WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar system flash

  1. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  2. A global flash flood forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  3. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these chara...

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for solar desalination using flashing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A. Safwat; Mohamad, M.A.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Sharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A small unit for water desalination by solar energy and a flash evaporation process is investigated. The system is built at the Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering at Suez, Egypt. The system consists of a solar water heater (flat plate solar collector) working as a brine heater and a vertical flash unit that is attached with a condenser/preheater unit. In this work, the system is investigated theoretically and experimentally at different real environmental conditions along Julian days of one year (2005). A mathematical model is developed to calculate the productivity of the system under different operating conditions. The BIRD's model for the calculation of solar insolation is used to predict the solar insolation instantaneously. Also, the solar insolation is measured by a highly sensitive digital pyranometer. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is performed. The average accumulative productivity of the system in November, December and January ranged between 1.04 to 1.45 kg/day/m 2 . The average summer productivity ranged between 5.44 to 7 kg/day/m 2 in July and August and 4.2 to 5 kg/day/m 2 in June

  5. Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for solar desalination using flashing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A. Safwat; El-Helaby, S.O.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez 43522 (Egypt); Mohamad, M.A. [Solar Energy Department, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    A small unit for water desalination by solar energy and a flash evaporation process is investigated. The system is built at the Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering at Suez, Egypt. The system consists of a solar water heater (flat plate solar collector) working as a brine heater and a vertical flash unit that is attached with a condenser/preheater unit. In this work, the system is investigated theoretically and experimentally at different real environmental conditions along Julian days of one year (2005). A mathematical model is developed to calculate the productivity of the system under different operating conditions. The BIRD's model for the calculation of solar insolation is used to predict the solar insolation instantaneously. Also, the solar insolation is measured by a highly sensitive digital pyranometer. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is performed. The average accumulative productivity of the system in November, December and January ranged between 1.04 to 1.45 kg/day/m{sup 2}. The average summer productivity ranged between 5.44 to 7 kg/day/m{sup 2} in July and August and 4.2 to 5 kg/day/m{sup 2} in June. (author)

  6. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these characterization, the atomic structure, absorption coefficient, energy gap, material type, composition of each elements and the mobility of CuInSe2 can be measured and determined. During process evaporation were carried out at substrate temperatures the range between 20ºC-415ºC.

  7. Flash!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Govert

    2002-04-01

    About three times a day our sky flashes with a powerful pulse of gamma ray bursts (GRB), invisible to human eyes but not to astronomers' instruments. The sources of this intense radiation are likely to be emitting, within the span of seconds or minutes, more energy than the sun will in its entire 10 billion years of life. Where these bursts originate, and how they come to have such incredible energies, is a mystery scientists have been trying to solve for three decades. The phenomenon has resisted study -- the flashes come from random directions in space and vanish without trace -- until very recently. In what could be called a cinematic conflation of Flash Gordon and The Hunt for Red October, Govert Schilling's Flash!: The Hunt for the Biggest Explosions in the Universe describes the exciting and ever-changing field of GRB research. Based on interviews with leading scientists, Flash! provides an insider's account of the scientific challenges involved in unravelling the enigmatic nature of GRBs. A science writer who has followed the drama from the very start, Schilling describes the ambition and jealousy, collegiality and competition, triumph and tragedy, that exists among those who have embarked on this recherche. Govert Schilling is a Dutch science writer and astronomy publicist. He is a contributing editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, and regularly writes for the news sections of Science and New Scientist. Schilling is the astronomy writer for de Volkskrant, one of the largest national daily newspapers in The Netherlands, and frequently talks about the Universe on Dutch radio broadcasts. He is the author of more than twenty popular astronomy books, and hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles on astronomy.

  8. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. System of ispFlash configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this module is to allow the use of FPGA components instead of EPLD components which for an equivalent or even inferior capacity are more expensive. For instance, the idea is to replace CPLD components having 512 macro-cells by one FPGA spartan II of Xilinx. However, due to the configuration's volatility, one configuration means is needed to put under voltage. A solution appears to be the using of a high capacity Flash memory coupled to a CPLD of small size to comply with the FPGA configuration protocol; also, one has to provide an in situ configuration means for this memory. Obviously, a product having an equivalent functionality already exists, since Xilinx and ALTERA supply PROMs of serial configuration. Unfortunately, they are expensive and a dealer is implied while the FLASH, the small CPLD and the FPGA spartan II are currently available. In conclusion, by using this assembly, which requires a small supplementary surface and a delay of upmost 240 ms (for the largest FPGA 1 Mbit), one obtains a solution cheaper and more performing than an EPLD of high capacity

  10. Teaching Photovoltaic Array Modelling and Characterization Using a Graphical User Interface and a Flash Solar Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a set of laboratory tools aimed to support students with various backgrounds (no programming) to understand photovoltaic array modelling and characterization techniques. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Matlab, for modelling PV arrays and characterizing...... the effect of different types of parameters and operating conditions, on the current-voltage and power-voltage curves. The GUI is supported by experimental investigation and validation on PV module level, with the help of an indoor flash solar simulator....

  11. Replacing HDDs with Solid-State Flash Disks in PXIbus-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z W; Zeng, L

    2006-01-01

    New security features, constantly decreasing prices, solid-state Flash disks are becoming a popular alternative for replacing failure-prone mechanical Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) in PXIbus-based military systems. The key component in high-capacity solid-state Flash disks is NAND Flash, but with a specification that shows only 100,000-300,000 write/erase cycles, engineers may be concerned that the lifetime of Flash disks cannot meet their application requirements. With the right Flash management, Flash disks are able to provide the reliability and endurance that military applications need

  12. Adaptive aperture for Geiger mode avalanche photodiode flash ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Han, Shaokun; Xia, Wenze; Lei, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Although the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) flash ladar system offers the advantages of high sensitivity and simple construction, its detection performance is influenced not only by the incoming signal-to-noise ratio but also by the absolute number of noise photons. In this paper, we deduce a hyperbolic approximation to estimate the noise-photon number from the false-firing percentage in a GM-APD flash ladar system under dark conditions. By using this hyperbolic approximation function, we introduce a method to adapt the aperture to reduce the number of incoming background-noise photons. Finally, the simulation results show that the adaptive-aperture method decreases the false probability in all cases, increases the detection probability provided that the signal exceeds the noise, and decreases the average ranging error per frame.

  13. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  14. Accuracy of a Flash Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Corradini, S.; Pilosio, B.; Dondi, F.; Linari, G.; Testa, S.; Brugnoli, F.; Gianella, P.; Pietra, M.; Fracassi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A novel flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) (FreeStyle Libre, Abbott, UK) was recently developed for humans. It continuously measures the interstitial glucose (IG) concentrations for 14 days. Objectives To assess the clinical and analytical accuracy of the FGMS in diabetic dogs. Animals Ten client?owned diabetic dogs on insulin treatment. Methods Prospective and observational study. The FGMS was placed on the neck for up to 14 days. During the 1st?2nd, 6?7th, and 13?14th days fr...

  15. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  16. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  17. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  18. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  19. Embedded system in FPGA-based LLRF controller for FLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Pucyk, Piotr; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Fafara, Przemyslaw; Pieciukiewicz, Marcin; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2006-10-01

    FPGA devices are often used in High Energy Physics and accelerator technology experiments, where the highest technologies are needed. To make FPGA based systems more flexible, common technique is to provide SoC (System on a Chip) solution in the FPGA, which is in most cases a CPU unit. Such a combination gives possibility to balance between hardware and software implementation of particular task. SoC solution on FPGA can be very flexible, because in simplest cases no additional hardware is needed to run programs on CPU, and when system has such devices like UART, SDRAM memory, mass storage and network interface, it can handle full featured operating system such as Linux or VxWorks. Embedded process can be set up in different configurations, depending on the available resources on board, so every user can adjust system to his own needs. Embedded systems can be also used to perform partial self-reconfiguration of FPGA logic of the chip, on which the system is running. This paper will also present some results on SoC implementations in a Low Level RF system under design for the VUV Free Electron Laser, FLASH, DESY, Hamburg.

  20. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  1. An early warning system for flash floods in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Abdelkhalek, A.; El Sammany, M.; Fahmi, A. H.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the Flash Flood Manager, abbreviated as FlaFloM. The Flash Flood Manager is an early warning system for flash floods which is developed under the EU LIFE project FlaFloM. It is applied to Wadi Watier located in the Sinai peninsula (Egypt) and discharges in the Red Sea at the local economic and tourist hub of Nuweiba city. FlaFloM consists of a chain of four modules: 1) Data gathering module, 2) Forecasting module, 3) Decision support module or DSS and 4) Warning module. Each module processes input data and consequently send the output to the following module. In case of a flash flood emergency, the final outcome of FlaFloM is a flood warning which is sent out to decision-makers. The ‘data gathering module’ collects input data from different sources, validates the input, visualise data and exports it to other modules. Input data is provided ideally as water stage (h), discharge (Q) and rainfall (R) through real-time field measurements and external forecasts. This project, however, as occurs in many arid flash flood prone areas, was confronted with a scarcity of data, and insufficient insight in the characteristics that release a flash flood. Hence, discharge and water stage data were not available. Although rainfall measurements are available through classical off line rain gauges, the sparse rain gauges network couldn’t catch the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall events. To overcome this bottleneck, we developed rainfall intensity raster maps (mm/hr) with an hourly time step and raster cell of 1*1km. These maps are derived through downscaling from two sources of global instruments: the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and satellite estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The ‘forecast module’ comprises three numerical models that, using data from the gathering module performs simulations on command: a rainfall-runoff model, a river flow model, and a flood model. A

  2. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  3. Portable flash X-ray systems: applications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Three portable flash x-ray equipments are described, and applications such as jet and high explosive studies, bullet impact and lead casting experiments are given as well as techniques for triggering and protection of equipment and film

  4. Motorist actions at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Ganesh J; Nambisan, Shashi S; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2010-12-01

    An in-pavement flashing light system is used at crosswalks to alert motorists and pedestrians of possible conflicts and to influence their behavior to enhance safety. The relative behaviors of the drivers and the pedestrians affect safety. An evaluation of motorist behavior at a pedestrian crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system is presented in this manuscript. Field observations provide the basis to evaluate motorist behavior at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system. Outcomes of pedestrian and motorists actions were observed to quantify measures of effectiveness (MOEs) such as yielding behavior of motorists, vehicle speeds, and yielding distance from the crosswalk. A before-and-after study design was used. The before condition was prior to the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system and the after condition was after the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system. The study was conducted on a relatively low-volume roadway located in the Henderson, Nevada. The significance of the differences in the MOEs between the 2 study periods was evaluated using statistical analysis tools such as a one-tailed test for proportions and the Welch-Satterthwaite t-test. The results show that the installation of the in-pavement flashing light system increased the yielding behavior of motorists significantly (P pavement flashing light system is seen to be effective to improve motorists' yielding behavior and the speeds of vehicles were also observed to decrease in the presence of pedestrians.

  5. Homemade Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  6. A Conceptual Flash Flood Early Warning System for Africa, Based on Terrestrial Microwave Links and Flash Flood Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C. B. Hoedjes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual flash flood early warning system for developing countries is described. The system uses rainfall intensity data from terrestrial microwave communication links and the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite, i.e., two systems that are already in place and operational. Flash flood early warnings are based on a combination of the Flash Flood Guidance method and a hydrological model. The system will be maintained and operated through a public-private partnership, which includes a mobile telephone operator, a national meteorological service and an emergency relief service. The mobile telephone operator acts as both the supplier of raw input data and the disseminator of early warnings. The early warning system could significantly reduce the number of fatalities due to flash floods, improve the efficiency of disaster risk reduction efforts and play an important role in strengthening the resilience to climate change of developing countries in Africa. This paper describes the system that is currently being developed for Kenya.

  7. Accuracy of a Flash Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S; Pilosio, B; Dondi, F; Linari, G; Testa, S; Brugnoli, F; Gianella, P; Pietra, M; Fracassi, F

    2016-07-01

    A novel flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) (FreeStyle Libre, Abbott, UK) was recently developed for humans. It continuously measures the interstitial glucose (IG) concentrations for 14 days. To assess the clinical and analytical accuracy of the FGMS in diabetic dogs. Ten client-owned diabetic dogs on insulin treatment. Prospective and observational study. The FGMS was placed on the neck for up to 14 days. During the 1st-2nd, 6-7th, and 13-14th days from application, the IG measurements were compared with the plasma (EDTA) glucose (PG) concentrations analyzed by a reference hexokinase based method. The application and the use of the FGMS were apparently painless, easy, and well tolerated by all dogs. Mild erythema at the site of the application was found in 5/10 dogs at the end of the wearing period. A good correlation between IG and PG concentrations (rho = 0.94; P blood glucose concentrations. Mean ± standard deviation difference from the reference method was 2.3 ± 46.8 mg/dL. The FGMS is easy to use and is accurate for IG glucose measurement in diabetic dogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Evaluating Non-In-Place Update Techniques for Flash-Based Transaction Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongkun; Goda, Kazuo; Kitsuregawa, Masaru

    Recently, flash memory is emerging as the storage device. With price sliding fast, the cost per capacity is approaching to that of SATA disk drives. So far flash memory has been widely deployed in consumer electronics even partly in mobile computing environments. For enterprise systems, the deployment has been studied by many researchers and developers. In terms of the access performance characteristics, flash memory is quite different from disk drives. Without the mechanical components, flash memory has very high random read performance, whereas it has a limited random write performance because of the erase-before-write design. The random write performance of flash memory is comparable with or even worse than that of disk drives. Due to such a performance asymmetry, naive deployment to enterprise systems may not exploit the potential performance of flash memory at full blast. This paper studies the effectiveness of using non-in-place-update (NIPU) techniques through the IO path of flash-based transaction processing systems. Our deliberate experiments using both open-source DBMS and commercial DBMS validated the potential benefits; x3.0 to x6.6 performance improvement was confirmed by incorporating non-in-place-update techniques into file system without any modification of applications or storage devices.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic model of a gear-rotor-bearing system considering the flash temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xiangfeng; Zhu, Lingyun; Qi, Changjun

    2017-12-01

    The instantaneous flash temperature is an important factor for gears in service. To investigate the effect of the flash temperature of a tooth surface on the dynamics of the spur gear system, a modified nonlinear dynamic model of a gear-rotor-bearing system is established. The factors such as the contact temperature of the tooth surface, time-varying stiffness, tooth surface friction, backlash, the comprehensive transmission error and so on are considered. The flash temperature of a tooth surface of pinion and gear is formulated according to Blok's flash temperature theory. The mathematical expression of the contact temperature of the tooth surface varied with time is derived and the tooth profile deformation caused by the change of the flash temperature of the tooth surface is calculated. The expression of the mesh stiffness varied with the flash temperature of the tooth surface is derived based on Hertz contact theory. The temperature stiffness is proposed and added to the nonlinear dynamic model of the system. The influence of load on the flash temperature of the tooth surface is analyzed in the parameters plane. The variation of the flash temperature of the tooth surface is studied. The numerical results indicate that the calculated method of the flash temperature of the gear tooth surface is effective and it can reflect the rules for the change of gear meshing temperature and sliding of the gear tooth surface. The effects of frequency, backlash, bearing clearance, comprehensive transmission error and time-varying stiffness on the nonlinear dynamics of the system are analyzed according to the bifurcation diagrams, Top Lyapunov Exponent (TLE) spectrums, phase portraits and Poincaré maps. Some nonlinear phenomena such as periodic bifurcation, grazing bifurcation, quasi-periodic bifurcation, chaos and its routes to chaos are investigated and the critical parameters are identified. The results provide an understanding of the system and serve as a useful reference

  10. Solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The focus in the present Ph.D. thesis is on the active use of solar energy for domestic hot water and space heating in so-called solar combi systems. Most efforts have been put into detailed investigations on the design of solar combi systems and on devices used for building up thermal...... the thermal behaviour of different components, and the theoretical investigations are used to study the influence of the thermal behaviour on the yearly thermal performance of solar combi systems. The experimental investigations imply detailed temperature measurements and flow visualization with the Particle...... Image Velocimetry measurement method. The theoretical investigations are based on the transient simulation program TrnSys and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The Ph.D. thesis demonstrates the influence on the thermal performance of solar combi systems of a number of different parameters...

  11. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  12. A FASTBUS flash ADC system for the Mark II vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, L.

    1988-10-01

    This is a description of a flash ADC system built for the Mark II experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system was designed for use in the experiment's vertex chamber where signals could occur over a relatively long time, approximately 10 microseconds. This long time, coupled with fast cable amplifiers, necessitated an alternate design approach than was used with a dE/dX FASTBUS flash ADC design. 1 ref., 6 figs

  13. A FASTBUS flash ADC system for the Mark II vertex chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, L.

    1988-10-01

    This is a description of a flash ADC system built for the Mark II experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system was designed for use in the experiment's vertex chamber where signals could occur over a relatively long time, approximately 10 microseconds. This long time, coupled with fast cable amplifiers, necessitated an alternate design approach than was used with a dE/dX FASTBUS flash ADC design. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  14. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  15. The solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the most recent findings on the solar system. The physical processes in the sun are presented, their interactions in the interplanetary space, and the planets and moons of the solar system. The sun and its moon are discussed in great detail. The text is supplemented by excellent satellite pictures, including the latest pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons. (HM) [de

  16. The New Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. Kelly; Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Chaikin, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    As the definitive guide for the armchair astronomer, The New Solar System has established itself as the leading book on planetary science and solar system studies. Incorporating the latest knowledge of the solar system, a distinguished team of researchers, many of them Principal Investigators on NASA missions, explain the solar system with expert ease. The completely-revised text includes the most recent findings on asteroids, comets, the Sun, and our neighboring planets. The book examines the latest research and thinking about the solar system; looks at how the Sun and planets formed; and discusses our search for other planetary systems and the search for life in the solar system. In full-color and heavily-illustrated, the book contains more than 500 photographs, portrayals, and diagrams. An extensive set of tables with the latest characteristics of the planets, their moon and ring systems, comets, asteroids, meteorites, and interplanetary space missions complete the text. New to this edition are descriptions of collisions in the solar system, full scientific results from Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons, and the Mars Pathfinder mission. For the curious observer as well as the student of planetary science, this book will be an important library acquisition. J. Kelly Beatty is the senior editor of Sky & Telescope, where for more than twenty years he has reported the latest in planetary science. A renowned science writer, he was among the first journalists to gain access to the Soviet space program. Asteroid 2925 Beatty was named on the occasion of his marriage in 1983. Carolyn Collins Petersen is an award-winning science writer and co-author of Hubble Vision (Cambridge 1995). She has also written planetarium programs seen at hundreds of facilities around the world. Andrew L. Chaikin is a Boston-based science writer. He served as a research geologist at the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. He is a contributing editor to

  17. Discovering the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  18. Arsenic removal by solar-driven membrane distillation: modeling and experimental investigation with a new flash vaporization module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Parimal; Manna, Ajay Kumar; Linnanen, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    A modeling and simulation study was carried out on a new flux-enhancing and solar-driven membrane distillation module for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The developed new model was validated with rigorous experimental investigations using arsenic-contaminated groundwater. By incorporating flash vaporization dynamics, the model turned out to be substantially different from the existing direct contact membrane distillation models and could successfully predict (with relative error of only 0.042 and a Willmott d-index of 0.997) the performance of such an arsenic removal unit where the existing models exhibited wide variation with experimental findings in the new design. The module with greater than 99% arsenic removal efficiency and greater than 50 L/m2 x h flux could be implemented in arsenic-affected villages in Southeast Asian countries with abundant solar energy, and thus could give relief to millions of affected people. These encouraging results will raise scale-up confidence.

  19. DIRCM FLASH Flight Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molocher, Bernhard; Kaltenecker, Anton; Thum-Jaeger, Andrea; Regensburger, Martin; Formery, Martin

    2005-01-01

    .... FLASH operation is as follows: After handover following an alarm from the missile warning system FLASH enters autonomous passive tracking mode for tracking a missiles and sending a laser beam onto the missile...

  20. Solar system sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The sites and materials involved in solar system sputtering of planetary surfaces are reviewed, together with existing models for the processes of sputtering. Attention is given to the interaction of the solar wind with planetary atmospheres in terms of the role played by the solar wind in affecting the He-4 budget in the Venus atmosphere, and the erosion and differentiation of the Mars atmosphere by solar wind sputtering. The study is extended to the production of isotopic fractionation and anomalies in interplanetary grains by irradiation, and to erosion effects on planetary satellites with frozen volatile surfaces, such as with Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Further measurements are recommended of the molecular form of the ejected material, the yields and energy spectra of the sputtered products, the iosotopic fractionation sputtering causes, and the possibility of electronic sputtering enhancement with materials such as silicates.

  1. Solar system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Quaide, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described

  2. Baby Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  3. Drainback solar thermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botpaev, R.; Louvet, Y.; Perers, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Although solar drainback systems have been used for a long time, they are still generating questions regarding smooth functioning. This paper summarises publications on drainback systems and compiles the current knowledge, experiences, and ideas on the technology. The collective research exhibits...... of this technology has been developed, with a brief description of each hydraulic typology. The operating modes have been split into three stages: filling, operation, and draining, which have been studied separately. A difference in the minimal filling velocities for a siphon development in the solar loop has been...

  4. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  5. Solar System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2002-01-01

    In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

  6. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin; Zhang Qi; Zheng Futang

    2000-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  7. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin

    2003-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  8. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E

    2015-03-01

    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  10. The New Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

  11. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and system SWAP estimate of system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  12. Solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is based on a previous, related, one which was quantitative in character and relied on 500 telephone interviews with house-owners. The aim of this, following, report was to carry out a more deep-going, qualitative analysis focussed on persons who already own a solar heating system (purchased during 1992) or were/are considering having one installed. Aspects studied were the attitudes, behaviour and plans of these two groups with regard to solar heating systems. Some of the key questions asked concerned general attitudes to energy supply, advantages and disadvantages of using solar heating systems, related decision-making factors, installation problems, positive and negative expectations, evaluation of the information situation, suggestions related to information systems regarding themes etc., dissemination of information, sources of advice and information, economical considerations, satisfaction with the currently-owned system which would lead to the installation of another one in connection with the purchase of a new house. The results of this investigation directed at Danish house-owners are presented and discussed, and proposals for following activities within the marketing situation are given. It is concluded that the basic attitude in both groups strongly supports environmental protection, renewable energy sources and is influenced by considerations of prestige and independence. Constraint factors are confusion about environmental factors, insecurity in relation to the effect of established supplementary energy supply and suspicion with regard to the integrity of information received. (AB)

  13. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  14. An early warning system for flash floods in hyper-arid Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Vanderkimpen, P.; El Afandi, G.; Abdelkhalek, A.; Fockedey, S.; El Sammany, M.; Abdallah, G.; El Bihery, M.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2012-02-01

    An early warning system (EWS) for flash floods has been developed for part of the Sinai peninsula of Egypt, an hyper-arid area confronted with limited availability of field data, limited understanding of the response of the wadi to rainfall, and a lack of correspondence between rainfall data and observed flash flood events. This paper shows that an EWS is not a "mission impossible" when confronted with large technical and scientific uncertainties and limited data availability. Firstly, the EWS has been developed and tested based on the best available information, this being quantitative data (field measurements, simulations and remote sensing images) complemented with qualitative "expert opinion" and local stakeholders' knowledge. Secondly, a set of essential parameters has been identified to be estimated or measured under data-poor conditions. These are: (1) an inventory of past significant rainfall and flash flood events, (2) the spatial and temporal distribution of the rainfall events and (3) transmission and infiltration losses and (4) thresholds for issuing warnings. Over a period of 30 yr (1979-2010), only 20 significant rain events have been measured. Nine of these resulted in a flash flood. Five flash floods were caused by regional storms and four by local convective storms. The results for the 2010 flash flood show that 90% of the total rainfall volume was lost to infiltration and transmission losses. Finally, it is discussed that the effectiveness of an EWS is only partially determined by technological performance. A strong institutional capacity is equally important, especially skilled staff to operate and maintain the system and clear communication pathways and emergency procedures in case of an upcoming disaster.

  15. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  16. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  17. NAFFS: network attached flash file system for cloud storage on portable consumer electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Huang, Hao; Xie, Changsheng

    Cloud storage technology has become a research hotspot in recent years, while the existing cloud storage services are mainly designed for data storage needs with stable high speed Internet connection. Mobile Internet connections are often unstable and the speed is relatively low. These native features of mobile Internet limit the use of cloud storage in portable consumer electronics. The Network Attached Flash File System (NAFFS) presented the idea of taking the portable device built-in NAND flash memory as the front-end cache of virtualized cloud storage device. Modern portable devices with Internet connection have built-in more than 1GB NAND Flash, which is quite enough for daily data storage. The data transfer rate of NAND flash device is much higher than mobile Internet connections[1], and its non-volatile feature makes it very suitable as the cache device of Internet cloud storage on portable device, which often have unstable power supply and intermittent Internet connection. In the present work, NAFFS is evaluated with several benchmarks, and its performance is compared with traditional network attached file systems, such as NFS. Our evaluation results indicate that the NAFFS achieves an average accessing speed of 3.38MB/s, which is about 3 times faster than directly accessing cloud storage by mobile Internet connection, and offers a more stable interface than that of directly using cloud storage API. Unstable Internet connection and sudden power off condition are tolerable, and no data in cache will be lost in such situation.

  18. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  19. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  20. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  1. Response of the human circadian system to millisecond flashes of light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Zeitzer

    Full Text Available Ocular light sensitivity is the primary mechanism by which the central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, remains synchronized with the external geophysical day. This process is dependent on both the intensity and timing of the light exposure. Little is known about the impact of the duration of light exposure on the synchronization process in humans. In vitro and behavioral data, however, indicate the circadian clock in rodents can respond to sequences of millisecond light flashes. In a cross-over design, we tested the capacity of humans (n = 7 to respond to a sequence of 60 2-msec pulses of moderately bright light (473 lux given over an hour during the night. Compared to a control dark exposure, after which there was a 3.5±7.3 min circadian phase delay, the millisecond light flashes delayed the circadian clock by 45±13 min (p<0.01. These light flashes also concomitantly increased subjective and objective alertness while suppressing delta and sigma activity (p<0.05 in the electroencephalogram (EEG. Our data indicate that phase shifting of the human circadian clock and immediate alerting effects can be observed in response to brief flashes of light. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the circadian system can temporally integrate extraordinarily brief light exposures.

  2. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  3. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  4. Origin of solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''.

  5. Origin of solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''. (Ha)

  6. The solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W

    2013-01-01

    Presents a contemporary picture of the solar system, including a description of the Earth, Mars, Venus, cratered worlds, exotic rocks and ices, and giant planets. It is pitched at an introductory level and assumes no previous knowledge of planetary astronomy. Little mathematics is used in the text and the numerous graphs and diagrams are kept as simple as possible. End of chapter exercises are provided. The book can be used as an end in itself, or as a preparation for more advanced study, for which references are given.

  7. A low power flash-FPGA based brain implant micro-system of PID control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijuan Xia; Fattah, Nabeel; Soltan, Ahmed; Jackson, Andrew; Chester, Graeme; Degenaar, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a low power flash FPGA based micro-system can provide a low power programmable interface for closed-loop brain implant inter- faces. The proposed micro-system receives recording local field potential (LFP) signals from an implanted probe, performs closed-loop control using a first order control system, then converts the signal into an optogenetic control stimulus pattern. Stimulus can be implemented through optoelectronic probes. The long term target is for both fundamental neuroscience applications and for clinical use in treating epilepsy. Utilizing our device, closed-loop processing consumes only 14nJ of power per PID cycle compared to 1.52μJ per cycle for a micro-controller implementation. Compared to an application specific digital integrated circuit, flash FPGA's are inherently programmable.

  8. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  9. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2005-01-01

    ). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more......A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical...

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ATCA BASED RF CONTROL SYSTEM AT FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, S N; Jezynski, T; Koprek, W; Butkowski, L; Jablonski, G W; Jalmuzna, W; Makowski, D R; Piotrowski, A; Czuba, K

    2009-01-01

    Future rf control systems will require simultaneous data acquisition of up to 100 fast ADC channels at sampling rates of around 100 MHz and real time signal processing within a few hundred nanoseconds. At the same time the standardization of Low-Level RF systems are common objectives for all laboratories for cost reduction, performance optimization and machine reliability. Also desirable are modularity and scalability of the design as well as compatibility with accelerator instrumentation needs including the control system. All these requirements can be fulfilled with the new telecommunication standard ATCA when adopted to the domain of instrumentation. We describe the architecture and design of an ATCA based LLRF system for the European XFEL. The operation of a prototype capable of controlling the vectorsum of 24-cavities and providing measurements of forward and reflected power are presented.

  11. Wind in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  12. Solar system astrophysics background science and the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics: A Text for the Science of Planetary Systems covers the field of solar system astrophysics beginning with basic tools of spherical astronomy, coordinate frames, and celestial mechanics. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. After a basic treatment of the two- and restricted three-body system motions in Background Science and the Inner Solar System, perturbations are discussed, followed by the Earth's gravitational potential field and its effect on satellite orbits. This is followed by analysis of the Earth-Moon system and the interior planets. In Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System, the atmospheres chapters include detailed discussions of circulation, applicable also to the subsequent discussion of the gas giants. The giant planets are discussed together, and the thermal excesses of three of them are highlighted. This is followed by chapters on moons and rings, mainly in the context of dynamical stability, comets and meteors, m...

  13. Solar system astrophysics background science and the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Background Science and the Inner Solar System provides new insights into the burgeoning field of planetary astronomy. As in the first edition, this volume begins with a rigorous treatment of coordinate frames, basic positional astronomy, and the celestial mechanics of two and restricted three body system problems. Perturbations are treated in the same way, with clear step-by-step derivations. Then the Earth’s gravitational potential field and the Earth-Moon system are discussed, and the exposition turns to radiation properties with a chapter on the Sun. The exposition of the physical properties of the Moon and the terrestrial planets are greatly expanded, with much new information highlighted on the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sister volume, Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System, are pedagogically well written, providing cl...

  14. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  15. Solar Flash Sub-Millimeter Wave Range Spectrum Part Radiation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Shustikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, solar flares are under observation on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU. This telescope operates in a little-studied range of the spectrum, at wavelengths of 3.2 and 2.2 mm (93 and 140 GHz, thereby providing unique information about parameters of the chromosphere plasma and zone of the temperature minimum. Observations on various instruments provided relatively small amount of data on the radio emission flare at frequencies close to 93 GHz, and at frequency of 140 GHz such observations were not carried out. For these reasons, data collected from the RT-7.5 radio telescope are of high value (Shustikov et al., 2012.This work describes modeling and gives interpretation of the reason for raising flux density spectrum of sub-millimeter radio frequency emission using as an example the GOES flare of class M 5.3 occurred on 04.07.2012 in the active region 11515. This flare was observed on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU and was described by Shustikov et al. (2012 and by Smirnova et al. (2013, where it has been suggested that the reason for raising radio frequency emission is a bremsstrahlung of the thermal electrons in the hot plasma of the solar chromosphere. Rough estimates of the plasma temperature at the flare source were obtained.This paper proposes model calculations of the flux density spectrum of the sub-millimeter radio emission based on the gyrosynchrotron Fleischman-Kuznetsov code (Fleishman & Kuznetsov, 2010. Section 1 briefly describes observational data, tools and processing methods used in the work. Section 2 shows results of modeling the flare radio emission. Section 3 discusses results and conclusions.Numerical modeling the sub-millimeter part of the spectrum of the radio flux density for the GOES flare of class M5.3 has been carried out. This flare occurred in the active region 11515 on 04.07.2012. Modeling was based on the observations on the BMSTU’s RT-7.5 radio telescope.The paper draws conclusion based on the

  16. Dynamics of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidlichovsky, M.

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contains a total of 31 papers of which 7 have not been incorporated in INIS. The papers mainly discuss the mathematical methods of calculating the movement of planets, their satellites and asteroids in the solar system and the mathematical modelling of the past development of the solar system. Great attention is also devoted to resonance in the solar system and to the study of many celestial bodies. Four papers are devoted to planetary rings and three to modern astrometry. (M.D.). 63 figs., 10 tabs., 520 refs

  17. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  18. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    1982-01-01

    Many studies on the origin of the solar system have so far been made until now. These are divided into three categories; Cameron's model, Safronov's model and Kyoto model. In Cameron's model, as an initial stage of the formation of the solar system, a massive solar nebula is assumed whose mass is as large as one solar mass. This solar nebula is unstable against gravitational fragmentation, which leads to massive gaseous protoplanets. On the other hand, in both models of Safronov and us, the mass of the nebula is of the order of a few percent of the solar mass or less. However, a significant difference between Safronov's and ours lies in the continuing accumulation process of planetesimals; in the former, the accumulation is assumed to proceed in a gas-free space, but in the latter, the gas drag effect of the solar nebula is fully taken into account on the planetary growth. In this paper, the scenario of Kyoto model is reviewed, which has been developed by Hayashi and his co-workers in Kyoto group for these ten years. We will see that the gas of the solar nebula has played extensively important roles on the various stages of the planetary formation. (author)

  19. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyama, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The study on the origin of the solar system entered a stage of synthetic and positivistic science around 1960, as the observation and the theory of protostars began to develop, the solar chemical composition became almost definite, and the amounts of chemical and mineralogical data greatly increased. In accordance with this scientific situation, the first research meeting in Japan on the origin of the solar system was held in 1965 at the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, Kyoto University. It was discussed how a variety of the data on the solar system can be explained in a unified way. Since 1977, the workshop on the origin has been held annually. Through a series of the workshops, so-called Kyoto model has been talked and discussed frequently. For three years from 1985, the workshop in Kyoto was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, and one of the main items of this grant was to publish the results of the workshop as the Supplement of the Progress of Theoretical Physics. The chronology of the solar system, the formation processes of protostars, the stability of solar nebulae, the physical processes in solar nebulae, the physical processes related to planetary growth, the growth of planets, and the formation of asteroids and meteorites are described in this book. (K.I.)

  20. An experimental study of a flashing-driven CANDU moderator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khartabil, H F; Spinks, N J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The results of an experimental study to investigate the feasibility of using a passive flashing-driven natural circulation loop for CANDU-reactor moderator heat rejection are presented. A scaled loop was constructed and tested at conditions approximating those of a CANDU calandria cooling system. The results showed that stable loop operation was possible at simulated powers approaching normal full power. At lower powers, flow oscillations occurred as the flow in the hot-leg periodically changed from two-phase to single-phase. The results from earlier numerical predictions using the CATHENA thermalhydraulics code showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. (author). 6 refs., 11 figs.

  1. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W.; Christiansen, Mark P.; Klaff, Leslie J.; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle? Libre? Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated s...

  2. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  3. Views of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  4. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  5. MatLab script to C code converter for embedded processors of FLASH LLRF control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujnowski, K.; Siemionczyk, A.; Pucyk, P.; Szewiński, J.; Pożniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    The low level RF control system (LLRF) of FEL serves for stabilization of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the superconducting niobium, resonant, microwave cavities and for controlling high power (MW) klystron. LLRF system of FLASH accelerator bases on FPGA technology and embedded microprocessors. Basic and auxiliary functions of the systems are listed as well as used algorithms for superconductive cavity parameters identification. These algorithms were prepared originally in Matlab. The main part of the paper presents implementation of the cavity parameters identification algorithm in a PowerPC processor embedded in the FPGA circuit VirtexIIPro. A construction of a very compact Matlab script converter to C code was presented, referred to as M2C. The application is designed specifically for embedded systems of very confined resources. The generated code is optimized for the weight. The code should be transferable between different hardware platforms. The converter generates a code for Linux and for stand-alone applications. Functional structure of the program was described and the way it is acting. FLEX and BIZON tools were used for construction of the converter. The paper concludes with an example of the M2C application to convert a complex identification algorithm for superconductive cavities in FLASH laser.

  6. The solar system barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Not all solar eclipses are fascinating visual spectacles. The 'eclipse' that the thermal solar sector underwent between the 1984 oil price's collapse and the beginning of the 90's almost succeeded in sending it straight into a 'black hole'. Luckily, the steadfastness of some sector professionals and the intrinsic qualities of an energy which can be adapted to a great number of different situations got the better of this difficult period. After ten lean years, the sector has been experiencing a new youth for the past four years now. (author)

  7. Solar home systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Jessica; Haakansson, Teresa

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and environmentally friendly technology that does not require any fuels. The high reliability of operation and little need for maintenance makes it ideally suited for rural areas. Today PV systems are used in Nepal to power telecommunications centres, navigational aids, in pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water, and for household electrification. A solar home system consists of a PV module, a battery, a charge controller and 3-4 fluorescent light bulbs with fixture. The system provides power for lighting and operation of household appliances for several hours. The success of donor supported programs have shown that solar home systems can be a practical solution for many rural households. In 1996 the Government of Nepal launched a subsidy program for solar home systems, which dramatically has increased the demand for solar home systems among rural customers. This report includes a survey of 52 households with solar home systems in two villages. The field-study shows that the villagers are very happy with their systems and the technical performance of the systems in both villages is satisfactory. The study also shows the positive impact electricity has on education, health, income generation and quality of life. The beneficiaries of introducing electricity in remote areas are the children and the women 39 refs, 18 tabs. Examination paper

  8. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  9. K2 & Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2015-01-01

    All of the fields that K2 observes are near the ecliptic plane in order to minimize the spin-up of the spacecraft in response to the effects of solar irradiation. The fields observed by K2 are thus rich in Solar System objects including planets, asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). K2 has already performed observations of Neptune and its large moon Triton, 68 Trojan and Hilda asteroids, 5 TNOs (including Pluto) and Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Springs). About 10,000 main-belt asteroids that fell into the pixel masks of stars have been serendipitously observed. Observations of small bodies are especially useful for determining rotation periods. Uranus will be observed in a future campaign (C8), as will many more small Solar System bodies. The status of various K2 Solar System studies will be reviewed and placed within the context of our current knowledge of the objects being observed.

  10. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  11. Signal-to-solar clutter calculations of AK-47 muzzle flash at various spectral bandpasses near the potassium D1/D2 doublet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Karl K., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    An analysis was performed, using MODTRAN, to determine the best filters to use for detecting the muzzle flash of an AK-47 in daylight conditions in the desert. Filters with bandwidths of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 nanometers (nm) were analyzed to understand how the optical bandwidth affects the signal-to-solar clutter ratio. These filters were evaluated near the potassium D1 and D2 doublet emission lines that occur at 769.89 and 766.49 nm respectively that are observed where projectile propellants are used. The maximum spectral radiance, from the AK-47 muzzle flash, is 1.88 x 10-2 W/cm2 str micron, and is approximately equal to the daytime atmospheric spectral radiance. The increased emission, due to the potassium doublet lines, and decreased atmospheric transmission, due to oxygen absorption, combine to create a condition where the signal-to-solar clutter ratio is greater than 1. The 3 nm filter, has a signal-to-solar clutter ratio of 2.09 when centered at 765.37 nm and provides the best combination of both cost and signal sensitivity.

  12. Solar System Update

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This book, the first in a series of forthcoming volumes, consists of topical and timely reviews of a number of carefully selected topics in solar systemn science. Contributions, in form of up-to-date reviews, are mainly aimed at professional astronomers and planetary scientists wishing to inform themselves about progress in fields closely related to their own field of expertise.

  13. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Is your library up to date on the Solar System? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term "planet," Pluto was stripped of its designation as the solar system''s ninth planet. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists'' changing perspectives on the solar system, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid and detailed images of the solar system.

  14. Origins of Inner Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene

    2017-06-01

    Over the past couple decades, thousands of extra-solar planetshave been discovered orbiting other stars. The exoplanets discovered to date exhibit a wide variety of orbital and compositional properties; most are dramatically different from the planets in our own Solar System. Our classical theories for the origins of planetary systems were crafted to account for the Solar System and fail to account for the diversity of planets now known. We are working to establish a new blueprint for the origin of planetary systems and identify the key parameters of planet formation and evolution that establish the distribution of planetary properties observed today. The new blueprint must account for the properties of planets in inner solar systems, regions of planetary systems closer to their star than Earth’s separation from the Sun and home to most exoplanets detected to data. I present work combining simulations and theory with data analysis and statistics of observed planets to test theories of the origins of inner solars, including hot Jupiters, warm Jupiters, and tightly-packed systems of super-Earths. Ultimately a comprehensive blueprint for planetary systems will allow us to better situate discovered planets in the context of their system’s formation and evolution, important factors in whether the planets may harbor life.

  15. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  16. Technology of uncooled fast polycrystalline PbSe focal plane arrays in systems for muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Barela, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Vergara, German; Linares, Rodrigo; Gutierrez, Raul; Fernandez, Carlos; Montojo Supervielle, Maria Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents some aspects of muzzle flash detection using low resolution polycrystalline PbSe 32×32 and 80×80 detectors FPA operating at room temperature (uncooled performance). These sensors, which detect in MWIR (3 - 5 microns region) and are manufactured using proprietary technology from New Infrared Technologies (VPD PbSe - Vapor Phase Deposition of polycrystalline PbSe), can be applied to muzzle flash detection. The system based in the uncooled 80×80 FPA monolithically integrated with the CMOS readout circuitry has allowed image recording with frame rates over 2000 Hz (true snapshot acquisition), whereas the lower density, uncooled 32×32 FPA is suitable for being used in low cost infrared imagers sensitive in the MWIR band with frame rates above 1000 Hz. The FPA detector, read-out electronics and processing electronics (allows the implementation of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection) of both systems are presented. The systems have been tested at field test ground. Results of detection range measurement with two types of optical systems (wide and narrow field of view) have been shown. The theoretical analysis of possibility detection of muzzle flash and initial results of testing of some algorithms for muzzle flash detection have been presented too.

  17. Magnetotails in the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Keiling, Andreas; Delamere, Peter

    2014-01-01

    All magnetized planets in our solar system (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) interact strongly with the solar wind and possess well developed magnetotails. It is not only the strongly magnetized planets that have magnetotails. Mars and Venus have no global intrinsic magnetic field, yet they possess induced magnetotails. Comets have magnetotails that are formed by the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the case of planetary  satellites (moons), the magnetotail refers to the wake region behind the satellite in the flow of either the solar wind or the magnetosp

  18. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...

  19. A flash flood early warning system based on rainfall thresholds and daily soil moisture indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Main focus of the paper is to present a flash flood early warning system, developed for Civil Protection Agency for the Sicily Region, for alerting extreme hydrometeorological events by using a methodology based on the combined use of rainfall thresholds and soil moisture indexes. As matter of fact, flash flood warning is a key element to improve the Civil Protection achievements to mitigate damages and safeguard the security of people. It is a rather complicated task, particularly in those catchments with flashy response where even brief anticipations are important and welcomed. In this context, some kind of hydrological precursors can be considered to improve the effectiveness of the emergency actions (i.e. early flood warning). Now, it is well known how soil moisture is an important factor in flood formation, because the runoff generation is strongly influenced by the antecedent soil moisture conditions of the catchment. The basic idea of the work here presented is to use soil moisture indexes derived in a continuous form to define a first alert phase in a flash flood forecasting chain and then define a unique rainfall threshold for a given day for the subsequent alarm phases activation, derived as a function of the soil moisture conditions at the beginning of the day. Daily soil moisture indexes, representative of the moisture condition of the catchment, were derived by using a parsimonious and simply to use approach based on the IHACRES model application in a modified form developed by the authors. It is a simple, spatially-lumped rainfall-streamflow model, based on the SCS-CN method and on the unit hydrograph approach that requires only rainfall, streamflow and air temperature data. It consists of two modules. In the first a non linear loss model, based on the SCS-CN method, was used to transform total rainfall into effective rainfall. In the second, a linear convolution of effective rainfall was performed using a total unit hydrograph with a configuration of

  20. Cost calculation for a flash glucose monitoring system for UK adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus receiving intensive insulin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmund, Richard; Weitgasser, Raimund; Blissett, Deirdre

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the costs associated with a flash glucose monitoring system as a replacement for routine self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using intensive insulin, from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. The base-case cost calculation was created using the maximum frequency of glucose monitoring recommended by the 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (4-10 tests per day). Scenario analyses considered SMBG at the frequency observed in the IMPACT clinical trial (5.6 tests per day) and at the frequency of flash monitoring observed in a real-world analysis (16 tests per day). A further scenario included potential costs associated with severe hypoglycaemia. In the base case, the annual cost per patient using flash monitoring was £234 (19%) lower compared with routine SMBG (10 tests per day). In scenario analyses, the annual cost per patient of flash monitoring compared with 5.6 and 16 SMBG tests per day was £296 higher and £957 lower, respectively. The annual cost of severe hypoglycaemia for flash monitoring users was estimated to be £221 per patient, compared with £428 for routine SMBG users (based on 5.6 tests/day), corresponding to a reduction in costs of £207. The flash monitoring system has a modest impact on glucose monitoring costs for the UK NHS for patients with T1DM using intensive insulin. For people requiring frequent tests, flash monitoring may be cost saving, especially when taking into account potential reductions in the rate of severe hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  2. Implementation of the laser-based femtosecond precision synchronization system at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Sebastian

    2011-05-01

    FLASH, the high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg, enables the generation of light pulses with wavelengths in the soft X-ray region and durations down to a few femtoseconds. To fully exploit this capability in time-resolved pump-probe experiments, and for the projected externally seeded operation, the critical components of the accelerator and several external laser systems have to be synchronized with a temporal accuracy at least in the same order of magnitude. This can not be realized purely with established RF-based systems and therefore, an optical, laser-based synchronization system is required. In this thesis, the optical synchronization system of FLASH has been, based on previous successful proof-of-principle experiments, massively extended. One major topic is the comprehensive characterization of the timing reference of the system and a comparison of different types of such master laser oscillators, as well as studies on their short- and long-term stability. Similar investigations have been carried out for the upgraded and newly installed length-stabilized fiber links, which connect the remote locations at the accelerator to the optical timing reference. The successful demonstration of an all-optical synchronization of a Ti:sapphire oscillator with sub-10 femtosecond timing jitter and the connection of the photo injector laser system to the synchronization system mark further important key experiments of this thesis. The robustness of the actual implementations played a key role, as the synchronization system forms the basis for the future, operator-friendly arrival time feedback.

  3. Chaos in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.

    2001-01-01

    The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

  4. A flashing driven moderator cooling system for CANDU reactors: Experimental and computational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartabil, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    A flashing-driven passive moderator cooling system is being developed at AECL for CANDU reactors. Preliminary simulations and experiments showed that the concept was feasible at normal operating power. However, flow instabilities were observed at low powers under conditions of variable and constant calandria inlet temperatures. This finding contradicted code predictions that suggested the loop should be stable at all powers if the calandria inlet temperature was constant. This paper discusses a series of separate-effects tests that were used to identify the sources of low-power instabilities in the experiments, and it explores methods to avoid them. It concludes that low-power instabilities can be avoided, thereby eliminating the discrepancy between the experimental and code results. Two factors were found to be important for loop stability: (1) oscillations in the calandria outlet temperature, and (2) flashing superheat requirements, and the presence of nucleation sites. By addressing these factors, we could make the loop operate in a stable manner over the whole power range and we could obtain good agreement between the experimental and code results. (author)

  5. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  6. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  7. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  8. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  9. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  10. Force convective solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents design and performance of V-groove back-pass solar collector for solar drying system. In this study three V-groove back-pass solar collector each with dimension of 4.6 m x 1.0 m x 0.15 m have been fabricated for solar drying system. An outdoor test at mean solar intensity for 600-800 Wm -2 by using 0.15m 3 s -1 of air flow rate which also been suggested by (Zeroul et al. 1994) was carried out at Solar Research Energy Park. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Analysis on the collector performance based on daily data was reported that the value of FR ) e and FRUL was 0.709 ± 0.001 and 5.89 ± 0.31 Wm -2o C -1 respectively with 60-70 o C of output temperature (Ruslan et al. 2001). The three V-groove collectors each with dimension 4.6 m x 0.15 m were connected in series array mounted on the roof of a solar assisted drying system. By using two electric fans of 85W and 2700 rpm each, the speed of air was regulated at 0.11 kgs -1 to 0.31 kgs -1 using a voltage regulator. Performance of the collector based on the thermal analysis showed that at mean daily solar radiation 700 Wm -2 , the output temperature of 52 o C to 73 o C could be achieved using 0.11-0.31 kgs -1 of flow rate. Thermal analysis also showed that the efficiencies of 45% to 61% could be obtains using the same flow rate and solar radiation. Analysis of daily data showed that for radiation from 300 Wm -2 to 1000 Wm -2 the power generated from the collector was within 1.5 kW to 8.9 kW. The study concluded that the levels of the levels of the solar radiation and flow rate used influenced the performance of the collector

  11. Gun muzzle flash detection using a CMOS single photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Tomer; Savuskan, Vitali; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Si based sensors, in particular CMOS Image sensors, have revolutionized low cost imaging systems but to date have hardly been considered as possible candidates for gun muzzle flash detection, due to performance limitations, and low SNR in the visible spectrum. In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) module is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons, common on the modern battlefield. SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging - Namely, very high photon detection sensitivity, coupled with a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. To date, the SPAD has not been utilized for flash detection in an uncontrolled environment, such as gun muzzle flash detection. Gun propellant manufacturers use alkali salts to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. Common alkali salts are compounds based on Potassium or Sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. A narrow band filter around the Potassium emission doublet is used in this study to favor the muzzle flash signal over solar radiation. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength under the specified imaging conditions. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics.

  12. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Spohn, Tilman; Johnson, Torrence

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Third Edition-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Cosmology & Astronomy from the Association of American Publishers-provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact-with an astounding breadth of content and breathtaking visual impact. The encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of color digital images and illustrations, and over 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve

  13. Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Glen

    2006-01-01

    This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

  14. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence

    1998-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System provides a series of comprehensive and authoritative articles written by more than 50 eminent planetary and space scientists. Each chapter is self-contained yet linked by cross-references to other related chapters. This beautifully designed book is a must for the library of professional astronomers and amateur star-gazers alike, in fact for anyone who wishes to understand the nature of our solar system.Key Features* Cross-referenced throughout for easy comprehension* Superbly illustrated with over 700 photos, drawings, and diagrams, including 36 color plates* Provides 40 thematically organized chapters by more than 50 eminent contributors* Convenient glossaries of technical terms introduce each chapter* Academic Press maintains a web site for the Encyclopedia at www.academicpress.com/solar; Author-recommended web resources for additional information, images, and research developments related to each chapter of this volume, are available here

  15. Sentinel 2 MMFU: The first European Mass Memory System Based on NAND-Flash Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehle, M.; Cassel, M.; Lonsdorfer, U.; Gliem, F.; Walter, D.; Fichna, T.

    2011-08-01

    Sentinel-2 is the multispectral optical mission of the EU-ESA GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) program, currently under development by Astrium-GmbH in Friedrichshafen (Germany) for a launch in 2013. The mission features a 490 Mbit/s optical sensor operating at high duty cycles, requiring in turn a large 2.4 Tbit on-board storage capacity.The required storage capacity motivated the selection of the NAND-Flash technology which was already secured by a lengthy period (2004-2009) of detailed testing, analysis and qualification by Astrium GmbH, IDA and ESTEC. The mass memory system is currently being realized by Astrium GmbH.

  16. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Most casualties could be avoided with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters that cannot be estimated beforehand. In this article, we present a novel flood sensing architecture to monitor large scale desert hydrological basins surrounding metropolitan areas, based on unmanned air vehicles. The system relies on Lagrangian (mobile) microsensors, that are released by a swarm of UAVs. A preliminary testbed implementing this technology is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  18. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it’s critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme.

  19. Flash grundkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Flash er et programmeringssprog  og kan som sådant ikke noget i sig selv. Kursets mål er, at give den studerende et grundlæggende kendskab til Flash, så det kan bruges til præsentationer på skærm og til produktion af hjemmesider. På kurset arbejdes der med billede, grafik, lyd, video og interakti...

  20. Sizing up the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

  1. Precipitation in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  2. Solar system for soil drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, Z.R.; Stojanovic, J.B.; Antic, M.A.; Pavlovic, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews solar system for drainage of the cultivable agricultural surfaces which can be situated near the rivers in plains. These are usually very fertile surfaces which cannot be cultivated die to constant presence of the water. Using such solar systems should increase the percentage of cultivable surfaces. These systems can also be installed on the cultivable agricultural surfaces, where the water surfaces or so called still waters appear, which make impossible the application of agritechnical measures on these surfaces, significantly decreasing crops and creating conditions for the growth of pond plants and animals. Increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces would increase national agricultural income. At the same time, increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces decreases the surfaces of unhealthy bog, swamp and marshland soils, where many insect breed. They are the cause for soil spraying from the air, which causes the pollution of environment. Solar systems do not pollute the environment because they use solar energy as the purest source of energy. Their usage has special significance in the places where there is no electricity distribution network

  3. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  4. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa; Odat, Enas M.; Claudel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  6. A Novel Dual Traffic/Flash Flood Monitoring System Using Passive Infrared/Ultrasonic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2015-10-19

    Floods are the most common type of natural disaster, causing thousands of casualties every year. Among these events, urban flash floods are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur, and because of the high concentration of population in cities. Since most flash flood casualties are caused by a lack of information, it is critical to generate accurate and detailed warnings of flash floods. However, deploying an infrastructure that solely monitor flash floods makes little economic sense, since the average periodicity of catastrophic flash floods exceeds the lifetime of a typical sensor network. To address this issue, we propose a new sensing device that can simultaneously monitor urban flash floods and another phenomenon of interest (traffic congestion on the present case). This sensing device is based on the combination of an ultrasonic rangefinder with one or multiple remote temperature sensors. We show an implementation of this device, and illustrate its performance in both traffic flow and flash flood sensing. Field data shows that the sensor can detect vehicles with a 99% accuracy, in addition to estimating their speed and classifying them in function of their length. The same sensor can also monitor urban water levels with an accuracy of less than 2 cm. Two of the sensors have been deployed in a flood prone area, where they captured the only (minor) flash flood that occurred over the one-year test period, with no false detection, and an agreement in the estimated water level estimate (during the flash flood event) of about 2 cm.

  7. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  8. Photoionization of oxidized coenzyme Q in microemulsion: laser flash photolysis study in biomembrane-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Mei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Dongmei; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wang, Shi-Long

    2013-01-01

    Photoexcitation to generate triplet state has been proved to be the main photoreaction in homogeneous system for many benzoquinone derivatives, including oxidized coenzyme Q (CoQ) and its analogs. In the present study, microemulsion of CoQ, a heterogeneous system, is employed to mimic the distribution of CoQ in biomembrane. The photochemistry of CoQ(10) in microemulsion and cyclohexane is investigated and compared using laser flash photolysis and results show that CoQ(10) undergoes photoionization via a monophotonic process to generate radical cation of CoQ(10) in microemulsion and photoexcitation to generate excited triplet state in cyclohexane. Meanwhile, photoreactions of duroquinone (DQ) and CoQ(0) in microemulsion are also investigated to analyze the influence of molecular structure on the photochemistry of benzoquinone derivatives in microemulsion. Results suggest that photoexcitation, which is followed by excited state-involved hydrogen-abstraction reaction, is the main photoreaction for DQ and CoQ(0) in microemulsion. However, photoexcited CoQ(0) also leads to the formation of hydrated electrons. The isoprenoid side chain-involved high resonance stabilization is proposed to explain the difference in photoreactions of CoQ(0) and CoQ(10) in microemulsion. Considering that microemulsion is close to biomembrane system, its photoionization in microemulsion may be helpful to understand the real photochemistry of biological quinones in biomembrane system. © 2012 Tongji University. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  10. Solar Photovoltaic DC Systems: Basics and Safety: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, Peter F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sekulic, William R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dreifuerst, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - retired

    2018-04-02

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and growing with 42.4 GW installed capacity in U.S. (almost 15 GW added in 2016). This paper will help electrical workers, and emergency responders understand the basic operating principles and hazards of PV DC arrays. We briefly discuss the following aspects of solar photovoltaic (PV) DC systems: the effects of solar radiation and temperature on output power; PV module testing standards; common system configurations; a simple PV array sizing example; NEC guidelines and other safety features; DC array commissioning, periodic maintenance and testing; arc-flash hazard potential; how electrical workers and emergency responders can and do work safely around PV arrays; do moonlight and artificial lighting pose a real danger; typical safe operating procedures; and other potential DC-system hazards to be aware of. We also present some statistics on PV DC array electrical incidents and injuries. Safe PV array operation is possible with a good understanding of PV DC arrays basics and having good safe operating procedures in place.

  11. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  12. Irradiance sensors for solar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, A.; Schindl, J. [Oesterreichisches Forschungs- und Pruefzentrum Arsenal GesmbH, Vienna (Austria). Business Unit Renewable Energy

    2004-07-01

    The presented project surveyed the quality of irradiance sensors used for applications in solar systems. By analysing an outdoor measurement, the accuracies of ten commercially available irradiance sensors were evaluated, comparing their results to those of a calibrated Kipp and Zonen pyranometer CM21. Furthermore, as a simple method for improving the quality of the results, for each sensor an irradiance-calibration was carried out and examined for its effectiveness. (orig.)

  13. Wonders of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The Sunday Times Bestseller In Wonders of the Solar System - the book of the acclaimed BBC TV series - Professor Brian Cox will take us on a journey of discovery where alien worlds from your imagination become places we can see, feel and visit. The Wonders of the Solar System - from the giant ice fountains of Enceladus to the liquid methane seas of Titan and from storms twice the size of the Earth to the tortured moon of Io with its giant super-volcanoes - is the Solar System as you have never seen it before. In this series, Professor Brian Cox will introduce us to the planets and moons beyond our world, finding the biggest, most bizarre, most powerful natural phenomena. Using the latest scientific imagery along with cutting edge CGI and some of the most spectacular and extreme locations on Earth, Brian will show us Wonders never thought possible. Employing his trademark clear, authoritative, yet down-to-earth approach, Brian will explore how these previously unseen phenomena have dramatically expanded our ho...

  14. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    The methodology of the problem of the origin and evolution of the Solar System is analysed and it is pointed out that one can approach it in two different ways. (1) One can postulate that long ago there was a certain more or less likely-state, and then calculate how this developed into the present state. In principle this approach is 'mythological' and it differs from the old myths mainly in the respect that it is formulated in a mathematical way. (2) One can start from the present state and reconstruct increasingly older states. This is what the geologists call the 'actualist approach' and is the only one which can claim to be scientific. The 'Laplacean' type of theories is criticized. There is no indication that there was a 'Laplacean' homogeneous disc as an intermediate state, and there is no acceptable mechanism through which the present solar system could be formed from such a disc. The solar system today has a band structure, the planets as well as the satellites all fall in certain bands characterized by certain values of the gravitational potential. The band structure is explained as a result of the ionization of infalling matter when its velocity has reached the 'critical velocity' for ionization. (Auth.)

  15. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  16. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  17. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-01

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  18. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  19. High-speed three-frame image recording system using colored flash units and low-cost video equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Roberto G.; Scotten, Larry N.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes a method that allows the digital recording of sequences of three black and white images at rates of several thousand frames per second using a system consisting of an ordinary CCD camcorder, three flash units with color filters, a PC-based frame grabber board and some additional electronics. The maximum framing rate is determined by the duration of the flashtube emission, and for common photographic flash units lasting about 20 microsecond(s) it can exceed 10,000 frames per second in actual use. The subject under study is strobe- illuminated using a red, a green and a blue flash unit controlled by a special sequencer, and the three images are captured by a color CCD camera on a single video field. Color is used as the distinguishing parameter that allows the overlaid exposures to be resolved. The video output for that particular field will contain three individual scenes, one for each primary color component, which potentially can be resolved with no crosstalk between them. The output is electronically decoded into the primary color channels, frame grabbed and stored into digital memory, yielding three time-resolved images of the subject. A synchronization pulse provided by the flash sequencer triggers the frame grabbing so that the correct video field is acquired. A scheme involving the use of videotape as intermediate storage allows the frame grabbing to be performed using a monochrome video digitizer. Ideally each flash- illuminated scene would be confined to one color channel, but in practice various factors, both optical and electronic, affect color separation. Correction equations have been derived that counteract these effects in the digitized images and minimize 'ghosting' between frames. Once the appropriate coefficients have been established through a calibration procedure that needs to be performed only once for a given configuration of the equipment, the correction process is carried out transparently in software every time a

  20. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  1. Timing in a FLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, M.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Dickescheid, M.; Ferretti B., M. I.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, B. S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    A prototype detector, called FLASH (Fast Light Acquiring Start Hodoscope), was built to provide precise Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements and reference timestamps for detector setups at external beam lines. Radiator bars, made of synthetic fused silica, were coupled to a fast MCP-PMT with 64 channels and read out with custom electronics using Time-over-Threshold (TOT) for signal characterization. The TRB3 system, a high-precision TDC implemented in an FPGA, was used as data acquisition system. The performance of a system consisting of two FLASH units was investigated at a dedicated test experiment at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) accelerator using its 855 MeV electron beam. The TOT measurement enabled time walk corrections and an overall TOF resolution of ∼70 ps could be achieved which translates into a resolution of ∼50 ps per FLASH unit. The intrinsic resolution of the frontend electronics including the TDC was measured to be less than 25 ps.

  2. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  3. Applying a coupled hydrometeorological simulation system to flash flood forecasting over the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young; Lim, Yoon-Jin; Ji, Hee-Sook; Park, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2017-11-01

    In flash flood forecasting, it is necessary to consider not only traditional meteorological variables such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture, but also hydrological components such as streamflow. To address this challenge, the application of high resolution coupled atmospheric-hydrological models is emerging as a promising alternative. This study demonstrates the feasibility of linking a coupled atmospheric-hydrological model (WRF/WRFHydro) with 150-m horizontal grid spacing for flash flood forecasting in Korea. The study area is the Namgang Dam basin in Southern Korea, a mountainous area located downstream of Jiri Mountain (1915 m in height). Under flash flood conditions, the simulated precipitation over the entire basin is comparable to the domain-averaged precipitation, but discharge data from WRF-Hydro shows some differences in the total available water and the temporal distribution of streamflow (given by the timing of the streamflow peak following precipitation), compared to observations. On the basis of sensitivity tests, the parameters controlling the infiltration of excess precipitation and channel roughness depending on stream order are refined and their influence on temporal distribution of streamflow is addressed with intent to apply WRF-Hydro to flash flood forecasting in the Namgang Dam basin. The simulation results from the WRF-Hydro model with optimized parameters demonstrate the potential utility of a coupled atmospheric-hydrological model for forecasting heavy rain-induced flash flooding over the Korean Peninsula.

  4. Investigations of medium sized solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the market, but it is still too early to draw conclusions on optimum design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions need to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal? What...... is the advantage by using inlet stratifiers? To answer the questions, theoretical investigations are carried out for differently designed solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA SHC), Task 32 Advanced storage concepts...... for solar houses and low energy buildings....

  5. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  6. Tracking system for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  7. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  8. Evaluation of a rectangular rapid flashing beacon system at the Belmont Ridge Road and W&OD Trail mid-block crosswalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    On April 8, 2013, the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) installed a Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon : (RRFB) system at Belmont Ridge Road in Loudoun County that included two units at the Washington and Old Dominion : (W&OD) Trail crossin...

  9. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W; Christiansen, Mark P; Klaff, Leslie J; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle(®) Libre™ Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated sensor lots were used in the study. Sensor glucose measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose (BG) results (approximately eight per day) obtained using the BG meter built into the reader (BG reference) and with the YSI analyzer (Yellow Springs Instrument, Yellow Springs, OH) reference tests at three clinic visits (32 samples per visit). Sensor readings were masked to the participants. The accuracy of the results was demonstrated against capillary BG reference values, with 86.7% of sensor results within Consensus Error Grid Zone A. The percentage of readings within Consensus Error Grid Zone A on Days 2, 7, and 14 was 88.4%, 89.2%, and 85.2%, respectively. The overall mean absolute relative difference was 11.4%. The mean lag time between sensor and YSI reference values was 4.5±4.8 min. Sensor accuracy was not affected by factors such as body mass index, age, type of diabetes, clinical site, insulin administration, or hemoglobin A1c. Interstitial glucose measurements with the FreeStyle Libre system were found to be accurate compared with capillary BG reference values, with accuracy remaining stable over 14 days of wear and unaffected by patient characteristics.

  10. Economical analysis of a solar desalination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Tie-Zhu; He, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple stage tower-type of solar desalination unit by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit...... and yearly electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful to do the further investigation on solar desalination systems for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  11. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  12. Incorporating Lightning Flash Data into the WRF-CMAQ Modeling System: Algorithms and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the use of lightning flash data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to constrain and improve the performance of coupled meteorology-chemistry models. We recently implemented a scheme in which lightning data is used to control the triggering of conve...

  13. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  14. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  15. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  16. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  17. Methanogens in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G.; Rittmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of space science revealed that potential habitats in the Solar System may not be limited to the classical habitable zone supporting life as we know it. These microorganisms were shown to thrive under extremophilic growth conditions. Here, we outline the main eco-physiological characteristics of methanogens like their response on temperature, pressure, or pH changes or their resistance against radiation or desiccation. They can withstand extreme environmental conditions which makes them intriguing organisms for astrobiological studies. On Earth, they are found for example in wetlands, in arctic and antarctic subglacial environments, in ruminants, and even in the environment surrounding the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. These obligate anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemolithoheterotrophs are able to use e.g. hydrogen and C1 compounds like CO2, formate, or methanol as energy source and carbon source, respectively. We point out their capability to be able to habitat potential extraterrestrial biospheres all over the planetary system. We will give an overview about these possible environments on Mars, icy moons like Europa or Enceladus, and minor planets. We present an overview about studies of methanogens with an astrobiological relevance and we show our conclusions about the role of methanogens for the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System. We will present first results of our study about the possibility to cultivate methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions. For that, based on the observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft concerning the plume compounds, we produce a medium with a composition similar to the ocean composition of this icy moon which is far more Enceladus-like than in any (published) experiment before. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies with these microbes. We point out the importance of future in-situ or even sample and return missions to

  18. Solar-energy drying systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Atul; Chen, C.R.; Vu Lan, Nguyen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949, Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 71003 (China)

    2009-08-15

    In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels - thus improving the quality of life, however the availability of good information is lacking in many of the countries where solar food processing systems are most needed. Solar food dryers are available in a range of size and design and are used for drying various food products. It is found that various types of driers are available to suit the needs of farmers. Therefore, selection of dryers for a particular application is largely a decision based on what is available and the types of dryers currently used widely. A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically realized designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz. passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

  19. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  20. Flash evaporator

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A device and method for flash evaporating a reagent includes an evaporation chamber that houses a dome on which evaporation occurs. The dome is solid and of high thermal conductivity and mass, and may be heated to a temperature sufficient to vaporize a specific reagent. The reagent is supplied from an external source to the dome through a nozzle, and may be supplied as a continuous stream, as a shower, and as discrete drops. A carrier gas may be introduced into the evaporation chamber and cre...

  1. The Solar System Origin Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2016-10-01

    A novel theory will be presented based in part on astronomical observations, plasma physics experiments, principles of physics and forensic techniques. The new theory correctly predicts planetary distances with a 1% precision. It accounts for energy production mechanism inside all of the planets including our Earth. A log-log mass-luminosity plot of G2 class stars and solar system planets results in a straight line plot, whose slope implies that a fission rather than a proton-proton fusion energy production is operating. Furthermore, it is a confirmation that all our planets had originated from within our Sun. Other still-born planets continue to appear on the Sun's surface, they are mislabeled as sunspots.

  2. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  3. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  4. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  5. The origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormand, J.R.; Woolfson, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes in detail the capture theory of the origin of the solar system. Traces the history of solar system theories from pre-Christian Greece through the late 1920's. The authors examine the shortcomings of modern theories, and show how new knowledge supports the capture hypothesis

  6. Pumps for medium sized solar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated.......The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated....

  7. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for ages 10-17, this work takes a look at the developments in research about the solar system, including articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. It includes photos and drawings that showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and also a collection of images of the solar system.

  8. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  9. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatín, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang; Opsomer, Eric; Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Staron, Lydie; Taberlet, Nicolas; Yano, Hajime; Eggl, Siegfried; Lecomte, Charles-Edouard; Murdoch, Naomi; Radjai, Fahrang; Richardson, Derek C.; Salazar, Marcos; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Tanga, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining). In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  10. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  11. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  12. The Solar System and Its Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormand, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

  13. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  14. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  15. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  16. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  17. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-connected PV systems and water pumping PV systems.It is designed using a set of S4 classes whose core is a group of slots with multivariate time series. The classes share a variety of methods to access the information and several visualization methods. In addition, the package provides a tool for the visual statistical analysis of the performance of a large PV plant composed of several systems.Although solaR is primarily designed for time series associated to a location defined by its latitude/longitude values and the temperature and irradiation conditions, it can be easily combined with spatial packages for space-time analysis.

  18. Flashing coupled density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie

    1997-07-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The phenomenon and mechanism of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and flashing coupled density wave instability are described. The especially interpreted flashing coupled density wave instability has never been studied well, it is analyzed by using a one-dimensional non-thermo equilibrium two-phase flow drift model computer code. Calculations are in good agreement with the experiment results. (5 refs.,5 figs., 1 tab.)

  19. Developing a solar panel testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Rácz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is increasingly used togenerate electricity for individual households. There isa wide variety of solar panel technologies, whichshould be tested at an individual level during theirlifetime. In this paper, the development of a testingstation at the University of Debrecen is presented. Thetesting system can be used for research andeducational purposes and for in field applicationsequally well.

  20. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  1. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  2. Development of Control System for Fast Frequency Tuners of Superconducting Resonant Cavities for FLASH and XFEL Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Przygoda, K

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers the recent research and development (R&D) activities of control systems for the fast frequency tuners of TESLA cavities and predicts the implications foreseen for large scale machines such as the FLASH and the planned XFEL. In particular, the framework of the presented activities is the effort toward the: 1. R&D of the driving circuit, 2. R&D of the control algorithm, 3. R&D of the control system. The main result of these activities is the permanent installation of the target piezo control system and its commissioning for 40 cavities divided into 5 accelerating modules at the DESY FLASH facility. The author’s contribution was the study of possible designs of high-voltage, high-current power amplifiers, used for driving the fast frequency tuners, shows that several parameters of such a device needs to be considered. The most important parameter is the input and output power estimation. This arises from the fact that the estimation is the most crucial issue for both po...

  3. Development of a helmet-mounted PLZT thermal/flash protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.O. Jr.; Cutchen, J.T.; Pfoff, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is developing PLZT thermal/flash protective devices (TFPD's) goggles to prevent exposure and resultant eye damage from nuclear weapon detonations. The primary emphasis of the present program is to transfer technology and establish production capability for helmet-mounted PLZT/TFPD goggles for USAF flight crews, with a non-helmet-mounted configuration to follow. The first production units are anticipated in the fall of 1977. The operating principles of the PLZT/TFPD goggle device are briefly outlined, and the device configuration and operational characteristics are described

  4. Kosovo’s Ground Flash Density and Protection of Transmission Lines of the Kosovo Power System from Atmospheric Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Prebreza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the protection of transmission power lines of the Kosovo Power System from atmospheric discharges, with the use of surge arresters. Atmospheric discharges represent one of the main causes of interruptions for the Kosovo Power System. In addition, the ground flash density for Kosovo is given. The transmission lines with the worst performance regarding atmospheric discharges are discussed in more detail and are presented recommendations about the surge arresters used to protect the system from these overvoltages. The data provided by the localized lightning system in Kosovo enable us to provide a detailed correlation of the reported outages of the Kosovo Power System and corresponding atmospheric discharges. Recommendations for protection in terms of surge arresters are given followed by subsequent dynamic simulations using MATLAB software.

  5. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkerim, A I; Eusuf, M M R Sami; Salami, M J E; Aibinu, A; Eusuf, M A

    2013-01-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors

  6. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2004-01-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO 2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  7. Combined desalination and solar-assisted air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a new desalination process utilizing low grade thermal energy is presented. In this process, fresh water is distilled from saline water under near-vacuum pressures created by passive means, enabling low-temperature distillation with lower energy requirements. The energy for low-temperature distillation is provided by a thermal energy storage (TES) system maintained at 55 deg. C utilizing any low grade waste heat source. In this study, heat rejected by the condenser of a modified absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is evaluated as a possible source to drive this desalination process. The energy for the generator of the ARS is provided by a combination of solar collector system and grid power. Results of this study show that the thermal energy rejected by an ARS of cooling capacity of 3.25 kW (0.975 tons of refrigeration) along with an additional energy input of 208 kJ/kg of desalinated water is adequate to produce desalinated water at an average rate of 4.5 kg/h. This energy consumption is competitive with that of the multi-stage flash distillation process of similar capacity (338 kJ/kg). An integrated process model and performance curves of the proposed approach are presented in this paper. Effects of process parameters on the performance of the system are also presented

  8. Possible mass distributions in the nebulae of other solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The supernova shell fragmentation model of solar system formation - previously shown to be successful in describing the mass distribution of our solar system - is used to calculate the mass distributions of other solar nebulae. (Auth.)

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  10. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  11. Solar radiation alert system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  12. Voltage Quality Improvement Using Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Galzina

    2015-06-01

    This paper briefly shows the methods of power quality improvement, and then the results of on-site power quality measurements in the grid before and after the connection of the solar photovoltaic system.

  13. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  14. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...... gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this paper....

  15. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  16. Origin of the solar system. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, A.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A theory for the origin of the solar system, which is based on ideas of supersonic turbulent convection and indicates the possibility that the original Laplacian hypothesis may by valid, is presented. (Auth.)

  17. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  18. Solar thermochemical processing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Humble, Paul H.; Krishnan, Shankar; Leith, Steven D.; Palo, Daniel R.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2018-04-24

    A solar thermochemical processing system is disclosed. The system includes a first unit operation for receiving concentrated solar energy. Heat from the solar energy is used to drive the first unit operation. The first unit operation also receives a first set of reactants and produces a first set of products. A second unit operation receives the first set of products from the first unit operation and produces a second set of products. A third unit operation receives heat from the second unit operation to produce a portion of the first set of reactants.

  19. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  20. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  1. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system?  When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System 2013 looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets, new missions, updates for ongoing missions, newly-discovered moons, and updated tables. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  2. Monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the monitoring of manufactured solar heating systems for domestic hot water combined with space heating and systems for domestic hot water only. Results from the monitoring of 5 marketed combined systems for domestic hot water and space heating are presented. The systems situated at one family houses at different sites in Denmark have been monitored from January/February 1992. For the detailed monitoring of manufactured systems only for domestic hot water a test facility for simultaneous monitoring of 5 solar heating systems has been established at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory. (au)

  3. Modeling of a sensitive time-of-flight flash LiDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, V.; Wheaton, S.; Johnson, W. E.; Mohseni, H.

    2016-09-01

    used for monitoring and profiling structures, range, velocity, vibration, and air turbulence. Remote sensing in the IR region has several advantages over the visible region, including higher transmitter energy while maintaining eye-safety requirements. Electron-injection detectors are a new class of detectors with high internal avalanche-free amplification together with an excess-noise-factor of unity. They have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. Furthermore, they have an extremely low jitter. The detector operates in linear-mode and requires only bias voltage of a few volts. This together with the feedback stabilized gain mechanism, makes formation of large-format high pixel density electron-injection FPAs less challenging compared to other detector technologies such as avalanche photodetectors. These characteristics make electron-injection detectors an ideal choice for flash LiDAR application with mm scale resolution at longer ranges. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, a detailed theoretical LiDAR model was developed. In this model we compare the performance of the electron-injection detector with commercially available linear-mode InGaAs APD from (Hamamatsu G8931-20) as well as a p-i-n diode (Hamamatsu 11193 p-i-n). Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model, show the electron-injection detector array (of 100 x 100 element) achieves better resolution with higher signal-to-noise compared with both the InGaAs APD and the p-i-n array (of 100 x 100 element).

  4. Performance evaluation of a once-through multi-stage flash distillation system: Impact of brine heater fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Hasan; Antar, Mohamed A.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) system modeling involves a number of process variables. An estimation of all these process variables requires both analytical solutions and experimental/field analysis. However, the accurate estimate of variables related to the brine heater operation in a MSF system is very important for a reliable operation of the system. For example, steam operating conditions as well as the brine properties including fouling of the brine heater tubes have a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics of the brine heater, which in turn influence the distillate output from the system. In this study, the effect of various design as well as operating conditions on the performance ratio (PR), brine temperature and salinity as it leaves the last flash stage are investigated in a once-through system. Increasing the number of stages from 24 to 32 has a significant effect on the PR, it ranges between 79% (for ΔT = 1.5) and 327% (for ΔT = 2.3) for a top-brine temperature of 106 o C. This value increase as the top-brine temperature increases. Increasing the stage-to-stage temperature difference increases the water salinity as it leaves the final stage and reduces its temperature that would imply better energy utilization within the plant. Results show that brine side heat exchanger fouling has a significant effect in decreasing the overall heat transfer coefficient, which reduces the production rate as the fouling increases with time. A sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters, which can have a significant influence on the desalination plant performance, is carried out in an attempt to contribute a better understanding and operation of MSF desalination processes.

  5. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  6. Design and Implementation of Dual Axis Solar Tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Sirigauri N,; Raghav S

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is a promising technology that can have huge long term benefits. Solar cells convert the solar energy into electrical energy. Solar tracking system is the most suited technology to improve the efficiency and enhance the performance by utilizing maximum solar energy through the solar cell. In hardware development we utilize LDR’s as sensors and two servomotors to direct the position of the solar panel. The software part is implemented on a code written using an Arduino...

  7. Combined solar collector and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Smyth, M.; Eames, P.; Lo, S.N.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

  8. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...

  9. Rapid flash annealing of thermally reactive copolymers in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    intensity pulsed light, delivered by a commercial photonic sintering system. Thermally labile ester groups are positioned on the DTZ unit of the copolymer that can be eliminated thermally for enhanced photochemical stability and advantages in terms of processing (solubility/insolubility switching...

  10. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar continuous operation. More than 75 instruments contribute to the Baseline Measurement System by recording

  11. New Isotopic clues to solar system formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of two new extinct nuclides 26 Al and 107 Pd with half-lives approx.10 6 years in the early solar system implies that there were nucleosynthetic activities involving a great many elements almost at the instant of solar system formation. Rare gas and oxygen isotopic abundance variations [''anomalies''] relative to the ''cosmic'' composition were observed in a variety of planetary objects indicating that isotopic heterogeneities caused by the incomplete mixing of distinct nucleosynthetic components permeate of the entire solar system. The correlated nuclear [''FUN''] anomalies in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sr, Ba, Nd, and Sm were found in three rare inclusions in the Allende meteorite, which show large mass-dependent isotopic fractionation effects. The signature of the nuclear component required to explain these anomalies suggests a source which has received a catastrophic neutron burst [e.g., an r-process event]. These extinct nuclides and nucleosynthetic anomalies provide new clues to solar system formation. In particular, these results have led to the speculation that a nearby supernova had injected freshly synthesized material into the early solar nebula and possibly triggered the collapse of the proto-solar interstellar cloud. Furthermore, these new results have major implications on cosmochronology, nucleosynthesis theory, star formation, planetary heating, and the genetic relationship between different planetary bodies

  12. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  13. Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    "Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

  14. Solar power generation system. Solar denryoku hassei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohaku, T [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1990-12-21

    In a conventional solar power generation system having shunt elements for controlling generated power and supplying the controlled power to a load, it is difficult to carry out a stable power control, because the shunt characteristics of an analogue shunt element driving circuit vary widely as compared with a digital shunt element driving circuit, as the temperature varies. According to the present invention, in a solar power generation system having a plurality of solar cells divided into two of the first and second cell groups and a first and a second shunt element driving means provided for the first and second cell groups, the first shunt element driving means is composed of a combination of a resisance and level shift diode arranged, and the second shunt element driving means is composed of a combination of a transistor and level shift diode arranged. A stable current control of the shunt elements can be therefore realized, because the control voltage range of the first and second shunt element driving means is changed so as to be expanded, as the temperature varies, so that their overlapped voltage range is kept constant. 7 figs.

  15. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  16. A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the

  17. The solar system in close-up

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, John

    2016-01-01

    In response to the new information gained about the Solar System from recent space probes and space telescopes, the experienced science author Dr. John Wilkinson presents the state-of-the art knowledge on the Sun, solar system planets and small solar system objects like comets and asteroids. He also describes space missions like the New Horizon’s space probe that provided never seen before pictures of the Pluto system; the Dawn space probe, having just visited the asteroid Vesta, and the dwarf planet Ceres; and the Rosetta probe inorbit around comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko that has sent extraordinary and most exciting pictures. Those and a number of other probes are also changing our understanding of the solar system and providing a wealth of new up close photos. This book will cover all these missions and discuss observed surface features of planets and moons like their compositions, geisers, aurorae, lightning phenomena etc. Presenting the fascinating aspects of solar system astronomy this book is a c...

  18. Protecting solar collector systems from corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main cause of the reduced life of a solar heating system is corrosion of the exterior parts and the internal components. This report outlines ways of reducing the cost of solar heating by reducing the corrosion in solar heating systems, and hence increasing the system's service life. Mechanisms for corrosion are discussed: these include galvanic corrosion and crevice corrosion. Means of minimizing corrosion at the design stage are then described. Such methods, when designing the solar collector, involve ensuring proper drainage of exterior water; eliminating situations where moisture, dirt and pollutants may collect; preventing condensation inside the collector; using proper gaskets and sealants at appropriate places; and selecting optimum materials and coatings. Interior corrosion can be minimized at the design stage by choosing a good heat transfer fluid and corrosion inhibitor, in the case of systems where liquids are used; ensuring a low enough flow rate to avoid erosion; designing the system to avoid crevices; and avoiding situations where galvanic corrosion could occur. Other procedures are given for minimizing corrosion in the construction and operation of solar heating systems. 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Napping-Ultra Flash Profile as a Tool for Category Identification and Subsequent Model System Formulation of Caramel Corn Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-07-01

    In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  1. A Durable Flash Memory Search Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Clay III, James; Wortman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the task of optimizing the B-tree data structure, used extensively in operating systems and databases, for sustainable usage on multi-level flash memory. Empirical evidence shows that this new flash memory tree, or FM Tree, extends the operational lifespan of each block of flash memory by a factor of roughly 27 to 70 times, while still supporting logarithmic-time search tree operations.

  2. Modelling and mitigation of Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, John; Serbera, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The algorithmic trading revolution has had a dramatic effect upon markets. Trading has become faster, and in some ways more efficient, though potentially at the cost higher volatility and increased uncertainty. Stories of predatory trading and flash crashes constitute a new financial reality. Worryingly, highly capitalised stocks may be particularly vulnerable to flash crashes. Amid fears of high-risk technology failures in the global financial system we develop a model for flash crashes....

  3. Development of a Solar System Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Duncan, D.; S, C. A. T.

    2009-01-01

    Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Preliminary development of the SSCI was completed at the University of Colorado and involved over 400 students. A larger, national, multi-institutional field test is planned for Spring 2009 as a Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) research project. We present here the results from the preliminary development and proposed changes for the next stage of research. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  4. Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, S.; Prather, E.

    2009-12-01

    Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. The SSCI has been through two semesters of national, multi-institutional field-testing, involving over 1500 students. After the first semester of testing, question statistics were used to flag ineffective questions and flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We will present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  5. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  6. Solar warming systems of water installed in Colombia. Photovoltaic solar systems installed in the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    Between the systems that operate as of solar energy, the solar collectors to heat water have had wide use and application in the Country. Basically, a solar collector is constituted by: Box, thermal insulator, ducts and transparent roof. Generally, the used materials are the following: As thermal insulator: Polyurethane or glass fiber; as absorbent plate: Copper or aluminum, painting in dull black or selective surfaces; for the ducts: Generally it is used copper pipeline; and for the cover: Common glass or temperate glass

  7. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianze; Lu Hengwei; Jiang Chuan; Hou Luan; Zhang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  8. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiers, Adam [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.j.faiers.so2@cranfield.ac.uk; Neame, Charles [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.neame@cranfield.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified.

  9. Simulation of an adsorption solar cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.; Bennacer, R.

    2011-01-01

    A more realistic theoretical simulation model for a tubular solar adsorption refrigerating system using activated carbon-methanol (AC/M) pair has been introduced. The mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, the condenser, and the evaporator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. Furthermore, the local pressure, and local thermal conductivity variations in space and time inside the tubular reactor are investigated as well. A C++ computer program is written to solve the proposed numerical model using the finite difference method. The developed program covers the operations of all the system components along the cycle time. The performance of the tubular reactor, the condenser, and the evaporator has been discussed. Time allocation chart and switching operations for the solar refrigeration system processes are illustrated as well. The case studied has a 1 m 2 surface area solar flat plate collector integrated with a 20 stainless steel tubes containing the AC/M pair and each tube has a 5 cm outer diameter. In addition, the condenser pressure is set to 54.2 kpa. It has been found that, the solar coefficient of performance and the specific cooling power of the system are 0.211 and 2.326 respectively. In addition, the pressure distribution inside the adsorption bed has been found nearly uniform and varying only with time. Furthermore, the AC/M thermal conductivity is shown to be constant in both space and time.

  10. Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

  11. Allowed planetary orbits in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintr, P.; Perinova, V.; Luks, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new law of the Titius-Bode type for planetary distances from the Sun is proposed. These distances for each planet are determined using appropriate nodal circle of a vibrating membrane. Regularities in the distribution of bodies in the solar system and in the systems of giant planets and some exoplanets are pointed out

  12. FLASH Interface; a GUI for managing runtime parameters in FLASH simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher; Tzeferacos, Petros; Weide, Klaus; Lamb, Donald; Flocke, Norbert; Feister, Scott

    2017-10-01

    We present FLASH Interface, a novel graphical user interface (GUI) for managing runtime parameters in simulations performed with the FLASH code. FLASH Interface supports full text search of available parameters; provides descriptions of each parameter's role and function; allows for the filtering of parameters based on categories; performs input validation; and maintains all comments and non-parameter information already present in existing parameter files. The GUI can be used to edit existing parameter files or generate new ones. FLASH Interface is open source and was implemented with the Electron framework, making it available on Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux operating systems. The new interface lowers the entry barrier for new FLASH users and provides an easy-to-use tool for experienced FLASH simulators. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NNSA ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, U.S. DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science, U.S. National Science Foundation.

  13. The space-age solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons

  14. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  15. An automated tool for solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsheh, E.M.; Natsheh, A.R.; Albarbar, AH

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a novel model of smart grid-connected solar power system is developed. The model is implemented using MatLab/SIMULINK software package. Artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The dynamic behavior of the proposed model is examined under different operating conditions. Solar irradiance, and temperature data are gathered from a grid connected, 28.8 kW solar power system located in central Manchester. The developed system and its control strategy exhibit excellent performance with tracking efficiency exceed 94.5%. The proposed model and its control strategy offer a proper tool for smart grid performance optimization. (author)

  16. Flash Platform Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    than would be performed in software”[108]. Uro Tinic, one of the Flash player’s engineers, further clarifies exactly what Flash player 10 hardware...www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/features/ (Access date: 28 Sep 2009). [109] Uro , T. What Does GPU Acceleration Mean? (online), http...133] Shorten, A. (2009), Design to Development: Flash Catalyst to Flash Builder, In Proceedings of Adobe Max 2009, Los Angeles, CA. 142 DRDC

  17. Solar System Evolution through Planetesmial Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Isabella; Laughlin, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Understanding planet formation is crucial to unraveling the history of our Solar System. Refining our theory of planet formation has become particularly important as the discovery of exoplanet systems through missions like Kepler have indicated that our system is incredibly unique. Compared to other systems around Sun-like stars, we are missing a significant amount of mass in the inner region of our solar system.A leading explanation for the low mass of the terrestrial planets is Jupiter’s Grand Tack. In this theory, the existence of the rocky planets is thought to be the result of the migration of Jupiter through the inner solar system. This migration could spark a collisional cascade of planetesimals, allowing planetesimals to drift inwards and shepherd an original set of massive planets into the Sun, thus explaining the absence of massive planets in our current system. The remnants of the planetesimals would them become the building blocks for a new generation of smaller, rocky planets.Using the N-body simulator REBOUND, we investigate the dynamics of the Grand Tack. We focus in particular on collisional cascades, which are thought to cause the inward planetesimal drift. We first modify the simulator to account for fragmentation outcomes in planetesimal collisions. Modeling disks of varying initial conditions, we then characterize the disk conditions needed to begin a cascade and shed light on the solar system’s dynamics just prior to the formation of the terrestrial planets.

  18. Market potential of solar thermal system in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, M.Y.H.; Sopian, K.; Dalimin, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the market potential for solar thermal systems in Malaysia. Our study indicates that solar thermal systems such as solar drying, solar water heating and process heating have a good potential for commercialization. The primary obstacle facing the utilization of these technologies is the financial aspects. (author)

  19. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction

    OpenAIRE

    Moro-Martin, Amaya

    2007-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  20. Solar heating systems for houses. A design handbook for solar combisystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-11-01

    A handbook giving guidance on systems for providing combined solar space heating and solar water heating for houses has been produced by an international team. The guidance focuses on selection of the optimum combi-system for groups of single-family houses and multi-family houses. Standard classification and evaluation procedures are described. The book should be a valuable tool for building engineers, architects, solar manufacturers and installers of solar solar energy systems, and anyone interested in optimizing combined water and space heating solar systems

  1. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  2. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  3. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  4. A hybrid system for solar irradiance specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Space environment research and space weather operations require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats. We describe the development of solar irradiance characterization using four models and systems that are also used for space weather operations. The four models/systems include SOLAR2000 (S2K), SOLARFLARE (SFLR), APEX, and IDAR, which are used by Space Environment Technologies (SET) to provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays through the visible spectrum. SFLR uses the GOES 0.1 0.8 nm X-rays in combination with a Mewe model subroutine to provide 0.1 30.0 nm irradiances at 0.1 nm spectral resolution, at 1 minute time resolution, and in a 6-hour XUV EUV spectral solar flare evolution forecast with a 7 minute latency and a 2 minute cadence. These irradiances have been calibrated with the SORCE XPS observations and we report on the inclusion of these irradiances into the S2K model. The APEX system is a real-time data retrieval system developed in conjunction with the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center (SSC) to provide SOHO SEM data processing and distribution. SSC provides the updated SEM data to the research community and SET provides the operational data to the space operations community. We describe how the SOHO SEM data, and especially the new S10.7 index, is being integrated directly into the S2K model for space weather operations. The IDAR system has been developed by SET to extract coronal hole boundaries, streamers, coronal loops, active regions, plage, network, and background (internetwork) features from solar images for comparison with solar magnetic features. S2K, SFLR, APEX, and IDAR outputs are integrated through the S2K solar irradiance platform that has become a hybrid system, i.e., a system that is able to produce irradiances using different processes, including empirical and physics-based models combined with real-time data integration.

  5. Robust Solar Position Sensor for Tracking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a new solar position sensor used in tracking system control. The main advantages of the new solution are the robustness and the economical aspect. Positioning accuracy of the tracking system that uses the new sensor is better than 1°. The new sensor uses the ancient principle...... of the solar clock. The sensitive elements are eight ordinary photo-resistors. It is important to note that all the sensors are not selected simultaneously. It is not necessary for sensor operating characteristics to be quasi-identical because the sensor principle is based on extreme operating duty measurement...... (bright or dark). In addition, the proposed solar sensor significantly simplifies the operation of the tracking control device....

  6. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2017-02-21

    Forced-circulation solar heating system has been widely used in process and domestic heating applications. Additional pumping power is required to circulate the water through the collectors to absorb the solar energy. The present study intends to develop a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) to obtain the minimum pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net heat energy gain Qnet (= Qs − Wp/ηe) was found to be the cost function for MPPT. The step-up-step-down controller was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  7. Development of a national Flash flood warning system in France using the AIGA method: first results and main issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Demargne, Julie; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Garandeau, Léa; Janet, Bruno; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Fouchier, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Developing a national flash flood (FF) warning system is an ambitious and difficult task. On one hand it rises huge expectations from exposed populations and authorities since induced damages are considerable (ie 20 casualties in the recent October 2015 flood at the French Riviera). But on the other hand, many practical and scientific issues have to be addressed and limitations should be clearly stated. The FF warning system to be implemented by 2016 in France by the SCHAPI (French national service in charge of flood forecasting) will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014). The AIGA method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr). It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km² resolution to reference flood quantiles of different return periods, at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France. Model calibration was based on ~700 hydrometric stations over the 2002-2015 period and then hourly discharges were computed at ~76 000 catchment outlets, with areas ranging from 10 to 3 500 km², over the last 19 years. This product makes it possible to calculate reference flood quantiles at each outlet. The on-going evaluation of the FF warnings is currently made at two levels: in a 'classical' way, using discharges available at the hydrometric stations, but also in a more 'exploratory' way, by comparing past flood reports and warnings issued by the system over the 76 000 catchment outlets. The interest of the last method is that it better fit the system objectives since it is designed to monitor small ungauged catchments. Javelle, P., Demargne, J., Defrance, D, .Pansu, J, .Arnaud, P. (2014). Evaluating flash-flood warnings at ungauged locations using post-event surveys: a case study with the AIGA warning system

  8. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  9. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy

  10. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifurrahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  11. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  12. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  13. Solar Irradiance & On Grid Solar Power Systems with Net Metering in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Qamar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of solar irradiance and scope of on-grid solar power systems with net-metering in Pakistan. Detailed analysis of solar irradiance in Pakistan is being carried out by developing the dedicated solar excel sheets. The need of on grid solar power systems for the present energy crisis in developing countries like Pakistan is also discussed. It also presents the inclination of many countries especially USA and Europe towards it. Identification of barriers for implementing on grid net metered solar power systems in Pakistan along with solutions of these barriers is carried out.

  14. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system is described. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq. ft. office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offer a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site.

  15. Robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ulivi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Presents a history of unmanned missions of exploration of our Solar System. This book provides technical descriptions of the spacecraft, of their mission designs and of instrumentations. It discusses scientific results together with details of mission management. It covers missions from the 1950s and some of the other missions and their results.

  16. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  17. Embodying Earth's Place in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Elementary students find it difficult to connect the apparent motion of objects in the sky with how celestial objects actually move in the solar system. As a university astronomy education researcher, the author has been investigating methods to help children learn astronomy through workshops and summer camps at science museums and planetariums.…

  18. Assessment of a Solar System Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

  19. The Dimensions of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Davis, Kathleen S.

    2007-01-01

    A few new wrinkles have been added to the popular activity of building a scale model of the solar system. Students can learn about maps and scaling using easily accessible online resources that include satellite images. This is accomplished by taking advantage of some of the special features of Google Earth. This activity gives students a much…

  20. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her

    2017-01-01

    was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  1. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  2. Reliability and durability in solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolphin, D.

    1982-10-01

    The reliability and durability in solar energy systems for residential buildings is discussed. It is concluded that although strides have been made in design and manufacturing over the past years, the reliability and durability of the equipment depends on the proper installation. (MJF)

  3. New Low Cost Structure for Dual Axis Mount Solar Tracking System Using Adaptive Solar Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    A solar tracking system is designed to optimize the operation of solar energy receivers. The objective of this paper is proposing a new tracking system structure with two axis. The success strategy of this new project focuses on the economical analysis of solar energy. Therefore it is important...... to determine the most cost effective design, to consider the costs of production and maintenance, and operating. The proposed tracking system uses a new solar sensor position with an adaptive feature....

  4. A hydro-sedimentary modeling system for flash flood propagation and hazard estimation under different agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, N. N.; Karatzas, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    A modeling system for the estimation of flash flood flow velocity and sediment transport is developed in this study. The system comprises three components: (a) a modeling framework based on the hydrological model HSPF, (b) the hydrodynamic module of the hydraulic model MIKE 11 (quasi-2-D), and (c) the advection-dispersion module of MIKE 11 as a sediment transport model. An important parameter in hydraulic modeling is the Manning's coefficient, an indicator of the channel resistance which is directly dependent on riparian vegetation changes. Riparian vegetation's effect on flood propagation parameters such as water depth (inundation), discharge, flow velocity, and sediment transport load is investigated in this study. Based on the obtained results, when the weed-cutting percentage is increased, the flood wave depth decreases while flow discharge, velocity and sediment transport load increase. The proposed modeling system is used to evaluate and illustrate the flood hazard for different riparian vegetation cutting scenarios. For the estimation of flood hazard, a combination of the flood propagation characteristics of water depth, flow velocity and sediment load was used. Next, a well-balanced selection of the most appropriate agricultural cutting practices of riparian vegetation was performed. Ultimately, the model results obtained for different agricultural cutting practice scenarios can be employed to create flood protection measures for flood-prone areas. The proposed methodology was applied to the downstream part of a small Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece.

  5. Comparison of the Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) to other advanced vapor cycles for intermediate and high temperature waste heat reclamation and solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed as a vapor power cycle that could potentially improve the efficiency with which high and intermediate temperature finite thermal sources are utilized. The OFC's aim is to improve temperature matching and reduce exergy losses during heat addition. A theoretical investigation is conducted using high accuracy equations of state such as BACKONE, Span–Wagner, and REFPROP in a detailed thermodynamic and exergetic analysis. The study examines 10 different aromatic hydrocarbons and siloxanes as potential working fluids. Comparisons are drawn between the OFC and an optimized basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), a zeotropic Rankine cycle using a binary ammonia-water mixture, and a transcritical CO 2 cycle. Results showed aromatic hydrocarbons to be the better suited working fluid for the ORC and OFC due to higher power output and less complex turbine designs. Results also showed that the single flash OFC achieves comparable utilization efficiencies to the optimized basic ORC. Although the OFC improved heat addition exergetic efficiency, this advantage was negated by irreversibilities introduced during flash evaporation. A number of potentially significant improvements to the OFC are possible though which includes using a secondary flash stage or replacing the throttling valve with a two-phase expander. -- Highlights: ► The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is proposed to improve temperature matching. ► Ten aromatic hydrocarbon and siloxane working fluids are considered. ► Accurate equations of state explicit in Helmholtz energy are used in the analysis. ► The OFC is compared to basic ORCs, zeotropic, and transcritical cycles. ► The OFC achieves comparable power output to the optimized basic ORC.

  6. uFlip: Understanding Flash IO Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouganim, Luc; Jonsson, Bjørn; Bonnet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    want to establish what kind of IOs should be favored (or avoided) when designing algorithms and architectures for flash-based systems. In this paper, we focus on flash IO patterns, that capture relevant distribution of IOs in time and space, and our goal is to quantify their performance. We define uFLIP...

  7. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  8. How Normal is Our Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    To date, weve discovered nearly 2000 confirmed exoplanets, as well as thousands of additional candidates. Amidst this vast sea of solar systems, how special is our own? A new study explores the answer to this question.Analyzing DistributionsKnowing whether our solar system is unique among exoplanetary systems can help us to better understand future observations of exoplanets. Furthermore, if our solar system is typical, this allows us to be optimistic about the possibility of life existing elsewhere in the universe.In a recent study, Rebecca Martin (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) and Mario Livio (Space Telescope Science Institute) examine how normal our solar system is, by comparing the properties of our planets to the averages obtained from known exoplanets.Comparing PropertiesSo how do we measure up?Densities of planets as a function of their mass. Exoplanets (N=287) are shown in blue, planets in our solar system are shown in red. [MartinLivio 2015]Planet masses and densitiesThose of the gas giants in our solar system are pretty typical. The terrestrial planets are on the low side for mass, but thats probably a selection effect: its very difficult to detect low-mass planets.Age of the solar systemRoughly half the stars in the disk of our galaxy are younger than the Sun, and half are older. Were definitely not special in age.Orbital locations of the planetsThis is actually a little strange: our solar system is lacking close-in planets. All of our planets, in fact, orbit at a distance that is larger than the mean distance observed in exoplanetary systems. Again, however, this might be a selection effect at work: its easier to detect large planets orbiting very close to their stars.Eccentricities of the planets orbitsOur planets are on very circular orbits and that actually makes us somewhat special too, compared to typical exoplanet systems. There is a possible explanation though: eccentricity of orbits tends to decrease with more planets in the system. Because

  9. A Solar System Perspective on Laboratory Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary science deals with a wide variety of natural materials in a wide variety of environments. These materials include metals, minerals, ices, gases, plasmas, and organic chemicals. In addition, the newly defined discipline of astrobiology introduces biological materials to planetary science. The environments range from the interiors of planets with megapascal pressures to planetary magnetospheres, encompassing planetary mantles, surfaces, atmospheres, and ionospheres. The interplanetary environment includes magnetic and electrical fields, plasma, and dust. In order to understand planetary processes over these vast ranges, the properties of materials must be known, and most of the necessary information comes from the laboratory. Observations of the bodies and materials in the Solar System are accomplished over the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum by remote sensing from Earth or spacecraft. Comets exemplify this; molecular and atomic identifications are made from the hard ultraviolet to radio wavelengths, while X-rays are emitted as comets interact with the solar wind. Gamma rays from the surfaces of the Moon and asteroids are diagnostic of the mineral and ice content of those bodies; eventually, gamma rays will also be observed by probes to comets. A number of planetary materials are available in the laboratory for extensive Study: rocks from the Moon, Mars, several asteroids, as well as dust from comets (and perhaps the Kuiper Belt) are closely studied at every level, including atomic (isotopic). Even pre-solar interstellar grains isolated from meteorites are scrutinized for composition and crystalline structure. Beyond the materials themselves, various agents and processes have altered them over the 4.6-Gy age of the Solar System. Solar radiation, solar wind particles, trapped magnetospheric particles, cosmic rays, and micrometeoroid impacts have produced chemical, physical, and morphological changes in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of all

  10. Streaming of interstellar grains in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, B. A. S.; Misconi, N. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the interactions between interstellar grains streaming through the solar system and the solar wind are presented. It is shown that although elongated core-mantle interstellar particles of a characteristic radius of about 0.12 microns are subject to a greater force due to radiation pressure than to gravitational attraction, they are still able to penetrate deep inside the solar system. Calculations of particle trajectories within the solar system indicate substantial effects of the solar activity cycle as reflected in the interplanetary magnetic field on the distribution of 0.12- and 0.0005-micron interstellar grains streaming through the solar system, leading to a 50-fold increase in interstellar grain densities 3 to 4 AU ahead of the sun during years 8 to 17 of the solar cycle. It is noted that during the Solar Polar Mission, concentrations are expected which will offer the opportunity of detecting interstellar grains in the solar system.

  11. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1986-01-01

    A review is presented of the dynamical implications of a companion star in a wide orbit around the sun, with a semimajor axis of about half a parsec. The motivation behind the hypothesis of a solar companion star is reviewed briefly along with alternative hypotheses, and the general problem of solar system dynamics with a solar companion star is discussed. Four principal questions are posed and answered concerning the consistency of the solar companion theory in providing the required modulation in comet arrival times: (1) What is the expected lifetime of a solar companion? (2) How stable is the orbital period? (3) Does a single perihelion passage of a solar companion perturb enough comets? (4) Do repeated perihelion passages of a solar companion perturb too many comets? Some applications outside the solar system involving wide binaries, interstellar clouds, and dark matter in the Galactic disk are discussed, and the viability of the solar companion theory is critically assessed

  13. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H 2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  15. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  16. Organic flash cycles for efficient power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2016-03-15

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to an Organic Flash Cycle (OFC). In one aspect, a modified OFC system includes a pump, a heat exchanger, a flash evaporator, a high pressure turbine, a throttling valve, a mixer, a low pressure turbine, and a condenser. The heat exchanger is coupled to an outlet of the pump. The flash evaporator is coupled to an outlet of the heat exchanger. The high pressure turbine is coupled to a vapor outlet of the flash evaporator. The throttling valve is coupled to a liquid outlet of the flash evaporator. The mixer is coupled to an outlet of the throttling valve and to an outlet of the high pressure turbine. The low pressure turbine is coupled to an outlet of the mixer. The condenser is coupled to an outlet of the low pressure turbine and to an inlet of the pump.

  17. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  18. Solar cosmic rays in the system of solar terrestrial relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.

    2008-02-01

    In this brief review, we discuss a number of geophysical effects of solar energetic particles (SEPs) or solar cosmic rays (SCR). We concentrate mainly on the observational evidence and proposed mechanisms of some expected effects and/or poor-studied phenomena discovered within the last three decades, in particular, depletion of the ozone layer, perturbations in the global electric current, effects on the winter storm vorticity, change of the atmospheric transparency and production of nitrates. Some "archaeological" data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by SEPs are also discussed. Due attention is paid to the periodicities in the solar particle fluxes. Actually, many solar, heliospheric and terrestrial parameters changing generally in phase with the solar activity are subjected to a temporary depression close to the solar maximum ("Gnevyshev Gap"). A similar gap has been found recently in the yearly numbers of the >10 MeV proton events. All the above-mentioned findings are evidently of great importance in the studies of general proton emissivity of the Sun and long-term trends in the behaviour of solar magnetic fields. In addition, these data can be very helpful for elaborating the methods for prediction of the radiation conditions in space and for estimation of the SEPs' contribution to solar effects on the geosphere, their relative role in the formation of terrestrial weather and climate and in the problem of solar-terrestrial relations (STR) on the whole.

  19. Elementary Students' Mental Models of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Canales, Elena; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Gallegos-Cazares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    This research project aimed to identify and analyze Mexican primary school students' ideas about the components of the solar system. In particular, this study focused on conceptions of the solar system and representations of the dynamics of the solar system based on the functional and structural models that students make in school. Using a…

  20. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  1. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  2. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  3. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  4. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  5. Life in the solar system and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Barrie W

    2004-01-01

    In Life in the Solar System and Beyond, Professor Jones has written a broad introduction to the subject, addressing important topics such as, what is life?, the origins of life and where to look for extraterrestrial life The chapters are arranged as follows Chapter 1 is a broad introduction to the cosmos, with an emphasis on where we might find life In Chapters 2 and 3 Professor Jones discusses life on Earth, the one place we know to be inhabited Chapter 4 is a brief tour of the Solar system, leading us in Chapters 5 and 6 to two promising potential habitats, Mars and Europa In Chapter 7 the author discusses the fate of life in the Solar system, which gives us extra reason to consider life further afield Chapter 8 focuses on the types of stars that might host habitable planets, and where in the Galaxy these might be concentrated Chapters 9 and 10 describe the instruments and techniques being employed to discover planets around other stars (exoplanetary systems), and those that will be employed in the near fut...

  6. A digital multi-channel spectroscopy system with 100 MHz flash ADC module for the GENIUS-TF and GENIUS projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kihm, T.; Bobrakov, V. F.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will present the first results of applying a digital processing technology in low-level gamma spectroscopy with HPGE detectors. An experimental gamma spectrometer using Flash ADC module is built and tested. The test system is now under development and shows major advantages over the traditional analog technologies. It will be installed for the GENIUS-TF and GENIUS projects in Gran-Sasso in early 2003.

  7. A digital multi-channel spectroscopy system with 100 MHz flash ADC module for the GENIUS-TF and GENIUS projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihm, T.; Bobrakov, V.F.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results of applying a digital processing technology in low-level gamma spectroscopy with HPGE detectors. An experimental gamma spectrometer using Flash ADC module is built and tested. The test system is now under development and shows major advantages over the traditional analog technologies. It will be installed for the GENIUS-TF and GENIUS projects in Gran-Sasso in early 2003

  8. Physics and chemistry of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, John S

    2004-01-01

    Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, 2nd Edition, is a comprehensive survey of the planetary physics and physical chemistry of our own solar system. It covers current research in these areas and the planetary sciences that have benefited from both earth-based and spacecraft-based experimentation. These experiments form the basis of this encyclopedic reference, which skillfully fuses synthesis and explanation. Detailed chapters review each of the major planetary bodies as well as asteroids, comets, and other small orbitals. Astronomers, physicists, and planetary scientists can use this state-of-the-art book for both research and teaching. This Second Edition features extensive new material, including expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, spacecraft findings from Mars Pathfinder through Mars Odyssey 2001, recent reflections on brown dwarfs, and descriptions of planned NASA, ESA, and Japanese planetary missions.* New edition features expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, the latest spacecraft...

  9. Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology

  10. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  11. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  12. The Science of Solar System Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The Science of Solar System Ices The role of laboratory research and simulations in advancing our understanding of solar system ices (including satellites, KBOs, comets, and giant planets) is becoming increasingly important. Understanding ice surface radiation processing, particle and radiation penetration depths, surface and subsurface chemistry, morphology, phases, density, conductivity, etc., are only a few examples of the inventory of issues that are being addressed by Earth-based laboratory research. As a response to the growing need for cross-disciplinary dialog and communication in the planetary ices science community, this book aims to foster focused collaborations among the observational, modeling, and laboratory research communities. The book is a compilation of articles from experts in ices: experimentalists, modelers, and observers (ground-based telescopes and space missions). Most of the contributors featured in this book are renowned experts in their respective fields. Many of these scientists h...

  13. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  14. Pro Android Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Stephen; Campesato, Oswald

    2011-01-01

    Did you know you can take your Flash skills beyond the browser, allowing you to make apps for Android, iOS and the BlackBerry Tablet OS? Build dynamic apps today starting with the easy-to-use Android smartphones and tablets. Then, take your app to other platforms without writing native code. Pro Android Flash is the definitive guide to building Flash and other rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the Android platform. It covers the most popular RIA frameworks for Android developers - Flash and Flex - and shows how to build rich, immersive user experiences on both Android smartphones and tablet

  15. Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Roberto; Bellettini, G.; Berardi, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Coradini, A.; Currie, D. G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Fiorenza, E.; Garattini, M.; Iafolla, V.; Intaglietta, N.; Lefevre, C.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Martini, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Tauraso, R.; Vittori, R.

    2010-05-01

    The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided by different theories, which can be therefore tested and compared. Future exploration scenarios show the possibility of placing deep-space probes near the Sun or in outer Solar System, thereby extending the available experimental data sets. In particular, the Earth-Moon is the most accurately known gravitational three-body laboratory, which is undergoing a new, strong wave of research and exploration (both robotic and manned). In addition, the benefits of a synergetic study of planetary science and gravitational physics are of the greatest importance (as shown by the success of the Apollo program), especially in the Earth-Moon, Mars-Phobos, Jovian and Saturnian sub-suystems. This scenarios open critical issues regarding the quality of the available dynamical models, i.e. their capability of fitting data without an excessive number of empirical hypotheses. A typical case is represented by the non-gravitational phenomena, which in general are difficult to model. More generally, gravitation tests with Lunar Laser Ranging, inner or outer Solar System probes and the appearance of the so-called 'anomalies'(like the one indicated by the Pioneers), whatever their real origin (either instrumental effects or due to new physics), show the necessity of a coordinated improvement of tracking and modelization techniques. A common research path will be discussed, employing the development and use of advanced instrumentation to cope with current limitations of Solar System gravitational tests. In particular, the use of high-sensitivity accelerometers, combined with microwave and laser

  16. Solar energy collector/storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  17. Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Technical Report 1055 [Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System 0 Panayotis A. Skordos’ MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC S D g8...RMA ELEENT. PROECT. TASK Artific ial Inteligence Laboratory ARE1A G WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 IL. CONTROLLING...describes research done at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supported by the Advanced Research Projects

  18. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  19. The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-01

    The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System provides a comprehensive, funamental, and up-to-date description of the solar system. It is written in a concise, light and uniform style, without being unnecessarily weighted down with specialized materials or the variable writing of multiple authors. It is filled with vital facts and information for astronomers of all types and for anyone with a scientific interest in the Earth, our Moon, all the other planets and their satellites, and related topics such as asteroids, comets, meteorites and meteors. The language, style, ideas and profuse illustrations will attract the general reader as well as professionals. A thorough report for general readers, it includes much compact reference data. Metaphors, similes and analogies will be of immense help to the lay person or non-science student, and they add to the enjoyment of the material. Vignettes containing historical, literary and even artistic material make this book unusual and interesting, and enhance its scientific content. Kenneth Lang is professor of astronomy in the Physics and Astronomy Department at Tufts University. He is the author of several astrophysics books, including The Sun from Space (Springer Verlag, 2000), Astrophysical Formulae: Radiation, Gas Processes, and High Energy Physics (Springer Verlag, 1999), Sun, Earth and Sky (Copernicus Books, 1997), Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars (Springer Verlag, 1993), and Wanderers in Space: Exploration and Discovery in the Solar System (Cambridge, 1991),

  20. Spacewatch Survey of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Spacewatch project is to explore the various populations of small objects throughout the solar system. Statistics on all classes of small bodies are needed to infer their physical and dynamical evolution. More Earth Approachers need to be found to assess the impact hazard. (We have adopted the term "Earth Approacher", EA, to include all those asteroids, nuclei of extinct short period comets, and short period comets that can approach close to Earth. The adjective "near" carries potential confusion, as we have found in communicating with the media, that the objects are always near Earth, following it like a cloud.) Persistent and voluminous accumulation of astrometry of incidentally observed main belt asteroids MBAs will eventually permit the Minor Planet Center (MPQ to determine the orbits of large numbers (tens of thousands) of asteroids. Such a large body of information will ultimately allow better resolution of orbit classes and the determinations of luminosity functions of the various classes, Comet and asteroid recoveries are essential services to planetary astronomy. Statistics of objects in the outer solar system (Centaurs, scattered-disk objects, and Trans-Neptunian Objects; TNOs) ultimately will tell part of the story of solar system evolution. Spacewatch led the development of sky surveying by electronic means and has acted as a responsible interface to the media and general public on this discipline and on the issue of the hazard from impacts by asteroids and comets.

  1. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  2. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  3. Flash crashes, bursts, and black swans: parallels between financial markets and healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J; Clancy, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 16th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, Dr Clancy, the editor of this column, and co-author, Dr West, discuss how the collapse of global financial markets in 2008 may provide valuable insight into mechanisms of complex system behavior in healthcare. Dr West, a physicist and expert in the field of complex systems and network science, is author of a chapter in the book, On the Edge: Nursing in the Age of Complexity (Lindberg C, Nash S, Linberg C. Bordertown, NJ: Plexus Press; 2008) and his most recent book, Disrupted Networks: From Physics to Climate Change (West BJ, Scafetta N. Singapore: Disrupted Networks, World Scientific Publishing; 2010).

  4. Experimental study on a new solar boiling water system with holistic track solar funnel concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodi, Xue; Hongfei, Zheng; Kaiyan, He; Zhili, Chen; Tao, Tao; Guo, Xie

    2010-01-01

    A new solar boiling water system with conventional vacuum-tube solar collector as primary heater and the holistic solar funnel concentrator as secondary heater had been designed. In this paper, the system was measured out door and its performance was analyzed. The configuration and operation principle of the system are described. Variations of the boiled water yield, the temperature of the stove and the solar irradiance with local time have been measured. Main factors affecting the system performance have been analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the system produced large amount of boiled water. And the performance of the system has been found closely related to the solar radiance. When the solar radiance is above 600 W/m 2 , the boiled water yield rate of the system has reached 20 kg/h and its total energy efficiency has exceeded 40%.

  5. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  6. Setting up a French national flash flood warning system for ungauged catchments based on the AIGA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javelle Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurring at small temporal and spatial scales, flash floods (FF can cause severe economic damages and human losses. To better anticipate such events and mitigate their impacts, the French Ministry in charge of Ecology has decided to set up a national FF warning system over the French territory. This automated system will be run by the SCHAPI, the French national service in charge of flood forecasting, providing warnings for fast-responding ungauged catchments (area ranging from ~10 to ~1000 km2. It will therefore be complementary to the SCHAPI’s national “vigilance” system which concerns only gauged catchments. The FF warning system to be implemented in 2017 will be based on a discharge-threshold flood warning method called AIGA (Javelle et al. 2014. This method has been experimented in real time in the south of France in the RHYTMME project (http://rhytmme.irstea.fr. It consists in comparing discharges generated by a simple conceptual hourly hydrologic model run at a 1-km2 resolution to reference flood quantiles of different (e.g., 2-, 10- and 50-year return periods. Therefore the system characterizes in real time the severity of ongoing events by the range of the return period estimated by AIGA at any point along the river network. The hydrologic model ingests operational rainfall radar-gauge products from Météo-France and takes into account the baseflow and the initial soil humidity conditions to better estimate the basin response to rainfall inputs. To meet the requirements of the future FF warning system, the AIGA method has been extended to the whole French territory (except Corsica and overseas French territories. The calibration, regionalization and validation procedures of the hydrologic model were carried out using data for ~700 hydrometric stations from the 2002-2015 period. Performance of the warning system was evaluated with various contingency criteria (e.g., probability of detection and success rate. Furthermore, specific

  7. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  8. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  9. Ages of the solar system: Isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.

    1982-01-01

    The major concern of this section will be to outline the ways in which measurements of isotope abundances have been used to determine the chronology of the origin and evolution of the solar system. In passing it should be remembered that the use of isotopic information is by no means restricted simply to the measurement of time scales and, particularly in recent years, isotope abundances have been used to investigate problems as diverse as the heat sources in the early solar nebula and the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. The fundamental property of isotopes which makes them especially useful for dating and other applications is the fact that, apart from a limited amount of mass fractionation, the composition of an isotopic mixture is unaffected by chemical processes. In those cases where mass fractionation does occur this effect may itself be useful, particularly as a source of information on temperatures. Since our main theme is time the events discussed in this section will be most conveniently presented as a chronological sequence, progressing from some time before the solar system existed down to the present day. (orig./WL)

  10. A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system with a high solar share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system is presented. • This hybrid CLC system integrates a CLC plant with a solar thermal energy plant. • The oxygen carrier particles are used for chemical and sensible thermal energy storage. • A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. • The calculations show a total solar share of around 60% can be achieved. - Abstract: A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion (Hy-Sol-CLC) is presented, in which the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system are employed to provide thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. This hybrid aims to take advantage of key features of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system that are desirable for solar energy systems, notably their inherent chemical and sensible energy storage systems, the relatively low temperature of the “fuel” reactor (to which the concentrated solar thermal energy is added in a hybrid) relative to that of the final temperature of the product gas and the potential to operate the fuel reactor at a different pressure to the heated gas stream. By this approach, it is aimed to achieve high efficiency of the solar energy, infrastructure sharing, economic synergy, base load power generation and a high solar fraction of the total energy. In the proposed Hy-Sol-CLC system, a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for fuel reactor while for the storage of the oxygen carrier particles two reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC. A heat exchanger is also proposed to provide independent control of the temperatures of the storage reservoirs from those of solar fuel and air reactors. The system is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The operating temperature of the fuel reactor, solar absorption efficiency, solar share, fraction of the solar thermal energy stored within the solar reactor, the fractions of sensible and

  11. Solar Thermal System Evaluation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 581 solar thermal systems (STSs, 98 counties, and 47 renewable application demonstration cites in China need to be inspected by the end of 2015. In this study, the baseline for performance and economic evaluation of STSs are presented based on the site test data and related references. An index used to evaluate STSs was selected, and methods to acquire the parameters used to calculate the related index were set. The requirements for sensors for testing were specified. The evaluation method was applied to three systems and the result shows that the evaluation method is suitable for the evaluation of STSs in China.

  12. Chaotic diffusion in the Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Laskar, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    A statistical analysis is performed over more than 1001 different integrations of the secular equations of the Solar system over 5 Gyr. With this secular system, the probability of the eccentricity of Mercury to reach 0.6 in 5 Gyr is about 1 to 2 %. In order to compare with (Ito and Tanikawa, 2002), we have performed the same analysis without general relativity, and obtained even more orbits of large eccentricity for Mercury. We have performed as well a direct integration of the planetary orb...

  13. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  14. Flash glucose monitoring system may benefit children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during fasting at Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Kafi, Shahd E; Zain Aldeen, Abdullah M; Khadwardi, Raghdah H

    2017-04-01

    To assess the benefit of using the flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) during Ramadan fasting. Methods: A prospective pilot study of 51 participants visited the pediatric diabetes clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from between June until and July 2016. The FreeStyle® Libre™ FGMS (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA) was used. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose values of less than 70 mg/dL, while hyperglycemia as glucose values of more than 150 mg/dL for all participants based on our institute's protocol. Results: Participants were able to fast for 67.0% of the total days eligible for fasting, whereas they did not fast on 33% of the days due to either hypoglycemia (15.4%) or non-diabetes-related reasons (17.6 %). None of the participants developed severe hypoglycemia. The mean number of hyperglycemic episodes during fasting hours was 1.29, per day, which was higher than that of hypoglycemic episodes (0.7). None of the participants developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Glycemic control with mean of estimated hemoglobin A1C reading during Ramadan (8.16 ± 1.64% [pre study]) to 8.2 ± 1.63% [post study] p=0.932. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with T1DM who use the FGMS could fast without the risk of life-threatening episodes of severe hypoglycemia (namely seizure, coma), or DKA during Ramadan. Adequate education and good glycemic control prior to Ramadan are important strategies in combination with the use of an FGMS to achieve better outcome.

  15. Flash glucose monitoring system may benefit children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during fasting at Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the benefit of using the flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM during Ramadan fasting. Methods: A prospective pilot study of 51 participants visited the pediatric diabetes clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from between June until and July 2016. The FreeStyle® Libre™ FGMS (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA was used. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose values of less than 70 mg/dL, while hyperglycemia as glucose values of more than 150 mg/dL for all participants based on our institute’s protocol. Results: Participants were able to fast for 67.0% of the total days eligible for fasting, whereas they did not fast on 33% of the days due to either hypoglycemia (15.4% or non-diabetes-related reasons (17.6 %. None of the participants developed severe hypoglycemia. The mean number of hyperglycemic episodes during fasting hours was 1.29, per day, which was higher than that of hypoglycemic episodes (0.7. None of the participants developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. Glycemic control with mean of estimated hemoglobin A1C reading during Ramadan (8.16 ± 1.64% [pre study] to 8.2 ± 1.63% [post study] p=0.932. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with T1DM who use the FGMS could fast without the risk of life-threatening episodes of severe hypoglycemia (namely seizure, coma, or DKA during Ramadan. Adequate education and good glycemic control prior to Ramadan are important strategies in combination with the use of an FGMS to achieve better outcome.

  16. Interactions in the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormand, J.R.; Woolfson, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The capture theory of the origin of the solar system predicts protoplanets formed in near coplanar elliptical orbits with fairly high eccentricities. A resisting medium, which would be a byproduct of the capture event, would serve to round-off the orbits in a time which is short compared to the age of the solar system. It is shown that such a medium would also give rise to differential rotations of the lines of apses of the early planetary orbits, leading to a high probability of close interactions or collisions between planets. The consequences of a collision between two planets are considered. It is found that the larger planet could, in some cases, be expelled from the solar system and that the fragments of the small planet could give rise to some of the terrestrial planets. Moreover, it is suggested that the Earth-Moon system could be formed as as result of the capture of a major satellite of one of the colliding planets by a large fragment of the other planet. Mars is also identified in the satellite system of the ejected planet. Various types of debris from the collision could have produced the asteroids, meteorites and comets. An alternative explanation, in terms of the original event, is also given for the comets. The hypothesis is examined that Pluto is a byproduct of the collision, reaching its present orbit by interactions with Neptune. It is shown that as a consequence of such an interaction, Triton could have been perturbed sufficiently to reverse an initially prograde orbital motion. The transfer of Pluto from the collision region to the vicinity of Neptune could have occurred through multiple planetary perturbation. The outer satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are discussed in relation to the proposition that they originated from the debris of asteroid collisions within the spheres of influence of those planets. (author)

  17. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David

    2011-01-01

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ∼15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  18. Young Solar System's Fifth Giant Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David

    2011-12-01

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ~15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  19. Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    depicting the proposed SOLAR projection system. The installation process is shown in Fig. 3. SOLAR system comprises of a dome that houses Digitairum’s...imaging process. A fiberglass dome system was erected to make the SOLAR system a self contained facility. Calibration process was carried out to register...Separate software solutions were implemented to model the light transport processes involved in the imaging process. A fiberglass dome system was erected to

  20. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  1. Design and implementation of electronics and data acquisition system for Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    . UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing...... mirror points to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite main processor....... In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ....

  2. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  3. Estimation of monthly solar radiation distribution for solar energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of probability density frequency, which is successfully used for analyses of wind speed and outdoor temperature distributions, is now modified and proposed for estimating solar radiation distributions for design and analysis of solar energy systems. In this study, global solar radiation distribution is comprehensively analyzed for photovoltaic (PV) panel and thermal collector systems. In this regard, a case study is conducted with actual global solar irradiation data of the last 15 years recorded by the Turkish State Meteorological Service. It is found that intensity of global solar irradiance greatly affects energy and exergy efficiencies and hence the performance of collectors. -- Research highlights: → The first study to apply global solar radiation distribution in solar system analyzes. → The first study showing global solar radiation distribution as a parameter of the solar irradiance intensity. → Time probability intensity frequency and probability power distribution do not have similar distribution patterns for each month. → There is no relation between the distribution of annual time lapse and solar energy with the intensity of solar irradiance.

  4. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  5. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  6. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  7. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  8. Solar-system Education for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-10-01

    I describe an extensive outreach program about the Sun, the silhouette of the Moon, and the circumstances both celestial and terrestrial of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Publications included a summary of the last decade of solar-eclipse research for Nature Astronomy, a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses for the American Journal of Physics, and book reviews for Nature and for Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter. Symposia arranged include sessions at AAS, APS, AGU, and AAAS. Lectures include all ages from pre-school through elementary school to high school to senior-citizen residences. The work, including the scientific research about the solar corona that is not part of this abstract, was supported by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. Additional student support was received from NSF, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Honorary Research Society Sigma Xi, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation, and funds at Williams College.

  9. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  10. Material cycling solar system modeled ecosystem; Seitaikei wo model to shita busshitsu junkangata solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    It is proposed to establish an integrated system close to a natural ecosystem for an industrial complex, taking that in Hachinohe City, Aomori Pref. as the conceptual site. It is a system in which materials are recycled by solar energy and industrial waste heat for a complex food industry. The conceptual site, although blessed with various marine products, are sometimes attacked by cold weather. Waste heat from a 250,000kW power plant, if transported by EHD heat pipes to the site, could provide roughly 400 times the heat required for production of agricultural and marine products, such as cabbages and fish meat. The waste heat, coupled with solar energy, should solve the problems resulting from hot waste water, if they could be utilized for the industrial purposes. The food industrial site that produces agricultural and marine products is considered to be suited as the center of the solar industrial complex incorporating farms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Combined heat and power solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    An Australian-designed photovoltaic (PV) power system that also supplies hot water is close to commercial release. PVs have been around for decades and solar concentrators have been efficiently heating water for nearly a century. The Australian National University, Department of Engineering - Centre for Sustainable Energy systems (CSES), has designed a domestic scale modular system that not only generates electricity but also provides concentrated thermal energy to heat water for a Solahart hot water system and is designed to be deployed into small to medium scale applications such as hospitals, schools and dwellings with an easily assembled galvanised steel frame. A market research was carried out and is envisaged that at least 7,500 units will be installed annually by the year 2005 and up to 25,000 units by 2008

  12. Development of solar thermophotovoltaic systems = Desarrollo de sistemas termofotovoltaicos solares

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis aborda el análisis, tanto teórico como experimental, de los sitemas termofotovoltaicos solares. En estos sistemas, un material (emisor) se calienta hasta la incandescencia mediante radiaci ón solar. La radiación térmica emitida por dicho material se dirige hacia una célula fotovoltaica, que convierte dicha radiación en electricidad. En esta configuración, se pueden emplear elementos de control espectral para lograr que los fotones no útiles para el proceso de conversión fotovoltáic...

  13. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Nandar Oo; Kyaw Soe Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart...

  14. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  15. Solar System Moons Discovery and Mythology

    CERN Document Server

    Blunck, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Starting from Mars outward this concise handbook provides thorough information on the satellites of the planets in the solar system. Each chapter begins with a section on the discovery and the naming of the planet's satellites or rings. This is followed by a section presenting the historic sources of those names. The book contains tables with the orbital and physical parameters of all satellites and is illustrated throughout with modern photos of the planets and their moons as well as historical and mythological drawings. The Cyrillic transcriptions of the satellite names are provided in a register. Readers interested in the history of astronomy and its mythological backgrounds will enjoy this beautiful volume.

  16. SPHEREx: Science Opportunities for Solar System Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey Michael; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A study in August 2017, will perform an all-sky near-infrared spectral survey between 0.75 - 5.0 µm in R = 41 filters, and with R = 135 coverage from 4.2 - 5.0 µm, reaching L ~ 19 (5-sigma).SPHEREx has high potential for solar system science. The 96-band survey will cover the entire sky 4 times over the course of 2 years, including thousands of foreground solar system asteroids, comets, Trojans, and KBOs. By canvassing the entire solar system for 2 years, SPHEREx has the potential not only to achieve a relatively complete sensitivity limited survey of the solar system's bodies, but also some capability to search for variation in these bodies over time.For example, the large legacy dataset of SPHEREx will update the WISE catalogue of asteroid sizes and albedos by providing a spectral survey of tens of thousands of bodies. It will provide spectral classification of hundreds of Trojan asteroids, allowing for direct comparison to the asteroid results. It will extend optical surveys of comet composition by dynamical type to hundreds of objects in the NIR, while determining water/dust/CO/CO2 activity vs distance. SPHEREx will also map in great temporal and spatial detail the zodiacal dust debris disk cloud that these bodies produce, providing an unprecedented level of information concerning the sources and sinks of this material.In this paper, we discuss the data release schedule and some example science studies the planetary astronomy community will be able to access using the SPHEREx database. We also outline existing plans within the SPHEREx team to develop software tools to enable easy access to the data and to conduct catalog searches, and ways in which the community can provide input to the SPHEREx Science Team on scientific studies and data/software requirements for those studies, enabling a large number of scientific studies while finding interesting targets for follow

  17. An innovative deployable solar panel system for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Donati, Serena; Perelli, Massimo; Negri, Andrea; Marino, Michele

    2014-02-01

    One of the main Cubesat bus limitations is the available on-board power. The maximum power obtained using body mounted solar panels and advanced triple junction solar cells on a triple unit Cubesat is typically less than 10 W. The Cubesat performance and the mission scenario opened to these small satellite systems could be greatly enhanced by an increase of the available power. This paper describes the design and realization of a modular deployable solar panel system for Cubesats, consisting of a modular hinge and spring system that can be potentially used on-board single (1U), double(2U), triple (3U) and six units (6U) Cubesats. The size of each solar panels is the size of a lateral Cubesat surface. The system developed is the basis for a SADA (Solar Array Drive Assembly), in which a maneuvering capability is added to the deployed solar array in order to follow the apparent motion of the sun. The system design trade-off is discussed, comparing different deployment concepts and architectures, leading to the final selection for the modular design. A prototype of the system has been realized for a 3U Cubesat, consisting of two deployable solar panel systems, made of three solar panels each, for a total of six deployed solar panels. The deployment system is based on a plastic fiber wire and thermal cutters, guaranteeing a suitable level of reliability. A test-bed for the solar panel deployment testing has been developed, supporting the solar array during deployment reproducing the dynamical situation in orbit. The results of the deployment system testing are discussed, including the design and realization of the test-bed, the mechanical stress given to the solar cells by the deployment accelerations and the overall system performance. The maximum power delivered by the system is about 50.4 W BOL, greatly enhancing the present Cubesat solar array performance.

  18. Simulation of solar system in a house; Simulacion de un sistema solar en una vivienda unifamiliar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, F. J.; Velasco, E.; Herrero, R.; Varela, F.; Nunez, M. J.; Lopez, L. M.

    2004-07-01

    Building sustainable development make necessary the rational use of already existing Energy Resources and the use of the Renewable Energies as the Thermal Solar Energy. The technological advance of the last years has allowed the development and improvement of Solar Energy Systems. As today the Thermal Solar Energy is available technical and economically reducing the environmental impact. In the present work it has been developed a TRNSYS simulation of a thermal Solar System for Hot water consumption and Space Heating by radiant Flooring in a single house. The Thermal Solar installation Simulation allows the hour-by-hour system parameters treatment to determine the energy consumptions, yields, solar contribution etc. Also, it has been studied the Energy Qualification of the building by TRNSYS and the AEV methodology developed by the Termotecnia Department of Valladolid University ( UVA). (Author)

  19. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  20. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  1. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  2. Quarterly overviews of thermal solar energy systems 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmerdam, J.M.; Stap, C.A.M.

    1994-08-01

    The title overviews were compiled to support the market introduction campaign for solar water heaters in the Netherlands. Use has been made of the data-banks of the Dutch subsidy administrator 'Senter'. 88% of the 1,883 systems, that were installed in 1993, are solar water heaters. Considering the solar collector surface the largest contribution is from the use of mainly uncovered collectors in swimming pools: 51% (37% for the collector surface of solar water heaters). Energy utilities are involved in the installation of 70% of the solar heating systems (even 77% for the solar water heaters). Next to the quarterly overviews, the subsidy data for the period 1988 up to and including 1993 are analyzed. 70% of the installed systems has been purchased and 30% was rented. At the end of 1993 preparations were made to install more than 3,000 solar boilers in 1994 and 1995. 3 figs., 21 tabs

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 4, Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic analysis of the solar energy system was developed for five sites, typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. The analysis was based on the technical and economic models in the F-chart design procedure, with inputs based on the characteristic of the installed system and local conditions. The results are of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a 20 year time span: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.

  4. Dark matter, neutrinos, and our solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Dark Matter, Neutrinos, and Our Solar System is a unique enterprise that should be viewed as an important contribution to our understanding of dark matter, neutrinos and the solar system. It describes these issues in terms of links, between cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, as well as between cosmology, atmospheric and terrestrial physics. It studies the constituents of dark matter (classified as hot warm and cold) first in terms of their individual structures (baryonic and non-baryonic, massive and non-massive, interacting and non-interacting) and second, in terms of facilities available to detect these structures (large and small). Neutrinos (an important component of dark matter) are treated as a separate entity. A detailed study of these elusive (sub-atomic) particles is done, from the year 1913 when they were found as byproducts of beta decay -- until the discovery in 2007 which confirmed that neutrino flavors were not more than three (as speculated by some). The last chapter of the book details t...

  5. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin

    1997-01-01

    We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. These tests include an examination of the Principle Of Equivalence (POE), the Shapiro delay, the advances of planetary perihelia, the possibility of a secular variation G in the "gravitational constant" G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. These results are consistent with our preliminary results focusing on the contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which were presented at the seventh Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity. The largest improvement over previous results comes in the uncertainty for (eta): a factor of five better than our previous value. This improvement reflects the increasing strength of the LLR data. A similar analysis presented at the same meeting by a group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a similar result for (eta). Our value for (beta) represents our first such result determined simultaneously with the solar quadrupole moment from the dynamical data set. These results are being prepared for publication. We have shown how positions determined from different planetary ephemerides can be compared and how the combination of VLBI and pulse timing information can yield a direct tie between planetary and radio frames. We have continued to include new data in our analysis as they became available. Finally, we have made improvement in our analysis software (PEP) and ported it to a network of modern workstations from its former home on a "mainframe" computer.

  6. Analysis of a solar powered absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.A.M.; El-Shaarawi, M.A.I.; Siddiqui, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional absorption system modified to increase COP. • Results indicated increase of 10% in COP due to dephlegmator heat recovery. • Results indicated increase of 8% in COP due to refrigerant storage unit. • Results indicated increase of 18% in COP due to combined effect of modifications. • Simulation results indicated a very good agreement with the measured results. - Abstract: Today, fossil fuel is the primary extensively used source of energy. However, its negative impact on the environment have forced the energy research continuity to seriously consider renewable sources of energy. Solar energy, in particular, has been the main focus in this regard because it is a source of clean energy and naturally available. This study presents the design and analysis of a solar powered absorption refrigeration system modified to increase its coefficient of performance (COP). The modifications include recovering of waste heat from a dephlegmator and utilization of a refrigerant storage unit. The simulation results indicate an increase of 10% in the COP of the conventional design using dephlegmator heat recovery and an increase of 8% in the COP of the conventional design due to the use of a refrigerant storage. The analysis for the combined effect of modifications indicates an increase of 18% in the COP compared to conventional design. Calculated values of coefficient of performance indicate a very good agreement with the ones obtained based on measurement

  7. A Ninth Planet in Our Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery that the orbits of some Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) share properties has proved puzzling. A pair of scientists have now proposed a bold explanation: there may be a planet-sized object yet undetected in our solar system.Mysterious ClusteringKBOs, the population of mainly small objects beyond Neptune, have proven an especially interesting subject of study in the last decade as many small, distant bodies (such as Eris, the object that led to the demotion of Pluto to dwarf planet) have been discovered.Previous studies have recently discovered that some especially distant KBOs those that orbit with semimajor axes of a 150 AU, nearly four times that of Pluto all cross the ecliptic at a similar phase in their elliptical trajectories. This is unexpected, since gravitational tugs from the giant planets should have randomized this parameter over our solar systems multi-billion-year lifespan.Physical alignment of the orbits of Kuiper belt objects with a 250 AU (and two objects with a 150 AU that are dynamically stable). [Batygin Brown 2016]Two scientists at California Institute of Technology, Konstantin Batygin and Michael Brown (you might recognize Brown as the man who killed Pluto) have now increased the mystery. In a recently published a study, they demonstrate that for KBOs that have orbits with a 250 AU, the orbits are actually physically aligned.To explain this unexpected alignment which Batygin and Brown calculate has only a 0.007% probability of having occurred by chance the authors ask an exciting question: could this be caused by the presence of an unseen, large, perturbing body further out in the solar system?Simulating a Ninth PlanetThe authors test this hypothesis by carrying out both analytical calculations and numerical N-body simulations designed to determine if the gravitational influence of a distant, planetary-mass companion can explain the behavior we observe from the large-orbit KBOs.Simulation of the effect of a distant planet (M = 10

  8. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  9. Potential of solar home systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M.; Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    About 68% of the population of Pakistan resides in rural areas. Most of the rural households have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene which is a major source of indoor air pollution and other environmental and health hazards. Rural villages are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids. They have low population density and requires small load. About 67% of the conventional electricity in Pakistan is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. The combustion of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental pollution. The conventional power is even not sufficient for meeting the growing demand of electricity from the existing customers. Further more the extension of existing centralized grid system to far away from grid line rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads are economically and technically unfeasible. Hence there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the rural population in the near future. This whole situation requires urgent measures on priority basis for the development of indigenous, environment friendly, renewable energy sources such as solar energy. This paper presents the assessment of potential of solar home systems (SHS) for rural electrification in Pakistan. The country lies in an excellent solar belt range and receives 16-21 MJ/m 2 per day of solar radiation as an annual mean value, with 19 MJ/m 2 per day over most areas of the country. It is estimated that about 7 million households in Pakistan do not have access to electricity (in 2004). Assuming that about 50% of the households in rural areas without electricity today would be electrified up to 2010, and only 25% of the remaining households could afford and would be willing to pay

  10. Solar cooling systems. Classification and energetic evaluation; Solare Kuehlsysteme. Klassifizierung und energetische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Jakob [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Eikevik, Trygve M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The investigation of alternative, sustainable concepts for cold production is worthwhile in times of increasing energy demand for cooling and air conditioning applications. Energy sources such as solar radiation can help to reduce the burden on the environment and energy networks. Solar electricity from photovoltaic cells or solar power from solar collectors can be used in refrigerating equipment (such as cold vapor compression chiller, absorption chiller, adsorption chillers, open systems, thermo-mechanical systems or ejector-based systems) are fed in order to produce the desired coldness. In many cases, the temporal coincidence of radiation supply and cooling requirements makes the solar cooling to a promising concept, especially at sites with a high solar radiation, large cooling demand, high energy prices, or insufficient access to public power grids. A model-based investigation of different solar cooling systems with an equivalent cooling capacity was carried out. The results show that the performance potential strongly depends on the selected technology and the site of the system. A balanced daily energy balance can be achieved with an appropriately dimensioned solar power plant with cooling concept. Depending on the system and interpretation, primary energy savings or a primary energy overhead can be achieved within a year in comparison to a conventional system.

  11. Solar Distillation Practice For Water Desalination Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahian, Omid; Kianifar, Ali; Jumpholkul, Chaiwat; Thiangtham, Phubate; Wongwises, Somchai; Srisomba, Raviwat

    2015-01-01

    references, it is suggested to add a chapter concerning CFD simulations of solar stills. In addition, a part can be devoted to using novel technologies such as nanotechnology for productivity enhancement of solar stills

  12. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  13. Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, M.; Anagnostou, E.N.; Bloeschl, G.; Creutin, J.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterize flash flood events in various regions of Europe. → We provide guidance to improve observations and monitoring of flash floods. → Flash floods are associated to orography and are influenced by initial soil moisture conditions. → Models for flash flood forecasting and flash flood hazard assessment are illustrated and discussed. → We examine implications for flood risk policy and discuss recommendations received from end users. - Abstract: The management of flash flood hazards and risks is a critical component of public safety and quality of life. Flash-floods develop at space and time scales that conventional observation systems are not able to monitor for rainfall and river discharge. Consequently, the atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of flash-floods are poorly understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of these events. The objective of the HYDRATE project has been to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by advancing and harmonising a European-wide innovative flash flood observation strategy and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To this end, the project included actions on the organization of the existing flash flood data patrimony across Europe. The final aim of HYDRATE was to enhance the capability of flash flood forecasting in ungauged basins by exploiting the extended availability of flash flood data and the improved process understanding. This paper provides a review of the work conducted in HYDRATE with a special emphasis on how this body of research can contribute to guide the policy-life cycle concerning flash flood risk management.

  14. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  15. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  16. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Under the 10 th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels

  17. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  18. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  19. A pilot solar water disinfecting system: performance analysis and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, T.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautics and Space Engineering

    2002-07-01

    In most countries, contaminated water is the major cause of most water-borne diseases. Disinfection of water may be accomplished by a number of different physical-chemical treatments including direct application of thermal energy, chemical and filtration techniques. Solar energy also can be used effectively in this field because inactivation of microorganisms is done either by heating water to a disinfecting temperature or by exposing it to ultraviolet solar radiation. A pilot solar system for disinfecting contaminated water is designed, constructed and tested. Investigations are carried out to evaluate the performance of a wooden hot box solar facility as a solar disinfectant. Experimental data show that solar energy is viable for the disinfection process. A solar radiation model is presented and compared with the experimental data. A mathematical model of the solar disinfectant is also presented. The governing equations are solved numerically via the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, etc.) on the performance of the solar disinfectant are examined. Results showed that the system is affected by ambient temperature, wind speed, ultraviolet solar radiation intensity, the turbidity of the water, the quantity of water exposed, the contact area between the transparent water container in the solar disinfectant and the absorber plate as well as the geometrical parameters of the system. It is pointed out that for partially cloudy conditions with a low ambient temperature and high wind speeds, the thermal efficiency of the solar disinfectant is at a minimum. The use of solar energy for the disinfection process will increase the productivity of the system while completely eliminating the coliform group bacteria at the same time. (author)

  20. The Solar system.Stars and constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horia Minda, Octavian

    2017-04-01

    It is important for students to understand what is in our Solar System. The Students need to know that there are other things besides the Earth, Sun and Moon in the solar sky. The students will learn about the other eight planets and a few other celestial objects like stars and constellations. Constellations are useful because they can help people to recognize stars in the sky. By looking for patterns, the stars and locations can be much easier to spot. The constellations had uses in ancient times. They were used to help keep track of the calendar. This was very important so that people knew when to plant and harvest crops. Another important use for constellations was navigation. By finding Ursa Minor it is fairly easy to spot the North Star (Polaris). Using the height of the North Star in the sky, navigators could figure out their latitude helping ships to travel across the oceans. Objective: 1. The students will be introduced to the origin of the stars they see at night. 2. They will learn that there are groups of stars called constellations. The students will individually create their own constellations. They will be given the chance to tell the class a small story explaining their constellation. Evaluation of Children: The children will be evaluated through the creation of their constellations and ability to work in groups on the computers.

  1. Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis of the Co(sep)3+-X- (sep = sepulchrate; X = I, Br) systems in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, F.; Maestri, M.; Ballardini, R.; Mulazzani, Q.G.; D'Angelantonio, M.; Balzani, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Co(sep) 3+ complex (sep = sepulchrate = 1,3,6,8,10,13,16,19-octaazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane) in aqueous solution forms ion pairs with the I - and Br - anions, which exhibit a relatively intense charge-transfer absorption. In deoxygenated aqueous solution no net reaction is obtained upon continuous light excitation in the ion-pair charge-transfer bands, but formation of transient species is observed in flash photolysis experiments. For the Co(sep) 3+ -I - system, I 2 - ions are formed that decay in the 50-μs time scale to give I 3 - . The latter species disappears in a time scale of seconds, leading the system back to the preexcitation conditions. For the Co(sep) 3+ -Br - system, only formation of the Br 2 - transient is observed, followed by regeneration of the preexcitation conditions in the 20-μs time scale. In order to elucidate the kinetic aspects of the transient formation and disappearance, pulse radiolysis experiments on the Co(sep) 3+ -I - and Co(sep) 3+ -Br - systems have been carried out. The rate constants of the reactions of Co(sep) 2+ with I 2 - , I 3 - , and Br 2 - have been measured, and a complete picture of the redox processes that follow flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis excitations has been obtained. 5 figures

  2. Economic analyses of central solar heating systems with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D; Keinonen, R.S.

    1986-10-01

    Economic optimization of large active community solar heating systems with annual thermal storage is discussed. The economic evaluation is based on a thermal performance simulation model employing one hour time steps and on detailed up-date data. Different system configurations and sub-system sizes have been considered. For Northern European weather conditions (60/sup 0/N) and with at least 400-500 residential units, the life-cycle cost of delivered solar heat was 6.5-7.5 c/kWh for 50% fraction of non-purchased energy. For a solar fraction of 70%, the solar energy price would be 8 c/kWh.

  3. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  4. Modeling Jovian Magnetospheres Beyond the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter K. G.

    2018-06-01

    Low-frequency radio observations are believed to represent one of the few means of directly probing the magnetic fields of extrasolar planets. However, a half-century of low-frequency planetary observations within the Solar System demonstrate that detailed, physically-motivated magnetospheric models are needed to properly interpret the radio data. I will present recent work in this area focusing on the current state of the art: relatively high-frequency observations of relatively massive objects, which are now understood to have magnetospheres that are largely planetary in nature. I will highlight the key challenges that will arise in future space-based observations of lower-mass objects at lower frequencies.

  5. Robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ulivi, Paolo

    In Robotic Exploration of the Solar System, Paolo Ulivi and David Harland provide a comprehensive account of the design and managment of deep-space missions, the spacecraft involved - some flown, others not - their instruments, and their scientific results. This third volume in the series covers launches in the period 1997 to 2003 and features: - a chapter entirely devoted to the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn; - coverage of planetary missions of the period, including the Deep Space 1 mission and the Stardust and Hayabusa sample returns from comets and asteroids; - extensive coverage of Mars exploration, the failed 1999 missions, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity. The story will continue in Part 4.

  6. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  7. Methane clathrates in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, Olivier; Chassefière, Eric; Holm, Nils G; Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, Jack Hunter; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Picaud, Sylvain; Aikawa, Yuri; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Rousselot, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    We review the reservoirs of methane clathrates that may exist in the different bodies of the Solar System. Methane was formed in the interstellar medium prior to having been embedded in the protosolar nebula gas phase. This molecule was subsequently trapped in clathrates that formed from crystalline water ice during the cooling of the disk and incorporated in this form into the building blocks of comets, icy bodies, and giant planets. Methane clathrates may play an important role in the evolution of planetary atmospheres. On Earth, the production of methane in clathrates is essentially biological, and these compounds are mostly found in permafrost regions or in the sediments of continental shelves. On Mars, methane would more likely derive from hydrothermal reactions with olivine-rich material. If they do exist, martian methane clathrates would be stable only at depth in the cryosphere and sporadically release some methane into the atmosphere via mechanisms that remain to be determined. In the case of Titan, most of its methane probably originates from the protosolar nebula, where it would have been trapped in the clathrates agglomerated by the satellite's building blocks. Methane clathrates are still believed to play an important role in the present state of Titan. Their presence is invoked in the satellite's subsurface as a means of replenishing its atmosphere with methane via outgassing episodes. The internal oceans of Enceladus and Europa also provide appropriate thermodynamic conditions that allow formation of methane clathrates. In turn, these clathrates might influence the composition of these liquid reservoirs. Finally, comets and Kuiper Belt Objects might have formed from the agglomeration of clathrates and pure ices in the nebula. The methane observed in comets would then result from the destabilization of clathrate layers in the nuclei concurrent with their approach to perihelion. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that methane-rich clathrate

  8. Compact solar heating systems - back on the way up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the upward trend being noted in the installation of compact solar heating systems in Switzerland. The contribution of these complete, easy-to-install systems to the increasing number of solar heating units on the market is discussed and the role played by the Solar Collector and Systems Testing Facility at the Institute of Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, is emphasised. One of this institute's important publications is a list of certified compact solar heating systems. The high technical standards of the systems and the current price situation are discussed. The article is rounded off by an interview with a four-person family on their motivation to install such a hot-water system and their experience with its operation. Finally, future trends in the area are discussed

  9. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  10. Photovoltaic Thermal panels in collective thermal solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.; De Lange, E.T.N.; Smit, W.F.

    2003-12-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out to assess the options to apply photovoltaic/thermal panels (PVT-panels) in collective solar thermal systems in urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was focused on the technical (architecture and installations) and the economical feasibility of collective PVT-systems in comparison with conventional solar thermal systems and combinations of photovoltaic (PV) panels and solar collectors. The results of the study also give insight into cost and the market for PVT-panels. Three case studies in which collective solar collector systems were applied are analyzed again by simulating the installation of a PVT-panels system and a separate solar thermal PV system [nl

  11. CHAOTIC DISINTEGRATION OF THE INNER SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Department Lagrange, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France); Holman, Mathew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    On timescales that greatly exceed an orbital period, typical planetary orbits evolve in a stochastic yet stable fashion. On even longer timescales, however, planetary orbits can spontaneously transition from bounded to unbound chaotic states. Large-scale instabilities associated with such behavior appear to play a dominant role in shaping the architectures of planetary systems, including our own. Here we show how such transitions are possible, focusing on the specific case of the long-term evolution of Mercury. We develop a simple analytical model for Mercury's dynamics and elucidate the origins of its short-term stochastic behavior as well as of its sudden progression to unbounded chaos. Our model allows us to estimate the timescale on which this transition is likely to be triggered, i.e., the dynamical lifetime of the solar system as we know it. The formulated theory is consistent with the results of numerical simulations and is broadly applicable to extrasolar planetary systems dominated by secular interactions. These results constitute a significant advancement in our understanding of the processes responsible for sculpting of the dynamical structures of generic planetary systems.

  12. Space Moves: Adding Movement to Solar System Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer; Heidorn, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Earth and space science figure prominently in the National Science Education Standards for levels 5-8 (NRC 1996). The Earth in the Solar System standard focuses on students' ability to understand (1) the composition of the solar system (Earth, Moon, Sun, planets with their moons, and smaller objects like asteroids and comets) and (2) that…

  13. Why Are So Many Things in the Solar System Round?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Several years ago a student asked why so many things in the solar system were round. He noted that many objects in the solar system, although not all, are round. The standard answer, which he knew, is that the mutual gravitational attraction of the molecules pulls them into the shape that gets them as close to each other as possible: a sphere.…

  14. The role of Solar thermal in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth

    This report deals with solar thermal technologies and investigates possible roles for solar thermal in future energy systems for four national energy systems; Germany, Austria, Italy and Denmark. The project period started in January 2014 and finished by October 2017. This report is based...

  15. Optimal design of solar water heating systems | Alemu | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar water heating systems are usually designed using simplified equation of annual efficiency of the heating system from solar radiation incident on the collector during the year and empirical values of annual efficiency. The pe1formance of the preliminary design is predicted by using either/chart method or by translate it ...

  16. A Comparison of a Solar Power Satellite Concept to a Concentrating Solar Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison is made of a solar power satellite (SPS) concept in geostationary Earth orbit to a concentrating solar power (CSP) system on the ground to analyze overall efficiencies of each infrastructure from solar radiance at 1 AU to conversion and transmission of electrical energy into the power grid on the Earth's surface. Each system is sized for a 1-gigawatt output to the power grid and then further analyzed to determine primary collector infrastructure areas. Findings indicate that even though the SPS concept has a higher end-to-end efficiency, the combined space and ground collector infrastructure is still about the same size as a comparable CSP system on the ground.

  17. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  18. Study of an active wall solar heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, Talal

    2006-01-01

    An active wall solar heating system was built and tested. In the same time a compatible computer program has been according to set the recommended dimensions for the solar collectors where (F-Chart) method used to set the ratio of monthly solar sharing average for the examined heating system. Some parameters, such as collectors' areas, its tilt angle and near earth reflecting were experimentally investigated, affecting the executed active solar heating system performance. The study explain the ability of using this system which is simple, Low coast and high performance in heating residential and public buildings and heating water with ratio of yearly solar sharing achieves the needed saving of using this system.(Author)

  19. Aluminum-26 in the early solar system - Fossil or fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Mg was measured in different phases of a Ca-Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite. Large excesses of Mg-26 of up to 10% were found. These excesses correlate strictly with the Al-27/Mg-24 ratio for four coexisting phases with distinctive chemical compositions. Models of in situ decay of Al-26 within the solar system and of mixing of interstellar dust grains containing fossil Al-26 with normal solar system material are presented. The observed correlation provides definitive evidence for the presence of Al-26 in the early solar system. This requires either injection of freshly synthesized nucleosynthetic material into the solar system immediately before condensation and planet formation, or local production within the solar system by intense activity of the early sun. Planets promptly produced from material with the inferred Al-26/Al-27 would melt within about 300,000 years.

  20. New Thematic Solar System Exploration Products for Scientists and Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Lesile; Wessen, Alice; Davis, Phil; Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The next several years are an exciting time in the exploration of the solar system. NASA and its international partners have a veritable armada of spaceships heading out to the far reaches of the solar system. We'll send the first spacecraft beyond our solar system into interstellar space. We'll launch our first mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt and just our second to Mercury (the first in 30 years). We'll continue our intensive exploration of Mars and begin our detailed study of Saturn and its moons. We'll visit asteroids and comets and bring home pieces of the Sun and a comet. This is truly an unprecedented period of exploration and discovery! To facilitate access to information and to provide the thematic context for these missions NASA s Solar System Exploration Program and Solar System Exploration Education Forum have developed several products.

  1. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  2. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  3. Solar system design for water pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hadidi; Mohammed, Yaichi

    2018-05-01

    In our days, it seems to us that nobody can suspect it on the importance of water and energy for the human needs. With technological advances, the energy need does not cease increasing. This problem of energy is even more sensitive in the isolated sites where the use of the traditional resources proves often very expensive. Indeed, several constraints, like the transport of fuel and the routine maintenances of the diesel engines, return the search for an essential alternative energy source for this type of sites. It summer necessary to seek other resources of energy of replacement. Renewable energies, like photovoltaic energy, wind or hydraulic, represent a replacement solution par excellence and they are used more and more in our days more especially as the national territory has one of the solar layers highest with the world. The duration of insolation can reach the 3900 hours/year on the Sahara. The energy acquired daily on a horizontal surface of 1m2 is about 5kWh, that is to say meadows of 2263kWh/m2/year in the south of the country. The photovoltaic energy utilization for pumping of water is well adapted for more the share of the arid and semi-arid areas because of the existence in these areas of an underground hydraulic potential not very major. Another very important coincidence supports the use of this type of energy for the water pumping is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, reached its maximum in hot weather and dryness where it is precisely the moment when one has access to the maximum of solar energy. The goal to see an outline on the general composition of a photovoltaic system of pumping, as well as the theoretical elements making it possible to dimension the current pumping stations.

  4. Solar system design for water pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Hadidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our days, it seems to us that nobody can suspect it on the importance of water and energy for the human needs. With technological advances, the energy need does not cease increasing. This problem of energy is even more sensitive in the isolated sites where the use of the traditional resources proves often very expensive. Indeed, several constraints, like the transport of fuel and the routine maintenances of the diesel engines, return the search for an essential alternative energy source for this type of sites. It summer necessary to seek other resources of energy of replacement. Renewable energies, like photovoltaic energy, wind or hydraulic, represent a replacement solution par excellence and they are used more and more in our days more especially as the national territory has one of the solar layers highest with the world. The duration of insolation can reach the 3900 hours/year on the Sahara. The energy acquired daily on a horizontal surface of 1m2 is about 5kWh, that is to say meadows of 2263kWh/m2/year in the south of the country. The photovoltaic energy utilization for pumping of water is well adapted for more the share of the arid and semi-arid areas because of the existence in these areas of an underground hydraulic potential not very major. Another very important coincidence supports the use of this type of energy for the water pumping is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, reached its maximum in hot weather and dryness where it is precisely the moment when one has access to the maximum of solar energy. The goal to see an outline on the general composition of a photovoltaic system of pumping, as well as the theoretical elements making it possible to dimension the current pumping stations.

  5. Better Solar Cells and Manufacturing Processes Using NREL's Ultrafast Quantum Efficiency Method (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.

  6. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  7. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  8. Professional Flash Lite Mobile Development

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J G

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to create Flash Lite mobile apps from the ground up. Adobe Flash is an ideal choice for developing rich interactive content for "Flash-enabled" mobile devices; and with this book, you'll learn how to create unique applications with Flash Lite. Through a series of code samples and extensive example applications, you'll explore the core concepts, key features, and best practices of the Flash Lite player. Coverage reveals various ways to develop Flash mobile content, create applications with a cross-platform programming framework based on the Model, View and Controller conc

  9. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  10. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells applied in photovoltaic system

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; M. Giedroć; M. Macek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to fabricate the monocrystalline silicon solar cells using the conventional technology by means of screen printing process and to make of them photovoltaic system.Design/methodology/approach: The investigation of current – voltage characteristic to determinate basic electrical properties of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated under Standard Test Condition. Photovoltaic module was produced from solar cells with the largest short-circuit curren...

  11. FPGA Flash Memory High Speed Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, April

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and implement a VHDL ONFI Controller module for a Modular Instrumentation System. The goal of the Modular Instrumentation System will be to have a low power device that will store data and send the data at a low speed to a processor. The benefit of such a system will give an advantage over other purchased binary IP due to the capability of allowing NASA to re-use and modify the memory controller module. To accomplish the performance criteria of a low power system, an in house auxiliary board (Flash/ADC board), FPGA development kit, debug board, and modular instrumentation board will be jointly used for the data acquisition. The Flash/ADC board contains four, 1 MSPS, input channel signals and an Open NAND Flash memory module with an analog to digital converter. The ADC, data bits, and control line signals from the board are sent to an Microsemi/Actel FPGA development kit for VHDL programming of the flash memory WRITE, READ, READ STATUS, ERASE, and RESET operation waveforms using Libero software. The debug board will be used for verification of the analog input signal and be able to communicate via serial interface with the module instrumentation. The scope of the new controller module was to find and develop an ONFI controller with the debug board layout designed and completed for manufacture. Successful flash memory operation waveform test routines were completed, simulated, and tested to work on the FPGA board. Through connection of the Flash/ADC board with the FPGA, it was found that the device specifications were not being meet with Vdd reaching half of its voltage. Further testing showed that it was the manufactured Flash/ADC board that contained a misalignment with the ONFI memory module traces. The errors proved to be too great to fix in the time limit set for the project.

  12. Solar system science with ESA Euclid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carry, B.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The ESA Euclid mission has been designed to map the geometry of the dark Universe. Scheduled for launch in 2020, it will conduct a six-year visible and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic survey over 15 000 deg2 down to VAB 24.5. Although the survey will avoid ecliptic latitudes below 15°, the survey pattern in repeated sequences of four broadband filters seems well-adapted to detect and characterize solar system objects (SSOs). Aims: We aim at evaluating the capability of Euclid of discovering SSOs and of measuring their position, apparent magnitude, and spectral energy distribution. We also investigate how the SSO orbits, morphology (activity and multiplicity), physical properties (rotation period, spin orientation, and 3D shape), and surface composition can be determined based on these measurements. Methods: We used the current census of SSOs to extrapolate the total amount of SSOs that will be detectable by Euclid, that is, objects within the survey area and brighter than the limiting magnitude. For each different population of SSO, from neighboring near-Earth asteroids to distant Kuiper-belt objects (KBOs) and including comets, we compared the expected Euclid astrometry, photometry, and spectroscopy with the SSO properties to estimate how Euclid will constrain the SSOs dynamical, physical, and compositional properties. Results: With the current survey design, about 150 000 SSOs, mainly from the asteroid main-belt, should be observable by Euclid. These objects will all have high inclination, which is a difference to many SSO surveys that focus on the ecliptic plane. Euclid may be able to discover several 104 SSOs, in particular, distant KBOs at high declination. The Euclid observations will consist of a suite of four sequences of four measurements and will refine the spectral classification of SSOs by extending the spectral coverage provided by Gaia and the LSST, for instance, to 2 microns. Combined with sparse photometry such as measured by Gaia

  13. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This extensive review discusses the topic under the following headings: ultraviolet climatology, molecular and cellular ultraviolet photobiology (absorption, photoproducts, repair), effects of solar UVR on aquatic life (phyto and zooplankton), plants and humans. The section on human effects includes tanning, photo-aging, non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers and the effects of solar UVR on the eye. (UK)

  14. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffey, B.L. (Dryburn Hospital, Durham (UK). Regional Medical Physics Dept.)

    1991-03-01

    This extensive review discusses the topic under the following headings: ultraviolet climatology, molecular and cellular ultraviolet photobiology (absorption, photoproducts, repair), effects of solar UVR on aquatic life (phyto and zooplankton), plants and humans. The section on human effects includes tanning, photo-aging, non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers and the effects of solar UVR on the eye. (UK).

  15. Progress commercializing solar-electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracker, R.; De Laquil, P. III

    1996-01-01

    The commercial status of the principal solar electric technologies -- photovoltaic and solar thermal -- is reviewed. Current and near-term market niches are identified, and projected longer-term markets are explored along with the key strategies for achieving them, including technological breakthroughs, manufacturing developments, economies of scale and mass production, and market creation. Market barriers and public policy impacts on commercialization are discussed

  16. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...

  17. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  18. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  19. A dissipative model of solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir, V. G.

    2009-04-01

    In classical model of Solar system of a planet are represented by the material points cooperating under the law of universal gravitation. This model remains fair if planet to consider as absolutely firm spheres with spherical distribution of density. The gravitational potential of such body coincides with potential of a material point, and rotation of each sphere concerning his centre of weights occurs to constant angular speed. Movement concerning the centre of weights of a sphere is represented by rotation with constant angular speed concerning an axis of an any direction, and movement of the centers of weights of spherical planets identically to movement in the appropriate problem of N points. Let's notice, that forms of planets of Solar system are close to spherical as dominant forces at formation of planets are gravitational forces to which forces of molecular interaction in substance of a planet counteract. The model of the isolated Solar system submitted in a not indignant condition N by homogeneous viscoelastic spheres is considered. Under action of own rotation and tidal gravitational forces the spherical planet changes the form: there is "flattening" a planet in a direction of a vector of its angular speed and formation of tidal humps on the lines connecting the centre of a planet with the centers of other planets. From a variational principle of Hamilton the full system of the equations describing movements of the centers of weights of planets, rotations of systems of coordinates, by integrated image connected with planets, and deformations of planets be relative these of systems of coordinates is received. It is supposed, that tidal gravitational, centrifugal and elastic forces result in small change of the spherical form of a planet. In system there are small parameters - inversely proportional of the Young modules of materials of the planets, providing small deformations of planets at influence on them of the centrifugal forces produced by own

  20. Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

  1. Solar desalination system of combined solar still and humidification-dehumidification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Fath, Hassan E. S.

    2016-11-01

    Solar stills, as a simple technology, have many advantages such as simple design; unsophisticated fabrication; low capital and operation costs and easily maintained. However, their low daily production has put constraints on their usage. A radical improvement in the performance of solar stills can be achieved by the partial recovery of the energy losses from the glass cover of the still. This paper simulates a direct solar distillation system of combined solar still with an air heating humidification-dehumidification (HDH) sub-system. The main objective of the Still-HDH system is to improve the productivity and thermal efficiency of the conventional solar still by partially recovering the still energy losses to the ambient for additional water production. Various procedures have been employed to improve the thermal performance of the integrated system by recovering heat losses from one component in another component of the system. Simulations have been carried out for the performance of the Still-HDH system under different weather conditions. A comparison has been held between the Still-HDH system and a conventional solar still of the same size and under the same operating conditions.

  2. Ultraviolet Radiation in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, M

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation is an important part in the electromagnetic spectrum since the energy of the photons is great enough to produce important chemical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites of our Solar System, thereby affecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground and its physical properties. Scientists have used different techniques (balloons and rockets) to access to the information contained in this radiation, but the pioneering of this new frontier has not been free of dangers. The Sun is our main source of UV radiation and its description occupies the first two chapters of the book. The Earth is the only known location where life exists in a planetary system and therefore where the interaction of living organism with UV radiation can be tested through different epochs and on distinct species. The development of the human technology has affected the natural shield of ozone that protects complex lifeforms against damaging UV irradiation. The formation of the ozone hole and its consequ...

  3. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  4. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously....

  5. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  6. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  7. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  8. Theory of optical flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of optical flashes created by x- and γ-ray burst heating of stars in binaries is reviewed. Calculations of spectra due to steady-state x-ray reprocessing and estimates of the fundamental time scales for the non-steady case are discussed. The results are applied to the extant optical data from x-ray and γ-ray bursters. Finally, I review predictions of flashes from γ-ray bursters detectable by a state of the art all-sky optical monitor

  9. MICROCONTROLLER BASED SOLAR-TRACKING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan BİNGÖL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new micro-controller based solar-tracking system is proposed, implemented and tested. The scheme presented here can be operated as independent of the geographical location of the site of setting up. The system checks the position of the sun and controls the movement of a solar panel so that radiation of the sun comes normally to the surface of the solar panel. The developed-tracking system tracks the sun both in the azimuth as well as in the elevation plane. PC based system monitoring facility is also included in the design.

  10. Observed ices in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  11. solar thermal power systems advanced solar thermal technology project, advanced subsystems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design for a prototype small (20 kWe) solar thermal electric generating unit was completed, consisting of several subsystems. The concentrator and the receiver collect solar energy and a thermal buffer storage with a transport system is used to provide a partially smoothed heat input to the Stirling engine. A fossil-fuel combustor is included in the receiver designs to permit operation with partial or no solar insolation (hybrid). The engine converts the heat input into mechanical action that powers a generator. To obtain electric power on a large scale, multiple solar modules will be required to operate in parallel. The small solar electric power plant used as a baseline design will provide electricity at remote sites and small communities.

  12. A Charge Controller Design For Solar Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandar Oo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solar charge controller circuit for controlling the overcharging and discharging from solar panel. This circuit regulates the charging of the battery in a solar system by monitoring battery voltage and switching the solar or other power source off when the battery reaches a preset voltage. This circuit is low voltages disconnect circuit. A charge controller circuit can increase battery life by preventing over-charging which can cause loss of electrolyte. The flow chart is also provided.

  13. Pressure and temperature development in solar heating system during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Chen, Ziqian

    2010-01-01

    of the pipes of the solar collector loop. During the investigation the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel and system filling pressure was changed. The investigations showed that a large pressurised expansion vessel will protect the collector loop from critically high temperatures as long as the solar......This paper presents an investigation of stagnation in solar collectors and the effects it will have on the collector loop. At a laboratory test stand at the Technical University of Denmark, a pressurized solar collector loop was designed to test different numbers of collectors and different designs...

  14. Testing for Dark Matter Trapped in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the possibility of dark matter trapped in the solar system in bound solar orbits. If there exist mechanisms for dissipating excess kinetic energy by an amount sufficient for generating bound solar orbits, then trapping of galactic dark matter might have taken place during formation of the solar system, or could be an ongoing process. Possible locations for acumulation of trapped dark matter are orbital resonances with the planets or regions in the outer solar system. It is posible to test for the presence of unseen matter by detecting its gravitational effects. Current results for dynamical limits obtained from analyses of planetary ephemeris data and spacecraft tracking data are presented. Possible future improvements are discussed.

  15. Design of desalination system based on multistage flash distillation (MSF) method : MSF desalination process and thermodynamics aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, G.R.; Sumijanto; Latifah, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    During the development of making fresh water for supplying the potable water in Jakarta and eastern Indonesia, Indonesia Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) has been developing the application of small power reactor for dual purposes,electricity and fresh water producing. One of the most popular method, because of the cheapest maintenance, is the Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) which us study on designing the miniscale of MDF, the process fundamental aspects are the scale formation, degassing dissolved gas and diminishing foam, and from the thermodynamic aspect it is known that the total amount of heat required for MSF desalination is equal to free energy differences between water in solution and pure water times the ratio of total boiling temperature and the boiling temperature elevation with boiling temperature, where the range value is 35-40 kj/kg. Since the complex aspect of irreversible the heat required become 7 times higher as 240∼280 kj/kg

  16. Mathematical and computational modeling simulation of solar drying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical modeling of solar drying systems has the primary aim of predicting the required drying time for a given commodity, dryer type, and environment. Both fundamental (Fickian diffusion) and semi-empirical drying models have been applied to the solar drying of a variety of agricultural commo...

  17. Solar home systems in Kenya: unlocking consumer finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simm, Ian; Haq, Amir; Widge, V.

    2000-01-01

    The article reports on the International Finance Corporation's support of projects in Kenya where the funding is being used to enlarge the solar lending of a network of financial organisations which can reach a large number of rural Kenyans. The demand, advantages and potential of photovoltaics and solar systems generally in Kenya are discussed. Kenya's fragile financial institutions are mentioned

  18. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  19. Thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system analysis using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashhab, S. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The energy demand in Jordan is primarily met by petroleum products. As such, the development of renewable energy systems is quite attractive. In particular, solar energy is a promising renewable energy source in Jordan and has been used for food canning, paper production, air-conditioning and sterilization. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have received significant attention due to their capabilities in forecasting, modelling of complex nonlinear systems and control. ANNs have been used for forecasting solar energy. This paper presented a study that examined a thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system that was built in Jordan. Historical input-output system data that was collected experimentally was used to train an ANN that predicted the collector, PV module, pump and total efficiencies. The model predicted the efficiencies well and can therefore be utilized to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. The paper provided a description of the photovoltaic solar system including equations for PV module efficiency; pump efficiency; and total efficiency. The paper also presented data relevant to the system performance and neural networks. The results of a neural net model were also presented based on the thermal PV solar integrated system data that was collected. It was concluded that the neural net model of the thermal photovoltaic solar integrated system set the background for achieving the best system performance. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  20. More solar systems thanks to 'Buyer Groups'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2000-01-01

    The article describes how the founding of 'Buyer Groups' can help reduce the costs and raise the attractiveness of solar water heating. The success already enjoyed by groups that have been set up in Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and Canada is used to illustrate the idea, which is being promoted globally be the International Energy Agency (IEA). The article describes the support offered by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES) to the addressees of the campaign, including energy utilities, building co-operatives and real estate developers. An example is given of a 'Buyer Group' project in Basel, Switzerland, where a '222 solar roofs for Basel' campaign was successful implemented

  1. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  2. Hearing of the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES). The ombudsman for solar heating systems as a quality assurance element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger-Mariani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Following an invitation issued by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES),14 solar energy specialists hold a hearing on quality assurance for solar heating systems. Anticipating the introduction of taxes in favour of renewable energy sources and the expected rapid solar market development, the delegates discussed about the creation of a neutral ombudsman office for unsatisfied clients of the solar industry. Clearly, the solar heating system market can only expand if system quality is in accordance with the clients' expectations. The needed know-how may be found since several years in well presented reference books. However, at the moment, not all industry people follow these instructions yet [de

  3. Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhs, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a systems-level design and analysis of a new approach for improving the energy efficiency and affordability of solar energy in buildings, namely, hybrid solar lighting and full-spectrum solar energy systems. By using different portions of the solar spectrum simultaneously for multiple end-use applications in buildings, the proposed system offers unique advantages over other alternatives for using sunlight to displace electricity (conventional topside daylighting and solar technologies). Our preliminary work indicates that hybrid solar lighting, a method of collecting and distributing direct sunlight for lighting purposes, will alleviate many of the problems with passive daylighting systems of today, such as spatial and temporal variability, glare, excess illumination, cost, and energy efficiency. Similarly, our work suggests that the most appropriate use of the visible portion of direct, nondiffuse sunlight from an energy-savings perspective is to displace electric light rather than generate electricity. Early estimates detailed in this paper suggest an anticipated system cost of well under$2.0/Wp and 5-11(cents)/kWh for displaced and generated electricity in single-story commercial building applications. Based on a number of factors discussed in the paper, including sunlight availability, building use scenarios, time-of-day electric utility rates, cost, and efficacy of the displaced electric lights, the simple payback of this approach in many applications could eventually be well under 5 years

  4. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  5. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A solar combisystem based on a mantle tank is investigated numerically and experimentally. Three different houses with four different radiator systems are considered for the simulations. The needed temperature for the auxiliary heater is determined for different houses and radiator systems....... The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed...

  6. Analysis of dynamic effects in solar thermal energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines a study the purpose of which is to assess the performance of solar thermal power systems insofar as it depends on the dynamic character of system components and the solar radiation which drives them. Using a dynamic model, the daily operation of two conceptual solar conversion systems was simulated under varying operating strategies and several different time-dependent radiation intensity functions. These curves ranged from smoothly varying input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours.

  7. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. S. M.; Othman, M. Y.; Sopian, K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Majid, Z. A. A.; Fudholi, A.; Yasin, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70-75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  8. Design of a solar-assisted drying system using the double-pass solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.; Supranto; Othman, M.Y.; Yatim, B.

    2000-01-01

    A solar-assisted drying system that uses the double-pass solar collector with porous media in the second channel has been designed and constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 240 cm and a width of 120 cm. The upper channel depth is 3.5 cm and the lower channel depth is 10.5 cm. The lower channel is filled up with steel wool as the porous media. The solar collectors are arranged as 2 banks of 3 collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation conditions. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 80-90 0 C can be achieved at a solar radiation range of 800-900 W/m 3 , ambient temperature of 29 degree C and flow rate of O.20 kg/s. (Author)

  9. Development of a Solar Assisted Drying System Using Double-Pass Solar Collector with Finned Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, M S M; Sopian, K; Ruslan, M H; Fudholi, A; Majid, Z A A; Yasin, J M; Othman, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Energy Research Group, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, International Islamic University Malaysia and Yayasan FELDA has designed and constructed a solar assisted drying system at OPF FELDA Factory, Felda Bukit Sagu 2, Kuantan, Pahang. The drying system has a total of six double-pass solar collectors. Each collector has a length of 480 cm and a width of 120 cm. The first channel depth is 3.5 cm and the second channel depth is 7 cm. Longitudinal fins made of angle aluminium, 0.8 mm thickness were attached to the bottom surface of the absorber plate. The solar collectors are arranged as two banks of three collectors each in series. Internal manifold are used to connect the collectors. Air enters through the first channel and then through the second channel of the collector. An auxiliary heater source is installed to supply heat under unfavourable solar radiation condition. An on/off controller is used to control the startup and shutdown of the auxiliary heater. An outlet temperature of 70–75 °C can be achieved at solar radiation range of 800–900 W/m 2 and flow rate of 0.12 kg/s. The average thermal efficiency of a solar collector is approximately 37%.

  10. Jaan Toomik Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. mai-juuni 'Flash Artis' on ajakirja Eesti korrespondendi Ando Keskküla artikkel Jaan Toomikust. Jaan Toomik on kutsutud esinema Londoni The Photographers' Gallery grupinäitusele, tema videot 'Father and Son' näidatakse Londonis avataval näitusel 'Near and Elsewhere' 11.-24. juunini

  11. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  12. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  13. A parametric study of solar operated cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagalei, Abdullatif Salin

    2006-01-01

    Because of energy for air conditioning has been the fastest-growing segment of energy of consumption market in Libya and generally in north Africa, and with the realization depleting nature of fossil fuel, solar cooling of buildings which leads to the improvement of human comfort represents a potentially significant application of solar energy where the availability of solar radiation meets with the cooling load demand. This application has been shown to be technically feasible but the equipment needs further investigative research to improve its performance and feasibility. A solar operated absorption cooling system with energy storage is selected. A latent heat storage would be a space saver for such application for solar energy. A system modeling is an essential activity in order to go for system simulation. A complete solar cooling system to be modeled through the thermodynamic analysis of each system components. Resulting a package of equations used directly to the system simulation in order to predict the system performance to obtain the optimum working conditions for the selected cooling system. A computer code which is used to simulate a series of calculations was written in Fortran language according to the constructed information flow diagram and simulation program flow char. For a typical input data a set of results are reported and discussed and shows that the selected system promises to be a good choice for air conditioning application in Libya specially for large building as storehouses, shopping centers, public administrative.(Author)

  14. General review of solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Sebarchievici, Calin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide review of development in solar sorption refrigeration technologies. • Theoretical basis and applications of absorption and adsorption cycles are discussed. • Thermodynamic properties of most common working pairs have been reviewed. • Development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems was explored. • A comparison between solar-powered absorption and adsorption systems was performed. - Abstract: The negative environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels have forced the energy research community seriously to consider renewable sources, such as naturally available solar energy. Thermally powered refrigeration technologies are classified into two categories: thermo-mechanical technology and sorption technology (open systems or closed systems). This paper provides a detailed review of the solar closed sorption (absorption and adsorption) refrigeration systems, which utilise working pairs (fluids). After an introduction of the basic principles of these systems, the history of development and recent advances in solar sorption refrigeration technologies are reported. The adsorption cooling typically has a lower heat source temperature requirement than the absorption cooling. Based on the coefficient of performance (COP), the absorption systems are preferred over the adsorption systems, and the higher temperature issues can be easily handled with solar adsorption systems. The thermodynamic properties of most common working fluids, as well as the use of ternary mixtures in solar-powered absorption systems, have been reviewed in this study. The paper also refers to new approaches to increase the efficiency and sustainability of the basic adsorption cycles, such as the development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems. This research shows that solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration technologies can be attractive alternatives not only to serve the needs for air-conditioning, refrigeration, ice making, thermal

  15. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  16. Search for Primitive Matter in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, G.; Michel, P.; Delbo, M.; Ganino, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Zolensky, M. E.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent astronomical observations and theoretical modeling led to a consensus regarding the global scenario of the formation of young stellar objects (YSO) from a cold molecular cloud of interstellar dust (organics and minerals) and gas that, in some cases, leads to the formation of a planetary system. In the case of our Solar System, which has already evolved for approximately 4567 Ma, the quest is to access, through the investigation of planets, moons, cometary and asteroidal bodies, meteorites, micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles, the primitive material that contains the key information about the early Solar System processes and its evolution. However, laboratory analyses of extraterrestrial samples, astronomical observations and dynamical models of the Solar System evolution have not brought yet any conclusive evidence on the nature and location of primitive matter in the Solar System, preventing a clear understanding of its early stages.

  17. Design and realization of an autonomous solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaga, A.; Diouri, O.; Es-sbai, N.; Errahimi, F.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is the design and realization of an autonomous solar system, with MPPT control, a regulator charge/discharge of batteries, an H-bridge multi-level inverter with acquisition system and supervising based on a microcontroller. The proposed approach is based on developing a software platform in the LabVIEW environment which gives the system a flexible structure for controlling, monitoring and supervising the whole system in real time while providing power maximization and best quality of energy conversion from DC to AC power. The reliability of the proposed solar system is validated by the simulation results on PowerSim and experimental results achieved with a solar panel, a Lead acid battery, solar regulator and an H-bridge cascaded topology of single-phase inverter.

  18. Experimental study of a combined system of solar Kang and solar air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wei; Ji, Jie; Chow, Tin-Tai; He, Wei; Chen, Haifei; Guo, Chao; Yu, Hancheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined system of solar Kang and solar air collector is proposed. • An experimental study on the combined system is made. • The mean air temperature reaches 18.5 °C and maintains above 18 °C for 13 h. • The corresponding mean indoor air temperature of the reference room is 8.9 °C. • The Kang surface temperature reaches 27 °C and maintains above 18 °C for 23 h. - Abstract: Chinese Kang is widely used as heated bed and for heat recovery of cooking stove in Northern China. However there are main drawbacks of indoor and outdoor air pollutant generation and heavy demands on solid fuel handling. A novel combined Kang system, which integrates solar Kang and solar air collector, is here proposed. Experiments were conducted to examine the alternative operating modes: (i) only solar air collector in service, (ii) only solar Kang in service, and (iii) both solar Kang and solar air collector in service. The results show that these three modes behave differently and have distinct effects on room thermal environment in winter. When this pollution-free system operates under the third combined mode, the room temperature increases significantly and the vertical temperature gradient reduces. The Kang surface temperature increases and its uniformity is improved. It is also found that the room air temperature is closely related to the Kang surface temperature. Furthermore, most of the time the thermal environment meets the occupant need. This paper reports the experimental work and investigates into the effects on indoor thermal environment as in rural residences in Northern China

  19. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  20. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, A; Yusof, K W; Sapari, N; Hashim, A M; Singh, B S

    2013-01-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  1. Validated TRNSYS Model for Solar Assisted Space Heating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Nedal

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves a validated TRNSYS model for solar assisted space heating system as applied to a residential building in Jordan using new detailed radiation models of the TRNSYS 17.1 and geometric building model Trnsys3d for the Google SketchUp 3D drawing program. The annual heating load for a building (Solar House) which is located at the Royal ScientiFIc Society (RS5) in Jordan is estimated under climatological conditions of Amman. The aim of this Paper is to compare measured thermal performance of the Solar House with that modeled using TRNSYS. The results showed that the annual measured space heating load for the building was 6,188 kWh while the heati.ng load for the modeled building was 6,391 kWh. Moreover, the measured solar fraction for the solar system was 50% while the modeled solar fraction was 55%. A comparison of modeled and measured data resulted in percentage mean absolute errors for solar energy for space heating, auxiliary heating and solar fraction of 13%, 7% and 10%, respectively. The validated model will be useful for long-term performance simulation under different weather and operating conditions.(author)

  2. The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, N.

    2014-01-01

    The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system, which since Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) is known as the music of the spheres, is briefly reviewed from the Renaissance up to contemporary research. Copernicus' heliocentric model from 1543 suggested that the planets of our solar system form a kind of mutually ordered and quasi-synchronized system. From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later reformulated in the Titius-Bode rule (1766-1772), which successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus. Following the discovery of the ~ 11 yr sunspot cycle, in 1859 Wolf suggested that the observed solar variability could be approximately synchronized with the orbital movements of Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Modern research has further confirmed that (1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies; (2) the solar system oscillates with a specific set of gravitational frequencies, and many of them (e.g., within the range between 3 yr and 100 yr) can be approximately constructed as harmonics of a base period of ~ 178.38 yr; and (3) solar and climate records are also characterized by planetary harmonics from the monthly to the millennial timescales. This short review concludes with an emphasis on the contribution of the author's research on the empirical evidences and physical modeling of both solar and climate variability based on astronomical harmonics. The general conclusion is that the solar system works as a resonator characterized by a specific harmonic planetary structure that also synchronizes the Sun's activity and the Earth's climate. The special issue Pattern in solar variability, their planetary origin and terrestrial impacts (Mörner et al., 2013) further develops the ideas about the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction with the personal contribution of 10

  3. Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) Model: Documentation and Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Margolis, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model is a bottom-up, market penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of photovoltaics (PV) on residential and commercial rooftops in the continental United States through 2030. NREL developed SolarDS to examine the market competitiveness of PV based on regional solar resources, capital costs, electricity prices, utility rate structures, and federal and local incentives. The model uses the projected financial performance of PV systems to simulate PV adoption for building types and regions then aggregates adoption to state and national levels. The main components of SolarDS include a PV performance simulator, a PV annual revenue calculator, a PV financial performance calculator, a PV market share calculator, and a regional aggregator. The model simulates a variety of installed PV capacity for a range of user-specified input parameters. PV market penetration levels from 15 to 193 GW by 2030 were simulated in preliminary model runs. SolarDS results are primarily driven by three model assumptions: (1) future PV cost reductions, (2) the maximum PV market share assumed for systems with given financial performance, and (3) PV financing parameters and policy-driven assumptions, such as the possible future cost of carbon emissions.

  4. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  5. The Evolution and Structure of Extreme Optical Lightning Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Rudlosky, Scott; Deierling, Wiebke

    2017-12-27

    This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km 2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7.4 s, while the longest-duration entirely stratiform flash lasted 4.3 s. The longest series of nearly consecutive groups in time lasted 242 ms. The most radiant recorded LIS group (i.e., "superbolt") is 735 times more radiant than the average group. Factors that impact these optical measures of flash morphology and evolution are discussed. While it is apparent that LIS can record the horizontal development of the lightning channel in some cases, radiative transfer within the cloud limits the flash extent and level of detail measured from orbit. These analyses nonetheless suggest that lightning imagers such as LIS and Geostationary Lightning Mapper can complement ground-based lightning locating systems for studying physical lightning phenomena across large geospatial domains.

  6. Flash propagation and inferred charge structure relative to radar-observed ice alignment signatures in a small Florida mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Michael I.; Zounes, Zackery; Addison Alford, A.; Carrie, Gordon D.; Pilkey, John T.; Uman, Martin A.; Jordan, Douglas M.

    2017-08-01

    A series of vertical cross sections taken through a small mesoscale convective system observed over Florida by the dual-polarimetric SMART radar were combined with VHF radiation source locations from a lightning mapping array (LMA) to examine the lightning channel propagation paths relative to the radar-observed ice alignment signatures associated with regions of negative specific differential phase (KDP). Additionally, charge layers inferred from analysis of LMA sources were related to the ice alignment signature. It was found that intracloud flashes initiated near the upper zero-KDP boundary surrounding the negative KDP region. The zero-KDP boundary also delineated the propagation path of the lightning channel with the negative leaders following the upper boundary and positive leaders following the lower boundary. Very few LMA sources were found in the negative KDP region. We conclude that rapid dual-polarimetric radar observations can diagnose strong electric fields and may help identify surrounding regions of charge.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted multi-functional trigeneration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder KIZILKAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, modelling and thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted trigeneration system was carried out. The required thermal energy for gas and vapor cycles were supplied from solar tower which is a new concept for gas cycle applications. Additionally, an absorption refrigeration cycle, vapor production process, drying process and water heating process were integrated to the system. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the trigeneration system were determined by the application of first and second law analyses. The results showed that the gas cycle efficiency was found to be 31%, vapor cycle efficiency was found to be 28% and coefficient of performance (COP values of the refrigeration system was found to be 0.77. Also the highest exergy destruction rate was found to be 4154 kW in solar tower.Keywords: Solar tower, Trigeneration, Gas cycle, Vapor cycle, Energy, Exergy

  8. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  9. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Contemporary Newman, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    An economic evaluation of performance of the solar energy system (based on life cycle costs versus energy savings) for five cities considered to be representative of a broad range of environmental and economic conditions in the United States is discussed. The considered life cycle costs are: hardware, installation, maintenance, and operating costs for the solar unique components of the total system. The total system takes into consideration long term average environmental conditions, loads, fuel costs, and other economic factors applicable in each of five cities. Selection criteria are based on availability of long term weather data, heating degree days, cold water supply temperature, solar insolation, utility rates, market potential, and type of solar system.

  11. Robust, Highly Scalable Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar array systems currently under development are focused on near-term missions with designs optimized for the 30-50 kW power range. However, NASA has a vital...

  12. Will 3552 Don Quixote escape from the Solar System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Siregar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid 1983 SA, well known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs which is the most probable candidate for the cometary origin, or otherwise as Jupiter-Family-Comets (JFCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 3552 Don Quixote to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 100 hypothetical asteroids generated by cloning 3552 Don Quixote. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (220 kyr relative to the Solar System life time (10 Gyr, the asteroid 3552 Don Quixote gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System. Probability of ejection within the 220 kyr time scale is 50%.

  13. Is position of solar system in the Galaxy anything exceptional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marochnik, L.

    1984-01-01

    The latest astrophysical knowledge shows that the solar system is in the vicinity of the so-called corotation circle. It rotates around the nucleus of the galaxy almost synchronously with the density wave, i.e., with the spiral structure, which has created specific conditions for the development of the pre-solar cloud from which has evolved our solar system. This development took place between the arms of the galaxy, i.e., in a relatively calm area which probably made possible the origin of life. (Ha)

  14. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  15. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  16. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  17. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  18. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS WITH ENDOGENOUS SYSTEM SIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Lewell F.; Smathers, Webb M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with analysis of economic feasibility of solar energy systems. Methodology for estimating energy output from different sized systems is briefly presented, and this is used to determine technical coefficients for a mixed integer model which optimizes the size of the solar heating unit for a particular use. An empirical example of hot water heating on a Georgia dairy is presented. Cost curves are provided for the dairy example to illustrate the effect of sizing on the ec...

  19. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  20. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  1. The influence of solar system oscillation on the variability of the total solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yndestad, Harald; Solheim, Jan-Erik

    2017-02-01

    Total solar irradiance (TSI) is the primary quantity of energy that is provided to the Earth. The properties of the TSI variability are critical for understanding the cause of the irradiation variability and its expected influence on climate variations. A deterministic property of TSI variability can provide information about future irradiation variability and expected long-term climate variation, whereas a non-deterministic variability can only explain the past. This study of solar variability is based on an analysis of two TSI data series, one since 1700 A.D. and one since 1000 A.D.; a sunspot data series since 1610 A.D.; and a solar orbit data series from 1000 A.D. The study is based on a wavelet spectrum analysis. First, the TSI data series are transformed into a wavelet spectrum. Then, the wavelet spectrum is transformed into an autocorrelation spectrum to identify stationary, subharmonic and coincidence periods in the TSI variability. The results indicate that the TSI and sunspot data series have periodic cycles that are correlated with the oscillations of the solar position relative to the barycenter of the solar system, which is controlled by gravity force variations from the large planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. A possible explanation for solar activity variations is forced oscillations between the large planets and the solar dynamo. We find that a stationary component of the solar variability is controlled by the 12-year Jupiter period and the 84-year Uranus period with subharmonics. For TSI and sunspot variations, we find stationary periods related to the 84-year Uranus period. Deterministic models based on the stationary periods confirm the results through a close relation to known long solar minima since 1000 A.D. and suggest a modern maximum period from 1940 to 2015. The model computes a new Dalton-type sunspot minimum from approximately 2025 to 2050 and a new Dalton-type period TSI minimum from approximately 2040 to 2065.

  2. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  3. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  4. A simple high efficiency solar water purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, W.S.; Hodgson, D.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A new passive solar water pasteurization system based on density difference flow principles has been designed, built and tested. The system contains no valves and regulates flow based on the density difference between two columns of water. The new system eliminates boiling problems encountered in previous designs. Boiling is undesirable because it may contaminate treated water. The system with a total absorber area of 0.45 m2 has achieved a peak flow rate of 19.3 kg/h of treated water. Experiments with the prototype systems presented in this paper show that density driven systems are an attractive option to existing solar water pasteurization approaches. (author)

  5. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  6. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    The general theory of relativity was developed by Einstein a century ago. Since then, it has become the standard theory of gravity, especially important to the fields of fundamental astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and experimental gravitational physics. Today, the application of general relativity is also essential for many practical purposes involving astrometry, navigation, geodesy, and time synchronization. Numerous experiments have successfully tested general relativity to a remarkable level of precision. Exploring relativistic gravity in the solar system now involves a variety of high-accuracy techniques, for example, very long baseline radio interferometry, pulsar timing, spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary radio ranging, lunar laser ranging, the global positioning system (GPS), torsion balances and atomic clocks. Over the last few decades, various groups within the International Astronomical Union have been active in exploring the application of the general theory of relativity to the modeling and interpretation of high-accuracy astronomical observations in the solar system and beyond. A Working Group on Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry was formed in 1994 to define and implement a relativistic theory of reference frames and time scales. This task was successfully completed with the adoption of a series of resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models by the 24th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Manchester, UK, in 2000. However, these resolutions only form a framework for the practical application of relativity theory, and there have been continuing questions on the details of the proper application of relativity theory to many common astronomical problems. To ensure that these questions are properly addressed, the 26th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Prague in August 2006, established the IAU Commission 52, "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy". The general scientific goals of the new

  7. An experimental study of a solar humidifier for HDD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazal, M.T.; Atikol, U.; Egelioglu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar water and air heating and humidification processes have been merged in one unit. • The effectiveness of the solar humidifier was improved. • Bubbles regeneration enhanced the mass and heat transfer to air. • Reflector mirror enhanced the productivity of the system. - Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of a solar humidification prototype suitable for using in humidification dehumidification desalination (HDD) systems. This unit replaces the solar air heater, solar water heater and the evaporator of the traditional HDD plants, facilitating compact system designs. The prototype is composed of a solar collector, filled with water, through which air is forced to travel upwards in the form of bubbles. Experiments are conducted under the weather conditions of North Cyprus. It is discovered that the air temperature is found to approach the hot water temperature in the collector (thus increasing the vapor carrying capacity) and the relative humidity is raised to almost 100% at the exit. The collector inlet and outlet temperatures and relative humidity values are recorded for different flow rates in the period between the 1st and the 14th of December, 2012. It was found that for an average intensity of solar radiation of 700 W/m 2 and a mass flow rate of 12.6 kg/h of air; the amount of water evaporated was 0.75 kg/h on a square meter basis. Introduction of a reflector mirror at the bottom side of the humidifier increased the average absolute humidity by 32%

  8. Solar proton events and their effect on space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquille, C.

    1994-01-01

    Solar protons present a major problem to space systems because of the ionisation and displacement effects which arise from their interaction with matter. This is likely to become a greater problem in the future due to the use of more sensitive electronic components and the proposed expansion of manned activities in space. An outline is provided of the physical processes associated with individual solar events, the solar activity cycle and the transport of solar particles between the Sun and the Earth. The problems of predicting solar event fluences, both over short- and long-term periods, are discussed. The currently available solar proton event models used for long-term forecasting are briefly reviewed, and the advantages and deficiencies of each model are investigated. Predictions using the models are compared to measurements made by the GOES-7 satellite during the rising phase of the current solar cycle. These measurements are also used to illustrate the sensitivity of the models to the choice of confidence level and to the spectral form used for extrapolation over the solar proton energy range. (author)

  9. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-06

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets.

  10. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  11. Planetary Produced Axionlike Particles and Gamma-Ray Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liolios, Anastasios

    2008-01-01

    Axion-like particles could be created in nuclear disintegrations and deexitations of natural radionuclides present in the interior of the planets. For the Earth and the other planets with a surrounding magnetosphere, axion production could result to gamma and X-ray emission, originating from axion to photon conversion in the planetary magnetic fields. The estimated planetary axion fluxes as well as the related gamma ray fluxes from Earth and the giant planets of our solar system are given along with the axion coupling to ordinary matter. A possible connection with the enigmatic Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) discovered in 1994 by CGRO/BATSE and also detected with the RHESSI satellite, is also discussed.

  12. Performance assesment of solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shesho, Igor; Armenski, Slave [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); others, and

    2014-07-01

    Thermal performance of the solar thermal systems are estimated using numerical methods and software since the solar processes are transitient in nature been driven by time dependent forcing functions and loads. The system components are defined with mathematical relationships that describe how components function. They are based on the first principles (energy balances, mass balances, rate equations and equilibrium relationships) at one extreme or empirical curve fits to operating data from specific machines such as absorption chillers. The component models are programed, i.e. they represent written subroutines which are simultaneously solved with the executive program. In this paper for executive program is chosen TRNSYS containing library with solar thermal system component models. Validation of the TRNSYS components models is performed, i.e. the simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. Analysis is performed for solar assisted cooling system in order to determine the solar fractions and efficiencies for different collector types, areas and storage tanks. Specific indicators are derived in order to facilitate the techno-economic analysis and design of solar air-conditioning systems. (Author)

  13. Physics Flash August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  14. The lightning flash

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  15. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  16. Coherent imaging at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Duesterer, S; Treusch, R; Barty, A; Benner, W H; Bogan, M J; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S P; Woods, B W; Boutet, S; Cavalleri, A; Hajdu, J; Iwan, B; Seibert, M M; Timneanu, N; Marchesini, S; Sakdinawat, A; Sokolowski-Tinten, K

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.

  17. Physics Flash December 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). ADEPS Communications

    2016-12-01

    This is the December 2016 issue of Physics Flash, the newsletter of the Physics Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this issue, the following topics are covered: Novel liquid helium technique to aid highly sensitive search for a neutron electrical dipole moment; Silverleaf: Prototype Red Sage experiments performed at Q-site; John L. Kline named 2016 APS Fellow; Physics students in the news; First Entropy Engine quantum random number generator hits the market; and celebrating service.

  18. Mechanisms of nucleation in flashing flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F.; Giot, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of nucleation have been analysed. Starting from the assumption that the activation of micro-cavities in the wall surfaces is the most probable nucleation mechanism in practical flashing system, the authors study in detail the nucleation in a micro-cavity. A three step nucleation criterion is proposed, namely: trapping cavity, activable cavity and active cavity. Then, a new nucleation model is presented. The output of the model is the prediction of the bubble departure frequency versus the thermodynamic state of the liquid and the geometry of the cavity. The model can also predict the nucleation site density if the nature of the wall and the surface roughness are know. The prediction have been successfully compared with some preliminary experimental results. By combining the present model with Jones'theory, the flashing inception is correctly predicted. The use of this nucleation model for the complete modelling of a flashing non-equilibrium flow is in progress

  19. Adaptability of solar energy conversion systems on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, I.; Cotorcea, A.; Neagoe, M.; Moldovan, M.

    2016-08-01

    International trade of goods largely uses maritime/transoceanic ships driven by engines using fossil fuels. This two centuries tradition is technologically mature but significantly adds to the CO2 emissions; therefore, recent trends focus on on-board implementation of systems converting the solar energy into power (photovoltaic systems) or heat (solar-thermal systems). These systems are carbon-emissions free but are still under research and plenty of effort is devoted to fast reach maturity and feasibility. Unlike the systems implemented in a specific continental location, the design of solar energy conversion systems installed on shipboard has to face the problem generated by the system base motion along with the ship travelling on routes at different latitudes: the navigation direction and sense and roll-pitch combined motion with reduced amplitude, but with relatively high frequency. These raise highly interesting challenges in the design and development of mechanical systems that support the maximal output in terms of electricity or heat. The paper addresses the modelling of the relative position of a solar energy conversion surface installed on a ship according to the current position of the sun; the model is based on the navigation trajectory/route, ship motion generated by waves and the relative sun-earth motion. The model describes the incidence angle of the sunray on the conversion surface through five characteristic angles: three used to define the ship orientation and two for the solar angles; based on, their influence on the efficiency in solar energy collection is analyzed by numerical simulations and appropriate recommendations are formulated for increasing the solar energy conversion systems adaptability on ships.

  20. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  1. Exploring the Inner Solar System During IPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Stockman, S. A.; Carter, B. L.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2008-12-01

    During 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, both the MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to orbit the Moon will use key mission milestones to engage the public. For the MESSENGER mission key millstones will be the release to the public of data from the Oct 6th 2008, flyby and the Sept 29th 2009 third and last Mercury flyby before MESSENGER orbits Mercury in 2011. IYA activities will include participating in 365 Days of Astronomy podcasts, making the second flyby data publicly available and exciting the public with images from the third flyby. The data from the first flyby can be seen in a variety of locations across the country on Science on a Sphere. During IYA, the MESSENGER mission will also be reaching a wide variety of audiences through social media networking such as Facebook and Twitter. Informal education communities will be able to include Mercury data in their IYA programming through the distribution of MESSENGER data through the NASA Museum Alliance. The LRO mission will return the public's attention to our nearest neighbor, the Moon, in 2009. As a result, the public will see high resolution images of the Moon never seen before. LRO will also engage the public in the lunar observation program. Starting in early 2009, LRO and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) will be launched, and will continue their science missions throughout IYA. The public will be encouraged to make observations of the Moon during critical maneuvers for the LRO and LCROSS missions, including the LCROSS encounter, impacting the Moon which will occur in 2009. These events will help shift the public's attention to the Moon, and highlight the role our nearest neighbor plays in helping scientists learn about the early history of our Solar System. In addition to viewing LRO images and observing the Moon, the public can learn about the Moon, LRO, LCROSS, and past lunar missions virtually via the "Return to the Moon Hall

  2. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, M.S.; Hsu, P.C.; Chen, J.W.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, M.S.; Hsu, P.C.; Chen, J.W.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring.

  4. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solar maximum mission panel jettison analysis remote manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of the development of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) configurations for jettison of the solar panels on the Solar Maximum Mission/Multimission Satellite. A valid RMS maneuver between jettison configurations was developed. Arm and longeron loads and effector excursions due to the solar panel jettison were determined to see if they were within acceptable limits. These loads and end effector excursions were analyzed under two RMS modes, servos active in position hold submode, and in the brakes on mode.

  6. Tandem planet formation for solar system-like planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imaeda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new united theory of planet formation, which includes magneto-rotational instability (MRI and porous aggregation of solid particles in a consistent way. We show that the “tandem planet formation” regime is likely to result in solar system-like planetary systems. In the tandem planet formation regime, planetesimals form at two distinct sites: the outer and inner edges of the MRI suppressed region. The former is likely to be the source of the outer gas giants, and the latter is the source for the inner volatile-free rocky planets. Our study spans disks with a various range of accretion rates, and we find that tandem planet formation can occur for M˙=10−7.3-10−6.9M⊙yr−1. The rocky planets form between 0.4–2 AU, while the icy planets form between 6–30 AU; no planets form in 2–6 AU region for any accretion rate. This is consistent with the gap in the solid component distribution in the solar system, which has only a relatively small Mars and a very small amount of material in the main asteroid belt from 2–6 AU. The tandem regime is consistent with the idea that the Earth was initially formed as a completely volatile-free planet. Water and other volatile elements came later through the accretion of icy material by occasional inward scattering from the outer regions. Reactions between reductive minerals, such as schreibersite (Fe3P, and water are essential to supply energy and nutrients for primitive life on Earth.

  7. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    ESO Telescopes Detect a Strange-Looking Object Summary Using the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , a team of astronomers [1] have discovered a dusty and opaque disk surrounding a young solar-type star in the outskirts of a dark cloud in the Milky Way. It was found by chance during an unrelated research programme and provides a striking portrait of what our Solar System must have looked like when it was in its early infancy. Because of its striking appearance, the astronomers have nicknamed it the "Flying Saucer" . The new object appears to be a perfect example of a very young star with a disk in which planets are forming or will soon form, and located far away from the usual perils of an active star-forming environment . Most other young stars, especially those that are born in dense regions, run a serious risk of having their natal dusty disks destroyed by the blazing radiation of their more massive and hotter siblings in these clusters. The star at the centre of the "Flying Saucer", seems destined to live a long and quiet life at the centre of a planetary system , very much like our own Sun. This contributes to making it a most interesting object for further studies with the VLT and other telescopes. The mass of the observed disk of gas and dust is at least twice that of the planet Jupiter and its radius measures about 45 billion km, or 5 times the size of the orbit of Neptune. PR Photo 12a/02 : The "Flying Saucer" object photographed with NTT/SOFI. PR Photo 12b/02 : VLT/ISAAC image of this object. PR Photo 12c/02 : Enlargement of VLT/ISAAC image . Circumstellar Disks and Planets Planets form in dust disks around young stars. This is a complex process of which not all stages are yet fully understood but it begins when small dust particles collide and stick to each other. For this reason, observations of such dust disks, in particular those that appear as extended structures (are "resolved"), are very important for our

  8. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Helium flashes on accreting white dwarfs: consequences for type 1 supernova and nova abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrandt, W.; Ziegert, W.; Thielemann, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    Helium flashes on an accreting 1 Solar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf are investigated. It is demonstrated that the outer layers of a white dwarf growing towards the Chandrasekhar limit will be significantly enriched in elements like Mg, Al, Si and S provided the mass accretion rate is of the order of a few times 10 -8 to 10 -7 Solar mass per year. Since these stars are believed to explode as type I supernovae the abundances being ejected will depend also upon the accretion history of the white dwarfs. In addition this matter will have a rather non-solar isotopic composition. Finally, our results may help to explain abundances of heavy elements observed in certain novae if the white dwarf in those binary systems has gone through a high accretion rate phase once in the past before becoming a normal cataclysmic variable

  10. Water heating solar system for popular houses; Sistema solar de aquecimento de agua para residencias populares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogawer, Tamer; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a case study for the design of a low cost solar heating system for a popular residence in an isolated rural community in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. This scaling can be extended to several rural communities that are in the same situation in Brazil as well as the wider use of solar power between the low-income people who do not have the benefits of electricity in their homes or want to have a lower cost of electricity. In this context, there are very interesting alternatives, among which is the replacement of electric heating bath water by heating by solar energy. According to several sources the electric shower, as it is now simple and extremely cheap, is the villain of the national electrical system. It is used in peak hours of consumption, something like 10% of electric generating capacity installed in Brazil, forcing many industries to switch off the machines because of the high cost of electricity during this period. Using the heating by solar energy, we can reduce consumption of electric shower and also increase the use of clean energy in popular homes and in isolated rural communities. This paper will address the use of solar energy with the basic purpose of heating water for bathing in popular residences and in isolated rural areas, using low cost systems, built with easily materials that is found in any area of the country. (author)

  11. Solar water disinfecting system using compound parabolic concentrating collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghetany, H.H.; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2000-05-31

    Solar water disinfection is an alternative technology using solar radiation and thermal treatment to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in water. The Compound Parabolic Concentrating, (CPC) collector can be used as an efficient key component for solar disinfectanting system. Two types of the CPC collectors are studied, namely the transparent-tube and the Copper-tube CPC collector. It is found that after 30 minutes of exposing the water sample to solar radiation or heating it up to 65 degree C for a few minuets all the coliform bacterial present in the contaminated water sample were completely eliminated. In this article, the effect of water temperature on the disinfecting process was presented. Thermal and micro-biological measurements were also made to evaluate the system performance. (author)

  12. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  13. Humidification dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough solar air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Zubair, M. Ifras; Atif, Maimoon; Gandhidasan, Palanichamy; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Antar, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a detailed thermodynamic analysis to assess the performance of an HDH system with an integrated parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). The HDH system considered is an open air, open water, air heated system that uses a PTSC as an air heater. Two different configurations were considered of the HDH system. In the first configuration, the solar air heater was placed before the humidifier whereas in the second configuration the solar air heater was placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier. The current study revealed that PTSCs are well suited for air heated HDH systems for high radiation location, such as Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The comparison between the two HDH configurations demonstrates that the gained output ratio (GOR) of the first configuration is, on average, about 1.5 whereas for the second configuration the GOR increases up to an average value of 4.7. The study demonstrates that the HDH configuration with the air heater placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier has a better performance and a higher productivity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of an HDH system driven by a parabolic trough solar collector was conducted. • The first configuration reveals a GOR of 1.5 while the second configuration reveals a GOR of 4.7. • Effective heating of the HDH system was obtained through parabolic trough solar collector

  14. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  15. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  16. Chemical Enrichment of the Solar System by Stellar Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-03-01

    Spectroscopic observations of evolved stars have shown signatures of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. This suggests that complex organics with chemical structures similar to those of insoluble organic matter (IOM) found in carbonaceous meteorites are made in stars. This raises the possibility that in addition to known pre-solar grains such as silicon carbide, organic star dust may also have traveled across the Galaxy to the Solar System.

  17. Solar collector wall with active curtain system; Lasikatteinen massiivienen aurinkokeraeaejaeseinae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.; Heimonen, I. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-12-01

    Integration of solar collector into the building envelope structure brings many advantages. The disadvantage of a passive solar collector wall is that its thermal performance can not be controlled, which may cause temporary overheating and low thermal efficiency of the collector. The thermal performance of the collector wall can be improved by using controllable, active collector systems. In this paper a solar collector wall with a controllable curtain between the transparent and absorption layers is investigated. The curtain is made of several low-emissivity foil layers, which ensures low radiation heat transfer through the curtain. The curtain decreases the heat losses out from the collector wall and it improves the U-value of the wall. The curtain is used when the solar radiation intensity to the wall is not high enough or when the wall needs protection against overheating during warm weather conditions. The materials and building components used in the collector wall, except those of the curtain, are ordinary in buildings. The transparent layer can be made by using normal glazing technology and the thermal storage layer can be made out of brick or similar material. The solar energy gains through the glazing can be utilised better than in passive systems, because the curtain provides the wall with high thermal resistance outside the solar radiation periods. The thermal performance of the collector wall was studied experimentally using a Hot-Box apparatus equipped with a solar lamp. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the yearly performance of the collector wall under real climate conditions. The objectives were to determine the thermal performance of the collector wall and to study how to optimise the use of solar radiation in this system. When the curtain with high thermal resistance is used actively, the temperature level of the thermal storage layer in the wall is relatively high also during dark periods and the heat losses out from the storage

  18. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  19. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her; Wang, Jiunn-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI

  20. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank is a......, the control strategy of intelligent solar heating systems is investigated and the yearly auxiliary energy use of the systems and the electricity price for supplying the consumers with domestic hot water and space heating are calculated....... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys......Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...