neves, V.; Udry, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a fully differential chemical abundance analysis using very high resolution (λ/δλ ∼> 85, 000) and very high signal-to-noise (S/N ∼800 on average) HARPS and UVES spectra of 7 solar twins and 95 solar analogs, of which 24 are planet hosts and 71 are stars without detected planets. The whole sample of solar analogs provides very accurate Galactic chemical evolution trends in the metallicity range -0.3 < [Fe/H] < 0.5. Solar twins with and without planets show similar mean abundance ratios. We have also analyzed a sub-sample of 28 solar analogs, 14 planet hosts, and 14 stars without known planets, with spectra at S/N ∼850 on average, in the metallicity range 0.14 < [Fe/H] < 0.36, and find the same abundance pattern for both samples of stars with and without planets. This result does not depend on either the planet mass, from 7 Earth masses to 17.4 Jupiter masses, or the orbital period of the planets, from 3 to 4300 days. In addition, we have derived the slope of the abundance ratios as a function of the condensation temperature for each star and again find similar distributions of the slopes for both stars with and without planets. In particular, the peaks of these two distributions are placed at a similar value but with the opposite sign to that expected from a possible signature of terrestrial planets. In particular, two of the planetary systems in this sample, each of them containing a super-Earth-like planet, show slope values very close to these peaks, which may suggest that these abundance patterns are not related to the presence of terrestrial planets.

  8. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tadahiko

    1985-01-01

    Geomagnetic disturbances associated with the solar-terrestrial events during the period June-September 1982 are investigated using data of both solar phenomena and the satellite GMS-2 which measured solar protons and alpha particles at a geostationary orbit. It is pointed out (1) that the geomagnetic disturbances in June were weak in spite of successive, relatively large flares, (2) that the biggest geomagnetic storm during July 13-14 induced by the large flare (3B/X7.1) on July 12 is characterized by a geographically localized (around Japan), short-lived (1.5 hours) deep depression of geomagnetic H-component (ΔHsub(max) = -630 nT) appeared around local morning hours, (3) that two relatively big geomagnetic storms due to long-lasting, medium-scale flares occurred in September, and (4) that there existed storms caused not by flares but presumably by coronal hole and/or filament disappearance. According to the examination of world-wide magnetograms, it is tentatively suggested that the deep depression of H-component during the July 13-14 storm was caused by an abnormal expansion of the substorm-associated current system in the auroral zone to the Far East. All of the proton events due to the flares in the eastern solar hemisphere were of slow-onset type. Only one example of fast-onset type was obtained for the west limb flare on July 22. The present analyses are compared with the big solar-terrestrial events which happened in February 1958 and August 1972. (author)

  9. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  10. International solar-terrestrial physics program: a plan for the core spaceflight missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  11. Intra-Hour Dispatch and Automatic Generator Control Demonstration with Solar Forecasting - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, Carlos F. M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States

    2016-02-25

    In this project we address multiple resource integration challenges associated with increasing levels of solar penetration that arise from the variability and uncertainty in solar irradiance. We will model the SMUD service region as its own balancing region, and develop an integrated, real-time operational tool that takes solar-load forecast uncertainties into consideration and commits optimal energy resources and reserves for intra-hour and intra-day decisions. The primary objectives of this effort are to reduce power system operation cost by committing appropriate amount of energy resources and reserves, as well as to provide operators a prediction of the generation fleet’s behavior in real time for realistic PV penetration scenarios. The proposed methodology includes the following steps: clustering analysis on the expected solar variability per region for the SMUD system, Day-ahead (DA) and real-time (RT) load forecasts for the entire service areas, 1-year of intra-hour CPR forecasts for cluster centers, 1-year of smart re-forecasting CPR forecasts in real-time for determination of irreducible errors, and uncertainty quantification for integrated solar-load for both distributed and central stations (selected locations within service region) PV generation.

  12. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tadahiko

    1986-01-01

    Geomagnetic disturbances associated with the solar-terrestrial events during the period June-September 1982 are investigated using data of both solar phenomena and the satellite GMS-2 which measured solar protons and alpha particles at a geostationary orbit. It is pointed out (1) that the geomagnetic disturbances in June were weak in spite of relatively large, successive flares, (2) that the biggest geomagnetic storm during July 13 - 14 induced by the large flare (3B/X7.1) on July 12 is characterized by a geographically localized (around Japan), short-lived (1.5 hours) deep depression of geomagnetic H-component (ΔH max = -630 nT) which appeared around local morning hours, (3) that two relatively big geomagnetic storms due to long-lasting, medium-scale flares occurred in September, and (4) that there existed storms caused not by flares but presumably by coronal hole and/or filament disappearance. According to the examination of world-wide magnetograms, it is tentatively suggested that the deep depression of H-component during the July 13 - 14 storm was caused by an abnormal expansion of the substorm-associated current system in the auroral zone toward the Far East. All of the proton events due to the flares in the eastern solar hemisphere were of slow-onset type. Only one example of fast-onset type was obtained for the west limb flare on July 22. The present analyses are compared with the big solarterrestrial events which happened in February 1958 and August 1972. (author)

  13. ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOLAR ORBIT ON TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, F.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2013-01-01

    The terrestrial record shows a significant variation in the extinction and origination rates of species during the past half-billion years. Numerous studies have claimed an association between this variation and the motion of the Sun around the Galaxy, invoking the modulation of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and comet impact frequency as a cause of this biodiversity variation. However, some of these studies exhibit methodological problems, or were based on coarse assumptions (such as a strict periodicity of the solar orbit). Here we investigate this link in more detail, using a model of the Galaxy to reconstruct the solar orbit and thus a predictive model of the temporal variation of the extinction rate due to astronomical mechanisms. We compare these predictions as well as those of various reference models with paleontological data. Our approach involves Bayesian model comparison, which takes into account the uncertainties in the paleontological data as well as the distribution of solar orbits consistent with the uncertainties in the astronomical data. We find that various versions of the orbital model are not favored beyond simpler reference models. In particular, the distribution of mass extinction events can be explained just as well by a uniform random distribution as by any other model tested. Although our negative results on the orbital model are robust to changes in the Galaxy model, the Sun's coordinates, and the errors in the data, we also find that it would be very difficult to positively identify the orbital model even if it were the true one. (In contrast, we do find evidence against simpler periodic models.) Thus, while we cannot rule out there being some connection between solar motion and biodiversity variations on the Earth, we conclude that it is difficult to give convincing positive conclusions of such a connection using current data.

  14. On the Path to SunShot - Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology, Performance, and Dispatchability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage will help enable CSP compete by adding flexibility value to a high-variable-generation (solar plus wind) power system (see Mehos et al. 2016). Compared with PV, CSP systems are more complex to develop, design, construct, and operate, and they require a much larger minimum effective scale—typically at least 50 MW, compared with PV systems that can be as small as a few kilowatts. In recent years, PV’s greater modularity and lower LCOE have made it more attractive to many solar project developers, and some large projects that were originally planned for CSP have switched to PV. However, the ability of CSP to use thermal energy storage—and thus provide continuous power for long periods when the sun is not shining—could give CSP a vital role in evolving electricity systems. Because CSP with storage can store energy when net demand is low and release that energy when demand is high, it increases the electricity system’s ability to balance supply and demand over multiple time scales. Such flexibility becomes increasingly important as more variable-generation renewable energy is added to the system. For example, one analysis suggests that, under a 40% renewable portfolio standard in California, CSP with storage could provide more than twice as much value to the electricity system as variable-generation PV. For this reason, enhanced thermal energy storage is a critical component of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 CSP technology-improvement roadmap.

  15. On the Path to SunShot. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology, Performance, and Dispatchability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report examines the remaining challenges to achieving the competitive concentrating solar power (CSP) costs and large-scale deployment envisioned under the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative. Although CSP costs continue to decline toward SunShot targets, CSP acceptance and deployment have been hindered by inexpensive photovoltaics (PV). However, a recent analysis found that thermal energy storage (TES) could increase CSP's value--based on combined operational and capacity benefits--by up to 6 cents/kWh compared to variable-generation PV, under a 40% renewable portfolio standard in California. Thus, the high grid value of CSP-TES must be considered when evaluating renewable energy options. An assessment of net system cost accounts for the difference between the costs of adding new generation and the avoided cost from displacing other resources providing the same level of energy and reliability. The net system costs of several CSP configurations are compared with the net system costs of conventional natural-gas-fired combustion-turbine (CT) and combined-cycle plants. At today's low natural gas prices and carbon emission costs, the economics suggest a peaking configuration for CSP. However, with high natural gas prices and emission costs, each of the CSP configurations compares favorably against the conventional alternatives, and systems with intermediate to high capacity factors become the preferred alternatives. Another analysis compares net system costs for three configurations of CSP versus PV with batteries and PV with CTs. Under current technology costs, the least-expensive option is a combination of PV and CTs. However, under future cost assumptions, the optimal configuration of CSP becomes the most cost-effective option.

  16. Solar-Terrestrial Effects on Bean Seed Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minorsky, P. V.

    2012-12-01

    Forty years ago, a lively debate ensued amongst biologists concerning the nature of biological rhythms. The "endogenous" school argued that biological rhythms that occur in the absence of any obvious environmental oscillation arise endogenously from within the organism itself. The "exogenous" school on the other hand proposed that subtle and pervasive exogenous factors (e.g., geomagnetic variations or cosmic radiation) underlie most biological rhythms. Much of the debate between the endogenous vs. exogenous schools focused on circadian (circa-24 h) rhythms in particular. The demonstration that circadian rhythms continue in orbiting spacecraft was widely regarded as the final nail in the coffin of the "exogenous" school, and the entire school sank into obscurity. Regrettably, the demise of the "exogenous" school also caused some interesting findings concerning non-circadian rhythms to fall into oblivion as well. Three different research groups, for example, reported that bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds display rhythms in imbibition that have ~7- or ~14-day periodicities. Consistent with the idea of an exogenous synchronizer, these rhythms often occurred synchronously in bean seed populations located 1500 km apart. The present experiment was initiated with the intention of examining whether these ~7 and ~14 d oscillations in imbibition corresponded to oscillations in solar-terrestrial parameters. Three replicates of ~25 g of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Provider) were weighed daily and placed into beakers containing 200 ml of distilled water at 25° C. This temperature was maintained by nesting the beakers inside larger, temperature-jacketed beakers through which water from a temperature-regulated water bath was circulated. Four hours later the experiments were terminated: the bean seeds were blotted and weighed. Experiments were conducted almost every day between 3 and 7 AM UT from Jan 18, 2007 to Feb 26, 2008. A major difference between the present study and

  17. Optimum Dispatch of Hybrid Solar Thermal (HSTP Electric Power Plant Using Non-Smooth Cost Function and Emission Function for IEEE-30 Bus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of economic load dispatch (ELD is to optimize the total fuel cost of hybrid solar thermal electric power plant (HSTP. In ELD problems the cost function for each generator has been approximated by a single quadratic cost equation. As cost of coal increases, it becomes even more important have a good model for the production cost of each generator for the solar thermal hybrid system. A more accurate formulation is obtained for the ELD problem by expressing the generation cost function as a piece wise quadratic cost function. However, the solution methods for ELD problem with piece wise quadratic cost function requires much complicated algorithms such as the hierarchical structure approach along with evolutionary computations (ECs. A test system comprising of 10 units with 29 different fuel [7] cost equations is considered in this paper. The applied genetic algorithm method will provide optimal solution for the given load demand.

  18. Recommendations for the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial photovoltaic solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    A review of recommendations for standardizing the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial solar panels is given to develop an international standard code of practice for performance rating. Required data to characterize the performance of a solar panel are listed. Other items discussed are: (1) basic measurement procedures; (2) performance measurement in natural sunlight and simulated sunlight; (3) standard solar cells; (4) the normal incidence method; (5) global method and (6) definition of peak power.

  19. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  20. Roles of Solar Power from Space for Europe - Space Exploration and Combinations with Terrestrial Solar Plant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, L.; Pipoli, T.; Galvez, A.; Ongaro, F.; Vasile, M.

    The paper presents the prospective roles of SPS concepts for Europe, shows the outcome of recent studies undertaken by ESA's Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) together with European industry and research centres and gives insight into planned activities. The main focus is on the assessment of the principal validity and economic viability of solar power from space concepts in the light of advances in alternative sustainable, clean and potentially abundant solar-based terrestrial concepts. The paper takes into account expected changes in the European energy system (e.g. gradual introduction of hydrogen as energy vector). Special emphasis is given to the possibilities of integrating space and terrestrial solar plants. The relative geographic proximity of areas in North Africa with high average solar irradiation to the European energy consumer market puts Europe in a special position regarding the integration of space and terrestrial solar power concepts. The paper presents a method to optimise such an integration, taking into account different possible orbital constellations, terrestrial locations, plant number and sizes as well as consumer profiles and extends the scope from the European-only to a multi continental approach including the fast growing Chinese electricity market. The work intends to contribute to the discussion on long-term options for the European commitment to worldwide CO2 emission reduction. Cleaner electricity generation and environmentally neutral transport fuels (e.g. solar generated hydrogen) might be two major tools in reaching this goal.

  1. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  2. The coronas-F space mission key results for solar terrestrial physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume is the updated and extended translation of the Russian original. It presents the results of observations of solar activity and its effects in the Earth space environment carried out from July 2001 to December 2005 on board the CORONAS-F space mission. The general characteristics of the CORONAS-F scientific payload are provided with a description of the principal experiments. The main results focus on the global oscillations of the Sun (p-modes), solar corona, solar flares, solar cosmic rays, Earth’s radiation belts, and upper atmosphere. The book will be welcomed by students, post-graduates, and scientists working in the field of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. This English edition is supplemented by sections presenting new results of the SPIRIT and TESIS experiments under the CORONAS solar program, as well as from the SONG experiment onboard the CORONAS-F satellite.

  3. Solar activity and terrestrial climate: an analysis of some purported correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter

    2003-01-01

    claimed to support solar hypotheses. My analyses show that the apparent strong correlations displayed on these graphs have been obtained by an incorrect handling of the physical data. Since the graphs are still widely referred to in the literature and their misleading character has not yet been generally......The last decade has seen a revival of various hypotheses claiming a strong correlation between solar activity and a number of terrestrial climate parameters: Links between cosmic rays and cloud cover, first total cloud cover and then only low clouds, and between solar cycle lengths and Northern...... the existence of important links between solar activity and terrestrial climate. Such links have over the years been demonstrated by many authors. The sole objective of the present analysis is to draw attention to the fact that some of the widely publicized, apparent correlations do not properly reflect...

  4. Standard Specification for Solar Simulation for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This specification provides means for classifying solar simulators intended for indoor testing of photovoltaic devices (solar cells or modules), according to their spectral match to a reference spectral irradiance, non-uniformity of spatial irradiance, and temporal instability of irradiance. 1.2 Testing of photovoltaic devices may require the use of solar simulators. Test Methods that require specific classification of simulators as defined in this specification include Test Methods E948, E1036, and E1362. 1.3 This standard is applicable to both pulsed and steady state simulators and includes recommended test requirements used for classifying such simulators. 1.4 A solar simulator usually consists of three major components: (1) light source(s) and associated power supply; (2) any optics and filters required to modify the output beam to meet the classification requirements in Section 4; and (3) the necessary controls to operate the simulator, adjust irradiance, etc. 1.5 A light source that does not mee...

  5. Signals for invisible matter from solar-terrestrial observations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We observe a strong correlation between the orbital position of the planets with solar phenomena like flares or the variation of EUV irradiance. Similarly, a correlation is found in the study of the ionization content of the Earth atmosphere. Planetary gravitational lensing of one (or more) streams of slow moving invisible matter is proposed as an explanation of such a behaviour.

  6. Perturbation of the solar wind in a model terrestrial foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skadron, G.; Holdaway, R.D.; Scholer, M.

    1986-01-01

    We analyze the perturbation of the solar wind in the earth's foreshock. The foreshock is modulated as a planar magnetic flux tube having a 15 R/sub E/ half width. Within the flux tube the upstream energetic particle pressure is assumed to fall monotonically to zero at the flux tube boundary and decline in the upstream direction with a scale length of 8 R/sub E/. The incident solar wind is assumed to flow uniformly with a velocity of 400 km s -1 , a density of 8 cm -3 , a pressure of 50 eV cm -3 , and a magnetic field of 4γ directed parallel to the flow. The solar wind density, velocity, and magnetic field within the foreshock are described by the steady state ideal MHD equations. We find that (1) the vector solar wind velocity perturbation rotates from the sunward to the transverse direction with increasing distance from the axis of the flux tube, (2) the peak solar wind deflection is located --3R/sub E/ within the flux tube boundary, (3) a central upstream pressure of 200 eV cm -3 produces a maxium deceleration of 6 km s -1 and a maximum deflection of 1.3 0 , (4) a central upstream pressure of 600 eV cm -3 produces a maximum deceleration of 19 km s -1 and a maximum deflection of 3.6 0 , and (5) the deflection and deceleration are accompanied by perturbations of the solar wind density and magnetic field. These perturbations are largest near the flux tube boundary where both form spikes having a width of --2R/sub E/. For a 600 eV cm -3 central pressure those spikes have amplitudes of 2 cm -3 and lγ, respectively. We have analyzed the linearized flow problem analytically and reduced the solutions to quadrature. These solutions are found to be good approximations to the numerical nonlinear solutions for moderate values of the upstream particle pressure

  7. Stirling engine alternatives for the terrestrial solar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of the present study of Stirling engine alternatives for solar thermal-electric generation has been completed. Development risk levels are considered to be high for all engines evaluated. Free-piston type and Ringbom-type Stirling engine-alternators are not yet developed for the 25 to 50-kW electrical power range, although smaller machines have demonstrated the inherent robustness of the machines. Kinematic-type Stirling engines are presently achieving a 3500 hr lifetime or longer on critical components, and lifetime must still be further extended for the solar application. Operational and technical characteristics of all types of Stirling engines have been reviewed with engine developers. Technical work of merit in progress in each engine development organization should be recognized and supported in an appropriate manner.

  8. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  9. Some problems of solar-terrestrial energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevskij, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    Energy aspects of relations of phenomena occurring on the Sun, in the interplanetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere and on the Earth's surface are discussed. Particular attention is given to the energy radiated by the Sun (flares, coronal holes). The problems are considered of the energy transfer and transformation in high-velocity and flare flows of solar wind. Estimates are performed: of densities of various types of energy of the interplanetary space at the Earth's orbit level; energy fluxes incident on the magnetosphere; energy accumulated inside the magnetosphere; a series of energy parameters of magnetic storms. It is pointed out that nowadays one of the main problems of the magnetosphere physics is studying ways of the interplanatary space energy transfer into the magnetosphere. In this connection some problems are investigated: plasma penetration through the dayside magnetopause, solar wind plasma entry into the magnetotail, the electric field effect on transition region plasma penetration into the distant magnetotail

  10. Inconing solar radiation estimates at terrestrial surface using meteorological satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, N.; Almeida, F.C. de.

    1982-11-01

    By using the digital images of the visible channel of the GOES-5 meteorological satellite, and a simple radiative transfer model of the earth's atmosphere, the incoming solar radiation reaching ground is estimated. A model incorporating the effects of Rayleigh scattering and water vapor absorption, the latter parameterized using the surface dew point temperature value, is used. Comparisons with pyranometer observations, and parameterization versus radiosonde water vapor absorption calculation are presented. (Author) [pt

  11. International Living With a Star (ILWS), a new collaborative space program in Solar, Heliospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Guhathakurta, M.; Liu, W.; Kosugi, T.; Zelenyi, L.

    2003-04-01

    International cooperation has long been a vital element in the scientific investigation of solar variability and its impact on Earth and its space environment. Recently a new international cooeperative program in solar terrestrial physics has been established by the major space agencies of the world, called the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. ILWS is a follow on to the highly successful International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program which involved international parterners. ISTP, with its steady flow of discoveries and new knowledge in solar Terrestrial physics, has laid the foundation for the coordinated study of the Sun-Earth sytem as a connected stellar-planetary system, system which is humanity's home. The first step in establishing ILWS was taken in the fall of 2000 when funding was approved for the NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program whose goal is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. The scientific goals of ILWS are defined in a broader sense, aiming to include future solar, heliospheric and solar terrestrial missions of both applied and fundamental scientific focus. The ultimate goal of ILWS wil be to increase our understanding of how solar variability affects the terrestrial and other planetary environments both in the short and long term, and in particular how man and society may be affected by solar variability and its consequences. The mission charter of ILWS is 'to stimulate, strengthen and coordinate space research in order to understand the governing processes of the connected Sun-Earth System as an integrated entity'. More detailed ILWS Objectives are to stimulate and facilitate: - The study of the Sun Earth connected system and the effects which influence life and society - Collaboration among all potential partners in solar-terrestrial space missions - Synergistic coordination of international

  12. The solar-terrestrial environment. An introduction to geospace - the science of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. K.

    This textbook is a successor to "The upper atmosphere and solar-terrestrial relations" first published in 1979. It describes physical conditions in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. This geospace environment begins 70 kilometres above the surface of the Earth and extends in near space to many times the Earth's radius. It is the region of near-Earth environment where the Space Shuttle flies, the aurora is generated, and the outer atmosphere meets particles streaming out of the sun. The account is introductory. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason the mathematical treatment is not complex. There are three introductory chapters that give basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications.

  13. Cost-Loss Analysis of Ensemble Solar Wind Forecasting: Space Weather Use of Terrestrial Weather Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Pope, E. C. D.

    2017-12-01

    This commentary concerns recent work on solar wind forecasting by Owens and Riley (2017). The approach taken makes effective use of tools commonly used in terrestrial weather—notably, via use of a simple model—generation of an "ensemble" forecast, and application of a "cost-loss" analysis to the resulting probabilistic information, to explore the benefit of this forecast to users with different risk appetites. This commentary aims to highlight these useful techniques to the wider space weather audience and to briefly discuss the general context of application of terrestrial weather approaches to space weather.

  14. Solar planetary systems stardust to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Asit B

    2017-01-01

    The authors have put forth great efforts in gathering present day knowledge about different objects within our solar system and universe. This book features the most current information on the subject with information acquired from noted scientists in this area. The main objective is to convey the importance of the subject and provide detailed information on the physical makeup of our planetary system and technologies used for research. Information on educational projects has also been included in the Radio Astronomy chapters.This information is a real plus for students and educators considering a career in Planetary Science or for increasing their knowledge about our planetary system

  15. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeaki; Ondoh, Tadanori

    1985-01-01

    Several ion whistlers were observed by the polar orbiting satellites, ISIS's during geomagnetic storms associated with large solar flares in 1982. It seems that the proton density ratio to the total ions deduced from the crossover frequency of the trans-equatorial ion whistlers observed at geomagnetic low latitudes during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on July 14th 1982 was lower than the usual density rate. An abnormal pattern seen on the time-compressed dynamic spectra for September 6 th 1982 suggests existence of effects by the component 3 He + in a quite small amount. (author)

  16. Solar-cell interconnect design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Useful solar cell interconnect reliability design and life prediction algorithms are presented, together with experimental data indicating that the classical strain cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material does not account for the statistical scatter that is required in reliability predictions. This shortcoming is presently addressed by fitting a functional form to experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data, which thereby yields statistical fatigue curves enabling not only the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, but also the quantitative interpretation of data from accelerated thermal cycling tests. Optimal interconnect cost reliability design algorithms are also derived which may allow the minimization of energy cost over the design life of the array field.

  17. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Sugiuchi, Hidetoshi; Ishimine, Tsuyoshi; Maeno, Hideo; Honma, Shigehisa

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the solar flare and geomagnetic storm effects on the frequency of JJY signals received at Okinawa (f = 15 MHz) and Kokubunji (f = 5 and 8 MHz) during the period of June-September 1982. The increase in the electron density due to solar flares is deduced from the Doppler frequency deviation of 1 Hz as 2 x 10 15 electrons/m 2 below the reflection height. The result is in good agreement with the observation of the total electron content by the Faraday rotation measurement. On July 13, 1982, an abrupt increase of 0.8 Hz in frequency followed by a decrease of 0.6 Hz was observed in association with the huge storm sudden commencement. This fact indicates a successive transmission of westward electric field of 1.5 mV/m and eastward electric field of 1.1 mV/m from the outer magnetosphere to the low latitude ionosphere. It is shown that the decreases in Doppler frequency were associated with geomagnetic bays. The strength of the electric field (1.8 mV/m) derived from the Doppler frequency deviation is 20 % of that of the electric field which is required to produce ionospheric electric currents responsible for the geomagnetic field variation on the ground. The large amplitude Doppler frequency oscillations of period of 1 - 1.5 h were observed at Kokubunji and Okinawa with a delay time of 20 - 25 min during the geomagnetic storm on September 6, 1982. It is suggested that the large-scale TID (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance) with a phase velocity of 600 m/s and a wavelength of 2000 km is produced at high latitudes and is propagated to low latitudes. (author)

  18. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshio, Mitsuo; Koizumi, Tokuji; Hiidome, Shigeharu; Oda, Tadashi; Echizenya, Yoshimatsu; Kamishikiryo, Syogo; Maeno, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    As a distinctive feature of the ionosphere observed in 1982, it may be said that ionospheric disturbances caused by outstanding solar flares occurred frequently, and especially that the tendency was remarkable during the period from June to September 1982. First, the feature found was frequent sudden increases of f min (SIFs) caused by solar flares observed during the period from June 4 to July 19. Second, it contains ionospheric F region storms which occurred during the period from July 13 to 16, associated with a giant geomagnetic storm and during the periods from September 5 to 8 and from September 21 to 28, associated with usual geomagnetic storms. Ionospheric F region storms associated with these geomagnetic storms assumed various aspects due to the magnitude of geomagnetic storms, the local time of their occurrence, and their passage. Variations in these aspects were extensively investigated by utilizing data obtained not only at the five ionospheric sounding stations in Japan, but also in Eastern Asia, Europe, and so on. The four ionospheric F region storms investigated had individual characteristics due to the difference among local times of appearance in main phase of geomagnetic storms related to the ionospheric F region storms. The scale of the ionospheric F region storm associated with a giant geomagnetic storm on July 14, the decrease of which in horizontal component of geomagnetic field amounted to 630 nT at its maximum stage at Kakioka, was smaller than the scale of the ionospheric F region storm associated with a giant geomagnetic storm on August 4 ∼ 5, 1972 (359 nT there). (author)

  19. Large impacts around a solar-analog star in the era of terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan Y A; Su, Kate Y L; Rieke, George H; Stevenson, David J; Plavchan, Peter; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Lisse, Carey M; Poshyachinda, Saran; Reichart, Daniel E

    2014-08-29

    The final assembly of terrestrial planets occurs via massive collisions, which can launch copious clouds of dust that are warmed by the star and glow in the infrared. We report the real-time detection of a debris-producing impact in the terrestrial planet zone around a 35-million-year-old solar-analog star. We observed a substantial brightening of the debris disk at a wavelength of 3 to 5 micrometers, followed by a decay over a year, with quasi-periodic modulations of the disk flux. The behavior is consistent with the occurrence of a violent impact that produced vapor out of which a thick cloud of silicate spherules condensed that were then ground into dust by collisions. These results demonstrate how the time domain can become a new dimension for the study of terrestrial planet formation. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Prospects for scientific data analysis systems for solar-terrestrial physics in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucher, J.S.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Future developments of data analysis systems for solar-terrestrial research are projected. During the next decade, geophysics and space physics are expected to process an ever increasing amount of data from ground and satellite stations. The results of the data analysis will be used for computer modeling. Solar-terrestrial research will continue to be peformed by small teams of scientists using widely varied and often incompatible computer capabilities but the desire for cooperation will grow stronger with the increase of data, theories, and models to be shared. As a result, desktop conferencing, data storage media, data set structures, supercomputers, computer networks, and computer software are expected to undergo a substantial change. 17 refs

  1. Solar Evolution and Climate on the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Venus, Earth, and Mars followed different evolutionary paths, partly because of their relative distance from the Sun, and partly because of the differences in their masses. Venus was too close to the Sun to retain its water, despite reduced solar luminosity early in Solar System history (1). The loss of water, followed by the buildup of CO2 in its atmosphere, led to the atmosphere that we see today. Earth was within the liquid water regime throughout its history. However, it must have had a larger greenhouse effect in the past in order to compensate for the faint young Sun. A combination of CO2, H2O, CH4, and C2H6 may have helped keep it warm (2,3). Mars' surface appears to have been wet early in its history, although opinions differ on how warm it must have been (4-6). CO2 and H2O alone could not have kept Mars' surface above freezing during Mars' early history when most of the large-scale fluvial features are thought to have formed (7). SO2 has been suggested as an additional greenhouse gas (8), but new calculations show that it would likely have been insufficient. Other mechanisms for warming early Mars may exist, however. Mars' albedo could have been significantly lowered by the presence of trace gases that absorb visible sunlight. NO2, which has a broad absorption peak centered at 400 nm, is a good candidate. A 3- bar CO2 atmosphere containing 30 ppm of NO2 could have kept Mars' mean surface temperature well above the freezing point of water at 3.8 Ga. Plausible sources of nitrogen oxides on early Mars include lightning and impacts. Other visible/UV-absorbing trace gases may have added to this warming. Thus, a complex mixture of gases could have helped keep early Mars warm. References: 1. J.F. Kasting, Icarus 74, 472 (1988). 2. A.A. Pavlov et al., J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11 (2000). 3. J.D. Haqq-Misra et al., Astrobiol. (in press). 4. J.B. Pollack et al., Icarus 71, 203 (1987). 5. T.L. Segura, O.B. Toon, A. Colaprete et al., Science 298, 1977 (2002). 6. C.P. Mc

  2. The physical and theoretical basis of solar-terrestrial relationships 1. Equatorial locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-07-01

    The theory of solar-terrestrial relationships developed earlier by the author is extended to incorporate expressions that represent the non-linear responses of the earth-atmosphere system to incoming solar radiation in a more detailed manner. Application of the extended theory to equatorial locations leads to new and interesting features that are consistent with past observations. It also predicts the existence of new oscillations in the equatorial atmosphere whose causative physical processes are given and explained. Non-equatorial locations are treated along similar lines in Part 2 of the series. (author). 44 refs

  3. Primitive Terrestrial Xenon: A Relation to Refined Composition of Solar Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Meshik, A.; Pravdivtseva, O.; Burnett, D.; Hohenberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    To explain the isotopic structure of terrestrial Xe, a hypothetical U-Xe (unrelated to uranium) was mathematically constructed using multidimensional correlation diagrams of stepwise heating data of carbonaceous chondrites [1]. The composition of U-Xe was derived without any references to solar Xe. Nevertheless U-Xe turned out to be almost identical to Solar Wind (SW) except for two heaviest isotopes ^(136)Xe and ^(134)Xe, in which U-Xe was depleted. The mismatch in these two heaviest Xe isot...

  4. Application of the idea of morphism in solar-terrestrial physics and space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Tassev, Yordan; Velinov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. In the present work we introduce a new mathematical approach to the study of physical processes in the system Sun-Earth. For example, in the ionization of the ionosphere and atmosphere under the influence of cosmic rays a model is used that applies the principle of homomorphism. When calculating the parameters of space weather such as solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth’s magnetosphere, geomagnetic storms and others, the introduction and application of mathematical objects is appropriate: morphisms, groups, categories, monads, functors, natural transformations and others. Such an approach takes into account the general laws of physical processes in the system Sun – Earth and helps in their testing and calculation. It is useful for such complex systems and processes as these in the solar-terrestrial physics and space weather. Some methods for algebraic structures can be introduced. These methods give the possibility for axiomatization of the physical data reality and the application of algebraic methods for their processing. Here we give the base for the transformation from the algebraic theory of categories and morphisms to the physical structure of concepts and data. Such problems are principally considered in the proposed work. Key words: pace weather, space radiation environment, solar effects, forecasting, energetic solar particles, cosmic rays

  5. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, M.M.; Teramura, A.H.; Tevini, M.; Bornman, J.F.; Björn, L.O.; Kulandaivelu, G.

    1995-01-01

    Physiological and developmental processes of plants are affected by UV-B radiation, even by the amount of UV-B in present-day sunlight. Plants also have several mechanisms to ameliorate or repair these effects and may acclimate to a certain extent to increased levels of UV-B. Nevertheless, plant growth can be directly affected by UV-B radiation. Response to UV-B also varies considerably among species and also cultivars of the same species. In agriculture, this may necessitate using more UV-B-tolerant cultivars and breeding new ones. In forests and grasslands, this will likely result in changes in species composition; therefore there are implications for the biodiversity in different ecosystems. Indirect changes caused by UV-B-such as changes in plant form, biomass allocation to parts of the plant, timing of developmental phases and secondary metabolism-may be equally, or sometimes more important than damaging effects of UV-B. These changes can have important implications for plant competitive balance, herbivory, plant pathogens, and biogeochemical cycles. These ecosystem-level effects can be anticipated, but not easily predicted or evaluated. Research at the ecosystem level for solar UV-B is barely beginning. Other factors, including those involved in climate change such as increasing CO2, also interact with UV-B. Such reactions are not easily predicted, but are of obvious importance in both agriculture and in nonagricultural ecosystems

  6. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Tokuji; Hiidome, Shigeharu; Maeno, Hideo; Oda, Tadashi; Echizenya, Yoshimatsu; Kamishikiryo, Syogo.

    1985-01-01

    As a distinctive feature of the ionosphere observed in 1982, it may be said that the ionospheric disturbances associated with outstanding solar flares occurred frequently, especially that the tendency was remarkable during the period from June to September 1982. First, the feature found is an abnormal increase in fsub(min) on ionograms observed during the period from 4 June to 19 July. Secondly, it contains ionospheric disturbances which appeared in the F-region associated with geomagnetic storms, in the period from 13 to 16 July, from 5 to 8 September and from 21 to 28 September, 1982. Variations in the aspect which ionospheric storms associated with these geomagnetic storms had assumed due to the magnitude of geomagnetic storms, the local time of their occurrence, and their passage were extensively investigated by utilizing data from not only the five Japanese ionospheric stations, but also available eastern Asia, Europe, and so on. The four ionospheric storms investigated had individual characteristics due to the difference among local times of appearance in main phase of geomagnetic storms related to ionospheric storms. The scale of the ionospheric storms associated with a giant geomagnetic storm on July 14 whose drop in horizontal component amounted to 630 nT in its maximum stage was smaller than that on August 4-5, 1972 (359 nT). (author)

  7. Effects of the solar-terrestrial environment on satellite operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    Hot plasma and energetic particle populations in space are known to produce spacecraft operational anomalies. In the inner part of the earth's magnetosphere, these effects are primarily due to durably trapped radiation belt particles, and the integrated doses can be calculated quite accurately for any given orbit. In the outer magnetosphere many spacecraft operational problems appear to be due to intense, transient phenomena. It is shown that three types of naturally-occurring, and highly variable, hostile particle radiation environments are encountered at, or near, the geostationary orbit: (1) high-energy protons due to solar flares; (2) very high energy electrons (2-10 MeV) of unknown origin; and (3) energetic ions and electrons produced by magnetospheric substorms. Present particle sensor systems provide energetic particle detection and assessment capabilities during these kinds of high-energy radiation events. Numerous operational anomalies and subsystem problems have occurred during each type of event period and the association of such upsets is demonstrated in this paper. Methods of prediction of magnetospheric disturbances are discussed, and overall recommendations are made for dealing with this continuing problem

  8. Solar and terrestrial physics. [effects of solar activities on earth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the near space and biomental earth, the upper atmosphere, and the magnetosphere are discussed. Data obtained from the OSO satellites pertaining to the solar cycle variation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are analyzed. The effects of solar cycle variation of the characteristics of the solar wind are examined. The fluid mechanics of shock waves and the specific relationship to the characteristics of solar shock waves are investigated. The solar and corpuscular heating of the upper atmosphere is reported based on the findings of the AEROS and NATE experiments. Seasonal variations of the upper atmosphere composition are plotted based on OGO-6 mass spectrometer data.

  9. Solar radiation uncorks the lignin bottleneck on plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A.; Ballare, C. L.; Méndez, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Plant litter decomposition is an essential process in the first stages of carbon and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, and together with soil microbial biomass, provide the principal inputs of carbon for the formation of soil organic matter. Photodegradation, the photochemical mineralization of organic matter, has been recently identified as a mechanism for previously unexplained high rates of litter mass loss in low rainfall ecosystems; however, the generality of this process as a control on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is not known, and the indirect effects of photodegradation on biotic stimulation of carbon turnover have been debated in recent studies. We demonstrate that in a wide range of plant species, previous exposure to solar radiation, and visible light in particular, enhanced subsequent biotic degradation of leaf litter. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mechanism for this enhancement involves increased accessibility for microbial enzymes to plant litter carbohydrates due to a reduction in lignin content. Photodegradation of plant litter reduces the structural and chemical bottleneck imposed by lignin in secondary cell walls. In litter from woody plant species, specific interactions with ultraviolet radiation obscured facilitative effects of solar radiation on biotic decomposition. The generalized positive effect of solar radiation exposure on subsequent microbial activity is mediated by increased accessibility to cell wall polysaccharides, which suggests that photodegradation is quantitatively important in determining rates of mass loss, nutrient release and the carbon balance in a broad range of terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. August 1972 solar-terrestrial events: interplanetary magnetic field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-10-01

    A review is presented of the interplanetary magnetic field observations acquired in early August 1972 when four solar flares erupted in McMath Plage region 1976. Measurements of the interplanetary field were obtained by Earth satellites, HEOS-2 and Explorer 41, and by Pioneers 9 and 10 which, by good fortune, were radially aligned and only 45/sup 0/ east of the Earth-Sun direction. In response to the four flares, four interplanetary shocks were seen at Earth and at Pioneer 9, which was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.78 AU. However, at Pioneer 10, which was 2.2 AU from the Sun, only two forward shocks and one reverse shock were seen. The available magnetic field data acquired in the vicinity of the shocks are presented. Efforts to identify corresponding shocks at the several locations and to deduce their velocities of propagation between 0.8 and 2.2 AU are reviewed. The early studies were based on average velocities between the Sun and Pioneer 9, the Sun and Earth and the Sun and Pioneer 10. A large deceleration of the shocks between the Sun and 0.8 AU as well as between 0.8 and 2.2 AU was inferred. More recently the local velocities of the shocks at Pioneers 9 and 10 have become available. A comparision of these velocities shows little, if any, deceleration between 0.8 and 2.2 AU and implies that most or all of the deceleration actually occurred nearer the Sun. Evidence is also presented that shows a significant departure of the flare-generated shock fronts from spherical symmetry.

  11. Imprints to the terrestrial environment at galactic arm crossings of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Stawicki, O.

    At its itinerary through our milky way galaxy the solar system moves through highly variable interstellar environments. Due to its orbital revolution around the galactic center, the solar system also crosses periodically the spiral arms of our galactic plane and thereby expe riences pronounced enviromental changes. Gas densities, magnetic fields and galactic cosmic ray intensities are substantially higher there compared to interarm conditions. Here we present theoretical calculations describing the SN-averaged galactic cosmic ray spectrum for regions inside and outside of galactic arms which then allow to predict how periodic passages of the solar system through galactic arms should be reflected by enhanced particle irradiations of the earth`s atmosphere and by correlated terrestrial Be-10 production rates.

  12. Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system: measurement, data analysis and theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cini Castagnoli, G.; Provenzale, A. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The course Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system: measurement, data analysis and theoretical models is explicitly devoted to these issues. A solar cycle ago, in summer 1985, G. Cini organized a similar school, in a time when this field was in a very early stage of development and definitely fewer high-quality measurements were available. After eleven years, the field has grown toward becoming a robust scientific discipline, new data have been obtained, and new ideas have been proposed by both solar physicists and climate dynamicists. For this reason, the authors felt that it was the right time to organize a new summer school, with the aim of formalizing the developments that have taken place during these years, and also for speculating and maybe dreaming of new results that will be achieved in the upcoming years. The papers of the lectures have now been collected in this volume. First, in order to know what the authors talking about, they need to obtain reliable data from terrestrial archives,and to properly date the records that have been measured. To these crucial aspects is devoted the first part of the book, dealing with various types of proxy data and with the difficult issue of the dating of the records.

  13. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  14. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  15. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  16. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  17. Solar, interplanetary and terrestrial features associated with periods of prolonged positive and negative Dst index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, G.

    1989-01-01

    From a survey of the published final values of the geomagnetic index D st for the period 1958-1972, we found long time intervals of over 25-30 days, during which this index remained consistently positive (D st +) or negative (D st -). A study is made of relevant parameters on the ground, in the magnetosphere, in the solar wind and on the Sun to seek out systematic features associated with the two conditions. In order to eliminate factors arising from seasonal and solar cycle variations, we selected pairs of D st + and D st - which involve successive months of the same year, or the same month of two successive years. Three parameters which show a systematic difference between D st + and D st - intervals are found to be 1) the state of solar photospheric magnetic fields 2) the flux density of solar MeV protons measured in the magnetosphere and 3) the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field. While the effect of the last on geomagnetic activity has been well-discussed in the literature, it is suggested that the correlations of the first two to the conditions of D st + and D st - demand a careful scrutiny of the solar-terrestrial relationship. (author)

  18. The physical and theoretical basis of solar-terrestrial relationships 2. Non-equatorial locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-07-01

    The basic formulations presented in Part 1 of this series (hereinafter simply referred to as ''Paper 1'') are modified in order to mathematically represent the expected solar-terrestrial influences in non-equatorial regions. Analysis and interpretation of these formulations lead to the establishment of several new periodicities as well as other features associated with the non-equatorial atmosphere. Besides, we show through suitable examples that the physical processes that cause and influence some previously observed climatic and upper atmospheric variations in temperate and polar regions are easily deduced from our formulations. (author). 35 refs

  19. Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar transmittance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form by using a pyranometer, an enclosure, and the sun as the energy source. 1.2 This test method also allows measurement of solar transmittance at angles other than normal incidence. 1.3 This test method is applicable to sheet materials that are transparent, translucent, textured, or patterned. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. History and Development of Coronal Mass Ejections as a Key Player in Solar Terrestrial Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently discovered phenomenon in 1971, some 15 years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earths space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the 1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of CME research following the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission in 1995, resulting in the establishment of a full picture of CMEs.

  1. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  2. Parallel dispatch: a new paradigm of electrical power system dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun Jason; Wang, Fei-Yue; Wang, Qiang; Hao, Dazhi; Yang, Xiaojing; Gao, David Wenzhong; Zhao, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yingchen

    2018-01-01

    Modern power systems are evolving into sociotechnical systems with massive complexity, whose real-time operation and dispatch go beyond human capability. Thus, the need for developing and applying new intelligent power system dispatch tools are of great practical significance. In this paper, we introduce the overall business model of power system dispatch, the top level design approach of an intelligent dispatch system, and the parallel intelligent technology with its dispatch applications. We expect that a new dispatch paradigm, namely the parallel dispatch, can be established by incorporating various intelligent technologies, especially the parallel intelligent technology, to enable secure operation of complex power grids, extend system operators U+02BC capabilities, suggest optimal dispatch strategies, and to provide decision-making recommendations according to power system operational goals.

  3. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Investigation of reliability attributes and accelerated stress factors on terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Prince, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    Three tasks were undertaken to investigate reliability attributes of terrestrial solar cells: (1) a study of the electrical behavior of cells in the second (reverse) quadrant; (2) the accelerated stress testing of three new state-of-the-art cells; and (3) the continued bias-temperature testing of four block 2 type silicon cells at 78 C and 135 C. Electrical characteristics measured in the second quadrant were determined to be a function of the cell's thermal behavior with breakdown depending on the initiation of localized heating. This implied that high breakdown cells may be more fault tolerant when forced to operate in the second quadrant, a result contrary to conventional thinking. The accelerated stress tests used in the first (power) quadrant were bias-temperature, bias-temperature-humidity, temperature-humidity, thermal shock, and thermal cycle. The new type cells measured included an EFG cell, a polycrystalline cell, and a Czochralski cell. Significant differences in the response to the various tests were observed between cell types. A microprocessed controlled, short interval solar cell tester was designed and construction initiated on a prototype.

  5. Theoretical Technology Research for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last four years the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) IGPP (Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) Space Plasma Simulation Group has continued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large-scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: solar wind, low- and high- latitude magnetospheric boundary, near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations. A complete list of the activities completed under the grant follow.

  6. The Mathematics of Dispatchability Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dispatchability is an important property for the efficient execution of temporal plans where the temporal constraints are represented as a Simple Temporal Network (STN). It has been shown that every STN may be reformulated as a dispatchable STN, and dispatchability ensures that the temporal constraints need only be satisfied locally during execution. Recently it has also been shown that Simple Temporal Networks with Uncertainty, augmented with wait edges, are Dynamically Controllable provided every projection is dispatchable. Thus, the dispatchability property has both theoretical and practical interest. One thing that hampers further work in this area is the underdeveloped theory. The existing definitions are expressed in terms of algorithms, and are less suitable for mathematical proofs. In this paper, we develop a new formal theory of dispatchability in terms of execution sequences. We exploit this to prove a characterization of dispatchability involving the structural properties of the STN graph. This facilitates the potential application of the theory to uncertainty reasoning.

  7. Gas Dispatching and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoettker, R.; Spiecker, U.

    1995-01-01

    Activities in large dispatch centres are usually divided into volume planning and contract management as well as grid control. Volume planning and contract management require high-performance computers for contractual and technical optimisation models, for contract handling models and communication with partner companies. For grid control, the use of computers for SCADA systems and for grid simulation and optimisation has become a fundamental requirement. In 1992, Ruhrgas replaced the hardware by a modern hardware concept featuring a fault-tolerant process computer for SCADA system interface processing. The work-place computers were substituted by sophisticated workstations integrated into a computer network and an X-Windows user interface based on the MOTIF standard was introduced. Effective cooperation between the dispatch centres of European gas companies is of paramount importance. One example of good cooperation is the contractual and physical handling of North Sea gas supplies at Emden. 4 figs

  8. Physics-based Space Weather Forecasting in the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, K.

    2016-12-01

    Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) is a Japanese nation-wide research collaboration, which was recently launched. PSTEP aims to develop a synergistic interaction between predictive and scientific studies of the solar-terrestrial environment and to establish the basis for next-generation space weather forecasting using the state-of-the-art observation systems and the physics-based models. For this project, we coordinate the four research groups, which develop (1) the integration of space weather forecast system, (2) the physics-based solar storm prediction, (3) the predictive models of magnetosphere and ionosphere dynamics, and (4) the model of solar cycle activity and its impact on climate, respectively. In this project, we will build the coordinated physics-based model to answer the fundamental questions concerning the onset of solar eruptions and the mechanism for radiation belt dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. In this paper, we will show the strategy of PSTEP, and discuss about the role and prospect of the physics-based space weather forecasting system being developed by PSTEP.

  9. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world. During the last four years, So-lar-Terrestrial Influences Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and the Yuri Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory and Planetarium, Stara Zagora succeeded to build an ex-cellent partnership, working on the International Heliophysical year and International Year of Astronomy -global efforts initiated by the UNESCO and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe. They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day,Yuri's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy 2009. A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized. Stara Zagora became a host of IHY Space Weather Monitor -SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances), numerous of educational materials have been adapted and translated in Bulgarian. Cycle of lectures "Epock of Great astronomical discoveries", devoted to the International Year of Astronomy was given in April 2009 in the Stara Zagora Art Gallery. Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was organized: "100 hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April

  10. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  11. Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation, and interactions with other climate change factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M M; Bornman, J F; Ballaré, C L; Flint, S D; Kulandaivelu, G

    2007-03-01

    , such as diminished growth, acclimation responses of plants to UV-B radiation and interactions of plants with consumer organisms such as insects and plant pathogens. The response to UV-B radiation involves both the initial stimulus by solar radiation and transmission of signals within the plants. Resulting changes in gene expression induced by these signals may have elements in common with those elicited by other environmental factors, and generate overlapping functional (including acclimation) responses. Concurrent responses of terrestrial systems to the combination of enhanced UV-B radiation and other global change factors (increased temperature, CO2, available nitrogen and altered precipitation) are less well understood. Studies of individual plant responses to combinations of factors indicate that plant growth can be augmented by higher CO2 levels, yet many of the effects of UV-B radiation are usually not ameliorated by the elevated CO2. UV-B radiation often increases both plant frost tolerance and survival under extreme high temperature conditions. Conversely, extreme temperatures sometimes influence the UV-B radiation sensitivity of plants directly. Plants that endure water deficit stress effectively are also likely to be tolerant of high UV-B flux. Biologically available nitrogen is exceeding historical levels in many regions due to human activities. Studies show that plants well supplied with nitrogen are generally more sensitive to UV-B radiation. Technical issues concerning the use of biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) have been further elucidated. The BSWFs, which are multiplication factors assigned to different wavelengths giving an indication of their relative biological effectiveness, are critical to the proper conduct and interpretation of experiments in which organisms are exposed to UV radiation, both in the field and in controlled environment facilities. The characteristics of BSWFs vary considerably among different plant processes, such

  12. ON THE NOTION OF WELL-DEFINED TECTONIC REGIMES FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN THIS SOLAR SYSTEM AND OTHERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenardic, A.; Crowley, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    A model of coupled mantle convection and planetary tectonics is used to demonstrate that history dependence can outweigh the effects of a planet's energy content and material parameters in determining its tectonic state. The mantle convection-surface tectonics system allows multiple tectonic modes to exist for equivalent planetary parameter values. The tectonic mode of the system is then determined by its specific geologic and climatic history. This implies that models of tectonics and mantle convection will not be able to uniquely determine the tectonic mode of a terrestrial planet without the addition of historical data. Historical data exists, to variable degrees, for all four terrestrial planets within our solar system. For the Earth, the planet with the largest amount of observational data, debate does still remain regarding the geologic and climatic history of Earth's deep past but constraints are available. For planets in other solar systems, no such constraints exist at present. The existence of multiple tectonic modes, for equivalent parameter values, points to a reason why different groups have reached different conclusions regarding the tectonic state of extrasolar terrestrial planets larger than Earth ( s uper-Earths ) . The region of multiple stable solutions is predicted to widen in parameter space for more energetic mantle convection (as would be expected for larger planets). This means that different groups can find different solutions, all potentially viable and stable, using identical models and identical system parameter values. At a more practical level, the results argue that the question of whether extrasolar terrestrial planets will have plate tectonics is unanswerable and will remain so until the temporal evolution of extrasolar planets can be constrained.

  13. The development and operation of the international solar-terrestrial physics central data handling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program is committed to the development of a comprehensive, multi-mission ground data system which will support a variety of national and international scientific missions in an effort to study the flow of energy from the sun through the Earth-space environment, known as the geospace. A major component of the ISTP ground data system is an ISTP-dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF). Acquisition, development, and operation of the ISTP CDHF were delegated by the ISTP Project Office within the Flight Projects Directorate to the Information Processing Division (IPD) within the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD). The ISTP CDHF supports the receipt, storage, and electronic access of the full complement of ISTP Level-zero science data; serves as the linchpin for the centralized processing and long-term storage of all key parameters generated either by the ISTP CDHF itself or received from external, ISTP Program approved sources; and provides the required networking and 'science-friendly' interfaces for the ISTP investigators. Once connected to the ISTP CDHF, the online catalog of key parameters can be browsed from their remote processing facilities for the immediate electronic receipt of selected key parameters using the NASA Science Internet (NSI), managed by NASA's Ames Research Center. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe how the ISTP CDHF was successfully implemented and operated to support initially the Japanese Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) mission and correlative science investigations, and (2) to describe how the ISTP CDHF has been enhanced to support ongoing as well as future ISTP missions. Emphasis will be placed on how various project management approaches were undertaken that proved to be highly effective in delivering an operational ISTP CDHF to the Project on schedule and

  14. The upper atmosphere and solar-terrestrial relations - An introduction to the aerospace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical and observational overview of earth's aerospace environment is presented in this book. Emphasis is placed on the principles and observed phenomena of the neutral upper atmosphere, particularly in relation to solar activity. Topics include the structure of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, waves in the magnetosphere, solar flares and solar protons, and storms and other disturbance phenomena, while applications to communications, navigation and space technology are also discussed

  15. Performance data for a terrestrial solar photovoltaic/water electrolysis experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Yasui, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the equipment used in the experiment, taking into account the surplus solar panel from the Mariner 4 spacecraft which was used as a solar array source and an electrolytic hydrogen generator. Attention is also given to operational considerations and performance data, system considerations and aspects of optimization, and large-scale hydrogen production considerations.

  16. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To date, there is no ideal anti-reflection (AR) coating available on solar glass which can effectively transmit the incident light within the visible wavelength range. However, there is a need to develop multifunctional coatingwith superior anti-reflection properties and self-cleaning ability meant to be used for solar glass panels.

  17. Neutrino oscillations in the Earth suggest a terrestrial test of solution to solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Mann, A.; Technicon-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Space Research Inst.)

    1987-01-01

    The verification of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of the solar neutrino problem is discussed. One verification experiment concerns the detection of sizeable oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos in the earth, which can be detected with the massive underground proton decay detectors. Diurnal and seasonal modulations of the solar neutrino flux can perhaps be detected by the radiochemical Cl and Ga detectors. Moreover, neutrino oscillations in the Earth may modify the values of the oscillation parameters which can solve the solar neutrino problem and help determine their values. (UK)

  18. Review of the workshop on low-cost polysilicon for terrestrial photovoltaic solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    Topics reviewed include: polysilicon material requirements; effects of impurities; requirements for high-efficiency solar cells; economics; development of silane processes; fluidized-bed processor development; silicon purification; and marketing.

  19. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  20. Formation of the terrestrial planets in the solar system around 1 au via radial concentration of planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Context. No planets exist inside the orbit of Mercury and the terrestrial planets of the solar system exhibit a localized configuration. According to thermal structure calculation of protoplanetary disks, a silicate condensation line ( 1300 K) is located around 0.1 au from the Sun except for the early phase of disk evolution, and planetesimals could have formed inside the orbit of Mercury. A recent study of disk evolution that includes magnetically driven disk winds showed that the gas disk obtains a positive surface density slope inside 1 au from the central star. In a region with positive midplane pressure gradient, planetesimals undergo outward radial drift. Aims: We investigate the radial drift of planetesimals and type I migration of planetary embryos in a disk that viscously evolves with magnetically driven disk winds. We show a case in which no planets remain in the close-in region. Methods: Radial drifts of planetesimals are simulated using a recent disk evolution model that includes effects of disk winds. The late stage of planet formation is also examined by performing N-body simulations of planetary embryos. Results: We demonstrate that in the middle stage of disk evolution, planetesimals can undergo convergent radial drift in a magnetorotational instability (MRI)-inactive disk, in which the pressure maximum is created, and accumulate in a narrow ring-like region with an inner edge at 0.7 au from the Sun. We also show that planetary embryos that may grow from the narrow planetesimal ring do not exhibit significant type I migration in the late stage of disk evolution. Conclusions: The origin of the localized configuration of the terrestrial planets of the solar system, in particular the deficit of close-in planets, can be explained by the convergent radial drift of planetesimals in disks with a positive pressure gradient in the close-in region.

  1. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 2: Invited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A photovoltaic device development plan is reported that considers technological as well as economical aspects of single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin films, as well as other materials and devices for solar cell energy conversion systems.

  2. SESC glossary of solar-terrestrial terms (Revised 2nd edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The 'National Plan for Space Environment Services and Supporting Research' stipulates that the Space Environment Services Center (SESC) provide space environment services to 'meet the common needs of all Federal agencies and public users'. The SESC collects observations and compiles a real-time data base in the Space Environment Laboratory Data Acquisition and Display System (SELDADS). The data are used by the SESC to monitor solar and geomagnetic activity and radiation levels, to issue indexes and alerts describing current conditions, and to make forecasts of future conditions. The users of these services include, among others, customers concerned with satellite monitoring, national defense, and scientific research ranging from solar to seismic physics. A common vocabulary is necessary to help such a diverse variety of customers achieve the best use of the services. The manual provides a collection of customized definitions and standardized terms specifically used by the SESC in its products, publications, and user support services

  3. Recent developments in low cost silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. [sheet production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of techniques may be used for photovoltaic energy systems. Concentrated or not concentrated sunlight may be employed, and a number of materials can be used, including silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium sulfide, and cadmium telluride. Most of the experience, however, has been obtained with silicon cells employed without sunlight concentration. An industrial base exists at present for producing solar cells at a price in the range from $15 to $30 per peak watt. A major federal program has the objective to reduce the price of power provided by silicon solar systems to approximately $1 per peak watt in the early 1980's and $0.50 per watt by 1986. The approaches considered for achieving this objective are discussed.

  4. Some studies relating to solar-terrestrial physics and the middle atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theobald, A.G.

    1977-12-01

    A review is given of observed variations in the Earth's rotation rate, and mechanisms by which the Sun might affect the length of day are discussed. Solar activity and means by which the planets might influence this activity are considered. Observed solar activity - weather correlations, in particular in relation to the sun-based, interplanetary magnetic sector structure and some of the suggested mechanisms for producing these correlations are discussed. The simple photochemical production of ozone in the middle atmosphere and the manner in which cosmic rays, through the production of nitrogen compounds, alter the ozone concentration at high altitudes is described. A computer model is developed which calculates ozone concentrations and energy absorption at any altitude, latitude, longitude and time of year and used to predict ozone and temperature change profiles over a 14-day cycle of ultra-violet changes. The existence of a solar magnetic sector linked variation of the high latitude, high altitude NO concentration is postulated and this is incorporated into the computer model to predict a temperature oscillation over a 14-day cycle which varies with geographic latitude and longitude. This effect is investigated in detail. (UK)

  5. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  6. Solar ultraviolet radiation and ozone depletion-driven climate change: effects on terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, J F; Barnes, P W; Robinson, S A; Ballaré, C L; Flint, S D; Caldwell, M M

    2015-01-01

    In this assessment we summarise advances in our knowledge of how UV-B radiation (280-315 nm), together with other climate change factors, influence terrestrial organisms and ecosystems. We identify key uncertainties and knowledge gaps that limit our ability to fully evaluate the interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on these systems. We also evaluate the biological consequences of the way in which stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Since the last assessment, several new findings or insights have emerged or been strengthened. These include: (1) the increasing recognition that UV-B radiation has specific regulatory roles in plant growth and development that in turn can have beneficial consequences for plant productivity via effects on plant hardiness, enhanced plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens, and improved quality of agricultural products with subsequent implications for food security; (2) UV-B radiation together with UV-A (315-400 nm) and visible (400-700 nm) radiation are significant drivers of decomposition of plant litter in globally important arid and semi-arid ecosystems, such as grasslands and deserts. This occurs through the process of photodegradation, which has implications for nutrient cycling and carbon storage, although considerable uncertainty exists in quantifying its regional and global biogeochemical significance; (3) UV radiation can contribute to climate change via its stimulation of volatile organic compounds from plants, plant litter and soils, although the magnitude, rates and spatial patterns of these emissions remain highly uncertain at present. UV-induced release of carbon from plant litter and soils may also contribute to global warming; and (4) depletion of ozone in the Southern Hemisphere modifies climate directly via effects on seasonal weather patterns (precipitation and wind) and these in turn have been linked to changes in the growth of plants

  7. Solar-terrestrial effect controls seismic activity to a large extent (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, G.

    2010-12-01

    Several observational results and corresponding publications in the 20 century indicate that earthquakes in many regions happen systematically in dependence on the time of day and on the season as well. In the recent decade, studies on this topic have also been intensively performed at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna. Any natural effect on Earth which systematically appears at certain hours of the day or at a special season can solely be caused by a solar or lunar influence. And actually, statistic results on seismic activity reveal a correlation with the solar cycles. Examples of this seismic performance are shown. To gain more clarity about these effects, the three-hour magnetic index Kp, which characterizes the magnetic field disturbances, mainly caused by the solar particle radiation, the solar wind, was correlated with the seismic energy released by earthquakes over decades. Kp is determined from magnetic records of 13 observatories worldwide and continuously published by ISGI, France. It is demonstrated that a highly significant correlation between the geomagnetic index Kp and the annual seismic energy release in regions at latitudes between 35 and 60° N exists. Three regions of continental size were investigated, using the USGS (PDE) earthquake catalogue data. In the period 1974-2009 the Kp cycle periods range between 9 and 12 years, somewhat different to the sunspot number cycles of 11 years. Seismicity follows the Kp cycles with high coincidence. A detailed analysis of this correlation for N-America reveals, that the sum of released energy by earthquakes per year changes by a factor up to 100 with Kp. It is shown that during years of high Kp there happen e.g. 1 event M7, 4 events M6 and 30 events M5 per year, instead of only 10 events M5 in years with lowest Kp. Almost the same relation appears in other regions of continental size, with the same significance. The seismicity in S-America clearly follows the Kp cycles

  8. Virtual power plant mid-term dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandžić, Hrvoje; Kuzle, Igor; Capuder, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mid-term virtual power plant dispatching. ► Linear modeling. ► Mixed-integer linear programming applied to mid-term dispatch scheduling. ► Operation profit maximization combining bilateral contracts and the day-ahead market. -- Abstract: Wind power plants incur practically zero marginal costs during their operation. However, variable and uncertain nature of wind results in significant problems when trying to satisfy the contracted quantities of delivered electricity. For this reason, wind power plants and other non-dispatchable power sources are combined with dispatchable power sources forming a virtual power plant. This paper considers a weekly self-scheduling of a virtual power plant composed of intermittent renewable sources, storage system and a conventional power plant. On the one hand, the virtual power plant needs to fulfill its long-term bilateral contracts, while, on the other hand, it acts in the market trying to maximize its overall profit. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model which maximizes the weekly virtual power plant profit subject to the long-term bilateral contracts and technical constraints. The self-scheduling procedure is based on stochastic programming. The uncertainty of the wind power and solar power generation is settled by using pumped hydro storage in order to provide flexible operation, as well as by having a conventional power plant as a backup. The efficiency of the proposed model is rendered through a realistic case study and analysis of the results is provided. Additionally, the impact of different storage capacities and turbine/pump capacities of pumped storage are analyzed.

  9. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  10. Dispatch Strategy Development for Grid-tied Household Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Joseph

    The prevalence of renewable generation will increase in the next several decades and offset conventional generation more and more. Yet this increase is not coming without challenges. Solar, wind, and even some water resources are intermittent and unpredictable, and thereby create scheduling challenges due to their inherent "uncontrolled" nature. To effectively manage these distributed renewable assets, new control algorithms must be developed for applications including energy management, bridge power, and system stability. This can be completed through a centralized control center though efforts are being made to parallel the control architecture with the organization of the renewable assets themselves--namely, distributed controls. Building energy management systems are being employed to control localized energy generation, storage, and use to reduce disruption on the net utility load. One such example is VOLTTRONTM, an agent-based platform for building energy control in real time. In this thesis, algorithms developed in VOLTTRON simulate a home energy management system that consists of a solar PV array, a lithium-ion battery bank, and the grid. Dispatch strategies are implemented to reduce energy charges from overall consumption (/kWh) and demand charges (/kW). Dispatch strategies for implementing storage devices are tuned on a month-to-month basis to provide a meaningful economic advantage under simulated scenarios to explore algorithm sensitivity to changing external factors. VOLTTRON agents provide automated real-time optimization of dispatch strategies to efficiently manage energy supply and demand, lower consumer costs associated with energy usage, and reduce load on the utility grid.

  11. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART B : Results and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Petitdidier, M.; Soula, S.; Masson, F.; Davila, J.; Doherty, P.; Elias, A.; Gadimova, S.; Makela, J.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Richardson, J.; Touzani, A.; Girgea Team

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern solar terrestrial physics, atmospheric physics and space weather. This part B is devoted to the results and capacity building. Our network began in 1991, in solar terrestrial physics, by our participation in the two projects: International Equatorial Electrojet Year IEEY [1992-1993] and International Heliophysical Year IHY [2007-2009]. These two projects were mainly focused on the equatorial ionosphere in Africa. In Atmospheric physics our research focused on gravity waves in the framework of the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis project n°1 [2005-2009 ], on hydrology in the Congo river basin and on lightning in Central Africa, the most lightning part of the world. In Vietnam the study of a broad climate data base highlighted global warming. In space weather, our results essentially concern the impact of solar events on global navigation satellite system GNSS and on the effects of solar events on the circulation of electric currents in the earth (GIC). This research began in the framework of the international space weather initiative project ISWI [2010-2012]. Finally, all these scientific projects have enabled young scientists from the South to publish original results and to obtain positions in their countries. These projects have also crossed disciplinary boundaries and defined a more diversified education which led to the training of specialists in a specific field with knowledge of related scientific fields.

  12. Dynamic Controllability and Dispatchability Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul Henry

    2014-01-01

    An important issue for temporal planners is the ability to handle temporal uncertainty. Recent papers have addressed the question of how to tell whether a temporal network is Dynamically Controllable, i.e., whether the temporal requirements are feasible in the light of uncertain durations of some processes. We present a fast algorithm for Dynamic Controllability. We also note a correspondence between the reduction steps in the algorithm and the operations involved in converting the projections to dispatchable form. This has implications for the complexity for sparse networks.

  13. Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network) - A Meaningful Practice of New Cyberinfrastructure on Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Zou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For the next decades, comprehensive big data application environment is the dominant direction of cyberinfrastructure development on space science. To make the concept of such BIG cyberinfrastructure (e.g. Digital Space) a reality, these aspects of capability should be focused on and integrated, which includes science data system, digital space engine, big data application (tools and models) and the IT infrastructure. In the past few years, CAS Chinese Space Science Data Center (CSSDC) has made a helpful attempt in this direction. A cloud-enabled virtual research platform on space science, called Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network), has been developed to serve the full lifecycle of space science missions and research activities. It integrated a wide range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary resources, to provide science-problem-oriented data retrieval and query service, collaborative mission demonstration service, mission operation supporting service, space weather computing and Analysis service and other self-help service. This platform is supported by persistent infrastructure, including cloud storage, cloud computing, supercomputing and so on. Different variety of resource are interconnected: the science data can be displayed on the browser by visualization tools, the data analysis tools and physical models can be drived by the applicable science data, the computing results can be saved on the cloud, for example. So far, STAR-Network has served a series of space science mission in China, involving Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Science (this program has invested some space science satellite as DAMPE, HXMT, QUESS, and more satellite will be launched around 2020) and Meridian Space Weather Monitor Project. Scientists have obtained some new findings by using the science data from these missions with STAR-Network's contribution. We are confident that STAR-Network is an exciting practice of new cyberinfrastructure architecture on

  14. Online Dispatching Rules For Vehicle-Based Internal Transport Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOn-line vehicles dispatching rules are widely used in many facilities such as warehouses to control vehicles' movements. Single-attribute dispatching rules, which dispatch vehicles based on only one parameter, are used commonly. However, multi-attribute dispatching rules prove to be

  15. The Application of an Online Data Visualization Tool, Ptplot, in the World Data Center (WDC for Solar-Terrestrial Science (STS in IPS Radio and Space Services, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ptplot is a set of two dimensional signal plotters components written in Java with multiple properties, such as being embeddable in applets or applications, utilizing automatic or manual tick marks, logarithmic axes, infinite zooming, and much more. The World Data Centre of IPS applies Ptplot as a multiple function online data plot tool by converting various text format data files into Ptplot recognizable XML files with the AWK language. At present, Ptplot has allowed eight archived solar-terrestrial science data sets to be easily plotted, viewed, and downloaded from the IPS web site.

  16. A direct Newton-Raphson economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.E.; Chen, S.T.; Huang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to solve the real-time economic dispatch problem using an alternative Jacobian matrix considering system constraints. The transition loss is approximately expressed in terms of generating powers and the generalized generation shift distribution factor. Based on this expression, a set of simultaneous equations of Jacobian matrix is formulated and solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The proposed method eliminates the penalty factor calculation, and solves the economic dispatch directly. The proposed method obtains very fast solution speed and maintains good accuracy from test examples. It is good approach to solve the economic dispatch problem

  17. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  18. Wind power generation, load management and dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canazza, V.; Cirillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    The renewed commitment of the United States and European Union for the promotion of renewable energy sources makes some reflections on the appropriate management of dispatch priority of renewable energy in Italy [it

  19. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  20. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility

  1. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  2. Turbulence and wave particle interactions in solar-terrestrial plasmas. Annual Status Report, 1 July 1983-30 June 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulk, G.A.; Goldman, M.V.; Toomre, J.

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the following study areas are reported: (1) particle and wave processes in solar flares; (2) solar convection zone turbulence; and (3) solar radiation emission. To investigate the amplification of cyclotron maser radiation in solar flares, a radio frequency. (RF) heating model was developed for the corona surrounding the energy release site. Then nonlinear simulations of compressible convection display prominent penetration by plumes into regions of stable stratification at the base of the solar convection zone, leading to the excitation of internal gravity waves there. Lastly, linear saturation of electron-beam-driven Langmuir waves by ambient density fluctuations, nonlinear saturation by strong turbulence processes, and radiation emission mechanisms are examined. An additional section discusses solar magnetic fields and hydromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media, and the effect of magnetic fields on stellar oscillation

  3. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 1: Working group and panel reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Technological aspects of solar energy conversion by photovoltaic cells are considered. The advantage of the single crystal silicon solar cell approach is developed through comparisons with polycrystalline silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin film cells, and other materials and devices.

  4. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  5. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART A: TUTORIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Menvielle, M.; Curto, J-J.; Le Huy, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Physics and Space Weather. In this part A, we introduce knowledge on the Sun-Earth system. We consider the physical process of the dynamo which is present in the Sun, in the core of the Earth and also in the regions between the Sun and the Earth, the solar wind-magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Equations of plasma physics and Maxwell's equations will be recalled. In the Sun-Earth system there are permanent dynamos (Sun, Earth's core, solar wind - magnetosphere, neutral wind - ionosphere) and non-permanent dynamos that are activated during magnetic storms in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. All these dynamos have associated electric currents that affect the variations of the Earth's magnetic field which are easily measurable. That is why a part of the tutorial is also devoted to the magnetic indices which are indicators of the electric currents in the Sun-Earth system. In order to understand some results of the part B, we present some characteristics of the Equatorial region and of the electrodynamics coupling the Auroral and Equatorial regions.

  6. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...... and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train...

  7. An advanced dispatching technology for large container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Kang Kejun; Gao Wenhuan

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the transmitting and dispatching technology of large container inspection system. It introduces the structure of the double buffer graded pipe lining used in the system. Strategies of queue mechanism and waiting dispatch policy are illustrated

  8. Can public health registry data improve Emergency Medical Dispatch?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M S; Christensen, E F; Jepsen, S B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Dispatchers make decisions based on limited information. We aimed to investigate if adding demographic and hospitalization history information to the dispatch process improved precision. METHODS: This 30-day follow-up study evaluated time-critical emergencies...

  9. Assimilating solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence into the terrestrial biosphere model BETHY-SCOPE v1.0: model description and information content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Alexander J.; Rayner, Peter J.; Koffi, Ernest N.; Scholze, Marko

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of model and observational information using data assimilation can improve our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle, a key component of the Earth's climate-carbon system. Here we provide a data assimilation framework for combining observations of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) and a process-based model to improve estimates of terrestrial carbon uptake or gross primary production (GPP). We then quantify and assess the constraint SIF provides on the uncertainty in global GPP through model process parameters in an error propagation study. By incorporating 1 year of SIF observations from the GOSAT satellite, we find that the parametric uncertainty in global annual GPP is reduced by 73 % from ±19.0 to ±5.2 Pg C yr-1. This improvement is achieved through strong constraint of leaf growth processes and weak to moderate constraint of physiological parameters. We also find that the inclusion of uncertainty in shortwave down-radiation forcing has a net-zero effect on uncertainty in GPP when incorporated into the SIF assimilation framework. This study demonstrates the powerful capacity of SIF to reduce uncertainties in process-based model estimates of GPP and the potential for improving our predictive capability of this uncertain carbon flux.

  10. Terrestrial service environments for selected geographic locations. Final report. [1965--1974 data; to define solar array environment to aid in encapsulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1976-06-24

    This report contains results obtained from analyses of climatic, precipitation, air pollution, and other environmental data for the years 1965 to 1974 at nine widely different geographic locations in the United States (Albuquerque, N.M.; Bismarck, N.D.; Boston, Mass.; Brownsville, TX.; Cleveland, OH; Fairbanks, AK; Los Angeles, CA; Miami, FL; and Phoenix, AZ). In addition to descriptive and diurnal statistics for 24 individual climatic variables, ''environmental cell'' statistics were computed to obtain the frequencies, durations, and transitions for the simultaneous occurrence of various combinations of environmental variables. Results are presented for the simultaneous occurrence of specific levels of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and insolation, in addition to representative results obtained for other combinations of variables. The results characterize the environmental conditions to which terrestrial solar arrays would be exposed over a 20-year lifetime, and serve to identify environmental factors and levels that can be used in testing candidate encapsulation materials and systems for such terrestrial exposures. An innovative methodology was applied to obtain these results for combinations of environmental variables. Because of its generality and demonstrated feasibility, it is concluded that the methodology also has broad applications to other testing programs.

  11. Dispatching capacity in manufacturing facility offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how a dispatching capacity of motivation, relational dynamics and structures seen from the sending context influence the entire knowledge transfer process in manufacturing facility offshoring. An inductive and qualitative approach is taken and five main themes are derived...... from the four empirical cases. In the discussion, the five themes i.e. extra tasks, previous experiences, involvement of all groups of employees, teaching skills and organizational support in the dispatching context are linked with a theoretical model leading to the identification of seven testable...

  12. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  13. 27-day variation in solar-terrestrial parameters: Global characteristics and an origin based approach of the signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblet, Facundo L.; Azpilicueta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The Earth and the near interplanetary medium are affected by the Sun in different ways. Those processes generated in the Sun that induce perturbations into the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system are called geoeffective processes and show a wide range of temporal variations, like the 11-year solar cycle (long term variations), the variation of ∼27 days (recurrent variations), solar storms enduring for some days, particle acceleration events lasting for some hours, etc. In this article, the periodicity of ∼27 days associated with the solar synodic rotation period is investigated. The work is mainly focused on studying the resulting 27-day periodic signal in the magnetic activity, by the analysis of the horizontal component of the magnetic field registered on a set of 103 magnetic observatories distributed around the world. For this a new method to isolate the periodicity of interest has been developed consisting of two main steps: the first one consists of removing the linear trend corresponding to every calendar year from the data series, and the second one of removing from the resulting series a smoothed version of it obtained by applying a 30-day moving average. The result at the end of this process is a data series in which all the signal with periods larger than 30 days are canceled. The most important characteristics observed in the resulting signals are two main amplitude modulations: the first and most prominent related to the 11-year solar cycle and the second one with a semiannual pattern. In addition, the amplitude of the signal shows a dependence on the geomagnetic latitude of the observatory with a significant discontinuity at approx. ±60°. The processing scheme was also applied to other parameters that are widely used to characterize the energy transfer from the Sun to the Earth: F10.7 and Mg II indices and the ionospheric vertical total electron content (vTEC) were considered for radiative interactions; and the solar wind velocity for the non

  14. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  15. Dispatchable Renewable Energy Model for Microgrid Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Fred; Gentle, Jake P.; McJunkin, Timothy R.

    2017-04-01

    Over the years, many research projects have been performed and focused on finding out the effective ways to balance the power demands and supply on the utility grid. The causes of the imbalance could be the increasing demands from the end users, the loss of power generation (generators down), faults on the transmission lines, power tripped due to overload, and weather conditions, etc. An efficient Load Frequency Control (LFC) can assure the desired electricity quality provided to the residential, commercial and industrial end users. A simulation model is built in this project to investigate the contribution of the modeling of dispatchable energy such as solar energy, wind power, hydro power and energy storage to the balance of the microgrid power system. An analysis of simplified feedback control system with proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller was performed. The purpose of this research is to investigate a simulation model that achieves certain degree of the resilient control for the microgrid.

  16. Sensitivity of the dispatch strategy in designing grid integrated hybrid energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Amarasinghage Tharindu Dasun; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Nik, Vahid M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating renewable energy technologies based on solar PV (SPV) and wind energy in the energy system is challenging due to time dependence of the energy potential for these energy sources. Grid integrated hybrid energy systems combining SPV panels, wind turbines, battery bank and internal combustion generators (ICG) can be used in this regard specially for distributed generation. Energy-economic dispatch strategy plays a vital role in managing the energy flow of the system. However, it is d...

  17. Filling-in of Near-infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial Fluorescence and Other Geophysical Effects: Simulations and Space-based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna (Editor); Yoshida, Yasuko; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M. (Editor); Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Huze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution (nu/nu greater than 35 000) measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SAellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for photon pathlength characterization in cloud- and aerosol-contaminated pixels for trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we examine whether fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution (nu/nu approximately 1600) than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. We discuss laboratory measurements of fluorescence near one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the long-wave tail of the fluorescence emission region, the calcium (Ca) II line at 866 nm that is observable with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5 nm. The filling-in of the Ca II line due to additive signals from various atmospheric and terrestrial effects, including fluorescence, is simulated. We then examine filling-in of this line using the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. In order to interpret the satellite measurements, we developed a general approach to correct for various instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in of solar lines in satellite measurements. The approach is applied to SCIAMACHY at the 866 nm Ca II line and to GOSAT at 758 and 770 nm on the shoulders of the O2-A feature where there are several strong solar Fraunhofer lines that are filled in primarily by vegetation fluorescence. Finally, we compare temporal and

  18. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  19. Economic Dispatch for Microgrid Containing Electric Vehicles via Probabilistic Modeling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yin; Gao, Wenzhong; Momoh, James; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-02-11

    In this paper, an economic dispatch model with probabilistic modeling is developed for a microgrid. The electric power supply in a microgrid consists of conventional power plants and renewable energy power plants, such as wind and solar power plants. Because of the fluctuation in the output of solar and wind power plants, an empirical probabilistic model is developed to predict their hourly output. According to different characteristics of wind and solar power plants, the parameters for probabilistic distribution are further adjusted individually for both. On the other hand, with the growing trend in plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs), an integrated microgrid system must also consider the impact of PHEVs. The charging loads from PHEVs as well as the discharging output via the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) method can greatly affect the economic dispatch for all of the micro energy sources in a microgrid. This paper presents an optimization method for economic dispatch in a microgrid considering conventional power plants, renewable power plants, and PHEVs. The simulation results reveal that PHEVs with V2G capability can be an indispensable supplement in a modern microgrid.

  20. Study on the application of NASA energy management techniques for control of a terrestrial solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. D.; Ollendorf, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for enhanced solar system performance through sophisticated control of the collector loop flow rate. Computer simulations utilizing the TRNSYS solar energy program were performed to study the relative effect on system performance of eight specific control algorithms. Six of these control algorithms are of the proportional type: two are concave exponentials, two are simple linear functions, and two are convex exponentials. These six functions are typical of what might be expected from future, more advanced, controllers. The other two algorithms are of the on/off type and are thus typical of existing control devices. Results of extensive computer simulations utilizing actual weather data indicate that proportional control does not significantly improve system performance. However, it is shown that thermal stratification in the liquid storage tank may significantly improve performance.

  1. Magnetic factor in solar-terrestrial relations and its impact on the human body: physical problems and prospects for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, T. K.; Binhi, V. N.; Petrukovich, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The body of current heliobiological evidence suggests that very weak variable magnetic fields due to solar- and geomagnetic-activities do have a biological effect. Geomagnetic disturbances can cause a nonspecific reaction in the human body - a kind of general adaptation syndrome which occurs due to any external stress factor. Also, specific reactions can develop. One of the reasons discussed for the similarity between biological and heliogeophysical rhythms is that geomagnetic variations have a direct influence on organisms, although exact magnetoreception mechanisms are not yet clear. The paper briefly reviews the current state of empirical and theoretical work on this fundamental multidisciplinary problem.

  2. A Two-Stage Robust Optimization for Centralized-Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Optimally dispatching Photovoltaic (PV) inverters is an efficient way to avoid overvoltage in active distribution networks, which may occur in the case of PV generation surplus load demand. Typically, the dispatching optimization objective is to identify critical PV inverters that have the most...... nature of solar PV energy may affect the selection of the critical PV inverters and also the final optimal objective value. In order to address this issue, a two-stage robust optimization model is proposed in this paper to achieve a robust optimal solution to the PV inverter dispatch, which can hedge...... against any possible realization within the uncertain PV outputs. In addition, the conic relaxation-based branch flow formulation and second-order cone programming based column-and-constraint generation algorithm are employed to deal with the proposed robust optimization model. Case studies on a 33-bus...

  3. Dispatchable Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt for Electricity Demand Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Rahil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues and concerns about depletion of fossil fuels have driven rapid growth in the generation of renewable energy (RE and its use in electricity grids. Similarly, the need for an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels means that the number of fuel cell vehicles is also expected to increase. The ability of electricity networks to balance supply and demand is greatly affected by the variable, intermittent output of RE generators; however, this could be relieved using energy storage and demand-side response (DSR techniques. One option would be production of hydrogen by electrolysis powered from wind and solar sources. The use of tariff structures would provide an incentive to operate electrolysers as dispatchable loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts in Libya, for both dispatchable and continuous operation, without interruption of fuel supply to vehicles. The coastal city of Derna was chosen as a case study, with the renewable energy being produced via a wind turbine farm. Wind speed was analysed in order to determine a suitable turbine, then the capacity was calculated to estimate how many turbines would be needed to meet demand. Finally, the excess power was calculated, based on the discrepancy between supply and demand. The study looked at a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation, using an optimisation algorithm. The following three scenarios were considered to determine whether the cost of electrolytic hydrogen could be reduced by a lower off-peak electricity price. These scenarios are: Standard Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a standard tariff of 12 p/kWh; Off-peak Only, in which the electrolyser operates only during off-peak periods at the lower price of 5 p/kWh; and 2-Tier Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a low tariff at off-peak times and a high tariff at other

  4. Optimal electricity dispatch on isolated mini-grids using a demand response strategy for thermal storage backup with genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Diana; Silva, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses the DHW (domestic hot water) electric backup from solar thermal systems to optimize the total electricity dispatch of an isolated mini-grid. The proposed approach estimates the hourly DHW load, and proposes and simulates different DR (demand response) strategies, from the supply side, to minimize the dispatch costs of an energy system. The case study consists on optimizing the electricity load, in a representative day with low solar radiation, in Corvo Island, Azores. The DHW backup is induced by three different demand patterns. The study compares different DR strategies: backup at demand (no strategy), pre-scheduled backup using two different imposed schedules, a strategy based on linear programming, and finally two strategies using genetic algorithms, with different formulations for DHW backup – one that assigns number of systems and another that assigns energy demand. It is concluded that pre-determined DR strategies may increase the generation costs, but DR strategies based on optimization algorithms are able to decrease generation costs. In particular, linear programming is the strategy that presents the lowest increase on dispatch costs, but the strategy based on genetic algorithms is the one that best minimizes both daily operation costs and total energy demand, of the system. - Highlights: • Integrated hourly model of DHW electric impact and electricity dispatch of isolated grid. • Proposal and comparison of different DR (demand response) strategies for DHW backup. • LP strategy presents 12% increase on total electric load, plus 5% on dispatch costs. • GA strategy presents 7% increase on total electric load, plus 8% on dispatch costs

  5. New methodology for dynamic lot dispatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Herng; Wang, Jiann-Kwang; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chin

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic dispatching rule to improve delivery. The dynamic dispatching rule named `SLACK and OTD (on time delivery)' is developed for focusing on due date and target cycle time under the environment of IC manufacturing. This idea uses traditional SLACK policy to control long term due date and new OTD policy to reflect the short term stage queue time. Through the fuzzy theory, these two policies are combined as the dispatching controller to define the lot priority in the entire production line. Besides, the system would automatically update the lot priority according to the current line situation. Since the wafer dispatching used to be controlled by critical ratio that indicates the low customer satisfaction. And the overall slack time in the front end of the process is greater compared to that in the rear end of the process which reveals that the machines in the rear end are overloaded by rush orders. When SLACK and OTD are used the due date control has been gradually improved. The wafer with either a long stage queue time or urgent due date will be pushed through the overall production line instead of jammed in the front end. A demand pull system is also developed to satisfy not only due date but also the quantity of monthly demand. The SLACK and OTD rule has been implemented in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company for eight months with beneficial results. In order to clearly monitor the SLACK and OTD policy, a method called box chart is generated to simulate the entire production system. From the box chart, we can not only monitor the result of decision policy but display the production situation on the density figure. The production cycle time and delivery situation can also be investigated.

  6. Heuristics for the economic dispatch problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Benjamin Carpio [Centro Nacional de Controle de Energia (CENACE), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Planificacion Economica de Largo Plazo], E-mail: benjamin.carpo@cfe.gob.mx; Laureano Cruces, A L; Lopez Bracho, R; Ramirez Rodriguez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM), Mexico, D.F. (Brazil). Dept. de Sistemas], Emails: clc@correo.azc.uam.mx, rlb@correo.azc.uam.mx, jararo@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure), Simulated Annealing (SAA), Genetic (GA), and Hybrid Genetic (HGA) Algorithms for the economic dispatch problem (EDP), considering non-convex cost functions and dead zones the only restrictions, showing the results obtained. We also present parameter settings that are specifically applicable to the EDP, and a comparative table of results for each heuristic. It is shown that these methods outperform the classical methods without the need to assume convexity of the target function. (author)

  7. Optimal dynamic economic dispatch of generation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X.; Elaiw, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research of the optimal power dynamic dispatch problem. The dynamic dispatch problem differs from the static economic dispatch problem by incorporating generator ramp rate constraints. There are two different formulations of this problem in the literature. The first formulation is the optimal control dynamic dispatch (OCDD) where the power system generation has been modeled as a control system and optimization is done in the optimal control setting with respect to the ramp rates as input variables. The second one is a later formulation known as the dynamic economic dispatch (DED) where optimization is done with respect to the dispatchable powers of the committed generation units. In this paper we first outline the two formulations, then present an overview on the mathematical optimization methods, Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques and hybrid methods used to solve the problem incorporating extended and complex objective functions or constraints. The DED problem in deregulated electricity markets is also reported. (author)

  8. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald G. Brown; Glenn W. Graves

    1981-01-01

    A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum products valued at several billion dollars per year are dispatched from more than 80 bulk terminals on a fleet excee...

  9. A Hierarchical Dispatch Structure for Distribution Network Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhao; Hesamzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical dispatch structure for efficient distribution network pricing. The dispatch coordination problem in the context of hierarchical network operators are addressed. We formulate decentralized generation dispatch into a bilevel optimization problem in which main network operator and the connected distribution network operator optimize their costs in two levels. By using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions and Fortuny-Amat McCarl linearization, the bilevel optimization ...

  10. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  11. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  12. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  13. Evolution of China's power dispatch principle and the new energy saving power dispatch policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciwei, Gao; Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    With social economic reform in the past decades, the power industry of China is gradually evolving from a highly integrated one toward an electricity market, which can be characterized based on the transition of the power dispatch principle. To attract investment in the power generating industry, China introduced non-state-owned power plants to the original system of a highly vertically integrated power industry with annual power generation quota guarantees, which makes the traditional economic dispatch principle not applicable. The newly debuted energy saving power dispatch (ESPD) is an attempt to fully exploit the maximum energy savings and was implemented by an administrative code. Starting in August 2007, the pilot operation of the ESPD was implemented in five provinces, but after two years, it is still not widely applied all over the country. This paper details the transition of China's power dispatch principle with particular attention to its origin and content. Moreover, the factors that influence the ESPD's actual energy saving effect are discussed, as well as the sustainability of the policy. (author)

  14. Economic environmental dispatch using BSA algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Economic environmental dispatch problem (EED) is an important issue especially in the field of fossil fuel power plant system. It allows the network manager to choose among different units the most optimized in terms of fuel costs and emission level. The objective of this paper is to minimize the fuel cost with emissions constrained; the test is conducted for two cases: six generator unit and ten generator unit for the same power demand 1200Mw. The simulation has been computed in MATLAB and the result shows the robustness of the Backtracking Search optimization Algorithm (BSA) and the impact of the load demand on the emission.

  15. Packaging a successful NASA mission to reach a large audience within a small budget. Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Goldberg, R.; Barnes, R. J.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Beisser, K. B.; Moore, T. E.; Hoffman, R. A.; Russell, C. T.; Scudder, J.; Spann, J. F.; Newell, P. T.; Hobson, L. J.; Gribben, S. P.; Obrien, J. E.; Menietti, J. D.; Germany, G. G.; Mobilia, J.; Schulz, M.

    2004-12-01

    To showcase the on-going and wide-ranging scope of the Polar science discoveries, the Polar science team has created a one-stop shop for a thorough introduction to geospace physics, in the form of a DVD with supporting website. The DVD, Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission, can be viewed as an end-to-end product or split into individual segments and tailored to lesson plans. Capitalizing on the Polar mission and its amazing science return, the Polar team created an exciting multi-use DVD intended for audiences ranging from a traditional classroom and after school clubs, to museums and science centers. The DVD tackles subjects such as the aurora, the magnetosphere and space weather, whilst highlighting the science discoveries of the Polar mission. This platform introduces the learner to key team members as well as the science principles. Dramatic visualizations are used to illustrate the complex principles that describe Earth’s dynamic space. In order to produce such a wide-ranging product on a shoe-string budget, the team poured through existing NASA resources to package them into the Polar story, and visualizations were created using Polar data to complement the NASA stock footage. Scientists donated their time to create and review scripts in order to make this a real team effort, working closely with the award winning audio-visual group at JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory. The team was excited to be invited to join NASA’s Sun-Earth Day 2005 E/PO program and the DVD will be distributed as part of the supporting educational packages.

  16. The costs of electricity systems with a high share of fluctutating renewables. A stochastic investment and dispatch optimization model for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagl, Stephan; Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energies are meant to produce a large share of the future electricity demand. However, the availability of wind and solar power depends on local weather conditions and therefore weather characteristics must be considered when optimizing the future electricity mix. In this article we analyze the impact of the stochastic availability of wind and solar energy on the cost-minimal power plant mix and the related total system costs. To determine optimal conventional, renewable and storage capacities for different shares of renewables, we apply a stochastic investment and dispatch optimization model to the European electricity market. The model considers stochastic feed-in structures and full load hours of wind and solar technologies and different correlations between regions and technologies. Key findings include the overestimation of fluctuating renewables and underestimation of total system costs compared to deterministic investment and dispatch models. Furthermore, solar technologies are - relative to wind turbines - underestimated when neglecting negative correlations between wind speeds and solar radiation.

  17. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, H.P.; Shariat Torbaghan, S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This

  18. 14 CFR 121.415 - Crewmember and dispatcher training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indoctrination ground training for newly hired crewmembers or dispatchers including 40 programmed hours of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember and dispatcher training... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.415 Crewmember...

  19. Dispatch Control with PEV Charging and Renewables for Multiplayer Game Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Nathan; Johnson, Brian; McJunkin, Timothy; Scoffield, Don; White, Sera

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a demand response model for a hypothetical microgrid that integrates renewable resources and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging systems. It is assumed that the microgrid has black start capability and that external generation is available for purchase while grid connected to satisfy additional demand. The microgrid is developed such that in addition to renewable, non-dispatchable generation from solar, wind and run of the river hydroelectric resources, local dispatchable generation is available in the form of small hydroelectric and moderately sized gas and coal fired facilities. To accurately model demand, the load model is separated into independent residential, commercial, industrial, and PEV charging systems. These are dispatched and committed based on a mixed integer linear program developed to minimize the cost of generation and load shedding while satisfying constraints associated with line limits, conservation of energy, and ramp rates of the generation units. The model extends a research tool to longer time frames intended for policy setting and educational environments and provides a realistic and intuitive understanding of beneficial and challenging aspects of electrification of vehicles combined with integration of green electricity production.

  20. The value of dispatchability of CSP plants in the electricity systems of Morocco and Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard; Boudghene Stambouli, Amine; Zejli, Driss

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of an increased integration of concentrated solar power (CSP) into the conventional electricity systems of Morocco and Algeria. A cost-minimizing linear optimization tool was used to calculate the best CSP plant configuration for Morocco's coal-dominated power system as well as for Algeria, where flexible gas-fired power plants prevail. The results demonstrate that in both North African countries, storage-based CSP plants offer significant economic advantages over non-storage, low-dispatchable CSP configurations. However, in a generalized renewable integration scenario, where CSP has to compete with other renewable generation technologies, like wind or photovoltaic (PV) power, it was found that the cost advantages of dispatchability only justify CSP investments when a relatively high renewable penetration is targeted in the electricity mix. - Highlights: ► Market model to optimize CSP plant configuration in North African power systems. ► Value of storage-based CSP plants compared to non-dispatchable configurations: 28–55 €/MWh. ► Assessment of Morocco's and Algeria's renewable electricity targets until 2030. ► CSP becomes more competitive with intermittent technologies when high RES-E quota are targeted.

  1. Economic dispatch using chaotic bat algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adarsh, B.R.; Raghunathan, T.; Jayabarathi, T.; Yang, Xin-She

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm, the chaotic bat algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem involving a number of equality and inequality constraints such as power balance, prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits. Transmission losses and multiple fuel options are also considered for some problems. The chaotic bat algorithm, a variant of the basic bat algorithm, is obtained by incorporating chaotic sequences to enhance its performance. Five different example problems comprising 6, 13, 20, 40 and 160 generating units are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The algorithm requires little tuning by the user, and the results obtained show that it either outperforms or compares favorably with several existing techniques reported in literature. - Highlights: • The chaotic bat algorithm, a new metaheuristic optimization algorithm has been used. • The problem solved – the economic dispatch problem – is nonlinear, discontinuous. • It has number of equality and inequality constraints. • The algorithm has been demonstrated to be applicable on high dimensional problems.

  2. Variations and trends of terrestrial NPP and its relation to climate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using global terrestrial ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) data, we validated the simulated multi-model ensemble ..... tion on the solar radiation at six Canadian stations; Solar ... balance have enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink in the.

  3. Recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by medical dispatchers in emergency medical dispatch centres in two countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Andréll, Cecilia; Viereck, Søren

    2016-01-01

    in two steps; registry data were merged with electronically registered emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch centres in the two regions. Cases with missing or non-OHCA dispatch codes were analysed further by auditing emergency call recordings using a uniform data collection template......INTRODUCTION: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains low. Early recognition by emergency medical dispatchers is essential for an effective chain of actions, leading to early cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of an automated external defibrillator and rapid dispatching...... of the emergency medical services. AIM: To analyse and compare the accuracy of OHCA recognition by medical dispatchers in two countries. METHOD: An observational register-based study collecting data from national cardiac arrest registers in Denmark and Sweden during a six-month period in 2013. Data were analysed...

  4. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  5. Secured Economic Dispatch Algorithm using GSDF Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane SOUAG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new method for solving the secured power flow problem by the economic dispatch using DC power flow method and Generation Shift Distribution Factor (GSDF. A graphical interface in LabVIEW has been created as a virtual instrument. Hence the DC power flow reduces the power flow problem to a set of linear equations, which make the iterative calculation very fast and the GSFD matrix present the effects of single and multiple generator MW change on the transmission line. The effectiveness of the method developed is identified through its application to an IEEE-14 bus test system. The calculation results show excellent performance of the proposed method, in regard to computation time and quality of results.

  6. 49 CFR 241.9 - Prohibition against extraterritorial dispatching; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency situation, a railroad may require or permit one of its dispatchers located outside the United... or by electronic mail. (3) A list of the States that make up the FRA regions and the street and e...

  7. SMART operational field test evaluation : dispatchers survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automaticscheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans toimplement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The purpo...

  8. Simulated annealing approach for solving economic load dispatch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    thermodynamics to solve economic load dispatch (ELD) problems. ... evolutionary programming algorithm has been successfully applied for solving the ... concept behind the simulated annealing (SA) optimization is discussed in Section 3.

  9. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gerald G.; Graves, Glenn W.

    1981-01-01

    Management Science, 27, 1, pp. 19-32. (1982 International Management Science Achievement Award Finalist). A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum produ...

  10. Wind Farm Dispatch Control for Demand Tracking and Minimized Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for dispatching production references to the individual turbines in a wind farm, such that an overall production demand for the farm is obeyed, while the fatigue experienced by the turbines is minimized. Using a turbine fatigue model for simulating the aging across...... the farm, we show that a 17 % reduction of the turbine aging can be obtained compared to a commonly employed industrial dispatcher, without degrading the power demand tracking....

  11. Economic dispatch optimization algorithm based on particle diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Li; Romero, Carlos E.; Yao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dispatch model that considers fuel, emissions control and wind power cost is built. • An optimization algorithm named diffusion particle optimization (DPO) is proposed. • DPO was used to analyze the impact of wind power risk and emissions on dispatch. - Abstract: Due to the widespread installation of emissions control equipment in fossil fuel-fired power plants, the cost of emissions control needs to be considered, together with the plant fuel cost, in providing economic power dispatch of those units to the grid. On the other hand, while using wind power decreases the overall power generation cost for the power grid, it poses a risk to a traditional grid, because of its inherent stochastic characteristics. Therefore, an economic dispatch optimization model needs to consider all of the fuel cost, emissions control cost and wind power cost for each of the generating unit conforming the fleet that meets the required grid power demand. In this study, an optimization algorithm referred as diffusion particle optimization (DPO) is proposed to solve such complex optimization problem. In this algorithm, Brownian motion theory is used to guide the movement of particles so that the particles can search for an optimal solution over the entire definition region. Several benchmark functions and power grid system data were used to test the performance of DPO, and compared to traditional algorithms used for economic dispatch optimization, such as, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithm. It was found that DPO has less probability to be trapped in local optimums. According to results of different power systems DPO was able to find economic dispatch solutions with lower costs. DPO was also used to analyze the impact of wind power risk and fossil unit emissions coefficients on power dispatch. The result are encouraging for the use of DPO as a dynamic tool for economic dispatch of the power grid.

  12. An Approximate Dynamic Programming Mode for Optimal MEDEVAC Dispatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    over the myopic policy. This indicates the ADP policy is efficiently managing resources by 28 not immediately sending the nearest available MEDEVAC...DISPATCHING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology...medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) dispatch policies. To solve the MDP, we apply an ap- proximate dynamic programming (ADP) technique. The problem of deciding

  13. Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramu Sharat [Niskayuna, NY; Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Bose, Sumit [Niskayuna, NY; de Bedout, Juan Manuel [West Glenville, NY

    2011-08-02

    A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.

  14. The political economy of electricity dispatch reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Williams, James H.; Hu, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    The transition to a cleaner and more cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological. An example is the reform of China's method of dispatching power plants, which potentially affects the economic relationships between consumers and producers, between grid and generating companies, and between central and provincial governments. Historically, coal-fired power plants in China all received roughly the same number of operating hours, regardless of efficiency or cost. In 2007, Chinese government agencies began to pilot “energy efficient dispatch,” which requires that generators be dispatched on the basis of thermal efficiency. Using a case study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China, we evaluated potential energy and cost savings from a change to energy efficient dispatch. We found that the savings are at best relatively small, because large, efficient generators already account for a significant share of total generation. Moreover, as an administrative policy that does not change economic incentives, energy efficient dispatch exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in the current system. We argue that incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes, and that the keys to this reform are empowering an independent regulator with pricing authority and establishing a formal, transparent ratemaking process. - Highlights: ► Savings from China's energy efficient dispatch (EED) policy are at best relatively small. ► EED exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in China's current power system. ► Incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes than EED. ► Keys to reform are independent regulation and a formal, transparent ratemaking process. ► Transition to cleaner, cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological.

  15. A comprehensive view of solar-terrestrial relationships in terms of a chain of four dynamo-powered plasma acceleration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1983-01-01

    This paper emphasizes an effort to link processes which relate solar activity and magnetospheric disturbances in terms of energy transfer through a chain of four elements. In this view, each element is explicitly thought to be powered by a dynamo, namely the solar wind generation dynamo, the solar flare dynamo, the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo and the aurora dynamo, respectively. Each dynamo powers a plasma acceleration process by the Lorentz force and the plasma flows thus generated are the solar wind, the flare-generated solar wind disturbance, the magnetospheric plasma convection and the ionospheric convection, respectively. Each plasma flow conveys the energy from one element to the next in the chain. Some of the kinetic energy of the photospheric plasma is eventually deposited in the polar ionosphere as heat energy. (author)

  16. Environmental dispatch: Minimum cost generation planning for acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, S.S.; Weinstein, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of Public Law 101-549, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, requires reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions from many power generation stations by 1995, and by an electric utility company's entire generation system by year 2000. Another option to reduce the total environmental emissions is to dispatch generating units with lower emission rates prior to dispatching units with high emission rates. This option may not lower the emission levels to the desired limits, but can reduce emissions. This is practical as long as the added operating cost is modest compared to the cost of alternatives to meet the same levels of emission reduction. This cost can be optimized to provide the best compromise between reduced emissions and operating cost increase. An environmental dispatch algorithm developed by Gilbert/Commonwealth for its eVOLVE-p trademark production costing program makes this optimization possible. The algorithm modifies the traditional economic dispatch order of utility generation to include the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The dispatch order is based on emissions in excess of Clean Air Act compliance limits. A cost is assigned to the excess emissions, and these costs are distributed to the individual generating units in proportion to their emission rates. This paper discusses how this environmental dispatch algorithm is applied for utility generation compliance planning

  17. Short-term spatio-temporal wind power forecast in robust look-ahead power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Le; Gu, Yingzhong; Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    forecasts, the overall cost benefits on system dispatch can be quantified. We integrate the improved forecast with an advanced robust look-ahead dispatch framework. This integrated forecast and economic dispatch framework is tested in a modified IEEE RTS 24

  18. Energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Tianxing; Zhao, Chuanyu; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The consequence of short-time energy shortage under extreme conditions, such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed for energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage, which includes four stages of work. First, emergency-area-centered energy network needs to be characterized, where the capacity, quantity, and availability of various energy sources are determined. Second, the energy initial situation under emergency conditions needs to be identified. Then, the energy dispatch optimization is conducted based on a developed MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) model in the third stage. Finally, the sensitivity of the minimum dispatch time with respect to uncertainty parameters is characterized by partitioning the entire space of uncertainty parameters into multiple subspaces. The efficacy of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a case study with in-depth discussions. -- Highlights: ► Address the energy network dispatch problem under emergency of local energy shortage. ► Minimize the energy restoration time for the entire energy network under emergency events. ► Develop a new MILP model and a sensitivity analysis method with respect to uncertainties.

  19. Heuristic Optimization for the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of dispatching a fluctuating power supply to a portfolio of flexible consumers. The flexible consumers are modeled as discrete batch processes, and the associated optimization problem is denoted the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch...... Problem. First NP-completeness of the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem is proved formally. We then proceed to develop tailored versions of the meta-heuristic algorithms Hill Climber and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The algorithms are tuned and tested on portfolios...... of varying sizes. We find that all the tailored algorithms perform satisfactorily in the sense that they are able to find sub-optimal, but usable, solutions to very large problems (on the order of 10 5 units) at computation times on the scale of just 10 seconds, which is far beyond the capabilities...

  20. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Decentralized economic operation schemes have several advantages when compared with the traditional centralized management system for microgrids. Specifically, decentralized schemes are more flexible, less computationally intensive, and easier to implement without relying on communication...... costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...... infrastructure. Economic operation of existing decentralized schemes is also usually achieved by either tuning the droop characteristics of distributed generators (DGs) or prioritizing their dispatch order. For the latter, an earlier scheme has tried to prioritize the DG dispatch based on their no...

  1. A qualitative approach to economic-environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjengedal, T.; Hansen, O.; Johansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the principles, and suggests a methodology for expanding the dispatch of electrical power production systems for involving a pure minimum cost dispatch, to also include environmental objectives. The approach is qualitative in that no attempt is made as to assign a specific monetary value to environmental impacts, but rather maintaining the physical value of the impact through the decision process. However, the initial relative weights assigned to environmental impacts in the methodology are based on the many recent attempts to monetize environmental damages. The main contribution of the approach is to analyze how dispatch changes as a function of the total environmental weight, and as a function of the relative weighing of individual environmental insults, e.g., SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 . The methodology is illustrated with a sample production system involving environmental coast estimates from major US studies

  2. Strategies for dispatching AGVs at automated seaport container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Lehmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Control of logistics operations at container terminals is an extremely complex task, especially if automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are employed. In AGV dispatching, the stochastic nature of the handling systems must be taken into account. For instance, handling times of quay and stacking cranes...... as well as release times of transportation orders are not exactly known in advance. We present a simulation study of AGV dispatching strategies in a seaport container terminal, where AGVs can be used in single or dual-carrier mode. The latter allows transporting two small-sized (20 ft) or one large......-line heuristic. The performance of the dispatching strategies is evaluated using a scalable simulation model. The design of the experimental study reflects conditions which are typical of a real automated terminal environment. Major experimental factors are the size of the terminal and the degree of stochastic...

  3. Strategies for dispatching AGV's at automated seaport container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Lehmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Control of logistics operations at container terminals is an extremely complex task, especially if automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are employed. In AGV dispatching, the stochastic nature of the handling systems must be taken into account. For instance, handling times of quay and stacking cranes...... as well as release times of transportation orders are not exactly known in advance. We present a simulation study of AGV dispatching strategies in a seaport container terminal, where AGVs can be used in single or dual-carrier mode. The latter allows transporting two small-sized (20 ft) or one large......-line heuristic. The performance of the dispatching strategies is evaluated using a scalable simulation model. The design of the experimental study reflects conditions which are typical of a real automated terminal environment. Major experimental factors are the size of the terminal and the degree of stochastic...

  4. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    OpenAIRE

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation policy, depending on the orders at hand, pre-announced orders, and stochastic arrivals. We present this problem as a variant of the Delivery Dispatching Problem that includes dispatch windows, and m...

  5. Genetic Algorithm Based Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Nam; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Jin O [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach on genetic algorithm to economic dispatch problem for valve point discontinuities. Proposed approach in this paper on genetic algorithms improves the performance to solve economic dispatch problem for valve point discontinuities through improved death penalty method, generation-apart elitism, atavism and sexual selection with sexual distinction. Numerical results on a test system consisting of 13 thermal units show that the proposed approach is faster, more robust and powerful than conventional genetic algorithms. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Implementing a nationwide criteria-based emergency medical dispatch system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel S; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Sørensen, Jan Nørtved

    2013-01-01

    A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks.......A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks....

  7. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  8. Optimal Operation and Dispatch of Voltage Regulation Devices Considering High Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cho, Gyu-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University; Oh, Yun-Sik [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Min-Sung [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Ji-Soo [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University

    2017-06-29

    Voltage regulation devices have been traditionally installed and utilized to support distribution voltages. Installations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems are rapidly increasing, and many of these generation resources have variable and uncertain power output. These generators can significantly change the voltage profile for a feeder; therefore, in the distribution system planning stage of the optimal operation and dispatch of voltage regulation devices, possible high penetrations of DERs should be considered. In this paper, we model the IEEE 34-bus test feeder, including all essential equipment. An optimization method is adopted to determine the optimal siting and operation of the voltage regulation devices in the presence of distributed solar power generation. Finally, we verify the optimal configuration of the entire system through the optimization and simulation results.

  9. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St

    2012-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  10. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) and Unit Commitment (UC) are very important applications to predict the optimized cost of load in a power system. UC determines working states for existing generating units under some operational constraints and then optimizing the operation cost for all running units w.r.t. load demand ...

  11. Economic Dispatch of Demand Response Balancing through Asymmetric Block Offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of describing the load shifting ability of flexible electrical loads in a manner suitable for existing power system dispatch frameworks. The concept of an asymmetric block offer for flexible loads is introduced. This offer structure describes the ability of a flexible...

  12. Robot dispatching Scenario for Accident Condition Monitoring of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongseog

    2013-01-01

    In March of 2011, unanticipated big size of tsunami attacks Fukushima NPP, this accident results in explosion of containment building. Tokyo electric power of Japan couldn't dispatch a robot for monitoring of containment inside. USA Packbot robot used for desert war in Iraq was supplied to Fukushima NPP for monitoring of high radiation area. Packbot also couldn't reach deep inside of Fukushima NPP due to short length of power cable. Japanese robot 'Queens' also failed to complete a mission due to communication problem between robot and operator. I think major reason of these robot failures is absence of robot dispatching scenario. If there was a scenario and a rehearsal for monitoring during or after accident, these unanticipated obstacles could be overcome. Robot dispatching scenario studied for accident of nuclear power plant was described herein. Study on scenario of robot dispatching is performed. Flying robot is regarded as good choice for accident monitoring. Walking robot with arm equipped is good for emergency valve close. Short time work and shift work by several robots can be a solution for high radiation area. Thin and soft cable with rolling reel can be a good solution for long time work and good communication

  13. An Optimal Scheduling Dispatch of a Microgrid under Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whei-Min Lin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the scheduling dispatch of a microgrid (MG, while considering renewable energy, battery storage systems, and time-of-use price. For the risk evaluation of an MG, the Value-at-Risk (VAR is calculated by using the Historical Simulation Method (HSM. By considering the various confidence levels of the VAR, a scheduling dispatch model of the MG is formulated to achieve a reasonable trade-off between the risk and cost. An Improved Bee Swarm Optimization (IBSO is proposed to solve the scheduling dispatch model of the MG. In the IBSO procedure, the Sin-wave Weight Factor (SWF and Forward-Backward Control Factor (FBCF are embedded in the bee swarm of the BSO to improve the movement behaviors of each bee, specifically, its search efficiency and accuracy. The effectiveness of the IBSO is demonstrated via a real MG case and the results are compared with other methods. In either a grid-connected scenario or a stand-alone scenario, an optimal scheduling dispatch of MGs is carried out, herein, at various confidence levels of risk. The simulation results provide more information for handling uncertain environments when analyzing the VAR of MGs.

  14. Benchmarking online dispatch algorithms for Emergency Medical Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtenberg, C.J.; Berg, P.L.; van der Mei, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Providers of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) face the online ambulance dispatch problem, in which they decide which ambulance to send to an incoming incident. Their objective is to minimize the fraction of arrivals later than a target time. Today, the gap between existing solutions and the optimum

  15. Transmission dispatch and congestion management in open market systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Risheng

    This thesis is located in the domain of electricity supply industry restructuring. It deals with emerging issues, whose understanding is essential to advancing knowledge of open access transmission theory and proceeds to develop approaches for solving the transmission dispatch and congestion management problem. An overview of current trends and experiences in utility restructuring and the main models for restructuring, as well as the classifications of system operators, is first presented. A fully unbundled competitive electricity market model, called the bilateral/multilateral trades model, is then developed. A survey of current research in transmission dispatch and congestion management is included with discussion of transmission capacity and ancillary services. A methodology for the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts is presented. Group structures are mathematically formulated and explored and three basic types of curtailment strategies proposed for use by market participants. A more complex model is then developed, which takes into account the co-existence of bilateral and multilateral contracts with pool type dynamic supplies and demands based on bids and market clearing prices. An integrated dispatch strategy to reconcile all three types of transactions (bilateral, multilateral and pool) is then developed. Prioritization of electricity transactions and related curtailment strategies are explored and a mechanism for coordination between market participants to achieve additional economic advantages is described. A theory of security based rescheduling is presented in order to investigate the security-related aspects of operation in an unbundled and deregulated system. The impact of post-contingency corrective capability on optimal rescheduling results has been identified and the advantage of incorporating post-contingency corrective rescheduling into the objective function demonstrated. Finally

  16. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  17. Development and implementation of a dynamic TES dispatch control component in a PV-CSP techno-economic performance modelling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Linus; Guédez, Rafael; Larchet, Kevin; Laumert, Bjorn

    2017-06-01

    The dispatchability offered by thermal energy storage (TES) in concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar hybrid plants based on such technology presents the most important difference compared to power generation based only on photovoltaics (PV). This has also been one reason for recent hybridization efforts of the two technologies and the creation of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) payment schemes based on offering higher payment multiples during daily hours of higher (peak or priority) demand. Recent studies involving plant-level thermal energy storage control strategies are however to a large extent based on pre-determined approaches, thereby not taking into account the actual dynamics of thermal energy storage system operation. In this study, the implementation of a dynamic dispatch strategy in the form of a TRNSYS controller for hybrid PV-CSP plants in the power-plant modelling tool DYESOPT is presented. In doing this it was attempted to gauge the benefits of incorporating a day-ahead approach to dispatch control compared to a fully pre-determined approach determining hourly dispatch only once prior to annual simulation. By implementing a dynamic strategy, it was found possible to enhance technical and economic performance for CSP-only plants designed for peaking operation and featuring low values of the solar multiple. This was achieved by enhancing dispatch control, primarily by taking storage levels at the beginning of every simulation day into account. The sequential prediction of the TES level could therefore be improved, notably for evaluated plants without integrated PV, for which the predicted storage levels deviated less than when PV was present in the design. While also featuring dispatch performance gains, optimal plant configurations for hybrid PV-CSP was found to present a trade-off in economic performance in the form of an increase in break-even electricity price when using the dynamic strategy which was offset to some extent by a reduction in

  18. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: radio flux density variations with frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kontar, E. P.; Cecconi, B.; Hoang, S.; Krupařová, Oksana; Souček, Jan; Reid, H.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 8 (2014), s. 3121-3135 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar radio emissions * plasma radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-014-0522-x

  19. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: goniopolarimetric properties and radio source locations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cecconi, B.; Krupařová, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 12 (2014), s. 4633-4652 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasma radiation * solar radio emissions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-014-0601-z

  20. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    heuristics are discussed using a case study of the UCI central plant. Thermal energy storage introduces a time horizon into the dispatch optimization which requires novel solution strategies. Highly efficient and responsive generators are required to meet the increasingly dynamic loads of today's efficient buildings and intermittent local renewable wind and solar power. Fuel cell gas turbine hybrids will play an integral role in the complex and ever-changing solution to local electricity production.

  1. Economic dispatch using particle swarm optimization. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahor, Amita; Rangnekar, Saroj; Prasad, Vishnu

    2009-01-01

    Electrical power industry restructuring has created highly vibrant and competitive market that altered many aspects of the power industry. In this changed scenario, scarcity of energy resources, increasing power generation cost, environment concern, ever growing demand for electrical energy necessitate optimal economic dispatch. Practical economic dispatch (ED) problems have nonlinear, non-convex type objective function with intense equality and inequality constraints. The conventional optimization methods are not able to solve such problems as due to local optimum solution convergence. Meta-heuristic optimization techniques especially particle swarm optimization (PSO) has gained an incredible recognition as the solution algorithm for such type of ED problems in last decade. The application of PSO in ED problem, which is considered as one of the most complex optimization problem has been summarized in present paper. (author)

  2. Wolf Search Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagasabai Lenin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new bio-inspired heuristic optimization algorithm called the Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA for solving the multi-objective reactive power dispatch problem. Wolf Search algorithm is a new bio – inspired heuristic algorithm which based on wolf preying behaviour. The way wolves search for food and survive by avoiding their enemies has been imitated to formulate the algorithm for solving the reactive power dispatches. And the speciality  of wolf is  possessing  both individual local searching ability and autonomous flocking movement and this special property has been utilized to formulate the search algorithm .The proposed (WSA algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results shows clearly about the good performance of the proposed algorithm .

  3. Distributed Economic Dispatch in Microgrids Based on Cooperative Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weirong; Zhuang, Peng; Liang, Hao; Peng, Jun; Huang, Zhiwu; Weirong Liu; Peng Zhuang; Hao Liang; Jun Peng; Zhiwu Huang; Liu, Weirong; Liang, Hao; Peng, Jun; Zhuang, Peng; Huang, Zhiwu

    2018-06-01

    Microgrids incorporated with distributed generation (DG) units and energy storage (ES) devices are expected to play more and more important roles in the future power systems. Yet, achieving efficient distributed economic dispatch in microgrids is a challenging issue due to the randomness and nonlinear characteristics of DG units and loads. This paper proposes a cooperative reinforcement learning algorithm for distributed economic dispatch in microgrids. Utilizing the learning algorithm can avoid the difficulty of stochastic modeling and high computational complexity. In the cooperative reinforcement learning algorithm, the function approximation is leveraged to deal with the large and continuous state spaces. And a diffusion strategy is incorporated to coordinate the actions of DG units and ES devices. Based on the proposed algorithm, each node in microgrids only needs to communicate with its local neighbors, without relying on any centralized controllers. Algorithm convergence is analyzed, and simulations based on real-world meteorological and load data are conducted to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  5. Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    which are related to electrical system topology. This paper proposed an optimized power dispatch strategy (OPD) for minimizing the levelized production cost (LPC) of a wind farm. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to obtain final solution for the optimization problem. Both regular shape......Maximizing the power production of offshore wind farms using proper control strategy has become an important issue for wind farm operators. However, the power transmitted to the onshore substation (OS) is not only related to the power production of each wind turbine (WT) but also the power losses...... and irregular shape wind farm are chosen for the case study. The proposed dispatch strategy is compared with two other control strategies. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  6. SCADA AND SECURITY DISPATCHES ACCORDING TO PRESENT LEGISLATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Silviu BANACU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available SCADA is an old term, older than twenty years, used for defining systems that acquires data from industrial networks and / or critical infrastructure networks and process them for operational and security purposes. Its importance is growing simultaneously with the development of technology’s interference in our lives (social life, economical life, etc.. Although they are not defined as SCADA systems, Security dispatches (and their structure have a lot of similarities with the general architecture of SCADA systems. Taking into consideration the security dispatches, as they are accepted by the actual Romanian law, we will draw a parallel between them and SCADA architecture, identifying the similarities and the differences between them, and also the points where some changes could be made.

  7. The Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) Model Version 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baek, Young Sun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model dispatches power plants in a region to meet the electricity demands for any single given year up to 2030. It uses publicly available sources of data describing electric power units such as the National Energy Modeling System and hourly demands from utility submittals to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that are projected to a future year. The model simulates a single region of the country for a given year, matching generation to demands and predefined net exports from the region, assuming no transmission constraints within the region. ORCED can calculate a number of key financial and operating parameters for generating units and regional market outputs including average and marginal prices, air emissions, and generation adequacy. By running the model with and without changes such as generation plants, fuel prices, emission costs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, distributed generation, or demand response, the marginal impact of these changes can be found.

  8. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment...

  9. Distributionally robust hydro-thermal-wind economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yue; Wei, Wei; Liu, Feng; Mei, Shengwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage distributionally robust hydro-thermal-wind model is proposed. • A semi-definite programing equivalent and its algorithm are developed. • Cases that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model are included. - Abstract: With the penetration of wind energy increasing, uncertainty has become a major challenge in power system dispatch. Hydro power can change rapidly and is regarded as one promising complementary energy resource to mitigate wind power fluctuation. Joint scheduling of hydro, thermal, and wind energy is attracting more and more attention nowadays. This paper proposes a distributionally robust hydro-thermal-wind economic dispatch (DR-HTW-ED) method to enhance the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In contrast to the traditional stochastic optimization (SO) and adjustable robust optimization (ARO) method, distributionally robust optimization (DRO) method describes the uncertain wind power output by all possible probability distribution functions (PDFs) with the same mean and variance recovered from the forecast data, and optimizes the expected operation cost in the worst distribution. Traditional DRO optimized the random parameter in entire space, which is sometimes contradict to the actual situation. In this paper, we restrict the wind power uncertainty in a bounded set, and derive an equivalent semi-definite programming (SDP) for the DR-HTW-ED using S-lemma. A delayed constraint generation algorithm is suggested to solve it in a tractable manner. The proposed DR-HTW-ED is compared with the existing ARO based hydro-thermal-wind economic dispatch (AR-HTW-ED). Their respective features are shown from the perspective of computational efficiency and conservativeness of dispatch strategies.

  10. Reconciling pool and contract dispatch in open access transmission operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    The dispatch of both suppliers who bid into the pool and of bilateral and multilateral contracts between individual buyers, sellers and brokers are obligations placed on the system operator in an open transmission access environment. During periods of transmission congestion security-driven constraints impose curtailments on all types of transactions. The paper addresses the need to develop methodologies to understand and cope with this problem. (author)

  11. Load allocation of power plant using multi echelon economic dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuda, Santosa, Budi; Rusdiansyah, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the allocation of power plant load which is usually done with a single echelon as in the load flow calculation, is expanded into a multi echelon. A plant load allocation model based on the integration of economic dispatch and multi-echelon problem is proposed. The resulting model is called as Single Objective Multi Echelon Economic Dispatch (SOME ED). This model allows the distribution of electrical power in more detail in the transmission and distribution substations along the existing network. Considering the interconnection system where the distance between the plant and the load center is usually far away, therefore the loss in this model is seen as a function of distance. The advantages of this model is its capability of allocating electrical loads properly, as well as economic dispatch information with the flexibility of electric power system as a result of using multi-echelon. In this model, the flexibility can be viewed from two sides, namely the supply and demand sides, so that the security of the power system is maintained. The model was tested on a small artificial data. The results demonstrated a good performance. It is still very open to further develop the model considering the integration with renewable energy, multi-objective with environmental issues and applied to the case with a larger scale.

  12. A Hybrid Multilevel Storage Architecture for Electric Power Dispatching Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hu; Huang, Bibin; Hong, Bowen; Hu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Electric power dispatching is the center of the whole power system. In the long run time, the power dispatching center has accumulated a large amount of data. These data are now stored in different power professional systems and form lots of information isolated islands. Integrating these data and do comprehensive analysis can greatly improve the intelligent level of power dispatching. In this paper, a hybrid multilevel storage architecture for electrical power dispatching big data is proposed. It introduces relational database and NoSQL database to establish a power grid panoramic data center, effectively meet power dispatching big data storage needs, including the unified storage of structured and unstructured data fast access of massive real-time data, data version management and so on. It can be solid foundation for follow-up depth analysis of power dispatching big data.

  13. Secure Route Structures for Parallel Mobile Agents Based Systems Using Fast Binary Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a distributed environment, where a large number of computers are connected together to enable the large-scale sharing of data and computing resources, agents, especially mobile agents, are the tools for autonomously completing tasks on behalf of their owners. For applications of large-scale mobile agents, security and efficiency are of great concern. In this paper, we present a fast binary dispatch model and corresponding secure route structures for mobile agents dispatched in parallel to protect the dispatch routes of agents while ensuring the dispatch efficiency. The fast binary dispatch model is simple but efficient with a dispatch complexity of O(log2n. The secure route structures adopt the combination of public-key encryption and digital signature schemes and expose minimal route information to hosts. The nested structure can help detect attacks as early as possible. We evaluated the various models both analytically and empirically.

  14. Regenerative gases. Monitoring and control by means of the dispatching; Regenerative Gase. Ueberwachung und Steuerung durch das Dispatching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Uwe [EWE NETZ GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The increasing number of devices for the decentralized integration of gas from renewable energy sources presents new challenges in the dispatching of natural gas networks operators. In the future, beside the supply of biogas there also a supply of hydrogen and synthetic methane will exist. In addition to compliance with the technical regulations for the quality and accountability of these gases the focus is on the optimization of the processes.

  15. Online solving of economic dispatch problem using neural network approach and comparing it with classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Varahram, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two methods for solving economic dispatch problems, namely Hopfield neural network and lambda iteration method are compared. Three sample of power system with 3, 6 and 20 units have been considered. The time required for CPU, for solving economic dispatch of these two systems has been calculated. It has been Shown that for on-line economic dispatch, Hopfield neural network is more efficient and the time required for Convergence is considerably smaller compared to classical methods. (author)

  16. Magnetic storm injection of 0.9- to 16-keV/e solar and terrestrial ions into the high-altitude magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsiger, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Young, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Geos 1 ion composition experiments has surveyed the plasma composition in the energy per charge range below 16 keV/e at all local times and at L=3--8. During quiet and moderately disturbed times, H + is the dominant species with a few percent of heavy (M/Q>1) ions. Substorms and storms increase the relative amount of heavy ions, and occasionally, they can become the dominant species in the outer magnetosphere. Two sources, the solar wind (characterized by 4 He ++ ) and the ionosphere (characterized by O + ), give on the average comparable contributions to storm time plasma, although in individual storms one or the other may dominate. Data presented here suggest that high-altitude thermal plasma or the plasmasphere (characterized by He + and O ++ ) must be considered as a third source. Under storm conditions with Geos in the dawn-noon local time sector we have observed a mixed composition region just inside the magnetopause where high fluxes of H + , He ++ , O + , and occasionally He + ions are present. During several storms a composition profile could be measured down to Lapprox.3. Both O + and He + increase toward low altitudes, and O + (within our energy range) can become dominant at the inner edge of the ring current. On April 30, 1978, during a storm, O + contributed > or approx. =8% to the total local energy density of the ring current particles at L=4.1. In no storm has He + been observed to be the main constituent during the recovery phase. During storm recovery, H + and O + are the dominant ions, the H + /O + ratio remaining constant or even increasing during the days following the main phase of the storms. This suggests that charge exchange is not the only loss mechanism for the storm time ring current and/or that H + is replenished during the recovery phase

  17. Intelligent Anti Misoperation System for Power Grid Dispatching of Regions and Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Zhang, Yunju; Zhou, Siming; Wang, Xiangdong; Ma, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    With the power system of large capacity, large units, high voltage development trend, dispatching operations becoming more frequent, complex, and probability of mistakes are increasing. For the existing grid dispatching integrated system loss of anti-error function, single dispatching function, low efficiency, according to the existing conditions of Anshun Power Supply Bureau, the Intelligent anti misoperation system for power grid dispatching of regions and counties is designed, introduced the technologies such as the intelligent anti misoperation analysis, automatic process control, and interactive constraint, the system has the advantages of scientific, reasonable and efficient, and providing the technical support for anti misoperation of regions and counties.

  18. Polychromatic light (480-3400nm) similar to the terrestrial solar spectrum without its UV component in post-surgical immunorehabilitation of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevago, Natalia A; Zimin, Alexander A; Glazanova, Tatyana V; Davydova, Natalia I; Bychkova, Natalia V; Chubukina, Zhanna V; Buinyakova, Anna I; Ballyuzek, Marina F; Samoilova, Kira A

    2017-01-01

    To this day, two methods of phototherapy (PT) have been successfully used in post-surgical immunorehabilitation of patients with breast cancer (BC): intravenous laser irradiation of the patients' blood and reinfusion of lympholeukosuspension of BC patients after single irradiation with HeNe laser. The objective of this pilot experimental study was to verify the effectiveness of the percutaneous use of polychromatic visible light combined with polychromatic infrared (pVIS+pIR) radiation similar to the major components of natural solar spectrum in post-surgical management of BC patients. Patients with BC (adenocarcinoma) of I-II stages, n=19 who had undergone mastectomy, were divided into 2 groups. The control group of patients (n=8) underwent a conventional course of post-surgical rehabilitation and sham irradiation. Patients of the PT group (n=11) additionally received 7days of daily treatment with polychromatic light on the sacral area, D=15cm. The PT course began on the day after mastectomy (Bioptron-2 device; Switzerland, 480-3400nm, 95% polarization, 40mW/cm 2 , 24J/cm 2 ). Mastectomy produced many changes in cellular and humoral immunity, which was recorded on the 1st and 8th post-surgical days. The PT course resulted in a faster normalization of post-surgical leukocytosis and activation of cytotoxic CD8 + T-lymphocytes (Lym), reduced the elevated concentration in blood of immune complexes and in parallel promoted cytotoxic activity of CD16 + /CD56 + NK-cells. The PT up-regulated the number of NK-cells in patients with its decrease on the 1st post-surgical day and prevented the decrease in the amount of monocytes, CD19 + B-Lym, CD3 + T-Lym, CD4 + T-helpers, activated CD3 + /HLADR + T-Lym, and the decrease of the phagocytotic capability of neutrophils. PT blocked the down-regulation of the IgM, IgA concentration and abnormally sharp increase of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ content. Therefore, a 7-day course with polychromatic light prevented the

  19. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  20. Analysis of different schemes of dispatching in mixed-use complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dement'eva Marina Evgen'evna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At present time a lot of multi-functional centers are being built. Their safe operation depends on the quality of the dispatch service. In the article were considered various organization scheme the dispatch service as a queuing system. All the service facilities in the first variant are united. That facilitates reliability management, but increases the time of works execution. There is the general dispatching center in the second version, but the performers of the work are distributed by zones of a multifunctional complex. In such organization of a dispatching service the dispatcher must have a very high qualification. In the third version there are independent dispatching centers and the performers for each zone of a multifunctional complex. Independent service facilities increase the reliability because of complete redundancy. But thus the operating costs considerably increase. Engineering equipment damage was analyzed depending on functional purpose. The authors present the mathematical model of efficiency complex index of the dispatch service. The influence of the nature of damage was established as random factors of the time and cost needed for the damage elimination. It is possible to calculate the efficiency indicator of dispatching service by solving a two-criteria task in the conditions of uncertainty and risk. The first criterion is the execution time of the call. It depends on the type of damage and efficiency of dispatching service employees. The second criterion is the costs of the organization of dispatching service work. The main objective is the determination of ponderability of each criterion. Their importance can be set by the expert assessments method of the poll results of the consumers and also by opinions of service professionals. Further researches will include the assessment of organization expediency of one or several dispatch centers taking into account all the costs on the work organization.

  1. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  2. Evolutionary tracks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takafumi; Abe, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the model proposed by Matsui and Abe, the authors show that two major factors - distance from the Sun and the efficiency of retention of accretional energy - control the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. A diagram of accretional energy versus the optical depth of a proto-atmosphere provides a means to follow the evolutionary track of surface temperature of the terrestrial planets and an explanation for why the third planet in our solar system is an 'aqua'-planet. 15 refs; 3 figs

  3. A Case Study of Control and Improved Simplified Swarm Optimization for Economic Dispatch of a Stand-Alone Modular Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complex configuration and control framework, the conventional microgrid is not cost-effective for engineering applications with small or medium capacity. A stand-alone modular microgrid with separated AC bus and decentralized control strategy is proposed in this paper. Each module is a self-powered system, which consists of wind and solar power, a storage battery, load and three-port converter. The modules are interconnected by three-port converters to form the microgrid. Characteristics, operation principle, control of the modular microgrid and the three-port converter are analyzed in detail. Distributed storage batteries enable power exchanges among modules to enhance economic returns. Economic dispatch of the stand-alone modular microgrid is a mixed-integer programming problem. A day-ahead operation optimization model including fuel cost, battery operation cost, and power transmission cost is established. Because there are so many constraints, it is difficult to produce a feasible solution and even more difficult to have an improved solution. An improved simplified swarm optimization (iSSO method is therefore proposed. The iSSO scheme designs the new update mechanism and survival of the fittest policy. The experimental results from the demonstration project on DongAo Island reflect the effectiveness of the stand-alone modular microgrid and the economic dispatch strategy based on the iSSO method.

  4. Multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch by an interior point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  5. Combined heat and power economic dispatch by harmony search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasebi, A.; Bathaee, S.M.T. [Power System Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, 322-Mirdamad Avenue West, 19697 Tehran (Iran); Fesanghary, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424-Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-12-15

    The optimal utilization of multiple combined heat and power (CHP) systems is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (HS) algorithm to solve the combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. The HS algorithm is a recently developed meta-heuristic algorithm, and has been very successful in a wide variety of optimization problems. The method is illustrated using a test case taken from the literature as well as a new one proposed by authors. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithm can find better solutions when compared to conventional methods and is an efficient search algorithm for CHPED problem. (author)

  6. Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis VLACHOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx. The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission. The proposed AD algorithm is applied for EED of a simple power system.

  7. DISPATCHING CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE CONCRETE BATCHING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Ostroukh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to the design of dispatching control system of the concrete batching plant, which is a set of hardware maintenance, information, mathematical and software for control of technological objects. The proposed system is scalable and can include a control subsystem of mobile concrete plant, laboratory, subsystems, access control, and personnel management jobs. The system provides optimum automating the collection and processing of information for generating control signals and transmitting them without loss and distortion to the actuators in order to achieve the most efficient operation of process control object as a whole.

  8. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  9. Centralized versus distributed systems to reschedule trains in two dispatching areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.; Pacciarelli, D.; Pranzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Railway dispatchers are in charge of rescheduling trains during operations in order to limit propagation of disturbances occurring in real-time. To help the dispatchers in such task, an advanced decision support system, ROMA (Railway traffic Optimization by Means of Alternative graphs), has been

  10. 49 CFR 1242.57 - Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). 1242.57 Section 1242.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE...-Transportation § 1242.57 Dispatching trains (account XX-51-58). Separate common expenses on the basis of train...

  11. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation

  12. Coordinated Active Power Dispatch for a Microgrid via Distributed Lambda Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Z. Q. Chen, Michael; Cao, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    A novel distributed optimal dispatch algorithm is proposed for coordinating the operation of multiple micro units in a microgrid, which has incorporated the distributed consensus algorithm in multi-agent systems and the -iteration optimization algorithm in economic dispatch of power systems. Spec...

  13. Validity of helicopter emergency medical services dispatch criteria for traumatic injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie); G. de Ronde (Gijs); S. Thomas (Siep); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective. This review provides an overview of the validity of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) dispatch criteria for severely injured patients. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed. English written and peer-reviewed publications on HEMS dispatch criteria

  14. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  15. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  16. Paediatric medical emergency calls to a Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper; Mikkelsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    with a supporting physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (56.4%). The classification of medical issues and the dispatched pre-hospital units varied with patient age. DISCUSSION: We believe our results might help focus the paediatric training received by emergency medical dispatch staff on commonly encountered......BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding paediatric medical emergency calls to Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMDC). This study aimed to investigate these calls, specifically the medical issues leading to them and the pre-hospital units dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. METHODS: We...... records to establish how the medical issues leading to these calls were classified and which pre-hospital units were dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of a total of 7052 emergency calls in February 2016, 485 (6.9%) concerned patients ≤ 15...

  17. Chinese National Condition Based Power Dispatching Optimization in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a study on the power dispatching optimization in the microgrid aiming at Chinese national condition based on PSO algorithm. The whole work is on the basis of the weighted factor variation of the objective function due to different weather conditions. Three cases including the good contamination-diffusing weather condition, the smog weather condition, and the normal condition are considered, respectively. In the case of smog weather, the new energy generation and the battery system will be all out to use as less power as possible from the primary grid so that the pollution produced by coal consumption in the thermal power plants can be upmost reduced. However, in the case of perfect contamination-diffusing weather, the battery is not used to reserve its lifetime, while a large amount of exchanged power from the primary grid is used to obtain a most economic-efficient effect. In normal condition, the power dispatching is performed in a most balanced way considering not only the cost but also the environmental management. The case study in Suzhou Industrial Part confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method in this paper.

  18. Burning peat in Ireland: An electricity market dispatch perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, Aidan; Bazilian, Morgan; Doherty, Ronan; Gallachoir, Brian O; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines peat power production in Ireland under the three pillars of energy policy-security, competitiveness and environment. Peat contributes to energy security-as an indigenous fuel, it reduces dependency on imports. During a period of low capacity margins, the operation of the peat plants is useful from a system security perspective. Peat generation is being financially supported by consumers through an electricity levy. The fuel also has high carbon intensity. It is not politically viable to consider peat on equal economic criteria to other plant types because of history and location. This paper reviews electricity generation through combustion of peat in Ireland, and quantifies the costs of supporting peat utilising economic dispatch tools, finding the subsidy is not insignificant from a cost or carbon perspective. It shows that while peat is beneficial for one pillar of energy policy (security), the current usage of peat is not optimal from a competitiveness or environmental perspective. By switching from the current 'must-run' mode of operation for peat to the 'dispatched' mode used for the other generation, significant societal savings (in the range Euro 21 m per annum) can be achieved, as well as reducing system emissions by approximately 5% per year.

  19. Optimal Dispatching of Active Distribution Networks Based on Load Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the optimal intraday scheduling of a distribution system that includes renewable energy (RE generation, energy storage systems (ESSs, and thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs. This system also provides time-of-use pricing to customers. Unlike previous studies, this study attempts to examine how to optimize the allocation of electric energy and to improve the equilibrium of the load curve. Accordingly, we propose a concept of load equilibrium entropy to quantify the overall equilibrium of the load curve and reflect the allocation optimization of electric energy. Based on this entropy, we built a novel multi-objective optimal dispatching model to minimize the operational cost and maximize the load curve equilibrium. To aggregate TCLs into the optimization objective, we introduced the concept of a virtual power plant (VPP and proposed a calculation method for VPP operating characteristics based on the equivalent thermal parameter model and the state-queue control method. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm was employed to solve the optimization problems. The simulation results illustrated that the proposed dispatching model can achieve cost reductions of system operations, peak load curtailment, and efficiency improvements, and also verified that the load equilibrium entropy can be used as a novel index of load characteristics.

  20. Cloud Computing Application on Transport Dispatching Informational Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Olegovich Gusenitsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport dispatching informational support systems has received widespread attention due to high quality information density, strong coherence and applicable visualization features. Nevertheless, because of large volume of data, complex integration requirements and the need for information exchange between different users, time costs of the development and implementation of the informational support systems, problems associated with various data formats compatibility, security protocols and high maintenance cost, the opportunities for the application of such systems are significantly reduced. This article reviews the possibility of creating a cloud storage data system for transport dispatching informational support system (TDIS using modern computer technology to meet the challenges of mass data processing, information security and reduce operational costs. The system is expected to make full use of the advantages offered by the technology of cloud storage. Integrated cloud will increase the amount of data available to the system, reduce the speed processing requirements and reduce the overall cost of system implementation. Creation and integration of cloud storage is one of the most important areas of TDIS development, which is stimulating and promoting the further development of TDIS to ensure the requirements of its users.

  1. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  2. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  3. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Solar MHD is an important tool for understanding many solar phenomena. It also plays a crucial role in explaining the behaviour of more general cosmical magnetic fields and plasmas, since the Sun provides a natural laboratory in which such behaviour may be studied. While terrestrial experiments are invaluable in demonstrating general plasma properties, conclusions from them cannot be applied uncritically to solar plasmas and have in the past given rise to misconceptions about solar magnetic field behaviour. Important differences between a laboratory plasma on Earth and the Sun include the nature of boundary conditions, the energy balance, the effect of gravity and the size of the magnetic Reynolds number (generally of order unity on the Earth and very much larger on the Sun). The overall structure of the book is as follows. It begins with two introductory chapters on solar observations and the MHD equations. Then the fundamentals of MHD are developed in chapters on magnetostatics, waves, shocks, and instabilities. Finally, the theory is applied to the solar phenomena of atmospheric heating, sunspots, dynamos, flares, prominences, and the solar wind. (Auth.)

  4. A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of microgrids (MGs in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants.

  5. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  6. The effect of work shift configurations on emergency medical dispatch center response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montassier, Emmanuel; Labady, Julien; Andre, Antoine; Potel, Gilles; Berthier, Frederic; Jenvrin, Joel; Penverne, Yann

    2015-01-01

    It has been proved that emergency medical dispatch centers (EMDC) save lives by promoting an appropriate allocation of emergency medical service resources. Indeed, optimal dispatcher call duration is pivotal to reduce the time gap between the time a call is placed and the delivery of medical care. However, little is known about the impact of work shift configurations (i.e., work shift duration and work shift rotation throughout the day) and dispatcher call duration. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess the effect of work shift configurations on dispatcher call duration. During a 1-year study period, we analyzed the dispatcher call durations for medical and trauma calls during the 4 different work shift rotations (day, morning, evening, and night) and during the 10-hour work shift of each dispatcher in the EMDC of Nantes. We extracted dispatcher call durations from our advanced telephone system, configured with CC Pulse + (Genesys, Alcatel Lucent), and collected them in a custom designed database (Excel, Microsoft). Afterward, we analyzed these data using linear mixed effects models. During the study period, our EMDC received 408,077 calls. Globally, the mean dispatcher call duration was 107 ± 45 seconds. Based on multivariate linear mixed effects models, the dispatcher call duration was affected by night work shift and work shift duration greater than 8 hours, increasing it by about 10 ± 1 seconds and 4 ± 1 seconds, respectively (both p work shift rotation and duration, with longer durations seen over night shifts and shifts over 8 hours. While these differences are small and may not have clinical significance, they may have implications for EMDC efficiency.

  7. An Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm and Its Application in Dynamic Emergency Vehicle Dispatching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method for solving the dynamic emergency vehicle dispatching problem can only get a local optimal strategy in each horizon. In order to obtain the dispatching strategy that can better respond to changes in road conditions during the whole dispatching process, the real-time and time-dependent link travel speeds are fused, and a time-dependent polygonal-shaped link travel speed function is set up to simulate the predictable changes in road conditions. Response times, accident severity, and accident time windows are taken as key factors to build an emergency vehicle dispatching model integrating dynamic emergency vehicle routing and selection. For the unpredictable changes in road conditions caused by accidents, the dispatching strategy is adjusted based on the real-time link travel speed. In order to solve the dynamic emergency vehicle dispatching model, an improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA is proposed. The global search of the improved algorithm uses the probability model of estimation of distribution algorithm to avoid the partial optimal solution. Based on the Beijing expressway network, the efficacy of the model and the improved algorithm were tested from three aspects. The results have shown the following: (1 Compared with SFLA, the optimization performance of ISFLA is getting better and better with the increase of the number of decision variables. When the possible emergency vehicle selection strategies are 815, the objective function value of optimal selection strategies obtained by the base algorithm is 210.10% larger than that of ISFLA. (2 The prediction error of the travel speed affects the accuracy of the initial emergency vehicle dispatching. The prediction error of ±10 can basically meet the requirements of the initial dispatching. (3 The adjustment of emergency vehicle dispatching strategy can successfully bypassed road sections affected by accidents and shorten the response time.

  8. Security and Cloud Outsourcing Framework for Economic Dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Mushfiqur R.; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-01-01

    The computational complexity and problem sizes of power grid applications have increased significantly with the advent of renewable resources and smart grid technologies. The current paradigm of solving these issues consist of inhouse high performance computing infrastructures, which have drawbacks of high capital expenditures, maintenance, and limited scalability. Cloud computing is an ideal alternative due to its powerful computational capacity, rapid scalability, and high cost-effectiveness. A major challenge, however, remains in that the highly confidential grid data is susceptible for potential cyberattacks when outsourced to the cloud. In this work, a security and cloud outsourcing framework is developed for the Economic Dispatch (ED) linear programming application. As a result, the security framework transforms the ED linear program into a confidentiality-preserving linear program, that masks both the data and problem structure, thus enabling secure outsourcing to the cloud. Results show that for large grid test cases the performance gain and costs outperforms the in-house infrastructure.

  9. Preventable deaths following emergency medical dispatch - an audit study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel S; Johnsen, Søren; Hansen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    an ambulance with lights and sirens by the Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC).MethodsAn audit was performed by an external panel of experienced prehospital consultant anaesthesiologists. The panel focused exclusively on the role of the EMCC, assessing whether same-day deaths among 112 callers could...... have been prevented if the EMCC had assessed the situations as highly urgent. The panels¿ assessments were based on review of patient charts and voice-log recordings of 112 calls. All patient related material was reviewed by the audit panel and all cases where then scored as preventable, potentially......¿100 years) and 45.4% were female. The audit panel found no definitively preventable deaths; however, 18 (11.8%) of the analysed same-day deaths (0.02% of all non-high-acuity callers) were found to be potentially preventable. In 13 of these 18 cases, the dispatch protocol was either not used or not used...

  10. An improved harmony search algorithm for power economic load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br; Mariani, Viviana Cocco [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PPGEM, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: viviana.mariani@pucpr.br

    2009-10-15

    A meta-heuristic algorithm called harmony search (HS), mimicking the improvisation process of music players, has been recently developed. The HS algorithm has been successful in several optimization problems. The HS algorithm does not require derivative information and uses stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. In addition, the HS algorithm is simple in concept, few in parameters, and easy in implementation. This paper presents an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm based on exponential distribution for solving economic dispatch problems. A 13-unit test system with incremental fuel cost function taking into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed IHS method. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Furthermore, the generation costs of the IHS method are lower than those of the classical HS and other optimization algorithms reported in recent literature.

  11. An improved harmony search algorithm for power economic load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, PUCPR, Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mariani, Viviana Cocco [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Parana, PUCPR, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, PPGEM, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    A meta-heuristic algorithm called harmony search (HS), mimicking the improvisation process of music players, has been recently developed. The HS algorithm has been successful in several optimization problems. The HS algorithm does not require derivative information and uses stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. In addition, the HS algorithm is simple in concept, few in parameters, and easy in implementation. This paper presents an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm based on exponential distribution for solving economic dispatch problems. A 13-unit test system with incremental fuel cost function taking into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed IHS method. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Furthermore, the generation costs of the IHS method are lower than those of the classical HS and other optimization algorithms reported in recent literature. (author)

  12. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  13. Electricity market clearing with improved dispatch of stochastic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an electricity market that consists of a day-ahead and a balancing settlement, and includes a number of stochastic producers. We first introduce two reference procedures for scheduling and pricing energy in the day-ahead market: on the one hand, a conventional network...... attains higher market efficiency in expectation than the conventional day-ahead auction, it suffers from fundamental drawbacks with a view to its practical implementation. In particular, it requires flexible producers (those that make up for the lack or surplus of stochastic generation) to accept losses...... in some scenarios. Using a bilevel programming framework, we then show that the conventional auction, if combined with a suitable day-ahead dispatch of stochastic producers (generally different from their expected production), can substantially increase market efficiency and emulate the advantageous...

  14. An improved harmony search algorithm for power economic load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2009-01-01

    A meta-heuristic algorithm called harmony search (HS), mimicking the improvisation process of music players, has been recently developed. The HS algorithm has been successful in several optimization problems. The HS algorithm does not require derivative information and uses stochastic random search instead of a gradient search. In addition, the HS algorithm is simple in concept, few in parameters, and easy in implementation. This paper presents an improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm based on exponential distribution for solving economic dispatch problems. A 13-unit test system with incremental fuel cost function taking into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed IHS method. Numerical results show that the IHS method has good convergence property. Furthermore, the generation costs of the IHS method are lower than those of the classical HS and other optimization algorithms reported in recent literature.

  15. Joint energy and spinning reserve dispatching and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidinejad, M.; Song, Y.-H.; Javidi Dasht-Bayaz, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Unpredictable load demand variations, and also sudden generation interruption, may cause imbalance in power systems. To prevent any blackout and to reduce such total power imbalance, spinning reserve can provide electric power system ability to respond. Adequate amount of spinning reserve should be based on economy and risk as an optimal decision making. This paper uses Quadratic Programming (QP) method to solve Joint Energy and Spinning Reserve Dispatch (JESRD) problem and derives the optimal price of spinning reserve. In JESRD, Unserved Energy Cost (UEC) is considered as an Opportunity Cost of Spinning Reserve (OCSR). To distribute the System Reserve Requirements (SRR) among generation units, two different models, Fixed Reserve Percentage (FRP) or fixed allocation model and Non-Fixed Reserve Percentage (NFRP) or flexible allocation model has been investigated. Numerical results on a 5-bus test system and the 30-bus IEEE standard system, considering FRP and NFRP models are included. (author)

  16. Optimal dispatch strategy for the agile virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of large ratios of renewable energy into the existing power system is complicated by the inherent variability of production technologies, which harvest energy from wind, sun and waves. Fluctuations of renewable power production can be predicted to some extent, but the assumption...... of perfect prediction is unrealistic. This paper therefore introduces the Agile Virtual Power Plant. The Agile Virtual Power Plant assumes that the base load production planning based on best available knowledge is already given, so imbalances cannot be predicted. Consequently the Agile Virtual Power Plant...... attempts to preserve maneuverability (stay agile) rather than optimize performance according to predictions. In this paper the imbalance compensation problem for an Agile Virtual Power Plant is formulated. It is proved formally, that when local units are power and energy constrained integrators a dispatch...

  17. Energy and ancillary service dispatch through dynamic optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.L.; Costa, A. Simoes

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach based on dynamic optimal power flow (DOPF) to clear both energy and spinning reserve day-ahead markets. A competitive environment is assumed, where agents can offer active power for both demand supply and ancillary services. The DOPF jointly determines the optimal solutions for both energy dispatch and reserve allocation. A non-linear representation for the electrical network is employed, which is able to take transmission losses and power flow limits into account. An attractive feature of the proposed approach is that the final optimal solution will automatically meet physical constraints such as generating limits and ramp rate restrictions. In addition, the proposed framework allows the definition of multiple zones in the network for each time interval, in order to ensure a more adequate distribution of reserves throughout the power system. (author)

  18. Decision support system for outage management and automated crew dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; Mousavi, Mirrasoul

    2018-01-23

    A decision support system is provided for utility operations to assist with crew dispatch and restoration activities following the occurrence of a disturbance in a multiphase power distribution network, by providing a real-time visualization of possible location(s). The system covers faults that occur on fuse-protected laterals. The system uses real-time data from intelligent electronics devices coupled with other data sources such as static feeder maps to provide a complete picture of the disturbance event, guiding the utility crew to the most probable location(s). This information is provided in real-time, reducing restoration time and avoiding more costly and laborious fault location finding practices.

  19. Risk reserve constrained economic dispatch model with wind power penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Sun, H.; Peng, Y. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper develops a modified economic dispatch (ED) optimization model with wind power penetration. Due to the uncertain nature of wind speed, both overestimation and underestimation of the available wind power are compensated using the up and down spinning reserves. In order to determine both of these two reserve demands, the risk-based up and down spinning reserve constraints are presented considering not only the uncertainty of available wind power, but also the load forecast error and generator outage rates. The predictor-corrector primal-dual interior point method is utilized to solve the proposed ED model. Simulation results of a system with ten conventional generators and one wind farm demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (authors)

  20. Consumption Behavior Analytics-Aided Energy Forecasting and Dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jiang, Huaiguang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Kaiqing [University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Zhang, Jun Jason [University of Denver

    2017-08-17

    For decades, electricity customers have been treated as mere recipients of electricity in vertically integrated power systems. However, as customers have widely adopted distributed energy resources and other forms of customer participation in active dispatch (such as demand response) have taken shape, the value of mining knowledge from customer behavior patterns and using it for power system operation is increasing. Further, the variability of renewable energy resources has been considered a liability to the grid. However, electricity consumption has shown the same level of variability and uncertainty, and this is sometimes overlooked. This article investigates data analytics and forecasting methods to identify correlations between electricity consumption behavior and distributed photovoltaic (PV) output. The forecasting results feed into a predictive energy management system that optimizes energy consumption in the near future to balance customer demand and power system needs.

  1. Optimal dispatch in dynamic security constrained open power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.N.; David, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Power system security is a new concern in the competitive power market operation, because the integration of the system controller and the generation owner has been broken. This paper presents an approach for dynamic security constrained optimal dispatch in restructured power market environment. The transient energy margin using transient energy function (TEF) approach has been used to calculate the stability margin of the system and a hybrid method is applied to calculate the approximate unstable equilibrium point (UEP) that is used to calculate the exact UEP and thus, the energy margin using TEF. The case study results illustrated on two systems shows that the operating mechanisms are compatible with the new business environment. (author)

  2. Real-time Distributed Economic Dispatch forDistributed Generation Based on Multi-Agent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Kui; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    The distributed economic dispatch for distributed generation is formulated as a optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. An effective distributed approach based on multi-agent system is proposed for solving the economic dispatch problem in this paper. The proposed approach...... consists of two stages. In the first stage, an adjacency average allocation algorithm is proposed to ensure the generation-demand equality. In the second stage, a local replicator dynamics algorithm is applied to achieve nash equilibrium for the power dispatch game. The approach is implemented in a fully...

  3. Heat Transfer Search Algorithm for Non-convex Economic Dispatch Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Abhik; Das, Saborni; Basu, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents Heat Transfer Search (HTS) algorithm for the non-linear economic dispatch problem. HTS algorithm is based on the law of thermodynamics and heat transfer. The proficiency of the suggested technique has been disclosed on three dissimilar complicated economic dispatch problems with valve point effect; prohibited operating zone; and multiple fuels with valve point effect. Test results acquired from the suggested technique for the economic dispatch problem have been fitted to that acquired from other stated evolutionary techniques. It has been observed that the suggested HTS carry out superior solutions.

  4. Introducing systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR) in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS): implementation process and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, Fabrice; Fuchs, Vincent; Praz, Laurent; Vader, John-Paul

    2010-07-01

    In order to improve the quality of our Emergency Medical Services (EMS), to raise bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates and thereby meet what is becoming a universal standard in terms of quality of emergency services, we decided to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted or telephone-CPR (T-CPR) in our medical dispatch center, a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System. The aim of this article is to describe the implementation process, costs and results following the introduction of this new "quality" procedure. This was a prospective study. Over an 8-week period, our EMS dispatchers were given new procedures to provide T-CPR. We then collected data on all non-traumatic cardiac arrests within our state (Vaud, Switzerland) for the following 12 months. For each event, the dispatchers had to record in writing the reason they either ruled out cardiac arrest (CA) or did not propose T-CPR in the event they did suspect CA. All emergency call recordings were reviewed by the medical director of the EMS. The analysis of the recordings and the dispatchers' written explanations were then compared. During the 12-month study period, a total of 497 patients (both adults and children) were identified as having a non-traumatic cardiac arrest. Out of this total, 203 cases were excluded and 294 cases were eligible for T-CPR. Out of these eligible cases, dispatchers proposed T-CPR on 202 occasions (or 69% of eligible cases). They also erroneously proposed T-CPR on 17 occasions when a CA was wrongly identified (false positive). This represents 7.8% of all T-CPR. No costs were incurred to implement our study protocol and procedures. This study demonstrates it is possible, using a brief campaign of sensitization but without any specific training, to implement systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System such as our EMS that had no prior experience with systematic T-CPR. The results in terms of T-CPR delivery

  5. Microbial rhodopsins on leaf surfaces of terrestrial plants

    OpenAIRE

    Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Finkel, Omri M.; Glaser, Fabian; Sharon, Itai; Schneider, Ron; Post, Anton F.; Spudich, John L.; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A.; Iluz, David; Béjà, Oded; Belkin, Shimshon

    2011-01-01

    The above-ground surfaces of terrestrial plants, the phyllosphere, comprise the main interface between the terrestrial biosphere and solar radiation. It is estimated to host up to 1026 microbial cells that may intercept part of the photon flux impinging on the leaves. Based on 454-pyrosequencing-generated metagenome data, we report on the existence of diverse microbial rhodopsins in five distinct phyllospheres from tamarisk (Tamarix nilotica), soybean (Glycine max), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis t...

  6. "SOLAR MAGNETIZED ""TORNADOES:"" RELATION TO FILAMENTS"

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yang; Wang, Tongjiang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Gan, Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Solar magnetized "tornadoes", a phenomenon discovered in the solar atmosphere, appear as tornado-like structures in the corona but root in the photosphere. Like other solar phenomena, solar tornadoes are a feature of magnetized plasma and therefore differ distinctly from terrestrial tornadoes. Here we report the first analysis of solar "tornadoes" {Two papers which focused on different aspect of solar tornadoes were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters (Li et al. 2012) and Nature (W...

  7. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  8. Solar influences on global change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Global Change, National Research Council

    .... Important advances over the past decade in our knowledge of the Sun and of the terrestrial responses to solar variability provides the basis for answering this question with unprecedented surety...

  9. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  10. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  11. Solar-geophysical data number 584, April 1993. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for March, February 1993, and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1993-04-01

    Contents: data for march 1993: solar-terrestrial environment; iuwds alert periods (advance and worldwide); solar activity indices; solar flares; solar radio emission; stanford mean solar magnetic field; data for february 1993: solar active regions; sudden ionospheric disturbances; solar radio spectral observations; cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor; geomagnetic indices. This research is applicable to studies in communications, environmental science,and solar energy

  12. Resource Symmetric Dispatch Model for Internet of Things on Advanced Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Business applications in advanced logistics service are highly concurrent. In this paper, we propose a resource symmetric dispatch model for the concurrent and cooperative tasks of the Internet of Things. In the model, the terminals receive and deliver commands, data, and information with mobile networks, wireless networks, and sensor networks. The data and information are classified and processed by the clustering servers in the cloud service platform. The cluster service, resource dispatch, and load balance are cooperative for management and monitoring of every application case during the logistics service lifecycle. In order to support the high performance of cloud service, resource symmetric dispatch algorithm among clustering servers and load balancing method among multi-cores in one server, including NIO (Non-blocking Input/Output and RMI (Remote Method Invocation are utilized to dispatch the cooperation of computation and service resources.

  13. A Hybrid Genetic Programming Algorithm for Automated Design of Dispatching Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Su; Mei, Yi; Xue, Bing; Zhang, Mengjie

    2018-06-04

    Designing effective dispatching rules for production systems is a difficult and timeconsuming task if it is done manually. In the last decade, the growth of computing power, advanced machine learning, and optimisation techniques has made the automated design of dispatching rules possible and automatically discovered rules are competitive or outperform existing rules developed by researchers. Genetic programming is one of the most popular approaches to discovering dispatching rules in the literature, especially for complex production systems. However, the large heuristic search space may restrict genetic programming from finding near optimal dispatching rules. This paper develops a new hybrid genetic programming algorithm for dynamic job shop scheduling based on a new representation, a new local search heuristic, and efficient fitness evaluators. Experiments show that the new method is effective regarding the quality of evolved rules. Moreover, evolved rules are also significantly smaller and contain more relevant attributes.

  14. Solving Multi-Pollutant Emission Dispatch Problem Using Computational Intelligence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azzammudin Rahmat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic dispatch is a crucial process conducted by the utilities to correctly determine the satisfying amount of power to be generated and distributed to the consumers. During the process, the utilities also consider pollutant emission as the consequences of fossil-fuel consumption. Fossil-fuel includes petroleum, coal, and natural gas; each has its unique chemical composition of pollutants i.e. sulphur oxides (SOX, nitrogen oxides (NOX and carbon oxides (COX. This paper presents multi-pollutant emission dispatch problem using computational intelligence technique. In this study, a novel emission dispatch technique is formulated to determine the amount of the pollutant level. It utilizes a pre-developed optimization technique termed as differential evolution immunized ant colony optimization (DEIANT for the emission dispatch problem. The optimization results indicated high level of COX level, regardless of any type of fossil fuel consumed.

  15. The large-scale integration of wind generation: Impacts on price, reliability and dispatchable conventional suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCormack, John; Hollis, Aidan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effects of large-scale integration of wind powered electricity generation in a deregulated energy-only market on loads (in terms of electricity prices and supply reliability) and dispatchable conventional power suppliers. Hourly models of wind generation time series, load and resultant residual demand are created. From these a non-chronological residual demand duration curve is developed that is combined with a probabilistic model of dispatchable conventional generator availability, a model of an energy-only market with a price cap, and a model of generator costs and dispatch behavior. A number of simulations are performed to evaluate the effect on electricity prices, overall reliability of supply, the ability of a dominant supplier acting strategically to profitably withhold supplies, and the fixed cost recovery of dispatchable conventional power suppliers at different levels of wind generation penetration. Medium and long term responses of the market and/or regulator in the long term are discussed.

  16. Medical dispatchers recognise substantial amount of acute stroke during emergency calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2016-01-01

    without an inappropriate amount of false positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: We report an overall high recognition of stroke by medical dispatchers. A final diagnosis of TIA, compared to ICH, was positively associated with recognition of acute stroke. Emergency medical dispatchers serve as the essential first...... stroke are therefore critical in organising emergency stroke care. We aimed to describe the sensitivity and positive predictive value of medical dispatchers' ability to recognise acute stroke during emergency calls, and to identify factors associated with recognition. METHODS: This was an observational...... study of 2653 consecutive unselected patients with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All admitted through the Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, during a 2-year study period (2012-2014). Final diagnoses were matched with dispatch codes from the Emergency Medical...

  17. Adaptive Differential Evolution Approach for Constrained Economic Power Dispatch with Prohibited Operating Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif HAMOUDA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic power dispatch (EPD is one of the main tools for optimal operation and planning of modern power systems. To solve effectively the EPD problem, most of the conventional calculus methods rely on the assumption that the fuel cost characteristic of a generating unit is a continuous and convex function, resulting in inaccurate dispatch. This paper presents the design and application of efficient adaptive differential evolution (ADE algorithm for the solution of the economic power dispatch problem, where the non-convex characteristics of the generators, such us prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits of the practical generator operation are considered. The 26 bus benchmark test system with 6 units having prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits was used for testing and validation purposes. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problem.

  18. Joint energy and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    proposed for solving the multi-product, multi-area market dispatch problem with ... In a competitive environment, several new concepts are applied to the ...... Combining of chaotic differential evolution and quadratic programming for economic.

  19. Dispatching demand response transit service maximizing productivity and service quality guidebook : final report, March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ability of transit agencies to staff dispatch effectively and use technology to its full advantage is critical : in responding proactively as service changes occur and in making sound routing decisions. Sound routing : decisions result in improve...

  20. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : state of Utah final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Utah. The document discusses evaluation findings in the followin...

  1. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Bus Dispatching Policy for Timed Transfers on Signalized Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lin, Guey-Shii

    2007-12-01

    The major work of this study is to formulate the system cost functions and to integrate the bus dispatching policy with signal control. The integrated model mainly includes the flow dispersion model for links, signal control model for nodes, and dispatching control model for transfer terminals. All such models are inter-related for transfer operations in one-center transit network. The integrated model that combines dispatching policies with flexible signal control modes can be applied to assess the effectiveness of transfer operations. It is found that, if bus arrival information is reliable, an early dispatching decision made at the mean bus arrival times is preferable. The costs for coordinated operations with slack times are relatively low at the optimal common headway when applying adaptive route control. Based on such findings, a threshold function of bus headway for justifying an adaptive signal route control under various time values of auto drivers is developed.

  3. A Method for Robust Strategic Railway Dispatch Applied to a Single Track Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2013-01-01

    and speed changes to selected trains consume network capacity; but incremental speed increases of these trains, combined with appropriate dispatch strategies, are beneficial to the network as a whole. Further, specific siding enhancements demonstrate measureable improvements in network flow....

  4. Multi-area economic dispatch with tie-line constraints employing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The economic dispatch problem is frequently solved without considering ... programming algorithm was proposed for the MAED solution with tie-line constraints ..... are the difference between two randomly chosen parameter vectors, a concept.

  5. Dispatcher's monitoring systems of coal preparation processes. Systemy dyspozytorskiej kontroli procesow wzbogacania wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierpisz, S [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland); Cierpisz, T; Glowacki, D; Puczylowski, T [Min-Tech Sp. z o.o., Katowice (Poland)

    1994-08-01

    The computer-based control and dispatcher's monitoring systems for coal preparation plants are described. The article refers to the local automation systems of coal blending production, control systems of heavy media separation process and dispatcher's visualization systems of technological lines operation. The effects of implementation of the above mentioned systems as well as some experiences gained at the designing and operational stages are given. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Resource Symmetric Dispatch Model for Internet of Things on Advanced Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Guofeng Qin; Lisheng Wang; Qiyan Li

    2016-01-01

    Business applications in advanced logistics service are highly concurrent. In this paper, we propose a resource symmetric dispatch model for the concurrent and cooperative tasks of the Internet of Things. In the model, the terminals receive and deliver commands, data, and information with mobile networks, wireless networks, and sensor networks. The data and information are classified and processed by the clustering servers in the cloud service platform. The cluster service, resource dispatch,...

  7. Modeling work of the dispatching service of high-rise building as queuing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina; Dement'eva, Anastasiya

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of calculating the performance indicators of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building as a queuing system with an unlimited queue. The calculation was carried out for three models: with a single control room and brigade of service, with a single control room and a specialized service, with several dispatch centers and specialized services. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the structural scheme of the organization of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building on the amount of operating costs and the time of processing and fulfilling applications. The problems of high-rise construction and their impact on the complication of exploitation are analyzed. The composition of exploitation activities of high-rise buildings is analyzed. The relevance of the study is justified by the need to review the role of dispatch services in the structure of management of the quality of buildings. Dispatching service from the lower level of management of individual engineering systems becomes the main link in the centralized automated management of the exploitation of high-rise buildings. With the transition to market relations, the criterion of profitability at the organization of the dispatching service becomes one of the main parameters of the effectiveness of its work. A mathematical model for assessing the efficiency of the dispatching service on a set of quality of service indicators is proposed. The structure of operating costs is presented. The algorithm of decision-making is given when choosing the optimal structural scheme of the dispatching service of a high-rise building.

  8. Dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Shibuta, Hidetoshi; Hasegawa, Manabu; Nagata, Takashi

    2018-04-19

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical to the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, it is unknown whether bystander CPR with or without dispatcher assistance is more effective or why. Thus, we evaluated the association between dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR (vs. bystander CPR without dispatcher assistance) and survival of patients with OHCA. This is a retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study using national registry data for all OHCAs. We performed a propensity analysis. Patients with OHCA of cardiac origin were 18-100 years of age and received bystander chest compression in Japan between 2005 and 2014. Outcome measures were bystander rescue breathing, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before hospital arrival, and survival and Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 or 2 at 1 month after the event. During the study period, 1,176,351 OHCAs occurred, and 87,400 cases met the inclusion criteria. Among propensity-matched patients, a negative association was observed between dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR and outcome measures in a fully-adjusted model [odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for ROSC = 0.87 (0.78-0.97), P < 0.05; OR (95% CI) for 1-month survival = 0.81 (0.65-1.00), P < 0.05; OR (95% CI) for CPC 1 or 2 = 0.64 (0.43-0.93), P < 0.05]. OR of survival for dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR tended to decrease as the emergency medical services response time increased. Survival benefit was less for dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR with dispatcher assistance than without dispatcher assistance. Low quality is hypothesized to be the cause of the reduced benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Registered nurses' experiences of their decision-making at an Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Bosse; Svedlund, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    To describe registered nurses' experiences at an Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre. It is important that ambulances are urgently directed to patients who are in need of immediate help and of quick transportation to a hospital. Because resources are limited, Emergency Medical Dispatch centres cannot send ambulances with high priority to all callers. The efficiency of the system is therefore dependent on triage. Nurses worldwide are involved in patient triage, both before the patient's arrival to the hospital and in the subsequent emergency care. Ambulance dispatching is traditionally a duty for operators at Emergency Medical Dispatch centres, and in Sweden this duty has become increasingly performed by registered nurses. A qualitative design was used for this study. Fifteen registered nurses with experience at Emergency Medical Dispatch centres were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe the content of their work and their experiences. They also described the most challenging and difficult situations according to the critical incidence technique. Content analysis was used. Two themes emerged during the analysis: 'Having a profession with opportunities and obstacles' and 'Meeting serious and difficult situations', with eight sub-themes. The results showed that the decisions to dispatch ambulances were both challenging and difficult. Difficulties included conveying medical advice without seeing the patient, teaching cardio-pulmonary resuscitation via telephone and dealing with intoxicated and aggressive callers. Conflicts with colleagues and ambulance crews as well as fear of making wrong decisions were also mentioned. Work at Emergency Medical Dispatch centres is a demanding but stimulating duty for registered nurses. Great benefits can be achieved using experienced triage nurses, including increased patient safety and better use of medical resources. Improved internal support systems at Emergency Medical Dispatch centres and striving for a blame

  10. An Overview of the Automated Dispatch Controller Algorithms in the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Three automatic dispatch modes have been added to the battery model within the System Adviser Model. These controllers have been developed to perform peak shaving in an automated fashion, providing users with a way to see the benefit of reduced demand charges without manually programming a complicated dispatch control. A flexible input option allows more advanced interaction with the automated controller. This document will describe the algorithms in detail and present brief results on its use and limitations.

  11. A spatially and temporally resolved model of the electricity grid – Economic vs environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model is developed. • MCP and average price of electricity are determined for 2050 base case. • Economic and environmental dispatch strategies are assessed. • Environmental dispatch results in significant NO_x reduction and higher prices. • A combination of economic and environmental strategies is the preferred method. - Abstract: Substantial changes need to occur in the electricity generation sector in order to address greenhouse gas and urban air quality goals. These goals, combined with increasing energy prices, have led to elevated interest in alternative, low to zero carbon and pollutant emission technologies in this sector. The challenge is to assess the impacts of various technologies, policies, and market practices in order to develop a roadmap to meet energy and environmental goals. To this end, a spatially and temporally resolved resource dispatch model is developed that simulates an electricity market while taking into account physical constraints associated with various components of an electricity grid. Multiple technology simulation modules are developed to provide inputs to the model. The model is used to design a market-based grid, and to develop and evaluate different dispatch strategies. To maintain the system cost at acceptable levels and reduce emissions, the results reveal that the best approach is a combination of economic and environmental dispatch strategies. The methodology and the tools developed provide a means to examine various aspects of future scenarios and their impacts on different sectors, and can be used for both decision making and planning.

  12. Dispatching strategies for coordinating environmental awareness and risk perception in wind power integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jingliang; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng; Qian, Shuqu; Zhang, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Wind power plays a significant role in economic and environmental operation of electric power system. Meanwhile, the variability and uncertainty characteristics of wind power generation bring technical and economical challenges for power system operation. In order to harmonize the relationship between environmental protection and risk management in power dispatching, this paper presents a stochastic dynamic economic emission dispatch model combining risk perception with environmental awareness of decision-makers by following the principle of chance-constrained programming. In this power dispatching model, the description of wind power uncertainty is derived from the probability statistic character of wind speed. Constraints-handling techniques as a heuristic strategy are embedded into non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. In addition, more information is digested from the Pareto optimum solution set by cluster analysis and fuzzy set theory. The simulation results eventually demonstrate that the increase of the share of wind power output will bring higher risk, though it is beneficial for economic cost and environmental protection. Since different risk perception and environmental awareness can possibly lead to diverse non-dominated solutions, decision-makers may choose an appropriate dispatching strategy according to their specific risk perception and environmental awareness. - Highlights: • A dispatch model combining environmental awareness and risk perception is proposed. • The uncertain characteristic of available wind power is determined. • Constraints-handling techniques are embedded into genetic algorithm. • An appropriate decision-making method is designed. • Dispatching strategies can be coordinated by the proposed model and method.

  13. A Distributed Robust Dispatch Approach for Interconnected Systems with a High Proportion of Wind Power Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed robust dispatch approach to solve the economic dispatch problem of the interconnected systems with a high proportion of wind power penetration. First of all, the basic principle of synchronous alternating direction method of multipliers (SADMM is introduced to solve the economic dispatch problem of the two interconnected regions. Next, the polyhedron set of the robust optimization method is utilized to describe the wind power output. To adjust the conservativeness of the polyhedron set, an adjustment factor of robust conservativeness is introduced. Subsequently, considering the operation characteristics of the DC tie line between the interconnected regions, an economic dispatch model with a high proportion of wind power penetration is established and parallel iteration based on SADMM is used to solve the model. In each iteration, the optimized power of DC tie lines is exchanged between the regions without requiring the participation of the superior dispatch center. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is verified by the examples of the 2-area 6-node interconnected system and the interconnection of several modified New England 39-node systems. The results show that the proposed model can meet the needs of the independent dispatch of regional power grids, effectively deal with the uncertainty of wind power output, and maximize the wind power consumption under the condition of ensuring the safe operation of the interconnected systems.

  14. Principles of solar engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D Yogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Solar Energy ConversionGlobal Energy Needs and ResourcesSolar EnergyEnergy StorageEconomics of Solar SystemsSummary of RE ResourcesForecast of Future Energy MixReferencesFundamentals of Solar RadiationThe Physics of the Sun and Its Energy TransportThermal Radiation FundamentalsSun-Earth Geometric RelationshipSolar RadiationEstimation of Terrestrial Solar RadiationModels Based on Long-Term Measured Horizontal Solar RadiationMeasurement of Solar RadiationSolar Radiation Mapping Using Satellite DataReferencesSuggested ReadingsSolar Thermal CollectorsRadiative Properties and Characteristics of MaterialsFlat-Plate CollectorsTubular Solar Energy CollectorsExperimental Testing of CollectorsConcentrating Solar CollectorsParabolic Trough ConcentratorCompound-Curvature Solar ConcentratorsCentral Receiver CollectorFresnel Reflectors and LensesSolar Concentrator SummaryReferencesSuggested ReadingThermal Energy Storage and TransportThermal Energy StorageTypes of TESDesign of Storage SystemEnergy Transport ...

  15. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  16. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  17. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097

  18. EIA model documentation: Electricity market module - electricity fuel dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM) as it was used for EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1997. It replaces previous documentation dated March 1994 and subsequent yearly update revisions. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This document serves four purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the model for reviewers and potential users of the EFD including energy experts at the Energy Information Administration (EIA), other Federal agencies, state energy agencies, private firms such as utilities and consulting firms, and non-profit groups such as consumer and environmental groups. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation which details model enhancements that were undertaken for AE097 and since the previous documentation. Last, because the major use of the EFD is to develop forecasts, this documentation explains the calculations, major inputs and assumptions which were used to generate the AE097.

  19. Reactive power dispatch considering voltage stability with seeker optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Chaohua; Chen, Weirong; Zhang, Xuexia [The School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhu, Yunfang [Department of Computer and Communication Engineering, E' mei Campus, Southwest Jiaotong University, E' mei 614202 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) has a growing impact on secure and economical operation of power systems. This issue is well known as a non-linear, multi-modal and multi-objective optimization problem where global optimization techniques are required in order to avoid local minima. In the last decades, computation intelligence-based techniques such as genetic algorithms (GAs), differential evolution (DE) algorithms and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms, etc., have often been used for this aim. In this work, a seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) based method is proposed for ORPD considering static voltage stability and voltage deviation. The SOA is based on the concept of simulating the act of human searching where search direction is based on the empirical gradient by evaluating the response to the position changes and step length is based on uncertainty reasoning by using a simple Fuzzy rule. The algorithm's performance is studied with comparisons of two versions of GAs, three versions of DE algorithms and four versions of PSO algorithms on the IEEE 57 and 118-bus power systems. The simulation results show that the proposed approach performed better than the other listed algorithms and can be efficiently used for the ORPD problem. (author)

  20. Static economic dispatch incorporating wind farm using Flower pollination algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Velamuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is one of the clean and cheapest forms of energy which helps in minimizing the carbon foot print. Due to the less environmental impact and economic issues integration of renewable energy sources with the existing network gained attention. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is analysed in a power system network using static economic dispatch (SED. The wind energy is integrated with the existing thermal systems. Here, the generation scheduling is optimized using Flower pollination algorithm (FPA due to its robustness in solving nonlinear problems. Integration of wind power in the existing system increases the complexity due to its stochastic nature. Weibull distribution function is used for solving the stochastic nature of wind. Scenarios without and with wind power penetration are discussed in detail. The analysis is carried out by considering the losses and installing the wind farm at different locations in the system. The proposed methodology is tested and validated on a standard IEEE 30 bus system.

  1. Development of a dispatch model of the European power system for coupling with a long-term foresight energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Renewable sources of electricity production are strongly increasing in many parts of the world. The production costs are going down quickly, thus accelerating the deployment of new solar and wind electricity generation. In the long-term, these variable sources of electricity could represent a high share of the power system. However, long-term foresight energy models have difficulties describing precisely the integration challenges of Variable Renewable Energy Sources (VRES) such as wind or solar. They just do not represent the short-term technical constraints of the power sector. The objective of this paper is to show a new approach of the representation of the challenges of variability in the long-term foresight energy model POLES (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We develop a short-term optimization model for the power sector operation, EUCAD (European Unit Commitment and Dispatch) and we couple it to POLES year after year. The direct coupling, with bi-directional exchanges of information, brings technical precision to the long-term coherence of energy scenarios. (author)

  2. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  3. Paediatric medical emergency calls to a Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre: a retrospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kasper; Mikkelsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Gitte; Zwisler, Stine Thorhauge

    2018-01-05

    Little is known regarding paediatric medical emergency calls to Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMDC). This study aimed to investigate these calls, specifically the medical issues leading to them and the pre-hospital units dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We performed a retrospective, observational study on paediatric medical emergency calls managed by the EMDC in the Region of Southern Denmark in February 2016. We reviewed audio recordings of emergency calls and ambulance records to identify calls concerning patients ≤ 15 years. We examined EMDC dispatch records to establish how the medical issues leading to these calls were classified and which pre-hospital units were dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics. Of a total of 7052 emergency calls in February 2016, 485 (6.9%) concerned patients ≤ 15 years. We excluded 19 and analysed the remaining 466. The reported medical issues were commonly classified as: "seizures" (22.1%), "sick child" (18.9%) and "unclear problem" (12.9%). The overall most common pre-hospital response was immediate dispatch of an ambulance with sirens and lights with a supporting physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (56.4%). The classification of medical issues and the dispatched pre-hospital units varied with patient age. We believe our results might help focus the paediatric training received by emergency medical dispatch staff on commonly encountered medical issues, such as the symptoms and conditions pertaining to the symptom categories "seizures" and "sick child". Furthermore, the results could prove useful in hypothesis generation for future studies examining paediatric medical emergency calls. Almost 7% of all calls concerned patients ≤ 15 years. Medical issues pertaining to the symptom categories "seizures", "sick child" and "unclear problem" were common and the calls commonly resulted in urgent pre-hospital responses.

  4. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2007-05-15

    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  5. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. Introduction into a two-dimensional model of the photochemistry of the stratosphere of precipitations of galactic and solar protons: case of the present terrestrial magnetic field and of field reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brard, D.

    1982-11-01

    In the aim of studying the climatic variations related to the reversal of the geomagnetic field, an analysis has been made of the effects of precipitations of galactic and solar protons, on oxide of nitrogen (NOsub(x) and NO) and ozone. Modifications are introduced into the one- and two-dimensional models which take into account the structure of the magnetic field. In situ measurements after the solar event of August 1972 enable changes due to the solar cycles to be introduced and the use of a 2D model to be justified [fr

  7. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  8. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  9. Hospital-Confirmed Acute Myocardial Infarction: Prehospital Identification Using the Medical Priority Dispatch System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Jeff J; Gardett, Isabel; Scott, Greg; Fivaz, Conrad; Barron, Tracey; Broadbent, Meghan; Olola, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Early recognition of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can increase the patient's likelihood of survival. As the first point of contact for patients accessing medical care through emergency services, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) represent the earliest potential identification point for AMIs. The objective of the study was to determine how AMI cases were coded and prioritized at the dispatch point, and also to describe the distribution of these cases by patient age and gender. Hypothesis/Problem No studies currently exist that describe the EMD's ability to correctly triage AMIs into Advanced Life Support (ALS) response tiers. The retrospective descriptive study utilized data from three sources: emergency medical dispatch, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency departments (EDs)/hospitals. The primary outcome measure was the distributions of AMI cases, as categorized by Chief Complaint Protocol, dispatch priority code and level, and patient age and gender. The EMS and ED/hospital data came from the Utah Department of Health (UDoH), Salt Lake City, Utah. Dispatch data came from two emergency communication centers covering the entirety of Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County, Utah. Overall, 89.9% of all the AMIs (n=606) were coded in one of the three highest dispatch priority levels, all of which call for ALS response (called CHARLIE, DELTA, and ECHO in the studied system). The percentage of AMIs significantly increased for patients aged 35 years and older, and varied significantly by gender, dispatch level, and chief complaint. A total of 85.7% of all deaths occurred among patients aged 55 years and older, and 88.9% of the deaths were handled in the ALS-recommended priority levels. Acute myocardial infarctions may present as a variety of clinical symptoms, and the study findings demonstrated that more than one-half were identified as having chief complaints of Chest Pain or Breathing Problems at the dispatch point, followed by Sick

  10. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  11. Dispatcher instruction of chest compression-only CPR increases actual provision of bystander CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Tomonari; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Sakai, Tomohiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    A preceding randomized controlled trial demonstrated that chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction by dispatcher was more effective to increase bystander CPR than conventional CPR instruction. However, the actual condition of implementation of each type of dispatcher instruction (chest compression-only CPR [CCCPR] or conventional CPR with rescue breathing) and provision of bystander CPR in real prehospital settings has not been sufficiently investigated. This registry prospectively enrolled patients aged =>18 years suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of non-traumatic causes before emergency-medical-service (EMS) arrival, who were considered as target subjects of dispatcher instruction, resuscitated by EMS personnel, and transported to medical institutions in Osaka, Japan from January 2005 through December 2012. The primary outcome measure was provision of CPR by a bystander. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors that were potentially associated with provision of bystander CPR. Among 37,283 target subjects of dispatcher instruction, 5743 received CCCPR instruction and 13,926 received conventional CPR instruction. The proportion of CCCPR instruction increased from 5.7% in 2005 to 25.6% in 2012 (p for trend bystander CPR more frequently than conventional CPR instruction group (70.0% versus 62.1%, pbystander CPR compared with conventional CPR instruction (adjusted odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55). CCCPR dispatcher instruction among adult OHCA patients significantly increased the actual provision of bystander CPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  13. A markov decision process model for the optimal dispatch of military medical evacuation assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keneally, Sean K; Robbins, Matthew J; Lunday, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    We develop a Markov decision process (MDP) model to examine aerial military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) dispatch policies in a combat environment. The problem of deciding which aeromedical asset to dispatch to each service request is complicated by the threat conditions at the service locations and the priority class of each casualty event. We assume requests for MEDEVAC support arrive sequentially, with the location and the priority of each casualty known upon initiation of the request. The United States military uses a 9-line MEDEVAC request system to classify casualties as being one of three priority levels: urgent, priority, and routine. Multiple casualties can be present at a single casualty event, with the highest priority casualty determining the priority level for the casualty event. Moreover, an armed escort may be required depending on the threat level indicated by the 9-line MEDEVAC request. The proposed MDP model indicates how to optimally dispatch MEDEVAC helicopters to casualty events in order to maximize steady-state system utility. The utility gained from servicing a specific request depends on the number of casualties, the priority class for each of the casualties, and the locations of both the servicing ambulatory helicopter and casualty event. Instances of the dispatching problem are solved using a relative value iteration dynamic programming algorithm. Computational examples are used to investigate optimal dispatch policies under different threat situations and armed escort delays; the examples are based on combat scenarios in which United States Army MEDEVAC units support ground operations in Afghanistan.

  14. An electric vehicle dispatch module for demand-side energy participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bowen; Yao, Feng; Littler, Tim; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time measurement and assessment to calculate EV initial state-of-charge (SOC). • Flexible EV charging allocation using measured available time duration (ATD). • Owner participation using mobile phone apps and a new EV dispatch module. • Online algorithm for real-time calculation of maximum and minimum adjustable limits. • Business-trading models with data security, trending and commercial impacts of EV. - Abstract: The penetration of the electric vehicle (EV) has increased rapidly in recent years mainly as a consequence of advances in transport technology and power electronics and in response to global pressure to reduce carbon emissions and limit fossil fuel consumption. It is widely acknowledged that inappropriate provision and dispatch of EV charging can lead to negative impacts on power system infrastructure. This paper considers EV requirements and proposes a module which uses owner participation, through mobile phone apps and on-board diagnostics II (OBD-II), for scheduled vehicle charging. A multi-EV reference and single-EV real-time response (MRS2R) online algorithm is proposed to calculate the maximum and minimum adjustable limits of necessary capacity, which forms part of decision-making support in power system dispatch. The proposed EV dispatch module is evaluated in a case study and the influence of the mobile app, EV dispatch trending and commercial impact is explored.

  15. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  16. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  17. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  18. Multi-Fluid Geo-Energy Systems for Bulk and Thermal Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Integrating renewable energy sources into electricity grids requires advances in bulk and thermal energy storage technologies, which are currently expensive and have limited capacity. We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources. CO2 captured from fossil-energy systems and N2 separated from air are injected into permeable formations to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide additional working fluids. These enable efficient fluid recirculation, heat extraction, and power conversion, while adding operational flexibility. Our approach can also store and dispatch thermal energy, which can be used to levelize concentrating solar power and mitigate variability of wind and solar power. This may allow low-carbon, base-load power to operate at full capacity, with the stored excess energy being available to addresss diurnal and seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. Concentric rings of horizontal injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, N2, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Supercritical CO2 and N2 function as cushion gases to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity. Injecting CO2 and N2 displaces large quantities of brine, reducing the use of fresh water. Geologic CO2 storage is a crucial option for reducing CO2 emissions, but valuable uses for CO2 are needed to justify capture costs. The initial "charging" of our system requires permanently isolating large volumes of CO2 from the atmosphere and thus creates a market for its disposal. Our approach is designed for locations where a permeable

  19. An Experimental Analysis on Dispatching Rules for the Train Platforming Problem in Busy Complex Passenger Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongfang Zeng

    2017-09-01

    platforming problem (TPP by using mixed integer linear programming and job shop scheduling theory. First, the operation procedures and scheduled time adjustment costs of different train types specific to busy complex passenger stations are explicitly represented. Second, a multi-criteria scheduling model (MCS for TPP without earliness and tardiness time window (ETTW and a time window scheduling model (TWS with ETTW for TPP are proposed. Third, various dispatching rules were designed by incorporating the dispatcher experiences with modern scheduling theory and a rule-based metaheuristic to solve the above model is presented. With solution improvement strategies analogous to those used in practice by dispatchers, the realistic size problems in acceptable time can be solved.

  20. Neural-net based real-time economic dispatch for thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.; Milosevic, B. [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems; Calovic, M. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper proposes the application of artificial neural networks to real-time optimal generation dispatch of thermal units. The approach can take into account the operational requirements and network losses. The proposed economic dispatch uses an artificial neural network (ANN) for generation of penalty factors, depending on the input generator powers and identified system load change. Then, a few additional iterations are performed within an iterative computation procedure for the solution of coordination equations, by using reference-bus penalty-factors derived from the Newton-Raphson load flow. A coordination technique for environmental and economic dispatch of pure thermal systems, based on the neural-net theory for simplified solution algorithms and improved man-machine interface is introduced. Numerical results on two test examples show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently and accurately develop optimal and feasible generator output trajectories, by applying neural-net forecasts of system load patterns.

  1. Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S. N.; Armitage, P. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Armstrong, J. C.; Mandell, A. M.; Selsis, F.; West, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    There exists strong circumstantial evidence from their eccentric orbits that most of the known extra-solar planetary systems are the survivors of violent dynamical instabilities. Here we explore the effect of giant planet instabilities on the formation and survival of terrestrial planets. We numerically simulate the evolution of planetary systems around Sun-like stars that include three components: (i) an inner disk of planetesimals and planetary embryos; (ii) three giant planets at Jupiter-Saturn distances; and (iii) an outer disk of planetesimals comparable to estimates of the primitive Kuiper belt. We calculate the dust production and spectral energy distribution of each system by assuming that each planetesimal particle represents an ensemble of smaller bodies in collisional equilibrium. Our main result is a strong correlation between the evolution of the inner and outer parts of planetary systems, i.e. between the presence of terrestrial planets and debris disks. Strong giant planet instabilities - that produce very eccentric surviving planets - destroy all rocky material in the system, including fully-formed terrestrial planets if the instabilities occur late, and also destroy the icy planetesimal population. Stable or weakly unstable systems allow terrestrial planets to accrete in their inner regions and significant dust to be produced in their outer regions, detectable at mid-infrared wavelengths as debris disks. Stars older than ~100 Myr with bright cold dust emission (in particular at λ ~ 70 μm) signpost dynamically calm environments that were conducive to efficient terrestrial accretion. Such emission is present around ~16% of billion-year old Solar-type stars. Our simulations yield numerous secondary results: 1) the typical eccentricities of as-yet undetected terrestrial planets are ~0.1 but there exists a novel class of terrestrial planet system whose single planet undergoes large amplitude oscillations in orbital eccentricity and inclination; 2) by

  2. Optimal Dispatch of Unreliable Electric Grid-Connected Diesel Generator-Battery Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Kang, L.

    2015-06-01

    Diesel generator (DG)-battery power systems are often adopted by telecom operators, especially in semi-urban and rural areas of developing countries. Unreliable electric grids (UEG), which have frequent and lengthy outages, are peculiar to these regions. DG-UEG-battery power system is an important kind of hybrid power system. System dispatch is one of the key factors to hybrid power system integration. In this paper, the system dispatch of a DG-UEG-lead acid battery power system is studied with the UEG of relatively ample electricity in Central African Republic (CAR) and UEG of poor electricity in Congo Republic (CR). The mathematical models of the power system and the UEG are studied for completing the system operation simulation program. The net present cost (NPC) of the power system is the main evaluation index. The state of charge (SOC) set points and battery bank charging current are the optimization variables. For the UEG in CAR, the optimal dispatch solution is SOC start and stop points 0.4 and 0.5 that belong to the Micro-Cycling strategy and charging current 0.1 C. For the UEG in CR, the optimal dispatch solution is of 0.1 and 0.8 that belongs to the Cycle-Charging strategy and 0.1 C. Charging current 0.1 C is suitable for both grid scenarios compared to 0.2 C. It makes the dispatch strategy design easier in commercial practices that there are a few very good candidate dispatch solutions with system NPC values close to that of the optimal solution for both UEG scenarios in CAR and CR.

  3. A Cloud Based Mobile Dispatching System with Built-in Social CRM Component: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile dispatching applications have become popular for at least two major reasons. The first reason is a more mobile-centric usage pattern, where users relate to apps for fulfilling different needs that they have. In this respect, a vehicle dispatching application for mobile phones is perceived as a modern way of booking a vehicle. The second reason has to do with the advantages that this method has over traditional dispatching systems, such as being able to see the vehicle approaching on a map, being able to rate a driver and the most importantly spurring customer retention. The taxi dispatching business, one of the classes of dispatching businesses, tends to be a medium to lower class fidelity service, where users mostly consider the closest taxi as opposed to quality, which is regarded as being at a relatively consistent level. We propose a new approach for the taxi ordering application , a mobile dispatching system, which allows for a more engaged user base and offers fidelity rewards that are used to enhance the customer retention level based on a built in social customer relationship management (CRM component. With this approach, we argue that in a business world which is shifting from a consumer-centric marketing to a human-centric model, this apps will allows taxi businesses to better interact with their clients in a more direct and responsible manner. Also this distributed system helps taxi drivers, which can receive orders directly from their clients and will be able to benefit from offering quality services as they can get higher ratings.

  4. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubo Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of new and renewable energy, incorporating variable adjustable power elements on the demand side is of particular interest. The utilization of batteries as flexible loads is a hot research topic. Lithium-ion batteries are key components in electric vehicles (EVs in terms of capital cost, mass and size. They are retired after around 5 years of service, but still retain up to 80% of their nominal capacity. Disposal of waste batteries will become a significant issue for the automotive industry in the years to come. This work proposes the use of the second life of these batteries as flexible loads to participate in the economic power dispatch. The characteristics of second life batteries (SLBs are varied and diverse, requiring a new optimization strategy for power dispatch at the system level. In this work, SLBs are characterized and their operating curves are obtained analytically for developing an economic power dispatch model involving wind farms and second life batteries. In addition, a dispatch strategy is developed to reduce the dispatch complex brought by the disperse spatial and time distribution of EVs and decrease the system operating cost by introducing incentive and penalty costs in regulating the EV performance. In theory, SLBs are utilized to reduce the peak-valley difference of power loads and to stabilize the power system. Test results based on a ten-unit power system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed dispatch model and the economic benefit of utilizing SLBs as flexible loads in power systems. This work may provide a viable solution to the disposal of waste batteries from EVs and to the stable operation of fluctuating power systems incorporating stochastic renewable energy.

  5. Examining the Fundamental Obstructs of Adopting Cloud Computing for 9-1-1 Dispatch Centers in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the unknown fears of embracing cloud computing which stretches across measurements like fear of change from leaders and the complexity of the technology in 9-1-1 dispatch centers in USA. The problem that was addressed in the study was that many 9-1-1 dispatch centers in USA are still using old…

  6. Ambulance Dispatches From Unaffected Areas After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Impact on Emergency Care in the Unaffected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Hasegawa, Manabu; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    Although dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected areas to a disaster zone is inevitable when a major disaster occurs, the effect on emergency care in the unaffected areas has not been studied. We evaluated whether dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected prefectures to those damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with reduced resuscitation outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases in the unaffected areas. We used the Box-Jenkins transfer function model to assess the relationship between ambulance crew dispatches and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before hospital arrival or 1-month survival after the cardiac event. In a model whose output was the rate of ROSC before hospital arrival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.474% decrease in the rate of ROSC after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.023). In a model whose output was the rate of 1-month survival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.502% decrease in the rate of 1-month survival after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.011). The dispatch of ambulances from unaffected prefectures to earthquake-stricken areas was associated with a subsequent decrease in the ROSC and 1-month survival rates in OHCA cases in the unaffected prefectures.

  7. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and

  8. A fast and optimized dynamic economic load dispatch for large scale power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musse Mohamud Ahmed; Mohd Ruddin Ab Ghani; Ismail Hassan

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents Lagrangian Multipliers (LM) and Linear Programming (LP) based dynamic economic load dispatch (DELD) solution for large-scale power system operations. It is to minimize the operation cost of power generation. units subject to the considered constraints. After individual generator units are economically loaded and periodically dispatched, fast and optimized DELD has been achieved. DELD with period intervals has been taken into consideration The results found from the algorithm based on LM and LP techniques appear to be modest in both optimizing the operation cost and achieving fast computation. (author)

  9. Harmony search algorithm for solving combined heat and power economic dispatch problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorram, Esmaile, E-mail: eskhor@aut.ac.i [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., 15914 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaberipour, Majid, E-mail: Majid.Jaberipour@gmail.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave., 15914 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the key optimization problems in electric power system operation. The problem grows complex if one or more units produce both power and heat. Combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem is a complicated problem that needs powerful methods to solve. This paper presents a harmony search (EDHS) algorithm to solve CHPED. Some standard examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in obtaining the optimal solution. In all cases, the solutions obtained using EDHS algorithm are better than those obtained by other methods.

  10. A recursive economic dispatch algorithm for assessing the cost of thermal generator schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.P.; Doan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops an efficient, recursive algorithm for determining the economic power dispatch of thermal generators within the unit commitment environment. A method for incorporating the operation limits of all on-line generators and limits due to ramping generators is developed in the paper. The developed algorithm is amenable for computer implementation using the artificial intelligence programming language, Prolog. The performance of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through its application to evaluate the costs of dispatching 13 thermal generators within a generator schedule in a 24-hour schedule horizon

  11. Distributed Strategy for Optimal Dispatch of Unbalanced Three-Phase Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara Barrios, Pedro Pablo; Rey-López, Juan Manuel; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed strategy for the optimal dispatch of islanded microgrids, modeled as unbalanced three-phase electrical distribution systems (EDS). To set the dispatch of the distributed generation (DG) units, an optimal generation problem is stated and solved distributively based......-phase microgrid. According to the obtained results, the proposed strategy achieves a lower cost solution when compared with a centralized approach based on a static droop framework, with a considerable reduction on the communication system complexity. Additionally, it corrects the mismatch between generation...

  12. Active Power Dispatch Method for a Wind Farm Central Controller Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Su, Chi; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing integration of the wind power into the power system, wind farm are required to be controlled as a single unit and have all the same control tasks as conventional power plants. The wind farm central controller receives control orders from Transmission System Operator (TSO), the...... Optimization (PSO) is used to obtain the optimal wind power for each wind turbine. A case study is carried out. The available wind power of the wind farm was compared between the traditional dispatch method and the proposed dispatch method with the consideration of the wake effect....

  13. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yu; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pineda, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    -stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given......An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi...

  14. A review on economic emission dispatch problems using quantum computational intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Fahad Parvez; Vasant, Pandian; Kallimani, Vish; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2016-11-01

    Economic emission dispatch (EED) problems are one of the most crucial problems in power systems. Growing energy demand, limitation of natural resources and global warming make this topic into the center of discussion and research. This paper reviews the use of Quantum Computational Intelligence (QCI) in solving Economic Emission Dispatch problems. QCI techniques like Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO) algorithm are discussed here. This paper will encourage the researcher to use more QCI based algorithm to get better optimal result for solving EED problems.

  15. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  16. Developing emergency medical dispatch systems in Africa – Recommendations of the African Federation for Emergency Medicine/International Academies of Emergency Dispatch Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman

    2015-09-01

    To facilitate the development of EMD systems appropriate for the African setting, the African Federation for Emergency Medicine (AFEM and the International Academies of Emergency Dispatch (IAED convened a working group in November 2014 to provide conceptual, technical, and innovative recommendations for contextually appropriate EMD systems for African settings. It is hoped that these recommendations will augment efficiency, effectiveness, and standardisation within and among African EMD systems, thereby improving health outcomes for sufferers of acute illness or injury.

  17. Terrestrial Planet Formation from an Annulus -- Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.; Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, Harold F.

    2018-04-01

    Numerous recent theories of terrestrial planet formation suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed large Earth to Mars mass ratio, planets formed from an annulus of material within 1 au. The success of these models typically rely on a Mars sized embryo being scattered outside 1 au (to ~1.5 au) and starving, while those remaining inside 1 au continue growing, forming Earth and Venus. In some models the scattering is instigated by the migration of giant planets, while in others an embryo-instability naturally occurs due to the dissipation of the gaseous solar nebula. While these models can typically succeed in reproducing the overall mass ratio among the planets, the final angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the present terrestrial planets in our Solar System, and their radial mass concentration (RMC), namely the position where Mars end up in the simulations, are not always well reproduced. Assuming that the gas nebula may not be entirely dissipated when such an embryo-instability happens, here, we study the effects that the time of such an instability can have on the final AMD and RMC. In addition, we also included energy dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions by assuming a given coefficient of restitution for collisions. Our results show that: i) dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions do not play any important role in the final terrestrial planetary system; ii) the final AMD decreases only when the number of final planets formed increases; iii) the RMC tends to always be lower than the present value no matter the number of final planets; and iv) depending on the time that the embryo-instability happen, if too early, with too much gas still present, a second instability will generally happen after the dissipation of the gas nebula.

  18. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  19. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  20. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  1. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  2. Cooperative Operation of Battery Energy Storage System and Dispatchable Distributed Generations in Microgrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Cha, Seung-Tae; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    Microgrid is an efficient solution to the utilization of renewable energy. According to the different operations (grid-connected or islanded), a fuzzy-logic based control strategy between BESS and dispatchable DG units is proposed in this paper, where the BESS plays a key role. The effectiveness ...

  3. Economic Dispatch of Electric Energy Storage with Multi-service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a generic optimization model that explores the difficulty met by Electric Energy Storage (EES) systems when economic dispatch for multiple-service provision is requested. Such a model is further used to investigate the economic performance of an EES system which meets the 10...

  4. [Coping strategy and its effect on occupational stress among rail freight dispatchers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gui-zhen; Yu, Shan-fa; Li, Kui-rong; Jiang, Kai-you

    2010-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between coping strategy and occupational stress in rail freight dispatchers. 115 rail freight dispatchers were investigated by using group sampling method, investigation contents included coping strategies, occupational stressors, strains and personalities. The proportion of using coping strategy in rail freight dispatchers is lower. The scores of job future ambiguity, type A behavior and work locus of control in workers with insufficient coping strategy were higher than those in workers with sufficient strategy (P family balance, job involvement coping factors of coping strategy were remarkable significant (P 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that risk of being job dissatisfaction and daily life stress in workers with insufficient social support coping was three or four times than those with sufficient coping (OR = 3.06 or 4.38, respectively), risk of being daily life stress in workers with insufficient job involvement coping was three times than those with sufficient coping (OR = 3.26). The proportion of using coping strategy in rail freight dispatchers is lower. Coping strategy has influence on the individual's perception of occuaptional stressors, strains and personalities.

  5. A coordinated dispatch model for electricity and heat in a Microgrid via particle swarm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lizhong; Yang, Guangya; Xu, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a coordinated electricity and heat dispatching model for Microgrid under day-ahead environment. In addition to operational constraints, network loss and physical limits are addressed in this model, which are always ignored in previous work. As an important component of Microgrid...

  6. Space-time wind speed forecasting for improved power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.; Gu, Yingzhong; Xie, Le

    2014-01-01

    direction and with the seasons, hence avoiding a subjective choice of regimes. Then, results from the wind forecasts are incorporated into a power system economic dispatch model, the cost of which is used as a loss measure of the quality of the forecast

  7. Defusing the Debugging Scandal - Dedicated Debugging Technologies for Advanced Dispatching Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Haihan

    2013-01-01

    To increase program modularity, new programming paradigms, such as aspect-oriented programming, context-oriented programming, and predicated dispatching, have been researched in recent years. The new-paradigm languages allow changing behavior according to various kinds of contexts at the call sites.

  8. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob Raglend, I. [School of Electrical Sciences, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B. [School of Electrical Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 004 (India); Kothari, D.P. [FNAE, FNASC, SMIEEE, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  9. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob Raglend, I.; Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B.; Kothari, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  10. The Optimal Dispatch of a Power System Containing Virtual Power Plants under Fog and Haze Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing influence of fog and haze (F-H weather and the rapid development of distributed energy resources (DERs and smart grids, the concept of the virtual power plant (VPP employed in this study would help to solve the dispatch problem caused by multiple DERs connected to the power grid. The effects of F-H weather on photovoltaic output forecast, load forecast and power system dispatch are discussed according to real case data. The wavelet neural network (WNN model was employed to predict photovoltaic output and load, considering F-H weather, based on the idea of “similar days of F-H”. The multi-objective optimal dispatch model of a power system adopted in this paper contains several VPPs and conventional power plants, under F-H weather, and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the Yalmip toolbox of MATLAB were adopted to solve the dispatch model. The analysis of the results from a case study proves the validity and feasibility of the model and the algorithms.

  11. Dynamic multi-stage dispatch of isolated wind–diesel power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yu; Morales, Juan M.; Pineda, Salvador; Sánchez, María Jesús; Solana, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal decision-making model for isolated hybrid wind–diesel power system is proposed. • Wind power uncertainty and conditional operating cost are considered. • Battery wear cost of the energy storage system is included in the model. • The results are compared with deterministic dispatch strategies. - Abstract: An optimal dispatch strategy is crucial for an isolated wind–diesel power system to save diesel fuel and maintain the system stability. The uncertainty associated with the stochastic character of the wind is, though, a challenging problem for this optimization. In this paper, a dynamic multi-stage decision-making model is proposed to determine the diesel power output that minimizes the cost of running and maintaining the wind–diesel power system. Optimized operational decisions for each time period are generated dynamically considering the path-dependent nature of the optimal dispatch policy, given the plausible future realizations of the wind power production. A numerical case study is analyzed and it is demonstrated that the proposed stochastic dynamic optimization model significantly outperforms the traditional deterministic dispatch strategies

  12. Optimum dispatching by using evolutionary programming; Despacho optimo utilizando programacao evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Luis Miguel; Pinto, Joao Luis; Matos, Manuel Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: lproenca@inescn.pt; jpinto@duque.inescn.pt; mmatos@inescn.pt

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for solving the problem of the optimum dispatching based on the Evolutionary Programming. Also, a software module is described which is based on this integrated approach, integrated in a real system for power systems control and having a high contribution from renewable resources, in the framework of the CARE European project.

  13. A Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch Strategy for Fatigue Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Hu, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in wind farm management is to cope with requirements from the grid companies and to optimize efficiency and minimize wear on wind turbines. This paper addresses an optimized active power dispatch strategy of a wind farm to reduce the fatigue load of wind turbines, wh...

  14. A Robust Optimization Approach to Energy and Reserve Dispatch in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Conejo, Antonio J.

    To a large extent, electricity markets worldwide still rely on deterministic procedures for clearing energy and reserve auctions. However, larger and larger shares of the production mix consist of renewable sources whose nature is stochastic and non-dispatchable, as their output is not known...

  15. A robust optimization approach to energy and reserve dispatch in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    To a large extent, electricity markets worldwide still rely on deterministic procedures for clearing energy and reserve auctions. However, increasing shares of the production mix consist of renewable sources whose nature is stochastic and non-dispatchable, as their output is uncertain and cannot...

  16. Learning Dispatching Rules for Scheduling: A Synergistic View Comprising Decision Trees, Tabu Search and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Shahzad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for an effective shop scheduling that synergizes the benefits of the combinatorial optimization, supervised learning and discrete-event simulation is presented. Though dispatching rules are in widely used by shop scheduling practitioners, only ordinary performance rules are known; hence, dynamic generation of dispatching rules is desired to make them more effective in changing shop conditions. Meta-heuristics are able to perform quite well and carry more knowledge of the problem domain, however at the cost of prohibitive computational effort in real-time. The primary purpose of this research lies in an offline extraction of this domain knowledge using decision trees to generate simple if-then rules that subsequently act as dispatching rules for scheduling in an online manner. We used similarity index to identify parametric and structural similarity in problem instances in order to implicitly support the learning algorithm for effective rule generation and quality index for relative ranking of the dispatching decisions. Maximum lateness is used as the scheduling objective in a job shop scheduling environment.

  17. 78 FR 67799 - Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... and aircraft dispatcher training reflects that integrated operating environment. Since the publication... control systems, and unusual attitudes that result from flight control malfunctions and uncommanded flight... manipulate the aircraft controls and flight navigators are no longer used in part 121 operations, the FAA...

  18. Operational Strategies for Predictive Dispatch of Control Reserves in View of Stochastic Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Heussen, Kai; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In view of the predictability and stochasticity of wind power generation, transmission system operators (TSOs) can benefit from predictive dispatch of slow and manual control reserves in order to maintain reactive reserve levels for unpredictable events. While scenario-based approaches for stocha...

  19. Day-ahead optimal dispatch for wind integrated power system considering zonal reserve requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fan; Bie, Zhaohong; Liu, Shiyu; Ding, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyzing zonal reserve requirements for wind integrated power system. • Modeling day-ahead optimal dispatch solved by chance constrained programming theory. • Determining optimal zonal reserve demand with minimum confidence interval. • Analyzing numerical results on test and large-scale real-life power systems. - Abstract: Large-scale integration of renewable power presents a great challenge for day-ahead dispatch to manage renewable resources while provide available reserve for system security. Considering zonal reserve is an effective way to ensure reserve deliverability when network congested, a random day-ahead dispatch optimization of wind integrated power system for a least operational cost is modeled including zonal reserve requirements and N − 1 security constraints. The random model is transformed into a deterministic one based on the theory of chance constrained programming and a determination method of optimal zonal reserve demand is proposed using the minimum confidence interval. After solving the deterministic model, the stochastic simulation is conducted to verify the validity of solution. Numerical tests and results on the IEEE 39 bus system and a large-scale real-life power system demonstrate the optimal day-ahead dispatch scheme is available and the proposed method is effective for improving reserve deliverability and reducing load shedding after large-capacity power outage.

  20. Solar-geophysical data number 586, June 1993. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for May, April 1993, and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1993-06-01

    Contents: data for may 1993; solar-terrestrial environment; iuwds alert periods (advance and worldwide); solar activity indices; solar flares; solar radio emission; stanford mean solar magnetic field; data for april 1993; solar active regions; sudden ionospheric disturbances; solar radio spectral observations; solar radioheliograph; cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor; geomagnetic indices. This research is relevant to studies in atmospheric/environmental science, solar energy, plasma physics, and communications

  1. Solar-geophysical data number 587, July 1993. Part 1 (prompt reports). data for June, May 1993, and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1993-07-01

    Contents: data for june 1993; solar-terrestrial environment; iuwds alert periods (advance and worldwide); solar activity indices; solar flares; solar radio emission; stanford mean solar magnetic field; data for may 1993; solar active regions; sudden ionospheric disturbances; solar radio spectral observations; solar radioheliograph - 164 mhz - nancay; cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor; geomagnetic indices. This research is applicable to research in solar energy, plasma physics, communications, and environmental science

  2. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  3. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  4. Intermittent Astrophysical Radiation Sources and Terrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial life is exposed to a variety of radiation sources. Astrophysical observations suggest that strong excursions in cosmic ray flux and spectral hardness are expected. Gamma-ray bursts and supernovae are expected to irradiate the atmosphere with keV to GeV photons at irregular intervals. Supernovae will produce large cosmic ray excursions, with time development varying with distance from the event. Large fluxes of keV to MeV protons from the Sun pose a strong threat to electromagnetic technology. The terrestrial record shows cosmogenic isotope excursions which are consistent with major solar proton events, and there are observations of G-stars suggesting that the rate of such events may be much higher than previously assumed. In addition there are unknown and unexplained astronomical transients which may indicate new classes of events. The Sun, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts are all capable of producing lethal fluences, and some are expected on intervals of 10^8 years or so. The history of life on Earth is filled with mass extinctions at a variety of levels of intensity. Most are not understood. Astrophysical radiation may play a role, particularly from large increases in muon irradiation on the ground, and changes in atmospheric chemistry which deplete ozone, admitting increased solar UVB. UVB is strongly absorbed by DNA and proteins, and breaks the chemical bonds---it is a known carcinogen. High muon fluxes will also be damaging to such molecules, but experiments are needed to pin down the rate. Solar proton events which are not directly dangerous for the biota may nevertheless pose a major threat to modern electromagnetic technology through direct impact on satellites and magnetic induction of large currents in power grids, disabling transformers. We will look at the kind of events that are expected on timescales from human to geological, and their likely consequences.

  5. A Benders decomposition approach for a combined heat and power economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmohammadi, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Benders decomposition algorithm to solve combined heat and power economic dispatch. • Decomposing the CHPED problem into master problem and subproblem. • Considering non-convex heat-power feasible region efficiently. • Solving 4 units and 5 units system with 2 and 3 co-generation units, respectively. • Obtaining better or as well results in terms of objective values. - Abstract: Recently, cogeneration units have played an increasingly important role in the utility industry. Therefore the optimal utilization of multiple combined heat and power (CHP) systems is an important optimization task in power system operation. Unlike power economic dispatch, which has a single equality constraint, two equality constraints must be met in combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. Moreover, in the cogeneration units, the power capacity limits are functions of the unit heat productions and the heat capacity limits are functions of the unit power generations. Thus, CHPED is a complicated optimization problem. In this paper, an algorithm based on Benders decomposition (BD) is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem for cogeneration systems. In the proposed method, combined heat and power economic dispatch problem is decomposed into a master problem and subproblem. The subproblem generates the Benders cuts and master problem uses them as a new inequality constraint which is added to the previous constraints. The iterative process will continue until upper and lower bounds of the objective function optimal values are close enough and a converged optimal solution is found. Benders decomposition based approach is able to provide a good framework to consider the non-convex feasible operation regions of cogeneration units efficiently. In this paper, a four-unit system with two cogeneration units and a five-unit system with three cogeneration units are analyzed to exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In all cases, the

  6. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  7. Accuracy of Emergency Medical Services Dispatcher and Crew Diagnosis of Stroke in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAccurate recognition of stroke symptoms by Emergency Medical Services (EMS is necessary for timely care of acute stroke patients. We assessed the accuracy of stroke diagnosis by EMS in clinical practice in a major US city.Methods and resultsPhiladelphia Fire Department data were merged with data from a single comprehensive stroke center to identify patients diagnosed with stroke or TIA from 9/2009 to 10/2012. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression identified variables associated with correct EMS diagnosis. There were 709 total cases, with 400 having a discharge diagnosis of stroke or TIA. EMS crew sensitivity was 57.5% and PPV was 69.1%. EMS crew identified 80.2% of strokes with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS ≥5 and symptom duration <6 h. In a multivariable model, correct EMS crew diagnosis was positively associated with NIHSS (NIHSS 5–9, OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.41–4.89; NIHSS ≥10, OR 4.56, 95% CI 2.29–9.09 and weakness (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35–3.85, and negatively associated with symptom duration >270 min (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.25–0.68. EMS dispatchers identified 90 stroke cases that the EMS crew missed. EMS dispatcher or crew identified stroke with sensitivity of 80% and PPV of 50.9%, and EMS dispatcher or crew identified 90.5% of patients with NIHSS ≥5 and symptom duration <6 h.ConclusionPrehospital diagnosis of stroke has limited sensitivity, resulting in a high proportion of missed stroke cases. Dispatchers identified many strokes that EMS crews did not. Incorporating EMS dispatcher impression into regional protocols may maximize the effectiveness of hospital destination selection and pre-notification.

  8. Performance modeling and techno-economic analysis of a modular concentrated solar power tower with latent heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, Jonathan E.; Oshman, Christopher J.; Olsen, Michele L.; Hardin, Corey L.; Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.; Toberer, Eric S.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present performance simulations and techno-economic analysis of a modular dispatchable solar power tower. Using a heliostat field and power block three orders of magnitude smaller than conventional solar power towers, our unique configuration locates thermal storage and a power block directly on a tower receiver. To make the system dispatchable, a valved thermosyphon controls heat flow from a latent heat thermal storage tank to a Stirling engine. The modular design results in minimal balance of system costs and enables high deployment rates with a rapid realization of economies of scale. In this new analysis, we combine performance simulations with techno-economic analysis to evaluate levelized cost of electricity, and find that the system has potential for cost-competitiveness with natural gas peaking plants and alternative dispatchable renewables.

  9. Solar eruptions - soil radon - earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time a new natural phenomenon was established: a contrasting increase in the soil radon level under the influence of solar flares. Such an increase is one of geochemical indicators of earthquakes. Most researchers consider this a phenomenon of exclusively terrestrial processes. Investigations regarding the link of earthquakes to solar activity carried out during the last decade in different countries are based on the analysis of statistical data ΣΕ (t) and W (t). As established, the overall seismicity of the Earth and its separate regions depends of an 11-year long cycle of solar activity. Data provided in the paper based on experimental studies serve the first step on the way of experimental data on revealing cause-and-reason solar-terrestrials bonds in a series s olar eruption-lithosphere radon-earthquakes . They need further collection of experimental data. For the first time, through radon constituent of terrestrial radiation objectification has been made of elementary lattice of the Hartmann's network contoured out by bio location method. As found out, radon concentration variations in Hartmann's network nodes determine the dynamics of solar-terrestrial relationships. Of the three types of rapidly running processes conditioned by solar-terrestrial bonds earthquakes are attributed to rapidly running destructive processes that occur in the most intense way at the juncture of tectonic massifs, along transformed and deep failures. The basic factors provoking the earthquakes are both magnetic-structural effects and a long-term (over 5 months) bombing of the surface of lithosphere by highly energetic particles of corpuscular solar flows, this being approved by photometry. As a result of solar flares that occurred from 29 October to 4 November 2003, a sharply contrasting increase in soil radon was established which is an earthquake indicator on the territory of Yerevan City. A month and a half later, earthquakes occurred in San-Francisco, Iran, Turkey

  10. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  11. Coordinated Power Dispatch of a PMSG based Wind Farm for Output Power Maximizing Considering the Wake Effect and Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss in a wind farm (WF) caused by wake interaction between wind turbines (WTs) is quite high, which can be reduced by proper active power dispatch. The electrical loss inside a WF by improper active power and reactive power dispatch is also considerable. In this paper, a coordinated...... active power and reactive power dispatch strategy is proposed for a Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based WF, in order to maximize the total output power by reducing the wake effect and losses inside the devices of the WF, including the copper loss and iron loss of PMSGs, losses inside...

  12. A Bi-Level Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Unit Commitment Problems with Wind-EVs Coordinated Dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the grid faces much more challenges caused by wind power and the accessing of electric vehicles (EVs). Based on the potentiality of coordinated dispatch, a model of wind-EVs coordinated dispatch was developed. Then, A bi-level particle swarm optimization algorithm for solving the model was proposed in this paper. The application of this algorithm to 10-unit test system carried out that coordinated dispatch can benefit the power system from the following aspects: (1) Reducing operating costs; (2) Improving the utilization of wind power; (3) Stabilizing the peak-valley difference.

  13. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  14. Long-Period Solar Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  15. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars: NRC Community Panel Decadal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2002-12-01

    A report was completed recently by a Community Panel for the NRC Decadal Study of Solar System Exploration. The desire was for a review of the current state of knowledge and for recommendations for action over the next decade. The topic of this panel, Terrestrial Analogs to Mars, was chosen to bring attention to the need for an increase in analog studies in support of the increased pace of Mars exploration. It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all of these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the overarching science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel considered the issues of data collection and archiving, value of field workshops, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities. Parts of this work were performed under contract to NASA.

  16. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  17. Implementation of the ALERT algorithm, a new dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol, in non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) Emergency Medical Services centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipulante, Samuel; Tubes, Rebecca; El Fassi, Mehdi; Donneau, Anne-Francoise; Van Troyen, Barbara; Hartstein, Gary; D'Orio, Vincent; Ghuysen, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liégeois d'Encadrement à la Réanimation par Téléphone) algorithm has the potential to help bystanders initiate CPR. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the implementation of this protocol in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System area. We designed a before and after study based on a 3-month retrospective assessment of victims of OHCA in 2009, before the implementation of the ALERT protocol in Liege emergency medical communication centre (EMCC), and the prospective evaluation of the same 3 months in 2011, immediately after the implementation. At the moment of the call, dispatchers were able to identify 233 OHCA in the first period and 235 in the second. Victims were predominantly male (59%, both periods), with mean ages of 64.1 and 63.9 years, respectively. In 2009, only 9.9% victims benefited from bystander CPR, this increased to 22.5% in 2011 (p<0.0002). The main reasons for protocol under-utilisation were: assistance not offered by the dispatcher (42.3%), caller physically remote from the victim (20.6%). Median time from call to first compression, defined here as no flow time, was 253s in 2009 and 168s in 2011 (NS). Ten victims were admitted to hospital after ROSC in 2009 and 13 in 2011 (p=0.09). From the beginning and despite its under-utilisation, the ALERT protocol significantly improved the number of patients in whom bystander CPR was attempted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative locations of the bow shocks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    The observed bow shock encounters at Mercury, Venus and Mars are least square fit using the same technique so that their sizes and shapes can be intercompared. The shock front of Mercury most resembles the terrestrial shock in shape, and the shock stand off distance is consistent with the observed moment. The shapes of the Venus and Mars shock fronts more resemble each other than the earth's and the stand off distances are consistent with direct interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere on the dayside. The Venus shock is closer to the planet than the Mars shock suggesting more absorption of the solar wind at Venus

  19. Terrestrial photovoltaic technologies - Recent progress in manufacturing R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, C. E.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R. L.; Symko-Davies, M.; Thomas, H. P.

    2000-05-15

    This paper describes photovoltaics (PV) as used for energy generation in terrestrial applications. A brief historical perspective of PV development is provided. Solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies for various photovoltaic materials are presented, as well as expectations for further material improvements. Recent progress in reducing manufacturing costs through process R&D and product improvements are described. Applications that are most suitable for the different technologies are discussed. Finally, manufacturing capacities and current and projected module manufacturing costs are presented.

  20. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  1. Mixed integer non-linear programming and Artificial Neural Network based approach to ancillary services dispatch in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizes, Bruno; Soares, João; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ancillary services market management. • Ancillary services requirements forecast based on Artificial Neural Network. • Ancillary services clearing mechanisms without complex bids and with complex bids. - Abstract: Ancillary services represent a good business opportunity that must be considered by market players. This paper presents a new methodology for ancillary services market dispatch. The method considers the bids submitted to the market and includes a market clearing mechanism based on deterministic optimization. An Artificial Neural Network is used for day-ahead prediction of Regulation Down, regulation-up, Spin Reserve and Non-Spin Reserve requirements. Two test cases based on California Independent System Operator data concerning dispatch of Regulation Down, Regulation Up, Spin Reserve and Non-Spin Reserve services are included in this paper to illustrate the application of the proposed method: (1) dispatch considering simple bids; (2) dispatch considering complex bids

  2. Short-term spatio-temporal wind power forecast in robust look-ahead power system dispatch

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Le

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel statistical wind power forecast framework, which leverages the spatio-temporal correlation in wind speed and direction data among geographically dispersed wind farms. Critical assessment of the performance of spatio-temporal wind power forecast is performed using realistic wind farm data from West Texas. It is shown that spatio-temporal wind forecast models are numerically efficient approaches to improving forecast quality. By reducing uncertainties in near-term wind power forecasts, the overall cost benefits on system dispatch can be quantified. We integrate the improved forecast with an advanced robust look-ahead dispatch framework. This integrated forecast and economic dispatch framework is tested in a modified IEEE RTS 24-bus system. Numerical simulation suggests that the overall generation cost can be reduced by up to 6% using a robust look-ahead dispatch coupled with spatio-temporal wind forecast as compared with persistent wind forecast models. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  4. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final test plans : state of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : state of Utah". This document defines the objective, approach, an...

  5. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  6. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  7. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  8. Thermocline thermal storage systems for concentrated solar power plants: One-dimensional numerical model and comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers and governments all over the world in recent years. An important part of these plants is the storage system which improves dispatchability and makes the plant more reliable. In this paper, a one-dimensional transi...

  9. Solar radiation over India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, A; Rangarajan, S

    1982-01-01

    Solar radiation data, on horizontal and sloped surfaces, are provided derived from other meteorological parameters at 145 stations covering all major climatic zones of the country. Two methods were used to compute solar radiation, one using regression techniques to derive radiation from sunshine and cloudiness, the other from extra-terrestrial radiation, allowing for its depletion by absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. The methods of calculating the daily global radiation tilt factor using an anisotropic model for diffuse solar radiation are described. The results of statistical analysis of global solar radiation data recorded at 16 stations are presented. Appendices contain an extensive bibliograpny, sun path diagrams for latitudes 6/sup 0/N to 36/sup 0/N, and tables for the calculation of Local Apparent Time from Indian Standard Time.

  10. Decreasing the dispatch time of medical reports sent from hospital to primary care with Lean Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Yara L; Zwetsloot, Inez M; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; Rohof, Thomas; Monster, Mathijs M C; Fockens, Paul; Tytgat, Kristien M A J

    2016-10-01

    Timely communication is important to ensure high-quality health care. To facilitate this, the Gastro Intestinal Oncology Center Amsterdam (GIOCA) stipulated to dispatch medical reports on the day of the patient's visit. However, with the increasing number of patients, administrative processes at GIOCA were under pressure, and this standard was not met for the majority of patients. The aim and objective of this study was to dispatch 90% of medical reports on the day of the patient's visit by improving the logistic process. To assess the main causes for a prolonged dispatch time and to design improvements actions, the roadmap offered by Lean Six Sigma (LSS) was used, consisting of five phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control (DMAIC roadmap). Initially, 12.3% of the reports were dispatched on the day of the patient's visit. Three causes for a prolonged dispatch time were identified: (1) determining which doctors involved with treatment would compose the report; (2) the reports composed by a senior resident had to be reviewed by a medical specialist; and (3) a medical specialist had to authorize the administration to dispatch the reports. To circumvent these causes, a digital form was implemented in the electronic medical record that could be completed during the multidisciplinary team meeting. After implementation, 90.6% of the reports were dispatched on the day of the visit. The dispatch time of reports sent from hospital to primary care can be significantly reduced using Lean Six Sigma, improving the communication between hospital and primary care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Community Decadal Panel for Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N. G.; Farr, T.; Baker, V. R.; Bridges, N.; Carsey, F.; Duxbury, N.; Gilmore, M. S.; Green, J. R.; Grin, E.; Hansen, V.; Keszthelyi, L.; Lanagan, P.; Lentz, R.; Marinangeli, L.; Morris, P. A.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Robinson, C.; Thomson, B.

    2001-11-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites for Mars, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel is considering the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the MEPAG science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel is considering the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  12. Aerosol-induced thermal effects increase modelled terrestrial photosynthesis and transpiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Allison L.; Chameides, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols (reducing total radiation while increasing the diffuse fraction) can enhance terrestrial productivity. Here, simulations using a regional climate/terrestrial biosphere model suggest that atmospheric aerosols could also enhance terrestrial photosynthesis and transpiration through an interaction between solar radiation, leaf temperature and stomatal conductance. During midday, clear-sky conditions, sunlit-leaf temperatures can exceed the optimum for photosynthesis, depressing both photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerosols decrease surface solar radiation, thereby reducing leaf temperatures and enhancing sunlit-leaf photosynthesis and transpiration. This modelling study finds that, under certain conditions, this thermal response of aerosols can have a greater impact on photosynthesis and transpiration than the radiative response. This implies that a full understanding of the impact of aerosols on climate and the global carbon cycle requires consideration of the biophysical responses of terrestrial vegetation as well as atmospheric radiative and thermodynamic effects

  13. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  14. The terrestrial record of Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, the known impact record of the early Solar System lay exclusively on the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and other bodies where it has not been erased by later weathering, erosion, impact gardening, and/or tectonism. Study of the cratered surfaces of these bodies led to the concept of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), an interval from about 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which the surfaces of the planets and moons in the inner Solar System were subject to unusually high rates of bombardment followed by a decline to present low impact rates by about 3.5 Ga. Over the past 30 years, however, it has become apparent that there is a terrestrial record of large impacts from at least 3.47 to 3.22 Ga and from 2.63 to 2.49 Ga. The present paper explores the earlier of these impact records, providing details about the nature of the 8 known ejecta layers that constitute the evidence for large terrestrial impacts during the earlier of these intervals, the inferred size of the impactors, and the potential effects of these impacts on crustal development and life. The existence of this record implies that LHB did not end abruptly at 3.8-3.7 Ga but rather that high impact rates, either continuous or as impact clusters, persisted until at least the close of the Archean at 2.5 Ga. It implies that the shift from external, impact-related controls on the long-term development of the surface system on the Earth to more internal, geodynamic controls may have occurred much later in geologic history than has been supposed previously.

  15. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 551, July 1990. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for June, May 1990 and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1990-07-01

    ;Contents: Detailed index for 1989-1990; Data for June 1990--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (Advance and worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for May 1990--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Geomagnetic indices February-April 1990--sudden commencements/solar flare effects

  16. FirstAED emergency dispatch, global positioning of community first responders with distinct roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Finn Lund; Schorling, Per; Hansen, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    their roles in a team structure to reduce response times, ensure citizens' safety and offer equal possibility of early defibrillation. First aid is provided by community first responders who use their smartphone. FirstAED global positioning system (GPS)-tracks the nine nearby first responders and enables......FirstAED is a supplement to the existing emergency response systems. The aim is to shorten the community first responder response times at emergency calls to below five minutes in a bridge connected island area. FirstAED defines a way to dispatch the nearby three first responders and organise...... the emergency dispatcher to send an organised team of three first responders with distinct roles to the scene automatically. During the first 24 months the FirstAED system was used 718 times. Three first responders arrived in ∼89% of the cases, and they arrived before the ambulance in ∼94% of the cases. First...

  17. Framework for the analysis of reactive power dispatch in energy pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, R.S.; Irving, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the simulation and analysis of the reactive power distribution in electric energy markets of the pool type. Firstly, the analytical formulation of the OPF problem, with three optional performance indexes for the reactive power dispatch, is discussed. These OPF objectives are used to determine the reactive power distribution for a given active power dispatch (obtained through merit-order strategy, for instance). An allocation strategy is used to assess the participation of each power system agent in the loss/reactive power distribution. This strategy uses the premise of co-operative game theory. Numerical results obtained with the Ward-Hale 6-bus test system illustrate the main aspects of the proposed methodology. (author)

  18. Comprehensive Anti-error Study on Power Grid Dispatching Based on Regional Regulation and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunju; Chen, Zhongyi; Guo, Ming; Lin, Shunsheng; Yan, Yinyang

    2018-01-01

    With the large capacity of the power system, the development trend of the large unit and the high voltage, the scheduling operation is becoming more frequent and complicated, and the probability of operation error increases. This paper aims at the problem of the lack of anti-error function, single scheduling function and low working efficiency for technical support system in regional regulation and integration, the integrated construction of the error prevention of the integrated architecture of the system of dispatching anti - error of dispatching anti - error of power network based on cloud computing has been proposed. Integrated system of error prevention of Energy Management System, EMS, and Operation Management System, OMS have been constructed either. The system architecture has good scalability and adaptability, which can improve the computational efficiency, reduce the cost of system operation and maintenance, enhance the ability of regional regulation and anti-error checking with broad development prospects.

  19. The Development of Dispatcher Training Simulator in a Thermal Energy Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, D. L.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasan, B.

    2018-01-01

    A dispatcher training simulator (DTS) is a real-time Human Machine Interface (HMI)-based control tool that is able to visualize industrial control system processes. The present study was aimed at developing a simulator tool for boilers in a thermal power station. The DTS prototype was designed using technical data of thermal power station boilers in Indonesia. It was then designed and implemented in Wonderware Intouch 10. The resulting simulator came with component drawing, animation, control display, alarm system, real-time trend, historical trend. This application used 26 tagnames and was equipped with a security system. The test showed that the principles of real-time control worked well. It is expected that this research could significantly contribute to the development of thermal power station, particularly in terms of its application as a training simulator for beginning dispatchers.

  20. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...... distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can...

  1. Economic Dispatch for Operating Cost Minimization under Real Time Pricing in Droop Controlled DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Federico, de Bosio; Chen, Fang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an economic dispatch problem for total operation cost minimization in DC microgrids is formulated. An operating cost is associated with each generator in the microgrid, including the utility grid, combining the cost-efficiency of the system with demand response requirements...... achieving higher control accuracy and faster response. The optimization problem is solved in a heuristic method. In order to test the proposed algorithm, a six-bus droop-controlled DC microgrid is used in the case studies. Simulation results show that under variable renewable energy generation, load...... of the utility. The power flow model is included in the optimization problem, thus the transmission losses can be considered for generation dispatch. By considering the primary (local) control of the grid-forming converters of a microgrid, optimal parameters can be directly applied to this control level, thus...

  2. Novel Controls for Time-Dependent Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling Heating and Power (CCHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Scott; Brouwer, Jack

    2013-08-31

    The research and development effort detailed in this report directly addresses the challenge of reducing U.S. industrial energy and carbon intensity by contributing to an increased understanding of potential CCHP technology, the CCHP market and the challenges of widespread adoption. This study developed a number of new tools, models, and approaches for the design, control, and optimal dispatch of various CCHP technologies. The UC Irvine campus served as a ‘living laboratory’ of new CCHP technologies and enabled the design and demonstration of several novel control methods. In particular, the integration of large scale thermal energy storage capable of shifting an entire day of cooling demand required a novel approach to the CCHP dispatch optimization. The thermal energy storage proved an economically viable resource which reduced both costs and emissions by enabling generators and chillers to operate under steady high efficiency conditions at all times of the day.

  3. Chaotic particle swarm optimization for economic dispatch considering the generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jiejin; Ma, Xiaoqian; Li, Lixiang; Haipeng, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) methods are optimization approaches based on the proposed particle swarm optimization (PSO) with adaptive inertia weight factor (AIWF) and chaotic local search (CLS). In this paper, two CPSO methods based on the logistic equation and the Tent equation are presented to solve economic dispatch (ED) problems with generator constraints and applied in two power system cases. Compared with the traditional PSO method, the convergence iterative numbers of the CPSO methods are reduced, and the solutions generation costs decrease around 5 $/h in the six unit system and 24 $/h in the 15 unit system. The simulation results show that the CPSO methods have good convergence property. The generation costs of the CPSO methods are lower than those of the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm, and hence, CPSO methods can result in great economic effect. For economic dispatch problems, the CPSO methods are more feasible and more effective alternative approaches than the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm

  4. A Novel Use of a Metronome in Dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateyyah, Khalid A; Cady, Charles E; Poltrock, James T; Pirrallo, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early, high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the key to increasing the likelihood of successful resuscitation in cardiac arrest. The use of dispatch-assisted (DA) CPR can increase the likelihood of bystander CPR. We describe a case in which a metronome was introduced to guide DA-CPR. The wife of a 52-year-old male activated 9-1-1 after her husband suffered a cardiac arrest. During her 9-1-1 call she received CPR instructions and heard a metronome over the phone while following the instructions. Return of spontaneous circulation of the patient occurred during paramedic on scene care. The patient was transported to hospital and discharged 6 days later with no neurological deficit. This case supports the use of a metronome by emergency medical dispatchers during the provision of DA-CPR to improve bystander CPR.

  5. Communication between general practitioners and the emergency medical dispatch centre in urgent cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Hanne Beck; Rønnow, Camilla; Jørgensen, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    , and we found that these calls were more likely to contain problematic communication (odds ratio = 5.1). In 18% (n = 236) of the cases, there was not sufficient information to assess if the physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (MECU) should have been dispatched along with the ambulance......INTRODUCTION: When general practitioners (GPs) order an ambulance, their calls are handled by staff at the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) who then select an appropriate response. There are currently no data evaluating this mode of communication between the GPs and the staff at the EMDC....... 
RESULTS: We found problematic communication in less than 2% (n = 25) of the evaluated calls. In 68% of the 25 problematic cases transactional analysis showed that the staff at the EMDC initiated the problematic communication. In 4% (n = 51) of the calls, the GP delegated the call to a secretary or nurse...

  6. Review of reactive power dispatch strategies for loss minimization in a DFIG-based wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2017-01-01

    power control strategies are investigated. All of the combined strategies are formulated based on the comprehensive loss models of WFs, including the loss models of DFIGs, converters, filters, transformers, and cables of the collection system. Optimization problems are solved by a Modified Particle......This paper reviews and compares the performance of reactive power dispatch strategies for the loss minimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-based Wind Farms (WFs). Twelve possible combinations of three WF level reactive power dispatch strategies and fourWind Turbine (WT) level reactive...... Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm. The effectiveness of these strategies is evaluated by simulations on a carefully designed WF under a series of cases with different wind speeds and reactive power requirements of the WF. The wind speed at each WT inside the WF is calculated using the Jensen wake...

  7. A simple two stage optimization algorithm for constrained power economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G.; Song, K.

    1994-01-01

    A simple two stage optimization algorithm is proposed and investigated for fast computation of constrained power economic dispatch control problems. The method is a simple demonstration of the hierarchical aggregation-disaggregation (HAD) concept. The algorithm first solves an aggregated problem to obtain an initial solution. This aggregated problem turns out to be classical economic dispatch formulation, and it can be solved in 1% of overall computation time. In the second stage, linear programming method finds optimal solution which satisfies power balance constraints, generation and transmission inequality constraints and security constraints. Implementation of the algorithm for IEEE systems and EPRI Scenario systems shows that the two stage method obtains average speedup ratio 10.64 as compared to classical LP-based method

  8. Multilayer PV-storage Microgrids Algorithm for the Dispatch of Distributed Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the support of our country, PV-storage microgrid develops rapidly. However, the flexible network operation modes of PV-storage microgrid change flexibly and the operating characteristics with a large amout of sources is highly complicated. Based on the existing microgrid coordinate control methods, this paper proposes multilayer PV-storage microgrid algorithm for fitting dispatch of distributed network, which achieves maximum output of renewable energy when meeting the scheduling requirements of network, by building PV-storage microgrid type dynamic simulation system in a variety of conditions in PSCAD. Simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm proposed can achieve microgrid stable operation and satisfy the demands of the dispatch in distributed network.

  9. Swarm based mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS) for solving economic dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, T. H.; Vasant, P. M.; Singh, M. S. Balbir; Dieu, V. N.

    2014-10-01

    The economic dispatch (ED) is an essential optimization task in the power generation system. It is defined as the process of allocating the real power output of generation units to meet required load demand so as their total operating cost is minimized while satisfying all physical and operational constraints. This paper introduces a novel optimization which named as Swarm based Mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMOS). The technique is the extension of the original single particle mean-variance mapping optimization (MVMO). Its features make it potentially attractive algorithm for solving optimization problems. The proposed method is implemented for three test power systems, including 3, 13 and 20 thermal generation units with quadratic cost function and the obtained results are compared with many other methods available in the literature. Test results have indicated that the proposed method can efficiently implement for solving economic dispatch.

  10. Improved differential evolution algorithms for handling economic dispatch optimization with generator constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Mariani, Viviana Cocco

    2007-01-01

    Global optimization based on evolutionary algorithms can be used as the important component for many engineering optimization problems. Evolutionary algorithms have yielded promising results for solving nonlinear, non-differentiable and multi-modal optimization problems in the power systems area. Differential evolution (DE) is a simple and efficient evolutionary algorithm for function optimization over continuous spaces. It has reportedly outperformed search heuristics when tested over both benchmark and real world problems. This paper proposes improved DE algorithms for solving economic load dispatch problems that take into account nonlinear generator features such as ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones in the power system operation. The DE algorithms and its variants are validated for two test systems consisting of 6 and 15 thermal units. Various DE approaches outperforms other state of the art algorithms reported in the literature in solving load dispatch problems with generator constraints

  11. An optimization approach for wind turbine commitment and dispatch in a wind park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano, Carlos F. [School of Engineering Systems, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia); Pecas Lopes, Joao A. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 378 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes an operational optimization strategy to be adopted at the wind park control level, that enables defining the commitment of wind turbines and their active and reactive power outputs following requests from Wind Park Dispatch Centers, assuming that individual wind turbines short-term wind speed forecasts are known and are expressed as power availability. This operational strategy was also developed with a concern on the minimization of the connection/disconnection changes of the individual wind generators, for a given time horizon. When identifying the active/reactive dispatching policies, wind generators loading capabilities are also taken in account. This optimization tool is especially suited to manage large wind parks. (author)

  12. An association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan. The nationwide data on emergency dispatches of ambulance for cardiovascular diseases classified as I00-I99 by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision in 30 Japanese prefectures between April 1 and December 31, in 2010 were analyzed. Data on weather variability including PM 2.5 , temperature and relative humidity were acquired from ambient air pollution monitoring stations. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of PM 2.5 on morbidity, and adjust for confounding factors. A meta-analysis was then applied to pool estimates at the 30-prefecture level. A total of 160,566 emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases were reported during the study period. The risk of emergency ambulance dispatch for cardiovascular diseases significantly increased with an increase in the exposure to PM 2.5 in Fukuoka and Iwate Prefectures. However, we found no statistically significant associations between PM 2.5 and emergency ambulance dispatches in the pooled analysis (odds ratio 1.00, 95 % confidence interval 0.99-1.00). Heterogeneity was not observed between prefectures (Cochran Q test, p = 0.187, I 2  = 18.4 %). Exposure to PM 2.5 is not associated with overall emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

  13. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model untuk Optimalisasi Jumlah Bus Transjakarta Koridor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly. 

  14. Mobile-phone dispatch of laypersons for CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringh, Mattias; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Hollenberg, Jacob; Jonsson, Martin; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Hasselqvist-Ax, Ingela; Riva, Gabriel; Svensson, Leif

    2015-06-11

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is associated with increased survival rates among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated whether rates of bystander-initiated CPR could be increased with the use of a mobile-phone positioning system that could instantly locate mobile-phone users and dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR to a patient nearby with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in Stockholm from April 2012 through December 2013. A mobile-phone positioning system that was activated when ambulance, fire, and police services were dispatched was used to locate trained volunteers who were within 500 m of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; volunteers were then dispatched to the patients (the intervention group) or not dispatched to them (the control group). The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR before the arrival of ambulance, fire, and police services. A total of 5989 lay volunteers who were trained in CPR were recruited initially, and overall 9828 were recruited during the study. The mobile-phone positioning system was activated in 667 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: 46% (306 patients) in the intervention group and 54% (361 patients) in the control group. The rate of bystander-initiated CPR was 62% (188 of 305 patients) in the intervention group and 48% (172 of 360 patients) in the control group (absolute difference for intervention vs. control, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 6 to 21; PCPR was associated with significantly increased rates of bystander-initiated CPR among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and Stockholm County; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01789554.).

  15. A new honey bee mating optimization algorithm for non-smooth economic dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Mojarrad, Hasan Doagou; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani

    2011-01-01

    The non-storage characteristics of electricity and the increasing fuel costs worldwide call for the need to operate the systems more economically. Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important optimization problems in power systems. ED has the objective of dividing the power demand among the online generators economically while satisfying various constraints. The importance of economic dispatch is to get maximum usable power using minimum resources. To solve the static ED problem, honey bee mating algorithm (HBMO) can be used. The basic disadvantage of the original HBMO algorithm is the fact that it may miss the optimum and provide a near optimum solution in a limited runtime period. In order to avoid this shortcoming, we propose a new method that improves the mating process of HBMO and also, combines the improved HBMO with a Chaotic Local Search (CLS) called Chaotic Improved Honey Bee Mating Optimization (CIHBMO). The proposed algorithm is used to solve ED problems taking into account the nonlinear generator characteristics such as prohibited operation zones, multi-fuel and valve-point loading effects. The CIHBMO algorithm is tested on three test systems and compared with other methods in the literature. Results have shown that the proposed method is efficient and fast for ED problems with non-smooth and non-continuous fuel cost functions. Moreover, the optimal power dispatch obtained by the algorithm is superior to previous reported results. -- Research highlights: →Economic dispatch. →Reducing electrical energy loss. →Saving electrical energy. →Optimal operation.

  16. Dispatched and Scube Mediate the Efficient Secretion of the Cholesterol-Modified Hedgehog Ligand

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Tukachinsky; Ryan P. Kuzmickas; Cindy Y. Jao; Jing Liu; Adrian Salic

    2012-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays critical roles in metazoan development and in cancer. How the Hedgehog ligand is secreted and spreads to distant cells is unclear, given its covalent modification with a hydrophobic cholesterol molecule, which makes it stick to membranes. We demonstrate that Hedgehog ligand secretion from vertebrate cells is accomplished via two distinct and synergistic cholesterol-dependent binding events, one mediated by the membrane protein Dispatched and the other by a...

  17. Decision-Making in Pediatric Transport Team Dispatch Using Script Concordance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapreyar, Prakadeshwari; Marcdante, Karen; Zhang, Liyun; Simpson, Pippa; Meyer, Michael T

    2017-11-01

    Our objective was to compare decision-making in dispatching pediatric transport teams by Medical Directors of pediatric transport teams (serving as experts) to that of Pediatric Intensivists and Critical Care fellows who often serve as Medical Control physicians. Understanding decision-making around team composition and dispatch could impact clinical management, cost effectiveness, and educational needs. Survey was developed using Script Concordance Testing guidelines. The survey contained 15 transport case vignettes covering 20 scenarios (45 questions). Eleven scenarios assessed impact of intrinsic patient factors (e.g., procedural needs), whereas nine assessed extrinsic factors (e.g., weather). Pediatric Critical Care programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (the United States). Pediatric Intensivists and senior Critical Care fellows at Pediatric Critical Care programs were the target population with Transport Medical Directors serving as the expert panel. None. Survey results were scored per Script Concordance Testing guidelines. Concordance within groups was assessed using simple percentage agreement. There was little concordance in decision-making by Transport Medical Directors (median Script Concordance Testing percentage score [interquartile range] of 33.9 [30.4-37.3]). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between the median Script Concordance Testing scores among the senior fellows and Pediatric Intensivists (31.1 [29.6-33.2] vs 29.7 [28.3-32.3], respectively; p = 0.12). Transport Medical Directors were more concordant on reasoning involving intrinsic patient factors rather than extrinsic factors (10/21 vs 4/24). Our study demonstrates pediatric transport team dispatch decision-making discordance by pediatric critical care physicians of varying levels of expertise and experience. Script Concordance Testing at a local level may better elucidate standards in medical decision-making within

  18. Commitment and dispatch of heat and power units via affinely adjustable robust optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    compromising computational tractability. We perform an extensive numerical study based on data from the Copenhagen area in Denmark, which highlights important features of the proposed model. Firstly, we illustrate commitment and dispatch choices that increase conservativeness in the robust optimization...... and conservativeness of the solution. Finally, we perform a thorough comparison with competing models based on deterministic optimization and stochastic programming. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Using Markov Decision Processes with Heterogeneous Queueing Systems to Examine Military MEDEVAC Dispatching Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    POLICIES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology...dispatching policy and three practitioner-friendly myopic baseline policies. Two computational experiments, a two-level, five-factor screening design and a...over, an open question exists concerning the best exact solution approach for solving Markov decision problems due to recent advances in performance by

  20. Adaptation of Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA to Dispatch Operations (DOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Khoshkhoo

    2018-01-01

    Originality/value: Potential applications of this research include the better threat and error management in OCC with the implementation of DOSA as well as identification of threats and errors types for FOOs in OCC. Also distribution of threats and errors in different phases of dispatch shift is discussed, therefore syllabuses of training courses can be provided with respect to threat and error types for flight operations officers.

  1. Multiobjective Economic Load Dispatch in 3-D Space by Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N. K.; Nangia, Uma; Singh, Iqbal

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the application of genetic algorithm to Multiobjective Economic Load Dispatch (MELD) problem considering fuel cost, transmission losses and environmental pollution as objective functions. The MELD problem has been formulated using constraint method. The non-inferior set for IEEE 5, 14 and 30-bus system has been generated by using genetic algorithm and the target point has been obtained by using maximization of minimum relative attainments.

  2. Information support for decision making on dispatching control of water distribution in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, I. F.

    2018-05-01

    The research has been carried out on developing the technique of supporting decision making for on-line control, operational management of water allocation for the interfarm irrigation projects basing on the analytical patterns of dispatcher control. This technique provides an increase of labour productivity as well as higher management quality due to the improved level of automation, as well as decision making optimization taking into account diagnostics of the issues, solutions classification, information being required to the decision makers.

  3. Transforming PV installations toward dispatchable, schedulable energy solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa [AE Solar Energy, Inc., Ft. Collins, Co (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Advanced Energy led SEGIS-AC program represents an industry partnership driven collaborative effort to continue to lower the barriers to increasing penetration of PV on the grid while also lowering overall system cost consistent with the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SEGIS-AC program follows the DOE sponsored three year SEGIS program, which had similar high level goals, but with a broader exploratory scope. In SEGIS-AC, the team carries forward a new communications based islanding detection technology developed during the SEGIS program. Advanced utility interactive controls are further developed, and a storage inverter system is developed focused on intermittency mitigation due to cloud induced transients. Communications based island detection coupled with advanced controls and a storage system are shown to improve utility distribution feeder performance and to enable increased solar PV penetration levels. By the conclusion of the program, multiple utilities and customers have expressed awareness and desire to make use of the technologies developed and demonstrated under this program. This factor has led the Advanced Energy led team to deem the program an overall success. The report following details the technologies developed and demonstrated, as well as industry engagement.

  4. Excess 129Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of 129 Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these 129 Xe excesses have been thought to be related to 129 I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial 129 Xe excesses based on the production of 129 I from the spontaneous fission of 238 U

  5. Economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under CHP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rist, Johannes F.; Dias, Miguel F.; Palman, Michael; Zelazo, Daniel; Cukurel, Beni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Economic dispatch of a micro gas turbine is considered for smart grid integration. •A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted for variable load CHP operation. •Benefits are shown for case studies with real demand profiles and energy tariffs. •Optimal unit schedule can be electricity, heat, revenue or maintenance-cost driven. -- Abstract: This work considers the economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under combined heat and power (CHP) operation. A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted on a representative micro-gas turbine unit with non-constant component efficiencies and recuperator bypass. Based on partial and full load configurations, an accurate optimization model is developed for solving the economic dispatch problem of integrating the turbine into the grid. The financial benefit and viability of this approach is then examined on four detailed scenarios using real data on energy demand profiles and electricity tariffs. The analysis considers the optimal operation in a large hotel, a full-service restaurant, a small hotel, and a residential neighborhood during various seasons. The optimal schedule follows four fundamental economic drivers which are electricity, heat, revenue, and maintenance-cost driven.

  6. A Power System Optimal Dispatch Strategy Considering the Flow of Carbon Emissions and Large Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.

  7. Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA-based approach that has the ability to adapt to a stochastic environment is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a modified IEEE 30 bus system. It is compared with continuous action-set learning automata and particle swarm optimization-based approaches in terms of convergence characteristics, computational efficiency, and solution quality. Simulation results show that the proposed FALA-based approach was indeed capable of more efficiently obtaining the approximately optimal solution. In addition, by using an optimal dispatch schedule for the interaction between electric vehicle stations and power systems, it is possible to reduce the gap between demand and power generation at different times of the day.

  8. Improving the network infeed accuracy of non-dispatchable generators with energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, Gaudenz; Korpaas, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The power output of generators based on renewable energy sources is often difficult to predict due to the non-deterministic behaviour of the energy source. Particularly in the case of wind turbines this leads to unpredicted line loading and requires balancing energy, at relatively high costs, depending on market structures. Consequently, the income from the production from such non-dispatchable generators can be significantly reduced by the penalty costs incurred. This paper investigates the potential of operating an energy storage device in parallel with the non-dispatchable generator in order to compensate the inaccuracies of the forecasted infeed and to avoid infeed deviations. A time series based simulation methodology is discussed, suitable for any type of non-dispatchable generator. The methodology contains a procedure for simulating different forecast errors, applying an exponentially weighted moving average approach. Analysis procedures and system performance indices are introduced for the evaluation of the configuration's performance. The applicability is shown in two case studies, using measurement data from a wind turbine and from a photovoltaic system. Both case studies show that the suggested configuration considerably improves the reliability or dependability of the network infeed, in turn reducing the demand for balancing energy and back-up generation. The relation between forecast error magnitude and required energy capacity is identified and the coherence of the time series analysis is discussed. (author)

  9. Multiobjective scatter search approach with new combination scheme applied to solve environmental/economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athayde Costa e Silva, Marsil de; Klein, Carlos Eduardo; Mariani, Viviana Cocco; Santos Coelho, Leandro dos

    2013-01-01

    The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability

  10. Dispatch of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Via Advanced Automatic Collision Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hisashi; Mashiko, Kunihiro; Hara, Yoshiaki; Yagi, Takanori; Hayashida, Kazuyuki; Mashiko, Kazuki; Saito, Nobuyuki; Iida, Hiroaki; Motomura, Tomokazu; Yasumatsu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Daisuke; Hirabayashi, Atsushi; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Hirotoshi; Kunimatsu, Takaji

    2016-03-01

    Advanced automatic collision notification (AACN) is a system for predicting occupant injury from collision information. If the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) physician can be alerted by AACN, it may be possible to reduce the time to patient contact. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of early HEMS dispatch via AACN. A full-scale validation study was conducted. A car equipped with AACN was made to collide with a wall. Immediately after the collision, the HEMS was alerted directly by the operation center, which received the information from AACN. Elapsed times were recorded and compared with those inferred from the normal, real-world HEMS emergency request process. AACN information was sent to the operation center only 7 s after the collision; the HEMS was dispatched after 3 min. The helicopter landed at the temporary helipad 18 min later. Finally, medical intervention was started 21 min after the collision. Without AACN, it was estimated that the HEMS would be requested 14 min after the collision by fire department personnel. The start of treatment was estimated to be at 32 min, which was 11 min later than that associated with the use of AACN. The dispatch of the HEMS using the AACN can shorten the start time of treatment for patients in motor vehicle collisions. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to automatically alert and activate the HEMS via AACN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuro-genetic hybrid approach for the solution of non-convex economic dispatch problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.N.; Asar, A.U.

    2009-01-01

    ED (Economic Dispatch) is non-convex constrained optimization problem, and is used for both on line and offline studies in power system operation. Conventionally, it is solved as convex problem using optimization techniques by approximating generator input/output characteristic. Curves of monotonically increasing nature thus resulting in an inaccurate dispatch. The GA (Genetic Algorithm) has been used for the solution of this problem owing to its inherent ability to address the convex and non-convex problems equally. This approach brings the solution to the global minimum region of search space in a short time and then takes longer time to converge to near optimal results. GA based hybrid approaches are used to fine tune the near optimal results produced by GA. This paper proposes NGH (Neuro Genetic Hybrid) approach to solve the economic dispatch with valve point effect. The proposed approach combines the GA with the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) using SI (Swarm Intelligence) learning rule. The GA acts as a global optimizer and the neural network fine tunes the GA results to the desired targets. Three machines standard test system has been tested for validation of the approach. Comparing the results with GA and NGH model based on back-propagation learning, the proposed approach gives contrast improvements showing the promise of the approach. (author)

  12. A solution to the economic dispatch using EP based SA algorithm on large scale power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of EEE, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry 605 014 (India)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new approach for solving the Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) using an integrated algorithm based on Evolutionary Programming (EP) and Simulated Annealing (SA) on large scale power system. Classical methods employed for solving Economic Load Dispatch are calculus-based. For generator units having quadratic fuel cost functions, the classical techniques ignore or flatten out the portions of the incremental fuel cost curves and so may be have difficulties in the determination of the global optimum solution for non-differentiable fuel cost functions. To overcome these problems, the intelligent techniques, namely, Evolutionary Programming and Simulated Annealing are employed. The above said optimization techniques are capable of determining the global or near global optimum dispatch solutions. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed integrated algorithm has been tested with 66-bus Indian utility system, IEEE 5-bus, 30-bus, 118-bus system. And the test results are compared with the results obtained from other methods. Numerical results show that the proposed integrated algorithm can provide accurate solutions within reasonable time for any type of fuel cost functions. (author)

  13. Dispatching Plan Based on Route Optimization Model Considering Random Wind for Aviation Emergency Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emergency rescue is an effective means of nature disaster relief that is widely used in many countries. The dispatching plan of aviation emergency rescue guarantees the efficient implementation of this relief measure. The conventional dispatching plan that does not consider random wind factors leads to a nonprecise quick-responsive scheme and serious safety issues. In this study, an aviation emergency rescue framework that considers the influence of random wind at flight trajectory is proposed. In this framework, the predicted wind information for a disaster area is updated by using unscented Kalman filtering technology. Then, considering the practical scheduling problem of aircraft emergency rescue at present, a multiobjective model is established in this study. An optimization model aimed at maximizing the relief supply satisfaction, rescue priority satisfaction, and minimizing total rescue flight distance is formulated. Finally, the transport times of aircraft with and without the influence of random wind are analyzed on the basis of the data of an earthquake disaster area. Results show that the proposed dispatching plan that considers the constraints of updated wind speed and direction is highly applicable in real operations.

  14. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  15. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  19. Effects of high ambient temperature on ambulance dispatches in different age groups in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuya; Ueda, Kayo; Seposo, Xerxes; Yasukochi, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ono, Masaji; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2018-01-01

    The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group. Specifically, we explored the optimum temperature, at which the relative health risks were found to be the lowest, and quantified the health risk associated with higher temperatures among different age groups. We used the data for ambulance dispatches in Fukuoka, Japan, during May and September from 2005 to 2012. The data were grouped according to age in 20-year increments. We explored the pattern of the association of ambulance dispatches with temperature using a smoothing spline curve to identify the optimum temperature for each age group. Then, we applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the risks of the 85th-95th percentile temperature relative to the overall optimum temperature, for each age group. The relative risk of ambulance dispatches at the 85th and 95th percentile temperature for all ages was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.12] and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.16), respectively. In comparison, among age groups, the optimum temperature was observed as 25.0°C, 23.2°C, and 25.3°C for those aged 0-19, 60-79, and ≥80, respectively. The optimum temperature could not be determined for those aged 20-39 and 40-59. The relative risks of high temperature tended to be higher for those aged 20-39 and 40-59 than those for other age groups. We did not find any definite difference in the effect of high temperature on ambulance dispatches for different age groups. However, more measures should be taken for younger and middle-aged people to avoid heat-related illnesses.

  20. Smart households: Dispatch strategies and economic analysis of distributed energy storage for residential peak shaving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cost-effectiveness of building-based storage for peak shaving has hitherto not been well understood. • Several existing storage technologies are shown to provide cost-effective peak shaving. • Setting grid demand targets rather than hard demand limits improves economics. • Accounting for seasonal demand variations in storage dispatch strategy improves economics further. • Total-energy-throughput approach is used to determine storage lifetimes. - Abstract: Meeting time-varying peak demand poses a key challenge to the U.S. electricity system. Building-based electricity storage – to enable demand response (DR) without curtailing actual appliance usage – offers potential benefits of lower electricity production cost, higher grid reliability, and more flexibility to integrate renewables. DR tariffs are currently available in the U.S. but building-based storage is still underutilized due to insufficiently understood cost-effectiveness and dispatch strategies. Whether DR schemes can yield a profit for building operators (i.e., reduction in electricity bill that exceeds levelized storage cost) and which particular storage technology yields the highest profit is yet to be answered. This study aims to evaluate the economics of providing peak shaving DR under a realistic tariff (Con Edison, New York), using a range of storage technologies (conventional and advanced batteries, flywheel, magnetic storage, pumped hydro, compressed air, and capacitors). An agent-based stochastic model is used to randomly generate appliance-level demand profiles for an average U.S. household. We first introduce a levelized storage cost model which is based on a total-energy-throughput lifetime. We then develop a storage dispatch strategy which optimizes the storage capacity and the demand limit on the grid. We find that (i) several storage technologies provide profitable DR; (ii) annual profit from such DR can range from 1% to 39% of the household’s non-DR electricity

  1. Introduction to the use of FRAM on the effectiveness assessment of a radiopharmaceutical dispatches process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ana G.A.A., E-mail: agaap@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This article aims to make an introduction to the use of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) on the effectiveness assessment of a specific radiopharmaceutical dispatching process. The main purpose was to provide a didactic view of the method application to further in-depth analysis. The investigation also provided a relevant body of knowledge of radiopharmaceuticals dispatches processes. This work uses the term 'effectiveness assessment' instead of 'risk assessment' due to the broader meaning the former provide. The radiopharmaceutical dispatching process is the final task of a dynamic system designed to attend several medical facilities. It is comprised by functions involving mostly human activities, such as checking and packaging the product and measuring the radiopharmaceutical nuclear activity. Although the dispatch process has well-known steps for its completion, the human factor is the fundamental mechanism of work and control, being susceptible of irregular and instable performance. As a socio-technical system, the risk assessment provided by FRAM may be of importance for safety and quality improvements, even more if considered the nuclear nature of the product, which makes risk assessment critical and mandatory. A system is safe if it is resistant and resilient to perturbations. Identification and assessment of possible risks is, therefore, an essential prerequisite for system safety. Although this seems obvious, most risk assessments are conducted under relative ignorance of the full behavior of the system. Such condition has lead to an approach to assess the risks of intractable systems (i.e., systems that are incompletely described or under specified), namely Resilience Engineering. Into this area, the Functional Resonance Analysis Method has been developed in order to provide concepts, terminology and a set of methods capable of dealing with such systems. The study was conducted following the Functional Resonance Analysis

  2. Merger of two dispatch centres: does it improve quality and patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Alexandre; Mettler, Annette; Fuchs, Vincent; Hanhart, Walter; Robert, Claude-François; Della Santa, Vincent; Dami, Fabrice

    2017-04-13

    Dispatch centres (DCs) are considered an essential but expensive component of many highly developed healthcare systems. The number of DCs in a country, region, or state is usually based on local history and often related to highly decentralised healthcare systems. Today, current technology (Global Positioning System or Internet access) abolishes the need for closeness between DCs and the population. Switzerland went from 22 DCs in 2006 to 17 today. This study describes from a quality and patient safety point of view the merger of two DCs. The study analysed the performance (over and under-triage) of two medical DCs for 12 months prior to merging and for 12 months again after the merger in 2015. Performance was measured comparing the priority level chosen by dispatcher and the severity of cases assessed by paramedics on site using the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) score. We ruled that NACA score > 3 (injuries/diseases which can possibly lead to deterioration of vital signs) to 7 (lethal injuries/diseases) should require a priority dispatch with lights and siren (L&S). While NACA score  3. Prior to merging, Dispatch A had a sensitivity/specificity regarding the use of lights and sirens and severity of cases of 86%/48% with over- and under-triage rates of 78% and 5%, respectively. Dispatch B had sensitivity and specificity of 92%/20% and over- and under-triage rates of 84% and 7%, respectively. After they merged, global sensitivity/specificity reached 87%/67%, and over- and under-triage rates were 71% and 3%, respectively CONCLUSIONS: A part the potential cost advantage achieved by the merger of two DCs, it can improve the quality of services to the population, reducing over- and under-triage and the use of lights and sirens and therefore, the risk of accidents. This is especially the case when a DC with poor triage performance merges with a high-performing DC.

  3. Introduction to the use of FRAM on the effectiveness assessment of a radiopharmaceutical dispatches process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Ana G.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to make an introduction to the use of Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) on the effectiveness assessment of a specific radiopharmaceutical dispatching process. The main purpose was to provide a didactic view of the method application to further in-depth analysis. The investigation also provided a relevant body of knowledge of radiopharmaceuticals dispatches processes. This work uses the term 'effectiveness assessment' instead of 'risk assessment' due to the broader meaning the former provide. The radiopharmaceutical dispatching process is the final task of a dynamic system designed to attend several medical facilities. It is comprised by functions involving mostly human activities, such as checking and packaging the product and measuring the radiopharmaceutical nuclear activity. Although the dispatch process has well-known steps for its completion, the human factor is the fundamental mechanism of work and control, being susceptible of irregular and instable performance. As a socio-technical system, the risk assessment provided by FRAM may be of importance for safety and quality improvements, even more if considered the nuclear nature of the product, which makes risk assessment critical and mandatory. A system is safe if it is resistant and resilient to perturbations. Identification and assessment of possible risks is, therefore, an essential prerequisite for system safety. Although this seems obvious, most risk assessments are conducted under relative ignorance of the full behavior of the system. Such condition has lead to an approach to assess the risks of intractable systems (i.e., systems that are incompletely described or under specified), namely Resilience Engineering. Into this area, the Functional Resonance Analysis Method has been developed in order to provide concepts, terminology and a set of methods capable of dealing with such systems. The study was conducted following the Functional Resonance Analysis Method. At first, the

  4. Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    highly charged ions of the solar wind. The main challenge in predicting the resultant photon flux in the X-ray energy bands is due to the...Newton, an X-ray astronomical observatory. We use OMNI solar wind conditions, heavy ion composition data from ACE, the Hodges neutral hydrogen model...of SWEEP was to compare theoretical models of X-ray emission in the terrestrial magnetosphere caused by the Solar Wind Charge Exchange

  5. The environmental and cost implications of solar energy preferences in Renewable Portfolio Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novacheck, Joshua; Johnson, Jeremiah X.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) include preferences for solar generation, with goals of increasing the generation diversity, reducing solar costs, and encouraging local solar industries. Depending on their policy design, these preferences can impact the RPS program costs and emissions reduction. This study evaluates the impact of these policies on costs and emissions, coupling an economic dispatch model with optimized renewable site selection. Three policy designs of an increased RPS in Michigan are investigated: (1) 20% Solar Carve-Out, (2) 5% Distributed Generation Solar Carve-Out, and (3) 3× Solar Multiplier. The 20% Solar Carve-Out scenario was found to increase RPS costs 28%, while the 5% Distributed Generation Solar Carve-Out increased costs by 34%. Both of these solar preferences had minimal impact on total emissions. The 3× Solar Multiplier decreases total RPS program costs by 39%, but adds less than half of the total renewable generation of the other cases, significantly increasing emissions of CO_2, NO_x, and SO_2 relative to an RPS without the solar credit multiplier. Sensitivity analysis of the installed cost of solar and the natural gas price finds small changes in the results of the Carve-Out cases, with a larger impact on the 3× Solar Multiplier. - Highlights: • A unit commitment and economic dispatch model is used to assess Renewable Portfolio Standard expansion. • The impact of solar carve-outs and multipliers on costs and benefits of Renewable Portfolio Standards are analyzed. • Solar carve-outs increase costs and have minimal impact on emissions. • The solar multiplier decreases total renewable energy expansion. • The multiplier decreases the emissions reduction potential of the Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  6. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  7. Low-Carbon Economic Dispatching for Power Grid Integrated with Carbon Capture Power Plants and Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Siqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission characteristics of all kinds of power units are analyzed against the background of the low carbon economy. This paper introduces carbon trading in the dispatching model, gives full consideration to the benefit or cost of carbon emission and introduces carbon emission in the dispatching model as a decision variable so as to achieve the unity of the economy and the environmental protection of the dispatching model. A low carbon economic dispatching model is established based on multiple objectives, such as the lowest thermal power generation cost, the lowest carbon trading cost and the lowest carbon capture power plant operation cost. Load equalization, output constraint of power unit, ramping constraint, spinning reserve constraint and carbon capture efficiency constraint should be taken into account in terms of constraint conditions. The model is solved by the particle swarm optimization based on dynamic exchange and density distance. The fact that the introduction of carbon trading can effectively reduce the level of carbon emission and increase the acceptance level of wind power is highlighted through the comparison of the results of three models’ computational examples. With the carbon trading mechanism, carbon capture power plants with new technologies are able to give full play to the advantage of reducing carbon emission and wind curtailment so as to promote the development of the energy conservation and emission reduction technology and reduce the total cost of the dispatching system.

  8. A novel protocol for dispatcher assisted CPR improves CPR quality and motivation among rescuers-A randomized controlled simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Stinne Eika; Nebsbjerg, Mette Amalie; Krogh, Lise Qvirin; Bjørnshave, Katrine; Krogh, Kristian; Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Kirkegaard, Hans; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Emergency dispatchers use protocols to instruct bystanders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Studies changing one element in the dispatcher's protocol report improved CPR quality. Whether several changes interact is unknown and the effect of combining multiple changes previously reported to improve CPR quality into one protocol remains to be investigated. We hypothesize that a novel dispatch protocol, combining multiple beneficial elements improves CPR quality compared with a standard protocol. A novel dispatch protocol was designed including wording on chest compressions, using a metronome, regular encouragements and a 10-s rest each minute. In a simulated cardiac arrest scenario, laypersons were randomized to perform single-rescuer CPR guided with the novel or the standard protocol. a composite endpoint of time to first compression, hand position, compression depth and rate and hands-off time (maximum score: 22 points). Afterwards participants answered a questionnaire evaluating the dispatcher assistance. The novel protocol (n=61) improved CPR quality score compared with the standard protocol (n=64) (mean (SD): 18.6 (1.4)) points vs. 17.5 (1.7) points, pCPR. A novel bundle of care protocol improved CPR quality score and motivation among rescuers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  10. Origin and evolution of life on terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A; Horneck, G; Cockell, C S; Bérces, A; Belisheva, N K; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to the origin of life on Earth must be studied if we hope to understand the principles of how life might evolve on other terrestrial planets in the Universe. This is not just an anthropocentric point of view: the basic ingredients of terrestrial life, that is, reduced carbon-based molecules and liquid H(2)O, have very specific properties. We discuss the origin of life from the chemical evolution of its precursors to the earliest life-forms and the biological implications of the stellar radiation and energetic particle environments. Likewise, the study of the biological evolution that has generated the various life-forms on Earth provides clues toward the understanding of the interconnectedness of life with its environment.

  11. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 571, March 1992. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for February, January 1992 and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1992-03-01

    The contents include: Detailed index for 1991-1992; Data for February 1992--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (advance and worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; Data for January 1992--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Cosmic rays Climax and Huancayo Jul-Dec 91, Sudden Commencements Jun-Aug 91, and Geomagnetic indices Dec 91

  12. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  13. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  14. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  15. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  16. An improved control method of battery energy storage system for hourly dispatch of photovoltaic power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Control of BES for smoothing and hourly dispatch of a PV farm output is developed. • Optimal control strategy for SOC and size of BES are evaluated using GA. • Effectiveness of the control system has been investigated for the case of Malaysia. • The proposed optimal SOC feedback controller has been found effective. • Payback calculations of BES investment is given to highlight the economic benefits. - Abstract: The effects of intermittent cloud and changes in temperature cause a randomly fluctuated output of a photovoltaic (PV) system. To mitigate the PV system impacts particularly on a weak electricity network, battery energy storage (BES) system is an effective means to smooth out the power fluctuations. Consequently, the net power injected to the electricity grid by PV and BES (PV/BES) systems can be dispatched smoothly such as on an hourly basis. This paper presents an improved control strategy for a grid-connected hybrid PV/BES systems for mitigating PV farm output power fluctuations. A feedback controller for BES state of charge is proposed, where the control parameters are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). GA-based multi objective optimization utilizes the daily average PV farm output power profile which was obtained from simulation using the historical PV system input data of Malaysia. In this way, the optimal size for the BES is also determined to hourly dispatch a 1.2 MW PV farm. A case study for Malaysia is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using PSCAD/EMTDC software package. Furthermore, the validation of results of the proposed controller and BES size on the actual PV system output data are also given. Finally, a simple payback calculation is presented to study the economical aspects of the BES investment on the proposed mitigation strategy under Malaysian Feed-in Tariff program

  17. Optimal economic dispatch of FC-CHP based heat and power micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari-Heris, Morteza; Abapour, Saeed; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi objective economic/environmental heat and power MG dispatch is solved. • The heat and power MG include FC, CHP, boiler, storage system, and heat buffer tank. • Multi objective scheduling of heat and power MG is solved using ε-constraint method. • DR program is employed in the stochastic programming of heat and power MG dispatch. • The uncertainties for load demand and price signals are taken into account. - Abstract: Micro-grids (MGs) are introduced as a solution for distributed energy resource (DER) units and energy storage systems (ESSs) to participate in providing the required electricity demand of controllable and non-controllable loads. In this paper, the authors study the short-term scheduling of grid-connected industrial heat and power MG which contains a fuel cell (FC) unit, combined heat and power (CHP) generation units, power-only unit, boiler, battery storage system, and heat buffer tank. The paper is aimed to solve the multi-objective MG dispatch problem containing cost and emission minimization with the considerations of demand response program and uncertainties. A probabilistic framework based on a scenario method, which is considered for load demand and price signals, is employed to overcome the uncertainties in the optimal energy management of the MG. In order to reduce operational cost, time-of-use rates of demand response programs have been modeled, and the effects of such programs on the load profile have been discussed. To solve the multi-objective optimization problem, the ε-constraint method is used and a fuzzy satisfying approach has been employed to select the best compromise solution. Three cases are studied in this research to confirm the performance of the proposed method: islanded mode, grid-connected mode, and the impact of time of the use-demand response program on MG scheduling.

  18. The effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction: animation versus dispatcher through a cellular phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choa, Minhong; Park, Incheol; Chung, Hyun Soo; Yoo, Sun K; Shim, Hoshik; Kim, Seungho

    2008-04-01

    We developed a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction programme using motion capture animation integrated into cellular phones. We compared the effectiveness of animation-assisted CPR instruction with dispatcher-assisted instruction in participants with no previous CPR training. This study was a single blind cluster randomized trial. Participants were allocated to either animation-assisted CPR (AA-CPR; 8 clusters, 44 participants) group or dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR; 8 clusters, 41 participants). The overall performance and time of each step of CPR cycle were recorded on a checklist by 3 assessors. The objective performances were evaluated using the Resusci Anne SkillReporter Manikin. Differences between the groups were compared using an independent t-test adjusted for the effect of clustering. The AA-CPR group had a significantly better checklist score (pCPR cycle (pCPR group. In an objective assessment of psychomotor skill, the AA-CPR group demonstrated more accurate hand positioning (68.8+/-3.6%, p=0.033) and compression rate (72.4+/-3.7%, p=0.015) than DA-CPR group. However, the accuracy of compression depth (p=0.400), ventilation volume (p=0.977) and flow rate (p=0.627) were below 30% in both groups. Audiovisual animated CPR instruction through a cellular phone resulted in better scores in checklist assessment and time interval compliance in participants without CPR skill compared to those who received CPR instructions from a dispatcher; however, the accuracy of important psychomotor skill measures was unsatisfactory in both groups.

  19. How effectively can young people perform dispatcher-instructed cardiopulmonary resuscitation without training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Matthew; Swain, Andrew; Dunning, Andrew; Baine, Julie; Burrowes, Corey

    2015-05-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is increased by bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Bystander performance can be improved when CPR instructions are delivered by a calltaker at the Emergency Communications Centre. Little is known about a young person's ability to understand these instructions and perform CPR correctly. We assessed the ability of a group of untrained young people to effectively apply these directions to an adult resuscitation manikin. 87 youngsters aged 7-15 years with no previous training in CPR were separately equipped with a mobile phone and an adult assessment manikin. They phoned the emergency number (111) and were automatically diverted to a senior emergency medical dispatcher (EMD). The EMD delivered resuscitation instructions which complied fully with Medical Priority Dispatch System (version 12.1). Performance was monitored using a Laerdal Computerised Skill Reporting System. Average compression depth increased with age from 10.3 mm to 30 mm for 8 and 15 year olds respectively. 100 compressions per minute was achieved in youngsters aged 10 years and older but the rate fatigued over time and improved after interruption for two ventilations. Those aged 11 years and older consistently compressed the chest from 31 mm to 50mm. Only one participant could successfully ventilate the manikin by mouth-to-mouth. This study demonstrates that untrained youngsters should perform compression-only CPR. From 11 years of age, they can effectively perform dispatcher-directed CPR by compressing the chest at an appropriate rate and depth. However, their technique benefits from formal training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the value of availability and dispatchability in IPP contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporeale, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Consolidated Edison's resource plan relies on power from Independent Power Producers (IPPs) for a portion of future generation requirements. The additional restriction of obtaining this capacity through a bidding process requires the utility to evaluate a large number of potential contracts with different combinations of price, availability, and dispatchability. This paper discusses the theoretical considerations and outlines the methodology adopted for Consolidated Edison's first request for proposal. The value of an IPP contract is a function of the variable energy cost compared to the system avoided costs. For example, there is a value for availability only in those hours when contract cost is below the avoided cost and there is a penalty for non-dispatchability only in those hours when the contract cost is higher than the avoided cost. The best method to determine the value of an IPP contract would be to simulate the operation of the system with and without the IPP purchase using a perfect production cost model. In reality no model is perfect and there are trade-offs because not all aspects of system operation are captured. Performing a detailed production cost simulation for every proposal would be burdensome. Therefore, it was decided that a simplified methodology was needed. An additional benefit of a simplified approach is that the IPPs could score their own proposals and use this value as input into their final pricing scheme. The method developed relies on detailed production cost simulations to generate hourly avoided costs. A comparison of these avoided costs to the IPP variable costs becomes the basis for the calculation of the value of availability or dispatchability. This methodology can be applied consistently to all supply side resources; baseload or peaking, gas, oil or coal fired. This allows for the evaluation of all bid proposals on an equal basis

  1. Temporal variations in dispatcher-assisted and bystander-initiated resuscitation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Akira; Maeda, Tetsuo; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Wato, Yukihiro; Ohta, Keisuke; Inaba, Hideo

    2018-04-03

    To investigate temporal variations in dispatcher-assisted and bystander-initiated resuscitation efforts and their association with survival after bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). We retrospectively analyzed the neurologically favorable 1-month survival and the parameters related to dispatcher assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) and bystander CPR (BCPR) for 227,524 OHCA patients between 2007 and 2013 in Japan. DA-CPR sensitivity for OHCAs, bystander's compliance to DA-CPR assessed by the proportion of bystanders who follow DA-CPR, and performance of BCPR measured by the rate of bystander-initiated CPR in patients without DA-CPR were calculated as indices of resuscitation efforts. Performance of BCPR was only similar to temporal variations in the survival (correlation between hourly paired values, R 2 =0.263, P=0.01): a lower survival rate (3.4% vs 4.2%) and performance of BCPR (23.1% vs 30.8%) during night-time (22:00-5:59) than during non-night-time. In subgroup analyses based on interaction tests, all three indices deteriorated during night-time when OHCAs were witnessed by non-family (adjusted odds ratio, 0.73-0.82), particularly in non-elderly patients. The rate of public access defibrillation for these OHCAs markedly decreased during night-time (adjusted odds ratio, 0.49) with delayed emergency calls and BCPR initiation. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that the survival rate of non-family-witnessed OHCAs was 1.83-fold lower during night-time than during non-night-time. Dispatcher-assisted and bystander-initiated resuscitation efforts are low during night-time in OHCAs witnessed by non-family. A divisional alert system to recruit well-trained individuals is needed in order to improve the outcomes of night-time OHCAs witnessed by non-family bystanders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic multiobjective wind-thermal economic emission dispatch based on point estimated method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Niknam, Taher; Roosta, Alireza; Malekpour, Ahmad Reza; Zare, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, wind power generators are being incorporated in the multiobjective economic emission dispatch problem which minimizes wind-thermal electrical energy cost and emissions produced by fossil-fueled power plants, simultaneously. Large integration of wind energy sources necessitates an efficient model to cope with uncertainty arising from random wind variation. Hence, a multiobjective stochastic search algorithm based on 2m point estimated method is implemented to analyze the probabilistic wind-thermal economic emission dispatch problem considering both overestimation and underestimation of available wind power. 2m point estimated method handles the system uncertainties and renders the probability density function of desired variables efficiently. Moreover, a new population-based optimization algorithm called modified teaching-learning algorithm is proposed to determine the set of non-dominated optimal solutions. During the simulation, the set of non-dominated solutions are kept in an external memory (repository). Also, a fuzzy-based clustering technique is implemented to control the size of the repository. In order to select the best compromise solution from the repository, a niching mechanism is utilized such that the population will move toward a smaller search space in the Pareto-optimal front. In order to show the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed framework, three different test systems are represented as case studies. -- Highlights: ► WPGs are being incorporated in the multiobjective economic emission dispatch problem. ► 2m PEM handles the system uncertainties. ► A MTLBO is proposed to determine the set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions. ► A fuzzy-based clustering technique is implemented to control the size of the repository.

  3. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 553, September 1990. Part 1 (prompt reports). Data for August 1990, July 1990 and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1990-09-01

    ;Contents: Detailed index for 1990; Data for August 1990--Solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (Advance and Worldwide), Solar activity indices, Solar flares, Solar radio emission, Standford mean solar magnetic field; Data for July 1990--Solar active regions, Sudden ionospheric disturbances, Solar radio spectral observations, Cosmic ray measurements by neutron monitor, Geomagnetic indices; Late data--Solar radio spectral Bleien and Ondrejov Jun 90, Cosmic ray Huancayo Jun 90, Geomagnetic activity indices May-Jun 90

  4. Solar-Geophysical Data Number 546, February 1990. Part 1 (prompt reports). data for January 1990, December 1989, and late data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1990-02-01

    Contents include: detailed index for 1989-1990; data for January 1990--solar-terrestrial environment, IUWDS alert periods (advance and worldwide), solar activity indices, solar flares, solar radio emission, Stanford mean solar magnetic field; data for December 1989--solar-active regions, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar radio spectral observations, cosmic-ray measurements by neutron monitor, geomagnetic indices; late data--cosmic-ray measurements by neutron monitor, reprint of halftone-page Kitt Peak solar magnetic field synoptic chart November 1989

  5. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION FROM AN ANNULUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F., E-mail: kwalsh@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that some aspects of the terrestrial planets can be explained, particularly the Earth/Mars mass ratio, when they form from a truncated disk with an outer edge near 1.0 au. This has been previously modeled starting from an intermediate stage of growth utilizing pre-formed planetary embryos. We present simulations that were designed to test this idea by following the growth process from km-sized objects located between 0.7 and 1.0 au up to terrestrial planets. The simulations explore initial conditions where the solids in the disk are planetesimals with radii initially between 3 and 300 km, alternately including effects from a dissipating gaseous solar nebula and collisional fragmentation. We use a new Lagrangian code known as LIPAD, which is a particle-based code that models the fragmentation, accretion, and dynamical evolution of a large number of planetesimals, and can model the entire growth process from km-sizes up to planets. A suite of large (∼ Mars mass) planetary embryos is complete in only ∼1 Myr, containing most of the system mass. A quiescent period then persists for 10–20 Myr characterized by slow diffusion of the orbits and continued accretion of the remaining planetesimals. This is interrupted by an instability that leads to embryos crossing orbits and embryo–embryo impacts that eventually produce the final set of planets. While this evolution is different than that found in other works exploring an annulus, the final planetary systems are similar, with roughly the correct number of planets and good Mars-analogs.

  6. Networked and Distributed Control Method with Optimal Power Dispatch for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiang; Peng, Congbo; Chen, Minyou

    2017-01-01

    of controllable agents. The distributed control laws derived from the first subgraph guarantee the supply-demand balance, while further control laws from the second subgraph reassign the outputs of controllable distributed generators, which ensure active and reactive power are dispatched optimally. However...... according to our proposition. Finally, the method is evaluated over seven cases via simulation. The results show that the system performs as desired, even if environmental conditions and load demand fluctuate significantly. In summary, the method can rapidly respond to fluctuations resulting in optimal...

  7. Fatigue Load Sensitivity Based Optimal Active Power Dispatch For Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal active power dispatch algorithm for wind farms based on Wind Turbine (WT) load sensitivity. The control objectives include tracking power references from the system operator and minimizing fatigue loads experienced by WTs. The sensitivity of WT fatigue loads to power...... sensitivity are derived, which significantly improves the computation efficiency of the local WT controller. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in different active power control schemes. Case studies were conducted with a wind farm under balance control for both low and high wind conditions...

  8. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the operation and planning of power systems have been motivated by the introduction of Distributed Generation (DG) and Demand Response (DR) in the competitive electricity markets’ environment, with deep concerns at the efficiency level. In this context, grid operators, market...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...

  9. Fuzzy Logic based Coordinated Control of Battery Energy Storage System and Dispatchable Distributed Generation for Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Chengshan

    2015-01-01

    Microgrid is an efficient solution to integraterenewable energy sources (RES) into power systems. Inorder to deal with the intermittent characteristics of therenewable energy based distributed generation (DG) units,a fuzzy-logic based coordinated control strategy of thebattery energy storage system...... (BESS) and dispatchableDG units is proposed in this paper for the microgridmanagement system (MMS). In the proposed coordinatedcontrol strategy, the BESS is used to mitigate the activepower exchange at the point of common coupling of themicrogrid for the grid-connected operation, and is used forthe...... frequency control for the island operation. Theeffectiveness of the proposed control strategy was verifiedby case studies using DIgSILENT/PowerFactroy....

  10. A Taxonomy for Modeling Flexibility and a Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Dispatch in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Edlund, Kristian; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The word flexibility is central to Smart Grid literature, but still a formal definition of flexibility is pending. This paper present a taxonomy for flexibility modeling denoted Buckets, Batteries and Bakeries. We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant (VPP), which is given the task...... of servicing a portfolio of flexible consumers by use of a fluctuating power supply. Based on the developed taxonomy we first prove that no causal optimal dispatch strategies exist for the considered problem. We then present two heuristic algorithms for solving the balancing task: Predictive Balancing...

  11. A Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Application for Economic Environmental Dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar Hagh, M.; Baghban Orandi, Omid

    2018-03-01

    In conventional fossil-fuel power systems, the economic environmental dispatch (EED) problem is a major problem that optimally determines the output power of generating units in a way that cost of total production and emission level be minimized simultaneously, and at the same time all the constraints of units and system are satisfied properly. To solve EED problem which is a non-convex optimization problem, a modified artificial bee colony (MABC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. This algorithm by implementing weighted sum method is applied on two test systems, and eventually, obtained results are compared with other reported results. Comparison of results confirms superiority and efficiency of proposed method clearly.

  12. Novel methods for Solving Economic Dispatch of Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sangang

    2017-09-01

    There are two stages in solving security-constrained unit commitment problems (SCUC) within Lagrangian framework: one is to obtain feasible units’ states (UC), the other is power economic dispatch (ED) for each unit. The accurate solution of ED is more important for enhancing the efficiency of the solution to SCUC for the fixed feasible units’ statues. Two novel methods named after Convex Combinatorial Coefficient Method and Power Increment Method respectively based on linear programming problem for solving ED are proposed by the piecewise linear approximation to the nonlinear convex fuel cost functions. Numerical testing results show that the methods are effective and efficient.

  13. A dispatch based pricing model for the New Zealand electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, B.J.; Read, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Work undertaken for the New Zealand transmission grid is described. Prices derived from an observed system dispatch can be used in the short-run coordination of a competitive wholesale electricity market. These prices vary across space and time, reflecting differences in marginal costs and changing demand. Markets for emergency reserve generating capacity can be integrated with a market for power. Used in conjunction with longer term contracts, such short-run prices have the potential to allow competitive power system operation without significant loss of coordination efficiencies. 2 figs., 26 refs

  14. Symbiotic organisms search algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Yusuf; Kahraman, H. Tolga; Dosoglu, M. Kenan; Guvenc, Ugur; Duman, Serhat

    2017-05-01

    In this study, symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithm is proposed to solve the dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects problem, which is one of the most important problems of the modern power system. Some practical constraints like valve-point effects, ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zones have been considered as solutions. Proposed algorithm was tested on five different test cases in 5 units, 10 units and 13 units systems. The obtained results have been compared with other well-known metaheuristic methods reported before. Results show that proposed algorithm has a good convergence and produces better results than other methods.

  15. Modified Monkey Optimization Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagasabai Lenin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach Modified Monkey optimization (MMO algorithm for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem has been presented. MMO is a population based stochastic meta-heuristic algorithm and it is inspired by intelligent foraging behaviour of monkeys. This paper improves both local leader and global leader phases.  The proposed (MMO algorithm has been tested in standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results show the worthy performance of the proposed algorithm in reducing the real power loss.

  16. Voice Quality Estimation in Combined Radio-VoIP Networks for Dispatching Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality modelling assessment and planning field is deeply and widely theoretically and practically mastered for common voice communication systems, especially for the public fixed and mobile telephone networks including Next Generation Networks (NGN - internet protocol based networks. This article seeks to contribute voice quality modelling assessment and planning for dispatching communication systems based on Internet Protocol (IP and private radio networks. The network plan, correction in E-model calculation and default values for the model are presented and discussed.

  17. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  18. [Extrasolar terrestrial planets and possibility of extraterrestrial life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Shigeru

    2003-12-01

    Recent development of research on extrasolar planets are reviewed. About 120 extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets have been discovered through the observation of Doppler shift in the light of their host stars that is caused by acceleration due to planet orbital motions. Although the extrasolar planets so far observed may be limited to gas giant planets and their orbits differ from those of giant planets in our Solar system (Jupiter and Saturn), the theoretically predicted probability of existence of extrasolar terrestrial planets that can have liquid water ocean on their surface is comparable to that of detectable gas giant planets. Based on the number of extrasolar gas giants detected so far, about 100 life-sustainable planets may exist within a range of 200 light years. Indirect observation of extrasolar terrestrial planets would be done with space telescopes within several years and direct one may be done within 20 years. The latter can detect biomarkers on these planets as well.

  19. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe

  20. THE AUTOMATIC SYSTEM’S MODEL OF DECISION-MAKING SUPPORT FOR DISPATCHING CONTROL OF THE CITY PASSENGER TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lakhno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This scientific work considers the further development of mathematical models and algorithms for automatic decision support for dispatching management of the city passenger traffic. Methodology. Systems of dispatching management for the city passenger transport are to provide the carrying out of the routes according schedules with minimal deviations from the planned ones through the using of appropriate control actions. The systems’ algorithm focuses on the selection of control actions that compensate the disturbances. It is proposed to use the index of the waiting time minimum for passengers of buses and taxis at stops as a criterion for evaluating of dispatching control systems work. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis of the research within the existing theory of traffic flow of vehicles, it was proposed the model for the system of dispatching management for urban passenger moving units considering the effect of the most important stochastic factors on the schedule of buses and taxis movement in large cities. The obtained system of equations that models the parameter of movement on the bus routes allows you to assess quickly the influence of disturbing effects on the service quality indicators of passengers and, if necessary, to draw up the optimal schedule. Originality. The authors propose a new model for decision support of dispatching management for the city passenger transport. They take into account the effect of the most important stochastic factors, such as the overflowing buses and taxis, their descent from the lines, delays, deviations from the speed limit on the route, etc., on indicators of service quality, as well as optimizing the schedule. Practical value. The results allow to improve approaches to building models using in the systems of dispatching management of urban bus routes, as well as to improve the selection of control actions for similar systems in large cities of Ukraine.

  1. The relationship between airborne fine particle matter and emergency ambulance dispatches in a southwestern city in Chengdu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ruicong; Zeng, Jie; Jiang, Xianyan; Chen, Jianyu; Gao, Xufang; Zhang, Li; Li, Tiantian

    2017-01-01

    High levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) are known to cause adverse effects to human health. The goal of this study was to estimate the acute health effects of short-term exposure to ambient PM 2.5 by analyzing cause-specific emergency ambulance dispatches as the endpoint in Chengdu, a city in Sichuan Province in southwest China. The ambient PM 2.5 concentration of Chengdu reached 63 μg/m 3 in 2015. Data related to the causes of specific emergency ambulance dispatches, air pollution, and meteorological conditions were collected from 2013 to 2015 (1095 days). A generalized additive model (GAM) was constructed to control the confounding conditions and to estimate the effects of PM 2.5 on human health conditions. Emergency ambulance dispatches for all causes with (RR for lag0 = 1.0010, 95%CI: 1.0002, 1.0019) or without injuries (RR for lag0 = 1.0012, 95%CI: 1.0002, 1.0022), respiratory diseases (RR for lag0 = 1.0051, 95%CI: 1.0012, 1.0089), and cardiovascular diseases (RR for lag0 = 1.0041, 95%CI: 1.0009, 1.0074) were associated with ambient PM 2.5 concentrations in Chengdu. In addition, the effects of PM 2.5 were not confounded by ozone. - Highlights: • Short-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated to emergency ambulance dispatches. • PM 2.5 strongly affected ambulance dispatches for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. • High PM 2.5 levels induced acute health effects in Chengdu and other east China cities. - PM 2.5 strongly affected emergency ambulance dispatches for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Chengdu, a southwestern city in China.

  2. Using satellite-derived optical thickness to assess the influence of clouds on terrestrial carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Cheng; A.L. Steiner; D.Y. Hollinger; G. Bohrer; K.J. Nadelhoffer

    2016-01-01

    Clouds scatter direct solar radiation, generating diffuse radiation and altering the ratio of direct to diffuse light. If diffuse light increases plant canopy CO2 uptake, clouds may indirectly influence climate by altering the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, past research primarily uses proxies or qualitative categories of clouds to connect...

  3. Continuous grasp algorithm applied to economic dispatch problem of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2010-07-01

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)

  4. Wind Farm-LA Coordinated Operation Mode and Dispatch Model in Wind Power Accommodation Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the support of a smart grid, a load aggregator (LA that aggregates the demand response resources of small- and medium-sized customers to participate in the electricity market would be a novel way to promote wind power accommodation. This paper proposes a wind farm–LA coordinated operation mode (WLCOM, which enables LAs to deal with wind farms directly at an agreement price. Afterwards, according to the accommodation demand of the wind farm, a coordinated dispatch model taking advantage of the various response capabilities of different flexible loads is set up to maximize the revenue of the LA. A case study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed WLCOM and the coordinated dispatch model. The demonstration indicates that: (a load fluctuations and wind curtailment were obviously reduced; and (b both the LA and the wind farm participating in coordinated operation obtained higher revenues. Factors that influence the accommodation level, as well as revenues of wind farms and LA, are also investigated.

  5. Synthetic river flow time series generator for dispatch and spot price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Decision-making in electricity markets is complicated by uncertainties in demand growth, power supplies and fuel prices. In Peru, where the electrical power system is highly dependent on water resources at dams and river flows, hydrological uncertainties play a primary role in planning, price and dispatch forecast. This paper proposed a signal processing method for generating new synthetic river flow time series as a support for planning and spot market price forecasting. River flow time series are natural phenomena representing a continuous-time domain process. As an alternative synthetic representation of the original river flow time series, this proposed signal processing method preserves correlations, basic statistics and seasonality. It takes into account deterministic, periodic and non periodic components such as those due to the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The new synthetic time series has many correlations with the original river flow time series, rendering it suitable for possible replacement of the classical method of sorting historical river flow time series. As a dispatch and planning approach to spot pricing, the proposed method offers higher accuracy modeling by decomposing the signal into deterministic, periodic, non periodic and stochastic sub signals. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs

  6. Multi-Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Microgrid Systems Including Vehicle-to-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper establishes the load models of EVs under the autonomous charging mode and the coordinated charging and discharging mode. Integrating the EVs into a microgrid system which includes wind turbines (WTs, photovoltaic arrays (PVs, diesel engines (DEs, fuel cells (FCs and a storage battery (BS, this paper establishes multi-objective economic dispatch models of a microgrid, including the lowest operating cost, the least carbon dioxide emissions, and the lowest pollutant treatment cost. After converting the multi-objective functions to a single objective function by using the judgment matrix method, we analyze the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid system including vehicle-to-grid (V2G with an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm under different operation control strategies. With the example system, the proposed models and strategies are verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the microgrid system with EVs under the coordinated charging and discharging mode has better operation economics than the autonomous charging mode. Meanwhile, the greater the load fluctuation is, the higher the operating cost of the microgrid system is.

  7. An effortless hybrid method to solve economic load dispatch problem in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourakbari-Kasmaei, M.; Rashidi-Nejad, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. → The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. → Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. → Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.

  8. A new multi-objective reserve constrained combined heat and power dynamic economic emission dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Roosta, Alireza; Amiri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Combined heat and power units are playing an ever increasing role in conventional power stations due to advantages such as reduced emissions and operational cost savings. This paper investigates a more practical formulation of the complex non-convex, non-smooth and non-linear multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch that incorporates combined heat and power units. Integrating these types of units, and their power ramp constraints, require an efficient tool to cope with the joint characteristics of power and heat. Unlike previous approaches, the spinning reserve requirements of this system are clearly formulated in the problem. In this way, a new multi-objective optimisation based on an enhanced firefly algorithm is proposed to achieve a set of non-dominated (Pareto-optimal) solutions. A new tuning parameter based on a chaotic mechanism and novel self adaptive probabilistic mutation strategies are used to improve the overall performance of the algorithm. The numerical results demonstrate how the proposed framework was applied in real time studies. -- Highlights: ► Investigate a practical formulation of the DEED (Dynamic Economic Emission Dispatch). ► Consider combined heat and power units. ► Consider power ramp constraints. ► Consider the system spinning reserve requirements. ► Present a new multi-objective optimization firefly.

  9. Stochastic Optimal Dispatch of Virtual Power Plant considering Correlation of Distributed Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual power plant (VPP is an aggregation of multiple distributed generations, energy storage, and controllable loads. Affected by natural conditions, the uncontrollable distributed generations within VPP, such as wind and photovoltaic generations, are extremely random and relative. Considering the randomness and its correlation of uncontrollable distributed generations, this paper constructs the chance constraints stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP including stochastic variables and its random correlation. The probability distributions of independent wind and photovoltaic generations are described by empirical distribution functions, and their joint probability density model is established by Frank-copula function. And then, sample average approximation (SAA is applied to convert the chance constrained stochastic optimization model into a deterministic optimization model. Simulation cases are calculated based on the AIMMS. Simulation results of this paper mathematic model are compared with the results of deterministic optimization model without stochastic variables and stochastic optimization considering stochastic variables but not random correlation. Furthermore, this paper analyzes how SAA sampling frequency and the confidence level influence the results of stochastic optimization. The numerical example results show the effectiveness of the stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP considering the randomness and its correlations of distributed generations.

  10. Computer aided dispatch - a discussion of how communications technology is used to improve customer service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailes, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The use of Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) for information exchange between the corporate information network and the field personnel of the CU Gas Group was described. CAD was described as two interconnected systems; a large mainframe software system which interfaces with the radio transmission system as well as the Customer Information System (CIS), and a mini computer system which consists of mobile data terminals (MDTs), the radio hardware and the software necessary to communicate with the MDTs. Further details were given on the functionality of both the mainframe, as well as the mini computer system. Some of the functions performed by the CAD include call taking, employee calendar, work assignment, filling work, dispatching, reporting, correcting errors, providing order status information, fleet monitoring, appointments, and many others. The implementation process, the challenges faced by the communications team and their interactions with the organization was also described. The most important benefit was claimed to be improved customer service. The significance of that to corporate strategy was stressed

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The emerging technology known as concentrating solar power, or CSP, holds much promise for countries with plenty of sunshine and clear skies. Its electrical output matches well the shifting daily demand for electricity in places where airconditioning systems are spreading. When backed up by thermal storage facilities and combustible fuel, it offers utilities electricity that can be dispatched when required, enabling it to be used for base, shoulder and peak loads. Within about one to two decades, it will be able to compete with coal plants that emit high levels of CO2. The sunniest regions, such as North Africa, may be able to export surplus solar electricity to neighbouring regions, such as Europe, where demand for electricity from renewable sources is strong. In the medium-to-longer term, concentrating solar facilities can also produce hydrogen, which can be blended with natural gas, and provide low-carbon liquid fuels for transport and other end-use sectors. For CSP to claim its share of the coming energy revolution, concerted action is required over the next ten years by scientists, industry, governments, financing institutions and the public. This roadmap is intended to help drive these indispensable developments.

  12. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  13. VLF emissions in the Venus foreshock - Comparison with terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. K.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    An examination is conducted of ELF/VLF emissions observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus shock, for the 100 Hz-30 kHz range, using data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter's electric field detector and magnetometer instruments. Detailed comparisons are made with terrestrial measurements for both the electron and ion foreshocks. The results obtained support the Crawford et al. (1990) identification of the Venus electron foreshock emissions as electron plasma oscillations, whose waves are generated in situ and act to isotropize the electron distributions.

  14. Terrestrial irradiation-sunshine duration clustering and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Zekai; Oeztopal, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between terrestrial irradiance and sunshine duration is not crisp and there are scatters around a general trend, which most often is expressed to occur in the form of a linear expression. This study presents a way of grouping the solar irradiation-sunshine duration data into convenient seasonal subgroups and then makes predictions within each of the groups quantitatively. In the classical Angstroem or other approaches, the seasonal variations are not considered, and therefore, rather global parameter estimations are obtained. However, the seasonal methodology of this paper provides more detailed interpretations in addition to seasonal effects and parameter estimations

  15. Celestial chaos and terrestrial catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.; Hunt, G.; McCrea, W.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility is examined that external factors may be very important in an explanation of many of the abrupt changes on the Earth over the past few million years. The key influences of this kind in terms of effects on life on the surface of our planet are probably those that produce changes in the climate. Several such possible extraterrestrial influences which have been actively debated in recent years are here considered including; variations in the Earth's orbit, intrinsic solar variability, encounters of the Solar System with dense interstellar clouds, encounters with nearby supernovae, encounters with cometary debris, and giant solar flares. (U.K.)

  16. SOLAR SOURCES OF 3He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Mason, Glenn M.; Wang, Linghua; Cohen, Christina M. S.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Using high-cadence EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the solar sources of 26 3 He-rich solar energetic particle events at ≲1 MeV nucleon −1 that were well-observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer during solar cycle 24. Identification of the solar sources is based on the association of 3 He-rich events with type III radio bursts and electron events as observed by Wind. The source locations are further verified in EUV images from the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, which provides information on solar activities in the regions not visible from the Earth. Based on AIA observations, 3 He-rich events are not only associated with coronal jets as emphasized in solar cycle 23 studies, but also with more spatially extended eruptions. The properties of the 3 He-rich events do not appear to be strongly correlated with those of the source regions. As in the previous studies, the magnetic connection between the source region and the observer is not always reproduced adequately by the simple potential field source surface model combined with the Parker spiral. Instead, we find a broad longitudinal distribution of the source regions extending well beyond the west limb, with the longitude deviating significantly from that expected from the observed solar wind speed

  17. Solar--terrestrial relations: stone age to space age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    A historical account of auroral displays recorded since the seventh century B.C. is given. The geological history of the earth's geomagnetic dipole and mechanisms of auroral production are discussed. Archeological implications of aurorae such as folk traditions of Eskimo cultures are mentioned. 34 references

  18. Directory of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Monitoring Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-06

    5/-- ---- I sources Toc ated.ADDRE SO , ip j NFUAkTION A0/IT STATIO N . Space Environment Services Center EATA ROU TINIL P/BLISHED N............. O N...SENT TO ARC-C---- ------ DAA oEN TOC _a-A- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -DATA ARILARLE ON REQUEST--------- YES DATA -EN To-W...FOR INFORMATIOM ABOUT STATION --- N UOSI Dept of Con e Direction d Control de Oeratio Wal Field Station de Sistemas Redioelectritcos P.O. Box S8

  19. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikyo, Kazuhiro; Nishizaki, Ryo; Matuura, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    The topside ionograms over Japan were secured at Kashima by telemetry receptions of more than ten ISIS-2 passes during geomagnetic storms successively occurring from June to September 1982. The analyses of the changes in the structure of the topside ionosphere under storm time condition are concentrated on the ISIS-2 sounder data received around two severe events which commenced at 16 h 17 mUT July 13 and 22 h 48 mUT September 5, 1982. In the July event the nighttime ionosphere in the initial phase exhibited negative change in f 0 F2 (ΔNsub(m)F2 0) in low and midlatitude with disordered horizontal gradient in electron density as compared with those in quiet condition. An analysis of the N(h) profiles and scale height profiles in the daytime disturbed condition shows the increase in a plasma temperature by about 15-40 percent, appreciable decrease in relative H + density, [H + ]/[O + ] and raise in the transition height (O + → H + ). In the September event the f 0 F2 changes in the daytime were not significant except in the equatorial zone. An ionospheric storm with positive disturbances is considered to have developed in the early stage of the main phase. A remarkable change in f 0 F2 at equatorial latitudes was seen, accompanied with the enhancement and the depression of the equatorial anomaly. These changes in the topside ionospheric structure are discussed in association with the development phase of geomagnetic storms and the observations as previously revealed. (author)

  20. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakoshi, Hisamitsu; Sinno, Kenji; Nishimuta, Ichizo

    1986-01-01

    The ionospheric disturbances observed in and around Japan in association with the severe geomagnetic storm occurring on July 14 - 16, 1982 were investigated by using ionospheric total electron content (N t ) data obtained by the ETS-II beacon experiment and F region data obtained by the soundings at the latitude chain of the ionospheric stations situated nearly along 135 deg E. The most remarkable storm effect was of the negative disturbance, which is common at mid-latitudes in summer. The negative disturbance comprises the decreases in N t and peak electron density (N m ) and a marked increase in slab thickness. In addition, the following interesting events were observed during this storm: (1) sharp depressions in N t and N m occurred almost simultaneously in the regions from mid-latitudes to the equatorial latitude within a few hours after the storm sudden commencement (SSC), (2) some positive disturbances in the F region appeared during the recovery phase of the storm, and were prominent during the night at mid-latitudes and during the daytime at low latitudes, and (3) wavelike fluctuations of N t , which indicate the existence of a mediumscale traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) with a nearly north to south direction of propagation, were observed during the main phase. (author)