Sample records for solar space tobacco

  1. Tobacco (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  2. Space Station solar water heater (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.


    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  3. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts (United States)

    Little, Frank E.


    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  4. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenn Rainer


    Full Text Available The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  5. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective (United States)

    Schwenn, Rainer


    The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  6. Preliminary study on solar-assisted tobacco curing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamrungwong, S [Chiang Mai Univ.; Suchinda, B; Malila, D


    A solar heating system for assisting flue curing of Virginia tobacco leaf was studied. The equipment consisted of a brick and mortar tobacco curing barn of 3.6 m/sup 3/ volume. The solar air heater of 2.8 m/sup 2/ was a non-focus type, made from corrugated galvanized stel sheet coated with flat-black paint. The collector had a single glass cover on top and a 25 mm layer of styrofoam at the bottom. Electrical heating was utilized inside the bar to simulate the main heat source. The system under study had no thermal storage, therefore it was extremely difficult to regulate the temperature inside the barn precisely. Consequently, the solar assisting mode is not recommended during the yellowing stage of curing where very precise temperature control is required. Utilization of solar energy during other stages of curing showed a saving of the main conventional energy up to 33 to 15 percent. The average thermal efficiencies of the collector varied from 70 percent at high flow rate to 67 percent at low flow rate. 6 references.

  7. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong


    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  8. Commercialization of solar space power (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary


    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  9. Development of greenhouse solar systems for bulk tobacco curing and plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.K.; Bowers, C.G. Jr.


    Among many farm crops, bright leaf tobacco is the most energy- and labor-intensive crop. The greenhouse solar system (solar bulk-curing/greenhouse system, or solar barn) was developed to provide multiple-use facilities for year-round solar energy utilization to save fossil fuels in tobacco curing and plant production and to facilitate the total mechanization of tobacco culture. Two types of full-size greenhouse solar systems, the load-supporting wall design and the shell design, both utilizing the thermal envelope concept, were designed and constructed for solar bulk-curing of tobacco, growing transplants and horticultural crops under controlled environment, and aiding automation of transplanting operations. Full-scale field tests of solar bulk curing showed that the fuel savings were consistantly improved from 37% in 1975 to 51% in 1978 for this solar bulk-curing system as compared with a conventional bulk-curing barn as a control. The feasibility of the system to save energy by using solar energy as a first priority source was significantly demonstrated. Three-year greenhouse and field tests showed that high germination rate of 95-97% with excellent emergence frequency was obtained for tobacco seeds under the controlled environment provided by the greenhouse solar system. In general, the containerized transplants from greenhouse solar system significantly exceeded the conventional bare-root transplants in growth, leaf-quality and yield. 9 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  10. Solar origins of space weather and space climate

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Rudolf; Pevtsov, Alexei; Leibacher, John


    This topical issue is based on the presentations given at the 26th National Solar Observatory (NSO) Summer Workshop held at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, New Mexico, USA from 30 April to 4 May 2012. This unique forum brought together experts in different areas of solar and space physics to help in developing a full picture of the origin of solar phenomena that affect Earth’s technological systems.  The articles include theory, model, and observation research on the origin of the solar activity and its cycle, as well as a discussion on how to incorporate the research into space-weather forecasting tools.  This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in solar physics and space science.  Previously published in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

  11. Space solar power - An energy alternative (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.


    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  12. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  13. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor


    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  14. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water. (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  15. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  16. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Tao Liu


    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  17. Solar EUV irradiance for space weather applications (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.


    Solar EUV irradiance is an important driver of space weather models. Large changes in EUV and x-ray irradiances create large variability in the ionosphere and thermosphere. Proxies such as the F10.7 cm radio flux, have provided reasonable estimates of the EUV flux but as the space weather models become more accurate and the demands of the customers become more stringent, proxies are no longer adequate. Furthermore, proxies are often provided only on a daily basis and shorter time scales are becoming important. Also, there is a growing need for multi-day forecasts of solar EUV irradiance to drive space weather forecast models. In this presentation we will describe the needs and requirements for solar EUV irradiance information from the space weather modeler's perspective. We will then translate these requirements into solar observational requirements such as spectral resolution and irradiance accuracy. We will also describe the activities at NOAA to provide long-term solar EUV irradiance observations and derived products that are needed for real-time space weather modeling.

  18. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor


    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  19. New directions for space solar power (United States)

    Mankins, John C.


    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  20. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M


    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  1. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  2. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel


    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  3. Potential for solar space heating in Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgregor, A W.K.


    This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of passive-type solar-assisted space heating systems at various latitudes within the British Isles. A comparison is made of the useful solar gain of the same system linked to the same house at four different locations. Month-by-month energy balances indicate that the annual useful solar contribution at the highest latitude (Lerwick, 60 deg N) is about 35% higher than at the lowest latitude (Kew, 53 deg N). The main reason for this difference is the higher heating loads in the north, particularly outside the winter months. The estimated available irradiation on south-facing vertical surfaces was almost the same at all four locations. Previous work in the UK indicates that, contrary to the conclusions in this paper, more southerly latitudes were the most favorable for solar space heating. The reasons for the disparity are discussed. It is recommended that research and development of passive solar-assisted space heating systems should be most vigorously pursued in the more northerly latitudes of the British Isles, where both the potential benefit and the need are greatest.

  4. Solar Stirling for deep space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee S.


    A study was performed to quantify the performance of solar thermal power systems for deep space planetary missions. The study incorporated projected advances in solar concentrator and energy conversion technologies. These technologies included inflatable structures, lightweight primary concentrators, high efficiency secondary concentrators, and high efficiency Stirling convertors. Analyses were performed to determine the mass and deployed area of multihundred watt solar thermal power systems for missions out to 40 astronomical units. Emphasis was given to system optimization, parametric sensitivity analyses, and concentrator configuration comparisons. The results indicated that solar thermal power systems are a competitive alternative to radioisotope systems out to 10 astronomical units without the cost or safety implications associated with nuclear sources

  5. Solar cells for space applications (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, T.J.


    This lecture focusses on qualification and verification tests and procedures on solar cells designed for space applications. The series of tests should produce orbital performance under determined illumination, temperature and irradiance. Tests are divided in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Environmental tests include durability, qualification (mechanical and electrical), I-V curves, Spectral response

  6. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)


    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  7. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)


    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  8. The space-age solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.


    This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons

  9. Solar dynamic power systems for space station (United States)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.


    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  10. Tobacco (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  11. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.


    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  12. Full space device optimization for solar cells. (United States)

    Baloch, Ahmer A B; Aly, Shahzada P; Hossain, Mohammad I; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Tabet, Nouar; Alharbi, Fahhad H


    Advances in computational materials have paved a way to design efficient solar cells by identifying the optimal properties of the device layers. Conventionally, the device optimization has been governed by single or double descriptors for an individual layer; mostly the absorbing layer. However, the performance of the device depends collectively on all the properties of the material and the geometry of each layer in the cell. To address this issue of multi-property optimization and to avoid the paradigm of reoccurring materials in the solar cell field, a full space material-independent optimization approach is developed and presented in this paper. The method is employed to obtain an optimized material data set for maximum efficiency and for targeted functionality for each layer. To ensure the robustness of the method, two cases are studied; namely perovskite solar cells device optimization and cadmium-free CIGS solar cell. The implementation determines the desirable optoelectronic properties of transport mediums and contacts that can maximize the efficiency for both cases. The resulted data sets of material properties can be matched with those in materials databases or by further microscopic material design. Moreover, the presented multi-property optimization framework can be extended to design any solid-state device.

  13. Space solar power satellite systems with a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.); Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)


    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in mankind's access to outer space. If the SE's promise of low-cost access to space can be realized, the economics of space-based business endeavors becomes much more feasible. In this paper, we describe a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system and estimate its costs within the context of an SE. We also offer technical as well as financial comparisons between SPS and terrestrial solar photovoltaic technologies. Even though SPS systems have been designed for over 35 years, technologies pertinent to SPS systems are continually evolving. One of the designs we present includes an evolving technology, optical rectennas. SPS systems could be a long-term energy source that is clean, technologically feasible, and virtually limitless. Moreover, electrical energy could be distributed inexpensively to remote areas where such power does not currently exist, thereby raising the quality of life of the people living in those areas. The energy 'playing field' will be leveled across the world and the resulting economic growth will improve the lot of humankind everywhere.

  14. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,


    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  15. Space solar power for powering a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.)


    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a Space Solar Power (SSP) system capable of powering the climbers of an SE. The initial SE will use laser power beaming from floating platforms near the SE platform. This study outlines an SSP system, based near the SE at geosynchronous altitude (GEO), which powers the climbers traversing the elevator. Such a system would reduce the SE system's dependence on fuel supply from land for its power beaming facilities. Moreover, since deploying SSP systems is anticipated to be a major use for SE's, SSP's could represent an elegant solution to the problem of SE energy consumption. SSP systems for sending usable power to Earth have been designed for well over 30 years. Technologies pertinent to SSP systems are continually evolving. This slightly different application carries the added requirements of aiming the beamed power at a moving target and sending the power in a form the climbers can use. Systems considered include beaming power to the climbers directly from a traditional SSP and reflecting sunlight onto the climbers. One of our designs includes a very new technology, optical rectennas. Mars SEs are conceived as having space-based power systems. Therefore, it is important to consider the problems that will be encountered in these types of applications.

  16. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces. (United States)

    Oriola, Taiwo A


    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  17. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.


    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  18. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua


    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  19. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  20. Solar energetic particles and space weather (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.


    The solar energetic particles (SEPs) of consequence to space weather are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the large events, these great shocks fill half of the heliosphere. SEP intensity profiles change appearance with longitude. Events with significant intensities of >10 MeV protons occur at an average rate of ~13 yr-1 near solar maximum and several events with high intensities of >100 MeV protons occur each decade. As particles stream out along magnetic field lines from a shock near the Sun, they generate waves that scatter subsequent particles. At high intensities, wave growth throttles the flow below the ``streaming limit.'' However, if the shock maintains its strength, particle intensities can rise above this limit to a peak when the shock itself passes over the observer creating a `delayed' radiation hazard, even for protons with energies up to ~1 GeV. The streaming limit makes us blind to the intensities at the oncoming shock, however, heavier elements such as He, O, and Fe probe the shape of the wave spectrum, and variation in abundances of these elements allow us to evade the limit and probe conditions at the shock, with the aid of detailed modeling. At high energies, spectra steepen to form a spectral `knee.' The location of the proton spectral knee can vary from ~10 MeV to ~1 GeV, depending on shock conditions, greatly affecting the radiation hazard. Hard spectra are a serious threat to astronauts, placing challenging requirements for shielding, especially on long-duration missions to the moon or Mars. .

  1. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance (United States)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.


    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.


    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  3. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  4. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  5. Space Moves: Adding Movement to Solar System Lessons (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer; Heidorn, Brent


    Earth and space science figure prominently in the National Science Education Standards for levels 5-8 (NRC 1996). The Earth in the Solar System standard focuses on students' ability to understand (1) the composition of the solar system (Earth, Moon, Sun, planets with their moons, and smaller objects like asteroids and comets) and (2) that…

  6. The JPL space photovoltaic program. [energy efficient so1 silicon solar cells for space applications (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.


    The development of energy efficient solar cells for space applications is discussed. The electrical performance of solar cells as a function of temperature and solar intensity and the influence of radiation and subsequent thermal annealing on the electrical behavior of cells are among the factors studied. Progress in GaAs solar cell development is reported with emphasis on improvement of output power and radiation resistance to demonstrate a solar cell array to meet the specific power and stability requirements of solar power satellites.

  7. Validated TRNSYS Model for Solar Assisted Space Heating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Nedal


    The present study involves a validated TRNSYS model for solar assisted space heating system as applied to a residential building in Jordan using new detailed radiation models of the TRNSYS 17.1 and geometric building model Trnsys3d for the Google SketchUp 3D drawing program. The annual heating load for a building (Solar House) which is located at the Royal ScientiFIc Society (RS5) in Jordan is estimated under climatological conditions of Amman. The aim of this Paper is to compare measured thermal performance of the Solar House with that modeled using TRNSYS. The results showed that the annual measured space heating load for the building was 6,188 kWh while the load for the modeled building was 6,391 kWh. Moreover, the measured solar fraction for the solar system was 50% while the modeled solar fraction was 55%. A comparison of modeled and measured data resulted in percentage mean absolute errors for solar energy for space heating, auxiliary heating and solar fraction of 13%, 7% and 10%, respectively. The validated model will be useful for long-term performance simulation under different weather and operating conditions.(author)

  8. Economic feasibility of solar water and space heating. (United States)

    Bezdek, R H; Hirshberg, A S; Babcock, W H


    The economic feasibility in 1977 and 1978 of solar water and combined water and space heating is analyzed for single-family detached residences and multi-family apartment buildings in four representative U.S. cities: Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Los Angeles, California. Three economic decision criteria are utilized: payback period, years to recovery of down payment, and years to net positive cash flow. The cost competitiveness of the solar systems compared to heating systems based on electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas is then discussed for each city, and the impact of the federal tax credit for solar energy systems is assessed. It is found that even without federal incentives some solar water and space heating systems are competitive. Enactment of the solar tax credit, however, greatly enhances their competitiveness. The implications of these findings for government tax and energy pricing policies are discussed.

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? (United States)


    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in vending...

  10. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.


    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  11. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research (United States)

    Flood, D. J.


    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  12. Solar proton events and their effect on space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquille, C.


    Solar protons present a major problem to space systems because of the ionisation and displacement effects which arise from their interaction with matter. This is likely to become a greater problem in the future due to the use of more sensitive electronic components and the proposed expansion of manned activities in space. An outline is provided of the physical processes associated with individual solar events, the solar activity cycle and the transport of solar particles between the Sun and the Earth. The problems of predicting solar event fluences, both over short- and long-term periods, are discussed. The currently available solar proton event models used for long-term forecasting are briefly reviewed, and the advantages and deficiencies of each model are investigated. Predictions using the models are compared to measurements made by the GOES-7 satellite during the rising phase of the current solar cycle. These measurements are also used to illustrate the sensitivity of the models to the choice of confidence level and to the spectral form used for extrapolation over the solar proton energy range. (author)

  13. Solar power from space: the worldwide grid of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Recent interest in the feasibility and prospects for generating large amounts of electricity from space-based solar power systems is reviewed. The interest is generated by reports which suggest that sun-surfacing solar arrays in stationary earth orbit at an altitude 22,300 miles would not only be unaffected by the Earth's day-night cycle, cloud cover and atmospheric dust, but would also receive some eight times as much sunlight as solar collectors at the Earth's surface. The prediction is that relevant technology will be perfected to the point where by the middle of the 21. century a large share of the world's demand for electricity will be met by a series of very large space-based solar photovoltaic arrays. Several billion watts of power could be beamed to the Earth at microwave radio frequencies for collection by wide area rectifying ground antennas for conversion to electricity via transmitters connected to the photovoltaic arrays. A chronological account of development of this concept of beaming solar power from space shows that the idea has been around since the 1880s, gaining more and more credibility with each advance in space science . The moon, too, has been suggested as an ideal site for developing large-scale solar power systems that beam microwave energy to Earth. The lunar soil could supply silicon to build solar arrays, and metals such as iron and aluminum, for support structures and electric wiring. NASA is actively pursuing this line of inquiry, especially since all the problems involved with solar energy generation on earth, are absent on the moon.While a breakthrough is not imminent, the significant progress achieved to date in demonstrating the feasibility of wireless power transmission from space provides good reason for continuing to pursue this line of investigation

  14. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  15. Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Materials (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Nehls, Mary; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted ot a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar, Teonex, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were characterized

  16. Chart links solar, geophysical events with impacts on space technologies (United States)

    Davenport, George R.

    While developing a Space Weather Training Program for Air Force Space Command and the 50th Weather Squadron, both based in Colorado, ARINC Incorporated produced a flowchart that correlates solar and geophysical events with their impacts on Air Force systems.Personnel from both organizations collaborated in the development of the flowchart and provided many comments and suggestions. The model became the centerpiece of the Space Environment Impacts Reference Pamphlet, as well as the formal Space Weather Training Program. Although it is not a numerical or computer model, the flowchart became known as the “Space Environmental Impacts Model.”

  17. Solar-pumped lasers for space power transmission (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Nelson, L.; Quimby, D.; Christiansen, W.


    Multi-Megawatt CW solar-pumped lasers appear to be technologically feasible for space power transmission in the 1990s time frame. A new concept for a solar-pumped laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate black body cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, either CO or CO2. Reradiation losses are minimized with resulting high efficiency operation. A 1 MW output laser may weigh as little as 8000 kg including solar collector, black body cavity, laser cavity and ducts, pumps, power systems and waste heat radiator. The efficiency of such a system will be on the order of 10 to 20%. Details of the new concept, laser design, comparison to competing solar-powered lasers and applications to a laser solar power satellite (SPS) concept are presented.

  18. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope


    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre


    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  19. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D


    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  20. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission (United States)

    Conway, E. J.


    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  1. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture (United States)


    to this thesis, “the Boeing 702 offers a range of power up to 18 kW. Dual and triple -junction gallium arsenide solar cells enable such high power...CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................85 A. KEY POINTS AND...USAF. Without the proper starting point and frame of reference, this thesis would not have been possible. Thank you to everyone who had an influence on

  2. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...

  3. Solar radio bursts as a tool for space weather forecasting (United States)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Matamoros, Carolina Salas; Zucca, Pietro


    The solar corona and its activity induce disturbances that may affect the space environment of the Earth. Noticeable disturbances come from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are large-scale ejections of plasma and magnetic fields from the solar corona, and solar energetic particles (SEPs). These particles are accelerated during the explosive variation of the coronal magnetic field or at the shock wave driven by a fast CME. In this contribution, it is illustrated how full Sun microwave observations can lead to (1) an estimate of CME speeds and of the arrival time of the CME at the Earth, (2) the prediction of SEP events attaining the Earth. xml:lang="fr"

  4. Studies of Earth Space Environment and Sudden Disappearances of Solar Prominences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Tian-Sen


    With the support from AFOSR's Minority University Program, we worked on research of Sun-Earth space environment, conducted daily solar observation programs, improved solar instruments, and established...

  5. Radiation resistance of solar cells for space application, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi


    A 50-μm thick ultrathin silicon solar cell and a 280-μm thick high performance AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with high radiation resistance have been recently developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). In order to study the radiation resistance of these cells, a joint research was carried out between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and NASDA from 1984 through 1987. In this research, the irradiation method of electron beams, the effects of the irradiation conditions on the deterioration of solar cells by electron beams, and the annealing effects of the radiation damage in solar cells were investigated. This paper is the first one of a series of reports of the joint research. In this paper, the space radiation environment which artificial satellites will encounter, the solar cells used, and the experimental methods are described. In addition to these, the results of the study on the irradiation procedure of electron beams are reported. In the study of the irradiation method of electron beams, three methods, that is, the fixed irradiation method, the moving irradiation method, and the spot irradiation method were examined. In the fixed irradiation method and moving one, stationary solar cells and solar cells moving by conveyer were irradiated by scanning electron beams, respectively. On the other hand, in the spot irradiation method, stationary solar cells were irradiated by non-scanning steady electron beams. It was concluded that the fixed irradiation method was the most proper method. In addition to this, in this study, some pieces of information were obtained with respect to the changes in the electrical characteristics of solar cells caused by the irradiation of electron beams. (author) 52 refs

  6. Roles of Solar Power from Space for Europe - Space Exploration and Combinations with Terrestrial Solar Plant Concepts (United States)

    Summerer, L.; Pipoli, T.; Galvez, A.; Ongaro, F.; Vasile, M.

    The paper presents the prospective roles of SPS concepts for Europe, shows the outcome of recent studies undertaken by ESA's Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) together with European industry and research centres and gives insight into planned activities. The main focus is on the assessment of the principal validity and economic viability of solar power from space concepts in the light of advances in alternative sustainable, clean and potentially abundant solar-based terrestrial concepts. The paper takes into account expected changes in the European energy system (e.g. gradual introduction of hydrogen as energy vector). Special emphasis is given to the possibilities of integrating space and terrestrial solar plants. The relative geographic proximity of areas in North Africa with high average solar irradiation to the European energy consumer market puts Europe in a special position regarding the integration of space and terrestrial solar power concepts. The paper presents a method to optimise such an integration, taking into account different possible orbital constellations, terrestrial locations, plant number and sizes as well as consumer profiles and extends the scope from the European-only to a multi continental approach including the fast growing Chinese electricity market. The work intends to contribute to the discussion on long-term options for the European commitment to worldwide CO2 emission reduction. Cleaner electricity generation and environmentally neutral transport fuels (e.g. solar generated hydrogen) might be two major tools in reaching this goal.

  7. Simulated Space Environmental Effects on Thin Film Solar Array Components (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Carr, John; SanSoucie, Michael; Boyd, Darren; Phillips, Brandon


    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) experiment consists of thin-film, low mass, low volume solar panels. Given the variety of thin solar cells and cover materials and the lack of environmental protection typically afforded by thick coverglasses, a series of tests were conducted in Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Environmental Effects Facility to evaluate the performance of these materials. Candidate thin polymeric films and nitinol wires used for deployment were also exposed. Simulated space environment exposures were selected based on SSP 30425 rev. B, "Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design" or AIAA Standard S-111A-2014, "Qualification and Quality Requirements for Space Solar Cells." One set of candidate materials were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen and concurrent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for low Earth orbit simulation. A second set of materials were exposed to 1 MeV electrons. A third set of samples were exposed to 50, 100, 500, and 700 keV energy protons, and a fourth set were exposed to >2,000 hours of near ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. A final set was rapidly thermal cycled between -55 and +125degC. This test series provides data on enhanced power generation, particularly for small satellites with reduced mass and volume resources. Performance versus mass and cost per Watt is discussed.

  8. New solar irradiances for use in space research (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Jones, A.

    Space environment research applications require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats We describe the development of research grade modeled solar irradiances using four models and systems that are also used for space weather operations The four models systems include SOLAR2000 S2K SOLARFLARE SFLR APEX and IDAR which are used by Space Environment Technologies SET to provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays through the visible spectrum SFLR uses the GOES 0 1--0 8 nm X-rays in combination with a Mewe model subroutine to provide 0 1--30 0 nm irradiances at 0 1 nm spectral resolution at 1 minute time resolution and in a 6-hour XUV--EUV spectral solar flare evolution forecast with a 7 minute latency and a 2 minute cadence These irradiances have been calibrated with the SORCE XPS observations and we report on the inclusion of these irradiances in the S2K model There are additional developments with S2K that we discuss particularly the method by which S2K is emerging as a hybrid model empirical plus physics-based and real-time data integration platform Numerous new solar indices have been recently developed for the operations community and we describe their inclusion in S2K The APEX system is a real-time data retrieval system developed under contract to the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center SSC to provide SOHO SEM data processing and distribution SSC provides the updated SEM data to the research community and SET provides the operational data to the space operations community We

  9. Space solar array reliability: A study and recommendations (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Rodiek, Julie A.


    Providing reliable power over the anticipated mission life is critical to all satellites; therefore solar arrays are one of the most vital links to satellite mission success. Furthermore, solar arrays are exposed to the harshest environment of virtually any satellite component. In the past 10 years 117 satellite solar array anomalies have been recorded with 12 resulting in total satellite failure. Through an in-depth analysis of satellite anomalies listed in the Airclaim's Ascend SpaceTrak database, it is clear that solar array reliability is a serious, industry-wide issue. Solar array reliability directly affects the cost of future satellites through increased insurance premiums and a lack of confidence by investors. Recommendations for improving reliability through careful ground testing, standardization of testing procedures such as the emerging AIAA standards, and data sharing across the industry will be discussed. The benefits of creating a certified module and array testing facility that would certify in-space reliability will also be briefly examined. Solar array reliability is an issue that must be addressed to both reduce costs and ensure continued viability of the commercial and government assets on orbit.

  10. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)


    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  11. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.


    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  12. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  13. Radiative hazard of solar flares in the nearterrestrial cosmic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Zil', M.V.; Eremkina, T.M.


    Simulation of radiation enviroment due to solar cosmic rays was carried out in the near-terrestrial space. Systematized are the data on cosmic ray flux and spectra detected during 19-th and 20-th cycles of solar activity. 127 flares are considered with proton fluxes of more than 10 proton/cm 2 at energies higher than 30 MeV. Obtained are distribution functions of intervals between flares, flux distribution of flares and characteristic rigidity, and also distribution of magnetic disturbances over Dsub(st)-variation amplitude. The totality of these distributions presents the statistic model of radiation enviroment caused by solar flare protons for the period of maximum solar .activity. This model is intended for estimation of radiation hazard at manned cosmic flights

  14. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  15. Solar Space and Water Heating for School -- Dallas, Texas (United States)


    90 page report gives overview of retrofitted solar space-heating and hot-water system installation for 61-year-old high school. Description, specifications, modifications, plan drawings for roof, three floors, basement, correspondence, and documents are part of report.

  16. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.


    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (∼11%), temperature (∼40%), thermal pressure (∼55%), mass flux (∼34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (∼41%), energy flux (∼48%), IMF magnitude (∼31%), and radial component of the IMF (∼38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ∼1.4 nPa, compared to ∼2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ∼11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  17. Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang


    Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.

  18. Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration . (United States)

    Ferri, A.

    Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

  19. Dilute Nitrides For 4-And 6- Junction Space Solar Cells (United States)

    Essig, S.; Stammler, E.; Ronsch, S.; Oliva, E.; Schachtner, M.; Siefer, G.; Bett, A. W.; Dimroth, F.


    According to simulations the efficiency of conventional, lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells can be strongly increased by the incorporation of additional junctions. In this way the existing excess current of the Germanium bottom cell can be reduced and the voltage of the stack can be increased. In particular, the use of 1.0 eV materials like GaInNAs opens the door for solar cells with significantly improved conversion efficiency. We have investigated the material properties of GaInNAs grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and its impact on the quantum efficiency of solar cells. Furthermore we have developed a GaInNAs subcell with a bandgap energy of 1.0 eV and integrated it into a GaInP/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 4-junction and a AlGaInP/GaInP/AlGaInAs/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 6- junction space solar cell. The material quality of the dilute nitride junction limits the current density of these devices to 9.3 mA/cm2 (AM0). This is not sufficient for a 4-junction cell but may lead to current matched 6- junction devices in the future.

  20. A new concept of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Li, Xun; Duan, Baoyan; Song, Liwei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Wang, Dongxu


    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) is a tremendous energy system that collects and converts solar power to electric power in space, and then transmits the electric power to earth wirelessly. In this paper, a novel SSPS concept based on ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial is proposed. A spherical condenser made of ENZ metamaterial is developed, by using the refractive property of the ENZ metamaterial sunlight can be captured and redirected to its center. To make the geometric concentration ratio of the PV array reasonable, a hemispherical one located at the center is used to collect and convert the normal-incidence sunlight to DC power, then through a phased array transmitting antenna the DC power is beamed down to the rectenna on the ground. Detailed design of the proposed concept is presented.

  1. Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May R. D.


    Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.

  2. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  3. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger


    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  4. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.


    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  5. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.


    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  6. Development of a solar-assisted curing process for cigar tobacco; Entwicklung eines solargestuetzten Trocknungsverfahrens fuer Zigarrentabak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bux, M.


    The newly developed solar-assisted drying plant permitted to reduce drying time from between 30 and 40 days to between 18 and 22 days, and to increase the amount filled in from approximately 27 to 67 kilogrammes per square metre. Leaf loss during drying was cut down from between 4 and 6 per cent as previously to about 0.2 per cent. Specific energy demand was by a factor of 12 lower than the demand of conventional driers: the actual demand was 4.8 MJ per kilogramme of tobacco as compared to 58 MJ per kilogramme previously. Taking into account capital, labour, energy and repair costs, a rise in proceeds from solar-dried tobacco of about US $ 1.50 per kilogramme, and the cost involved by higher leaf loss using the conventional technique, drying cost using the solar-assisted method was US $ 2.16 per kilogramme of tobacco. For the conventional method, drying cost was US $ 4.74 per kilogramme. Accordingly, the amortization period of the solar-assisted plant is only two to three years. The solar-assisted method would only cease to be economical if investment costs were increased by 64 per cent, if the interest rate went up to 44 per cent or if the costs arising from leaf loss dropped to US $ 0.8. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Durch den Einsatz der neu entwickelten solargestuetzten Trocknungsanlage konnte die Trocknungsdauer von bislang 30 bis 40 auf 18 bis 22 Tage reduziert und die Fuellmenge von ca. 27 auf 67 kg/m{sup 2} gesteigert werden. Die Blattverluste waehrend der Trocknung wurden von bislang 4 bis 6% auf ca. 0,2% gesenkt. Der spezifische Energiebedarf war mit 4,8 gegenueber 58 MJ/kg Tabak um den Faktor 12 geringer als der Bedarf konventionller Trockner. Unter Beruecksichtigung von Kapital-, Arbeits-, Energie- und Reparaturkosten, des im Mittel um 1,5 US Dollar/kg hoeheren Stueckerloeses solargetrockneten Tabaks, sowie der Kosten aufgrund der hoeheren Blattverluste beim konventionellen Verfahren, betrugen die Trocknungsstueckkosten des solargestuetzten Verfahrens 2,16 US

  7. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society (United States)


    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  8. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi


    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  9. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.


    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  10. High efficiency thin-film solar cells for space applications: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leest, R.H. van


    In theory high efficiency thin-film III-V solar cells obtained by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique offer excellent characteristics for application in space solar panels. The thesis describes several studies that investigate the space compatibility of the thin-film solar cell design developed

  11. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation (United States)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.


    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  12. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John


    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  13. Teaching solar physics in an informal educational space (United States)

    Aroca, S. C.


    Observatories and planetariums offer the possibility of developing contextualized astronomy teaching by fostering educational activities that provide access to a more authentic school science. Thus, this research consisted in developing, applying and evaluating courses about the Sun for middle, junior high school students and solar physics for high school students in an informal educational space, the CDCC/USP Astronomical Observatory. Topics of chemical composition, temperature and stellar evolution were taught in a room totally dedicated to the study of the Sun, a Solar Room, designed with simple and inexpensive equipment. The course strongly emphasized practical, observational and inquirybased activities, such as estimation of the solar surface temperature, observation of the visible solar spectrum, identication of solar absorption lines, understanding how they are produced, and what kind of information can be extracted from the observed spectral lines. Some of the course goals were to foster the comprehension of the key role played by spectroscopy in astrophysics, to contextualize contents with practical activities, and to allow interdisciplinary approaches including modern physics and chemistry in physics teaching. The research methodology consisted of a qualitative approach by fillming the whole course and performing written questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Before the courses were applied most students conceived the Sun as a hot sphere composed of fire, sunspots as holes in the Sun and solar prominences as magma expelled by volcanoes. After the courses students presented ideas about the Sun and solar physics more closely related to the ones accepted by contemporary science. This research was not restricted to students' cognitive gains after concluding the courses, since it considered the interaction of different contexts responsible for learning in science museums. This was possible due to the theoretical framework adopted: The Contextual Model

  14. Solar system maps from antiquity to the space age

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick


    In recent years, there has been increased interest in our Solar System. This has been prompted by the launching of giant orbiting telescopes and space probes, the discovery of new planetary moons and heavenly bodies that orbit the Sun, and the demotion of Pluto as a planet. In one generation, our place in the heavens has been challenged, but this is not unusual. Throughout history, there have been a number of such world views. Initially, Earth was seen as the center of the universe and surrounded by orbiting planets and stars. Then the Sun became the center of the cosmos. Finally, there was no

  15. Shape control of slack space reflectors using modulated solar pressure. (United States)

    Borggräfe, Andreas; Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin R


    The static deflection profile of a large spin-stabilized space reflector because of solar radiation pressure acting on its surface is investigated. Such a spacecraft consists of a thin reflective circular film, which is deployed from a supporting hoop structure in an untensioned, slack manner. This paper investigates the use of a variable reflectivity distribution across the surface to control the solar pressure force and hence the deflected shape. In this first analysis, the film material is modelled as one-dimensional slack radial strings with no resistance to bending or transverse shear, which enables a semi-analytic derivation of the nominal deflection profile. An inverse method is then used to find the reflectivity distribution that generates a specific, for example, parabolic deflection shape of the strings. Applying these results to a parabolic reflector, short focal distances can be obtained when large slack lengths of the film are employed. The development of such optically controlled reflector films enables future key mission applications such as solar power collection, radio-frequency antennae and optical telescopes.

  16. In-Space Propulsion Technologies for Robotic Exploration of the Solar System (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Meyer, Rae Ann; Frame, Kyle


    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing the next generation of space propulsion technologies for robotic, deep-space exploration. Recent technological advancements and demonstrations of key, high-payoff propulsion technologies have been achieved and will be described. Technologies under development and test include aerocapture, solar electric propulsion, solar sail propulsion, and advanced chemical propulsion.

  17. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.


    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  18. The Solar Umbrella: A Low-cost Demonstration of Scalable Space Based Solar Power (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Sherwood, Brent


    Within the past decade, the Space Solar Power (SSP) community has seen an influx of stakeholders willing to entertain the SSP prospect of potentially boundless, base-load solar energy. Interested parties affiliated with the Department of Defense (DoD), the private sector, and various international entities have all agreed that while the benefits of SSP are tremendous and potentially profitable, the risk associated with developing an efficient end to end SSP harvesting system is still very high. In an effort to reduce the implementation risk for future SSP architectures, this study proposes a system level design that is both low-cost and seeks to demonstrate the furthest transmission of wireless power to date. The overall concept is presented and each subsystem is explained in detail with best estimates of current implementable technologies. Basic cost models were constructed based on input from JPL subject matter experts and assume that the technology demonstration would be carried out by a federally funded entity. The main thrust of the architecture is to demonstrate that a usable amount of solar power can be safely and reliably transmitted from space to the Earth's surface; however, maximum power scalability limits and their cost implications are discussed.

  19. Voluble: a space-time diagram of the solar system (United States)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.; SubbaRao, Mark U.


    Voluble is a dynamic space-time diagram of the solar system. Voluble is designed to help users understand the relationship between space and time in the motion of the planets around the sun. Voluble is set in virtual reality to relate these movements to our experience of immediate space. Beyond just the visual, understanding dynamic systems is naturally associated to the articulation of our bodies as we perform a number of complex calculations, albeit unconsciously, to deal with simple tasks. Such capabilities encompass spatial perception and memory. Voluble investigates the balance between the visually abstract and the spatially figurative in immersive development to help illuminate phenomena that are beyond the reach of human scale and time. While most diagrams, even computer-based interactive ones, are flat, three-dimensional real-time virtual reality representations are closer to our experience of space. The representation can be seen as if it was "really there," engaging a larger number of cues pertaining to our everyday spatial experience.

  20. Fusion, space and solar plasmas as complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R O; Chapman, S C; Paczuski, M


    Complex systems science seeks to identify simple universal models that capture the key physics of extended macroscopic systems, whose behaviour is governed by multiple nonlinear coupled processes that operate across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. In such systems, it is often the case that energy release occurs intermittently, in bursty events, and the phenomenology can exhibit scaling, that is a significant degree of self-similarity. Within plasma physics, such systems include Earth's magnetosphere, the solar corona and toroidal magnetic confinement experiments. Guided by broad understanding of the dominant plasma processes-for example, turbulent transport in tokamaks or reconnection in some space and solar contexts-one may construct minimalist complex systems models that yield relevant global behaviour. Examples considered here include the sandpile approach to tokamaks and the magnetosphere and a multiple loops model for the solar coronal magnetic carpet. Such models can address questions that are inaccessible to analytical treatment and are too demanding for contemporary computational resources; thus they potentially yield new insights, but risk being simplistic. Central to the utility of these models is their capacity to replicate distinctive aspects of observed global phenomenology, often strongly nonlinear, or of event statistics, for which no explanation can be obtained from first principles considerations such as the underlying equations. For example, a sandpile model, which embodies critical-gradient-triggered avalanching transport associated with nearest-neighbour mode coupling and simple boundary conditions (and little else), can be used to generate some of the distinctive observed elements of tokamak confinement phenomenology such as ELMing and edge pedestals. The same sandpile model can also generate distributions of energy-release events whose distinctive statistics resemble those observed in the auroral zone. Similarly, a multiple loops model

  1. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho. (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.


    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  2. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2 (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.


    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  3. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.


    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  4. Mechanism on radiation degradation of Si space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Taylor, S.J.; Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Matsuda, Sumio


    Radiation testing of Si n + -p-p + structure space solar cells has revealed an anomalous increase in short-circuit current Isc, followed by an abrupt decrease and cell failure, induced by high fluence electron and proton irradiations. A model to explain these phenomena by expressing the change in carrier concentration p of the base region is proposed in addition to the well-known model where Isc is decreased by minority-carrier lifetime reduction with irradiation. Change in carrier concentration causes broadening the depletion layer to contribute increase in the generated photocurrent and increase in recombination-generation current in the depletion layer, and increase in the resistivity of the base layer to result in the abrupt decrease of Isc and failure of the solar cell. Type conversion from p-type to n-type in base layer has been confirmed by EBIC (electron-beam induced current) and spectral response measurements. Moreover, origins of radiation-induced defects in heavily irradiated Si and generation of deep donor defects have also been examined by using DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) analysis. (author)

  5. Solar Array Sails: Possible Space Plasma Environmental Effects (United States)

    Mackey, Willie R.


    An examination of the interactions between proposed "solar sail" propulsion systems with photovoltaic energy generation capabilities and the space plasma environments. Major areas of interactions ere: Acting from high voltage arrays, ram and wake effects, V and B current loops and EMI. Preliminary analysis indicates that arcing will be a major risk factor for voltages greater than 300V. Electron temperature enhancement in the wake will be produce noise that can be transmitted via the wake echo process. In addition, V and B induced potential will generate sheath voltages with potential tether like breakage effects in the thin film sails. Advocacy of further attention to these processes is emphasized so that plasma environmental mitigation will be instituted in photovoltaic sail design.

  6. Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center: An Overview (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; George, Patrick J.


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). is participating in the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) for the development of a solar power satellite concept. The aim of the program is to provide electrical power to Earth by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to the surface. This paper will give an overall view of the technologies being pursued at GRC including thin film photovoltaics, solar dynamic power systems, space environmental effects, power management and distribution, and electric propulsion. The developmental path not only provides solutions to gigawatt sized space power systems for the future, but provides synergistic opportunities for contemporary space power architectures. More details of Space Solar Power can be found by reading the references sited in this paper and by connecting to the web site and accessing the "Space Solar Power" section "Public Access" area.

  7. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, J.


    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observed in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris. Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  8. Effect of solar wind plasma parameters on space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Balveer S.; Gupta, Dinesh C.; Kaushik, Subhash C.


    Today's challenge for space weather research is to quantitatively predict the dynamics of the magnetosphere from measured solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Correlative studies between geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and the various interplanetary (IP) field/plasma parameters have been performed to search for the causes of geomagnetic activity and develop models for predicting the occurrence of GMSs, which are important for space weather predictions. We find a possible relation between GMSs and solar wind and IMF parameters in three different situations and also derived the linear relation for all parameters in three situations. On the basis of the present statistical study, we develop an empirical model. With the help of this model, we can predict all categories of GMSs. This model is based on the following fact: the total IMF B total can be used to trigger an alarm for GMSs, when sudden changes in total magnetic field B total occur. This is the first alarm condition for a storm's arrival. It is observed in the present study that the southward B z component of the IMF is an important factor for describing GMSs. A result of the paper is that the magnitude of B z is maximum neither during the initial phase (at the instant of the IP shock) nor during the main phase (at the instant of Disturbance storm time (Dst) minimum). It is seen in this study that there is a time delay between the maximum value of southward B z and the Dst minimum, and this time delay can be used in the prediction of the intensity of a magnetic storm two-three hours before the main phase of a GMS. A linear relation has been derived between the maximum value of the southward component of B z and the Dst, which is Dst = (−0.06) + (7.65) B z +t. Some auxiliary conditions should be fulfilled with this, for example the speed of the solar wind should, on average, be 350 km s −1 to 750 km s −1 , plasma β should be low and, most importantly, plasma temperature

  9. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.


    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  10. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Charania, A.


    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe


    Mar 1, 1979 ... The analyses are educational adaptations of engineering mechanics to this growing field of heliotechnoloy. NOTATION [1] α = solar altitude angle β = surface tilt angle, towards Equator +β, away from Equator -β γ = solar azimuth angle, clockwise from. North δ. = solar declination angle θ, i = incidence angle ...

  12. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating. (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  13. The coronas-F space mission key results for solar terrestrial physics

    CERN Document Server


    This volume is the updated and extended translation of the Russian original. It presents the results of observations of solar activity and its effects in the Earth space environment carried out from July 2001 to December 2005 on board the CORONAS-F space mission. The general characteristics of the CORONAS-F scientific payload are provided with a description of the principal experiments. The main results focus on the global oscillations of the Sun (p-modes), solar corona, solar flares, solar cosmic rays, Earth’s radiation belts, and upper atmosphere. The book will be welcomed by students, post-graduates, and scientists working in the field of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. This English edition is supplemented by sections presenting new results of the SPIRIT and TESIS experiments under the CORONAS solar program, as well as from the SONG experiment onboard the CORONAS-F satellite.

  14. SPASE: The Connection Among Solar and Space Physics Data Centers (United States)

    Thieman, James R.; King, Todd A.; Roberts, D. Aaron


    The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is an international collaboration among Heliophysics (solar and space physics) groups concerned with data acquisition and archiving. Within this community there are a variety of old and new data centers, resident archives, "virtual observatories", etc. acquiring, holding, and distributing data. A researcher interested in finding data of value for his or her study faces a complex data environment. The SPASE group has simplified the search for data through the development of the SPASE Data Model as a common method to describe data sets in the various archives. The data model is an XML-based schema and is now in operational use. There are both positives and negatives to this approach. The advantage is the common metadata language enabling wide-ranging searches across the archives, but it is difficult to inspire the data holders to spend the time necessary to describe their data using the Model. Software tools have helped, but the main motivational factor is wide-ranging use of the standard by the community. The use is expanding, but there are still other groups who could benefit from adopting SPASE. The SPASE Data Model is also being expanded in the sense of providing the means for more detailed description of data sets with the aim of enabling more automated ingestion and use of the data through detailed format descriptions. We will discuss the present state of SPASE usage and how we foresee development in the future. The evolution is based on a number of lessons learned - some unique to Heliophysics, but many common to the various data disciplines.

  15. Beamed Energy and the Economics of Space Based Solar Power (United States)

    Keith Henson, H.


    For space based solar power to replace fossil fuel, it must sell for 1-2 cents per kWh. To reach this sales price requires a launch cost to GEO of ˜100/kg. Proposed to reach this cost figure at 100 tonne/hour are two stages to GEO where a Skylon-rocket-plane first stage provides five km/sec and a laser stage provides 6.64 km/sec. The combination appears to reduce the cost to GEO to under 100/kg at a materials flow rate of ˜1 million tonnes per year, enough to initially construct 200 GW per year of power satellites. An extended Pro Forma business case indicates that peak investment to profitability might be ˜65 B. Over a 25-year period, production rises to two TW per year to undercut and replace most other sources of energy. Energy on this scale solves other supply problems such as water and liquid fuels. It could even allow removal of CO2 from the air and storage of carbon as synthetic oil in empty oil fields.

  16. Space radiation dose analysis for solar flare of August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealy, J.E.; Simonsen, L.C.; Sauer, H.H.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.


    Potential dose and dose rate levels to astronauts in deep space are predicted for the solar flare event which occurred during the week of August 13, 1989. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-7) monitored the temporal development and energy characteristics of the protons emitted during this event. From these data, differential fluence as a function of energy was obtained in order to analyze the flare using the Langley baryon transport code, BRYNTRN, which describes the interactions of incident protons in matter. Dose equivalent estimates for the skin, ocular lens, and vital organs for 0.5 to 20 g/sq cm of aluminum shielding were predicted. For relatively light shielding (less than 2 g/sq cm), the skin and ocular lens 30-day exposure limits are exceeded within several hours of flare onset. The vital organ (5 cm depth) dose equivalent is exceeded only for the thinnest shield (0.5 g/sq cm). Dose rates (rem/hr) for the skin, ocular lens, and vital organs are also computed

  17. NASA SDO - Solar & Space Weather Education via Social Media (United States)

    Durscher, Romeo; Wawro, Martha


    NASA has embraced social media as a valuable tool to communicate the activities of the agency in fulfillment of its mission. Team SDO continues to be on the forefront of using social media in a very engaging and interactive way and share mission information, solar images and space weather updates via a variety of social media platforms and outlets. We will present the impact SDO's social media strategy has made, including follower, friends and fan statistics from Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and other outlets. We will discuss the various social media outlets and the techniques we use for reaching and engaging our audience. Effectiveness is measured through the use of various automatically-gathered statistics and level of public engagement. Of key importance to effective social media use is having access to scientists who can quickly respond to questions and express their answers in meaningful ways to the public. Our presentation will highlight the importance of scientist involvement and suggest ways for encouraging more scientists to support these efforts. We will present some of the social media plans for 2012 and discuss how we can continue to educate, inform, engage and inspire.

  18. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  19. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce


    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  20. Space Object and Light Attribute Rendering (SOLAR) Projection System (United States)


    depicting the proposed SOLAR projection system. The installation process is shown in Fig. 3. SOLAR system comprises of a dome that houses Digitairum’s...imaging process. A fiberglass dome system was erected to make the SOLAR system a self contained facility. Calibration process was carried out to register...Separate software solutions were implemented to model the light transport processes involved in the imaging process. A fiberglass dome system was erected to

  1. Characterization of Candidate Solar Sail Material Exposed to Space Environmental Effects (United States)

    Edwards, David; Hovater, Mary; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George; Hollerman, William; Gray, Perry


    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once thought to be difficult or impossible, solar sailing has come out of science fiction and into the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra lightweight, and radiation resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the utilization of ultra lightweight materials for spacecraft propulsion. The Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC is actively characterizing candidate solar sail material to evaluate the thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper will describe the exposure of candidate solar sail materials to emulated space environmental effects including energetic electrons, combined electrons and Ultraviolet radiation, and hypervelocity impact of irradiated solar sail material. This paper will describe the testing procedure and the material characterization results of this investigation.

  2. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation (United States)

    Emanuel, E. M.


    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  3. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving


    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  4. Solar power from the supermarket. Water heating, space heating and air conditioning with solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The different ways of utilizing solar energy are discussed. So far, top water heating is still the most practicable and most economical solution. Model houses with solar collectors, built by BBC and Philips, are dealt with in particular.

  5. Tracking Solar Type II Bursts with Space Based Radio Interferometers (United States)

    Hegedus, Alexander M.; Kasper, Justin C.; Manchester, Ward B.


    The Earth’s Ionosphere limits radio measurements on its surface, blocking out any radiation below 10 MHz. Valuable insight into many astrophysical processes could be gained by having a radio interferometer in space to image the low frequency window for the first time. One application is observing type II bursts tracking solar energetic particle acceleration in Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). In this work we create a simulated data processing pipeline for several space based radio interferometer (SBRI) concepts and evaluate their performance in the task of localizing these type II bursts.Traditional radio astronomy software is hard coded to assume an Earth based array. To circumvent this, we manually calculate the antenna separations and insert them along with the simulated visibilities into a CASA MS file for analysis. To create the realest possible virtual input data, we take a 2-temperature MHD simulation of a CME event, superimpose realistic radio emission models from the CME-driven shock front, and propagate the signal through simulated SBRIs. We consider both probabilistic emission models derived from plasma parameters correlated with type II bursts, and analytical emission models using plasma emission wave interaction theory.One proposed SBRI is the pathfinder mission SunRISE, a 6 CubeSat interferometer to circle the Earth in a GEO graveyard orbit. We test simulated trajectories of SunRISE and image what the array recovers, comparing it to the virtual input. An interferometer on the lunar surface would be a stable alternative that avoids noise sources that affect orbiting arrays, namely the phase noise from positional uncertainty and atmospheric 10s-100s kHz noise. Using Digital Elevation Models from laser altimeter data, we test different sets of locations on the lunar surface to find near optimal configurations for tracking type II bursts far from the sun. Custom software is used to model the response of different array configurations over the lunar year

  6. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system (United States)


    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  7. Solar Plant Growth System for Food Production in Space Exploration Missions, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), in collaboration with Vencore Services and Solutions, Inc. (Vencore) and Utah State University (USU), proposes to develop a Solar Plant...

  8. Review on the solar spectral variability in the EUV for space weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lilensten


    Full Text Available The solar XUV-EUV flux is the main energy source in the terrestrial diurnal thermosphere: it produces ionization, dissociation, excitation and heating. Accurate knowledge of this flux is of prime importance for space weather. We first list the space weather applications that require nowcasting and forecasting of the solar XUV-EUV flux. We then review present models and discuss how they account for the variability of the solar spectrum. We show why the measurement of the full spectrum is difficult, and why it is illusory to retrieve it from its atmospheric effects. We then address the problem of determining a set of observations that are adapted for space weather purposes, in the frame of ionospheric studies. Finally, we review the existing and future space experiments that are devoted to the observation of the solar XUV-EUV spectrum.

  9. A verified technique for calibrating space solar cells (United States)

    Anspaugh, Bruce


    Solar cells have been flown on high-altitude balloons for over 24 years, to produce solar cell standards that can be used to set the intensity of solar simulators. The events of a typical balloon calibration flight are reported. These are: the preflight events, including the preflight cell measurements and the assembly of the flight cells onto the solar tracker; the activities at the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas, including the preflight calibrations, the mating of the tracker and cells onto the balloon, preparations for launch, and the launch; the payload recovery, which includes tracking the balloon by aircraft, terminating the flight, and retrieving the payload. In 1985, the cells flow on the balloon were also flown on a shuttle flight and measured independently. The two measurement methods are compared and shown to agree within 1 percent.

  10. A solar infrared photometer for space flight application (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Deming, Drake


    A photometer concept which is capable of nearly simultaneous measurements of solar radiation from 1.6 to 200 microns in seven wavelength bands is described. This range of wavelengths can probe the solar photosphere from below the level of unit optical depth in the visible to the temperature minimum, about 500 km above it. An instrument package including a 20-cm Gregorian telescope and a filter wheel photometer utilizing noncryogenic pyroelectric infrared detectors is described. Approaches to the rejection of the visible solar spectrum in the instrument, the availability of optical and mechanical components, and the expected instrumental sensitivity are discussed. For wavelengths below 35 microns, the projected instrumental sensitivity is found to be adequate to detect the intensity signature of solar p-mode oscillations during 5 min of integration. For longer wavelengths, clear detection is expected through Fourier analysis of modest data sets.

  11. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Howell, J.; Carrington, C.; Day, G.


    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class free-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of Space Solar Power (SSP) technology experiments.

  12. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)


    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Experimental studies on a ground coupled heat pump with solar thermal collectors for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Chen; Hongxing, Yang; Lin, Lu; Jinggang, Wang; Wei, Liu


    This paper presents experimental studies on a solar-assisted ground coupled heat pump (SAGCHP) system for space heating. The system was installed at the Hebei Academy of Sciences in Shijiazhuang (lat. N38 o 03', long. E114 o 26'), China. Solar collectors are in series connection with the borehole array through plate heat exchangers. Four operation modes of the system were investigated throughout the coldest period in winter (Dec 5th to Dec 27th). The heat pump performance, borehole temperature distributions and solar colleting characteristics of the SAGCHP system are analyzed and compared when the system worked in continuous or intermittent modes with or without solar-assisted heating. The SAGCHP system is proved to perform space heating with high energy efficiency and satisfactory solar fraction, which is a promising substitute for the conventional heating systems. It is also recommended to use the collected solar thermal energy as an alternative source for the heat pump instead of recharging boreholes for heat storage because of the enormous heat capacity of the earth. -- Highlights: → We study four working modes of a solar-assisted ground coupled heat pump. → The heating performance is in direct relation with the borehole temperature. → Solar-assisted heating elevates borehole temperature and system performance. → The system shows higher efficiency over traditional heating systems in cold areas. → Solar heat is not suggested for high temperature seasonal storage.

  14. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)


    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  15. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.


    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  16. International Living With a Star (ILWS), a new collaborative space program in Solar, Heliospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics (United States)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Guhathakurta, M.; Liu, W.; Kosugi, T.; Zelenyi, L.


    International cooperation has long been a vital element in the scientific investigation of solar variability and its impact on Earth and its space environment. Recently a new international cooeperative program in solar terrestrial physics has been established by the major space agencies of the world, called the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. ILWS is a follow on to the highly successful International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program which involved international parterners. ISTP, with its steady flow of discoveries and new knowledge in solar Terrestrial physics, has laid the foundation for the coordinated study of the Sun-Earth sytem as a connected stellar-planetary system, system which is humanity's home. The first step in establishing ILWS was taken in the fall of 2000 when funding was approved for the NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program whose goal is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. The scientific goals of ILWS are defined in a broader sense, aiming to include future solar, heliospheric and solar terrestrial missions of both applied and fundamental scientific focus. The ultimate goal of ILWS wil be to increase our understanding of how solar variability affects the terrestrial and other planetary environments both in the short and long term, and in particular how man and society may be affected by solar variability and its consequences. The mission charter of ILWS is 'to stimulate, strengthen and coordinate space research in order to understand the governing processes of the connected Sun-Earth System as an integrated entity'. More detailed ILWS Objectives are to stimulate and facilitate: - The study of the Sun Earth connected system and the effects which influence life and society - Collaboration among all potential partners in solar-terrestrial space missions - Synergistic coordination of international

  17. Deployable solar energy generators for deep space cubesats, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cubesats require highly compact technologies to maximize their effectiveness. As cubesats are expected to be low-cost and, relative to the space industry, mass...

  18. The added value of accounting for activity space when examining the association between tobacco retailer availability and smoking among young adults. (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Vallée, Julie; Datta, Geetanjali; Frohlich, Katherine L


    Despite a declining prevalence in many countries, smoking rates remain consistently high among young adults. Targeting contextual influences on smoking, such as the availability of tobacco retailers, is one promising avenue of intervention. Most studies have focused on residential or school neighbourhoods, without accounting for other settings where individuals spend time, that is, their activity space. We investigated the association between tobacco retailer availability in the residential neighbourhood and in the activity space, and smoking status. Cross-sectional baseline data from 1994 young adults (aged 18-25) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (Montreal, Canada, 2011-2012) were analysed. Residential and activity locations served to derive two measures of tobacco retailer availability: counts within 500 m buffers and proximity to the nearest retailer. Prevalence ratios for the association between each tobacco retailer measure and smoking status were estimated using log-binomial regression. Participants encountering high numbers of tobacco retailers in their residential neighbourhood, and both medium and high retailer counts in their activity space, were more likely to smoke compared to those exposed to fewer retailers. While residential proximity was not associated with smoking, we found 36% and 42% higher smoking prevalence among participants conducting activities within medium and high proximity to tobacco retailers compared to those conducting activities further from such outlets. This study adds to the sparse literature on contextual correlates of smoking among young adults, and illustrates the added value of considering individuals' activity space in contextual studies of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Spaces for sustainable innovation : solar photovoltaic electricity in the UK.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.G.; Kern, F.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Verhees, B.


    This paper engages with recent research concerning the roles of niche spaces in the strategic management of sustainable innovations. Whilst a growing body of empirical investigation looks to developments within these spaces, it is surprising how little pauses to consider how the spaces themselves

  20. Spaces for sustainable innovation: solar photovoltaic electricity in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Adrian; Kern, Florian; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram


    This paper engages with recent research concerning the roles of niche spaces in the strategic management of sustainable innovations. Whilst a growing body of empirical investigation looks to developments within these spaces, it is surprising how little pauses to consider how the spaces themselves

  1. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  2. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  3. Testing space weather connections in the solar system (United States)

    Grison, B.; Souček, J.; Krupař, V.; Píša, D.; Santolík, O.; Taubenschuss, U.; Němec, F.


    This study aims at testing and validating tools for prediction of the impact of solar events in the vicinity of inner and outer solar system planets using in-situ spacecraft data (primarily MESSENGER, STEREO and ACE, but also VEX and Cassini), remote Jovian observations (Hubble telescope, Nançay decametric array), existing catalogues (HELCATS and Tao et al. (2005)) and the tested propagating models (the ICME radial propagation tool of the CDPP and the 1-D MHD code propagation model presented in Tao et al. (2005)).

  4. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV


    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  5. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power (United States)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  6. High Voltage Solar Concentrator Experiment with Implications for Future Space Missions (United States)

    Mehdi, Ishaque S.; George, Patrick J.; O'Neill, Mark; Matson, Robert; Brockschmidt, Arthur


    This paper describes the design, development, fabrication, and test of a high performance, high voltage solar concentrator array. This assembly is believed to be the first ever terrestrial triple-junction-cell solar array rated at over 1 kW. The concentrator provides over 200 W/square meter power output at a nominal 600 Vdc while operating under terrestrial sunlight. Space-quality materials and fabrication techniques were used for the array, and the 3005 meter elevation installation below the Tropic of Cancer allowed testing as close as possible to space deployment without an actual launch. The array includes two concentrator modules, each with a 3 square meter aperture area. Each concentrator module uses a linear Fresnel lens to focus sunlight onto a photovoltaic receiver that uses 240 series-connected triple-junction solar cells. Operation of the two receivers in series can provide 1200 Vdc which would be adequate for the 'direct drive' of some ion engines or microwave transmitters in space. Lens aperture width is 84 cm and the cell active width is 3.2 cm, corresponding to a geometric concentration ratio of 26X. The evaluation includes the concentrator modules, the solar cells, and the materials and techniques used to attach the solar cells to the receiver heat sink. For terrestrial applications, a finned aluminum extrusion was used for the heat sink for the solar cells, maintaining a low cell temperature so that solar cell efficiency remains high.

  7. Development of Space Qualified Microlens Arrays for Solar Cells Used on Satellite Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Keser


    Full Text Available The power system, one of the main systems of satellite, provides energy required for the satellite. Solar cells are also the most used energy source in the power system. The third generation multi-junction solar cells are known as the ones with highest performance. One of the methods to increase the performance of the solar cells is anti-reflective surface coatings with the Micro Lens Array-MLA. It's expected that satellite technologies has high power efficiency and low mass. The space environment has many effects like atomic oxygen, radiation and thermal cycles. Researches for increasing the solar cells performance shows that MLA coated solar cell has increased light absorption performance and less cell heating with very low additional mass. However, it is established that few studies on MLA coatings of solar cells are not applicable on space platforms. In this study, the process of development of MLA which is convenient to space power systems is investigated in a methodological way. In this context, a method which is developed based on MLA coatings of multi-junction solar cells for satellite power systems is presented.

  8. Solar panels for the International Space Station are uncrated and moved in the SSPF (United States)


    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker (left) guides the lifting of solar panels for the International Space Station (ISS). The panels are the first set of U.S.-provided solar arrays and batteries for ISS, scheduled to be part of mission STS-97 in December 1999. The mission, fifth in the U.S. flights for construction of ISS, will build and enhance the capabilities of the Space Station. It will deliver the solar panels as well as radiators to provide cooling. The Shuttle will spend 5 days docked to the station, which at that time will be staffed by the first station crew. Two space walks will be conducted to complete assembly operations while the arrays are attached and unfurled. A communications system for voice and telemetry also will be installed.

  9. Interrogating protective space : shielding, nurturing and empowering Dutch solar PV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, B.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Smith, A.G.; Kern, F.


    This paper reviews the developments of solar photovoltaic technology in the Netherlands. Despite the recent boom in PV industries and deployment around the globe, the Dutch have until now not experienced major growth in the diffusion of PV electricity generation. But this is only part of the story.

  10. Review Space Weather and Solar Wind Studies with OWFA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we review the results of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations made with the legacy .... complex flow of solar wind at different time and spa- ..... in a step of ∼20 .... observing program with the legacy system of the ORT.

  11. Angular Space –Time Relations in Solar Radiation | Ezeilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The engineer relies greatly on Meteorological data for solar energy applications. In most case the available equipments indicate only the hourly or daily total irradiance on a flat horizontal surface. However, a more basic or fundamental information may also be necessary especially when application call for a knowledge of ...

  12. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)


    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  13. Space weather: Why are magnetospheric physicists interested in solar explosive phenomena (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    That solar activity drives magnetospheric dynamics has for a long time been the basis of solar-terrestrial physics. Numerous statistical studies correlating sunspots, 10.7 cm radiation, solar flares, etc., with various magnetospheric and geomagnetic parameters have been performed. However, in studies of magnetospheric dynamics the role of the Sun has often remained in the background and only the actual solar wind impinging the magnetosphere has gained most of the attention. During the last few years a new applied field of solar-terrestrial physics, space weather, has emerged. The term refers to variable particle and field conditions in our space environment, which may be hazardous to space-borne or ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life and health. When the modern society is becoming increasingly dependent on space technology, the need for better modelling and also forecasting of space weather becomes urgent. While for post analysis of magnetospheric phenomena it is quite sufficient to include observations from the magnetospheric boundaries out to L1 where SOHO is located, these observations do not provide enough lead-time to run space weather forecasting models and to distribute the forecasts to potential customers. For such purposes we need improved physical understanding and models to predict which active processes on the Sun will impact the magnetosphere and what their expected consequences are. An important change of view on the role of the Sun as the origin of magnetospheric disturbances has taken place during last 10--20 years. For a long time, the solar flares were thought to be the most geoeffective solar phenomena. Now the attention has shifted much more towards coronal mass ejections and the SOHO coronal observations seem to have turned the epoch irreversibly. However, we are not yet ready to make reliable perdictions of the terrestrial environment based on CME observations. From the space weather viewpoint, the key questions are

  14. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.


    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  15. Tobacco Products (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  16. Application of the idea of morphism in solar-terrestrial physics and space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Tassev, Yordan; Velinov, Peter


    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. In the present work we introduce a new mathematical approach to the study of physical processes in the system Sun-Earth. For example, in the ionization of the ionosphere and atmosphere under the influence of cosmic rays a model is used that applies the principle of homomorphism. When calculating the parameters of space weather such as solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth’s magnetosphere, geomagnetic storms and others, the introduction and application of mathematical objects is appropriate: morphisms, groups, categories, monads, functors, natural transformations and others. Such an approach takes into account the general laws of physical processes in the system Sun – Earth and helps in their testing and calculation. It is useful for such complex systems and processes as these in the solar-terrestrial physics and space weather. Some methods for algebraic structures can be introduced. These methods give the possibility for axiomatization of the physical data reality and the application of algebraic methods for their processing. Here we give the base for the transformation from the algebraic theory of categories and morphisms to the physical structure of concepts and data. Such problems are principally considered in the proposed work. Key words: pace weather, space radiation environment, solar effects, forecasting, energetic solar particles, cosmic rays

  17. The Place of Solar Thermal Rockets in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selph, C


    The harnessing of sunlight for propulsive energy is a recurring theme in space propulsion, particularly for applications requiring large velocity increments, such as planetary exploration or comet rendezvous...

  18. Ensemble downscaling in coupled solar wind-magnetosphere modeling for space weather forecasting. (United States)

    Owens, M J; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; McGregor, S L; Savani, N P; Xiong, M


    Advanced forecasting of space weather requires simulation of the whole Sun-to-Earth system, which necessitates driving magnetospheric models with the outputs from solar wind models. This presents a fundamental difficulty, as the magnetosphere is sensitive to both large-scale solar wind structures, which can be captured by solar wind models, and small-scale solar wind "noise," which is far below typical solar wind model resolution and results primarily from stochastic processes. Following similar approaches in terrestrial climate modeling, we propose statistical "downscaling" of solar wind model results prior to their use as input to a magnetospheric model. As magnetospheric response can be highly nonlinear, this is preferable to downscaling the results of magnetospheric modeling. To demonstrate the benefit of this approach, we first approximate solar wind model output by smoothing solar wind observations with an 8 h filter, then add small-scale structure back in through the addition of random noise with the observed spectral characteristics. Here we use a very simple parameterization of noise based upon the observed probability distribution functions of solar wind parameters, but more sophisticated methods will be developed in the future. An ensemble of results from the simple downscaling scheme are tested using a model-independent method and shown to add value to the magnetospheric forecast, both improving the best estimate and quantifying the uncertainty. We suggest a number of features desirable in an operational solar wind downscaling scheme. Solar wind models must be downscaled in order to drive magnetospheric models Ensemble downscaling is more effective than deterministic downscaling The magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to small-scale solar wind fluctuations.

  19. EUV imager and spectrometer for LYOT and solar orbiter space missions (United States)

    Millard, Anne; Lemaire, Philippe; Vial, Jean-Claude


    In the 2010 horizon, solar space missions such as LYOT and Solar Orbiter will allow high cadence UV observations of the Sun at spatial and spectral resolution never obtained before. To reach these goals, the two missions could take advantage of spectro-imagers. A reflective only optical solution for such an instrument is described in this paper and the first results of the mock-up being built at IAS are shown.

  20. Raman scattering characterization of space solar cell structures (United States)

    Mintairov, Alexander M.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Paleeva, E. V.; Sorokina, S. V.


    A contactless method for the determination of the free-carrier density and the composition distribution across the thickness of 3-5 multi-layer solar cell structures, using the Raman scattering method, is developed. The method includes a step analysis of Raman spectra from optical phonons and phonon-plasmon modes of different layers. The method provides simultaneous measurements of the element composition and the thickness of the structure's layers together with the free-carrier density. The results of measurements of the free-carrier density composition distributions of the liquid phase epitaxy grown AlGaAs/GaAs and GaSb solar cell structures are presented and discussed.

  1. Mass ejections from the solar corona into interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, E.


    Mass ejections from the corona are common occurrances, as observations with the High Altitude Observatory's white light coronagraph aboard Skylab showed. During 227 days of operation in 1973 and 1974 at least 77 mass ejections were observed and as many more probably occurred unobserved. It is suggested that the frequency of ejections varies with the solar cycle and that ejections may contribute 10 percent or more of the total solar mass efflux to the interplanetary medium at solar maximum. Since ejections are confined to relatively low latitudes, their fractional mass flux contribution is greater near the ecliptic than far from it. From the behavior of ejecta, we can estimate the magnitude of the force driving them through the corona. It is also suggested that loop-shaped ejection - the largest fraction of ejections - are driven, primarily, by magnetic forces. By comparison, gas pressure forces are negligible, and forces due to wave pressure are completely inadequate. That magnetic forces are important is consistent with observation that ejections seem to come, primarily, from regions where the magnetic field is more intense and more complex than elsewhere. Indeed, ejections are associated with phenomena (flares and eruptive prominences) which occur over lines separating regions of opposite polarities. (Auth.)

  2. Colliding worlds: A journey in time and space through the solar system (Farinella Prize Lecture) (United States)

    Marchi, S.


    The evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of solid bodies in the solar system is affected by interplanetary collisions. From Mercury to the outskirts of the solar system, collisions with leftover planetesimals -asteroids, comets and their debris- provide a primary evolutionary process. Impact craters mark this evolution and provide a diagnostic tool, which coupled with modeling and, when possible, sample analysis, allow us to unravel the ancient history of the solar system. In this prize talk, I will present a few selected cutting-edge research topics at the frontier between modeling and space exploration that without any doubt would have deeply interested the curious mind of Paolo Farinella.

  3. Space Environmental Effects Testing and Characterization of the Candidate Solar Sail Material Aluminized Mylar (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.; Hubbs, W. S.; Wertz, G. E.; Alstatt, R.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)


    The usage of solar sails as a propellantless propulsion system has been proposed for many years. The technical challenges associated with solar sails are fabrication of ultralightweight films, deploying the sails and controlling the spacecraft. Integral to all these challenges is the mechanical property integrity of the sail while exposed to the harsh environment of space. This paper describes testing and characterization of a candidate solar sail material, Aluminized Mylar. This material was exposed to a simulated Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and evaluated by measuring thermooptical and mechanical property changes. Testing procedures and results are presented.

  4. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  5. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)


    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  6. The ground testing of a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogeras, J.E.


    Over the past 25 years Space Solar Dynamic component development has advanced to the point where it is considered a leading candidate power source technology for the evolutionary phases of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Selection of SD power was based on studies and analyses which indicated significant savings in life cycle costs, launch mass and EVA requirements were possible when the system is compared to more conventional photovoltaic/battery power systems. Issues associated with micro-gravity operation such as the behavior of the thermal energy storage materials are being addressed in other programs. This paper reports that a ground test of a 2 kWe solar dynamic system is being planned by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to address the integration issues. The test will be scalable up to 25 kWe, will be flight configured and will incorporate relevant features of the SSF Solar Dynamic Power Module design

  7. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.


    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  8. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.


    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  9. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.


    The project deals with the development and testing of a simple system for utilization of the summer excess heat from small solar air heating systems for preheating of fresh air. The principle of the system is to lead the heated air down around a domestic hot water tank letting the surface of the tank act as heat exchanger between the air and the water. In order to increase the heat transfer, coefficient fins into the air stream were mounted on the tank. A complete system with 3 m{sup 2} solar air collector, ductworks and a 85 litre storage were set up and extensively monitored. The air stream through the system was created by a fan connected directly to one or two PV-panels leading to a solar radiation dependent flow rate without the use of any other control. Based on monitoring results the system was characterized and a TRNSYS model of the system was developed and calibrated/validated. The monitoring and the simulations with the TRNSYS model revealed several interesting things about the system. The monitoring revealed that the system is capable of bringing the temperature of the water in the storage above 60 deg. C at warm days with clear sky conditions. The storage is very stratified, which is beneficial as usable hot water temperatures rather quickly are obtained. The performance was highly dependent on the airflow rate through the system. It can be concluded that the investigated system will have a performance in the order of 500 kWh during the winter, spring and autumn months and around 250 kWh during the four summer months - or in total a yearly performance of 750 kWh/m{sup 2}. A small traditional solar heating system for preheating of domestic hot water would have a higher performance during the four summer months, but no performance during the rest of the year if the system is installed in a summer house, which only is occupied during the summer. The parametric analysis further indicates that it is possible to further optimise the system when the thermal

  10. Optical design of visible emission line coronagraph on Indian space solar mission Aditya-L1 (United States)

    Raj Kumar, N.; Raghavendra Prasad, B.; Singh, Jagdev; Venkata, Suresh


    The ground based observations of the coronal emission lines using a coronagraph are affected by the short duration of clear sky and varying sky transparency. These conditions do not permit to study small amplitude variations in the coronal emission reliably necessary to investigate the process or processes involved in heating the coronal plasma and dynamics of solar corona. The proposed Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC) over comes these limitations and will provide continuous observation 24 h a day needed for detailed studies of solar corona and drivers for space weather predictions. VELC payload onboard India's Aditya-L1 space mission is an internally occulted solar coronagraph for studying the temperature, velocity, density and heating of solar corona. To achieve the proposed science goals, an instrument which is capable of carrying out simultaneous imaging, spectroscopy and spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar corona close to the solar limb is required. VELC is designed with salient features of (a) Imaging solar corona at 500 nm with an angular resolution of 5 arcsec over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 3Ro (Ro:Solar radius) (b) Simultaneous multi-slit spectroscopy at 530.3 nm [Fe XIV],789.2 nm [Fe XI] and 1074.7 nm [Fe XIII] with spectral dispersion of 28mÅ, 31mÅ and 202mÅ per pixel respectively, over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 1.5Ro. (c) Multi-slit dual beam spectro-polarimetry at 1074.7 nm. All the components of instrument have been optimized in view of the scientific objectives and requirements of space payloads. In this paper we present the details of optical configuration and the expected performance of the payload.

  11. Optical design of visible emission line coronagraph on Indian space solar mission Aditya-L1 (United States)

    Raj Kumar, N.; Raghavendra Prasad, B.; Singh, Jagdev; Venkata, Suresh


    The ground based observations of the coronal emission lines using a coronagraph are affected by the short duration of clear sky and varying sky transparency. These conditions do not permit to study small amplitude variations in the coronal emission reliably necessary to investigate the process or processes involved in heating the coronal plasma and dynamics of solar corona. The proposed Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC) over comes these limitations and will provide continuous observation 24 h a day needed for detailed studies of solar corona and drivers for space weather predictions. VELC payload onboard India's Aditya-L1 space mission is an internally occulted solar coronagraph for studying the temperature, velocity, density and heating of solar corona. To achieve the proposed science goals, an instrument which is capable of carrying out simultaneous imaging, spectroscopy and spectro-polarimetric observations of the solar corona close to the solar limb is required. VELC is designed with salient features of (a) Imaging solar corona at 500 nm with an angular resolution of 5 arcsec over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 3Ro (Ro:Solar radius) (b) Simultaneous multi-slit spectroscopy at 530.3 nm [Fe XIV],789.2 nm [Fe XI] and 1074.7 nm [Fe XIII] with spectral dispersion of 28mÅ, 31mÅ and 202mÅ per pixel respectively, over a FOV of 1.05Ro to 1.5Ro. (c) Multi-slit dual beam spectro-polarimetry at 1074.7 nm. All the components of instrument have been optimized in view of the scientific objectives and requirements of space payloads. In this paper we present the details of optical configuration and the expected performance of the payload.

  12. Overview of Small and Large-Scale Space Solar Power Concepts (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Howell, Joe; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John


    An overview of space solar power studies performed at the Boeing Company under contract with NASA will be presented. The major concepts to be presented are: 1. Power Plug in Orbit: this is a spacecraft that collects solar energy and distributes it to users in space using directed radio frequency or optical energy. Our concept uses solar arrays having the same dimensions as ISS arrays, but are assumed to be more efficient. If radiofrequency wavelengths are used, it will necessitate that the receiving satellite be equipped with a rectifying antenna (rectenna). For optical wavelengths, the solar arrays on the receiving satellite will collect the power. 2. Mars Clipper I Power Explorer: this is a solar electric Mars transfer vehicle to support human missions. A near-term precursor could be a high-power radar mapping spacecraft with self-transport capability. Advanced solar electric power systems and electric propulsion technology constitute viable elements for conducting human Mars missions that are roughly comparable in performance to similar missions utilizing alternative high thrust systems, with the one exception being their inability to achieve short Earth-Mars trip times. 3. Alternative Architectures: this task involves investigating alternatives to the traditional solar power satellite (SPS) to supply commercial power from space for use on Earth. Four concepts were studied: two using photovoltaic power generation, and two using solar dynamic power generation, with microwave and laser power transmission alternatives considered for each. All four architectures use geostationary orbit. 4. Cryogenic Propellant Depot in Earth Orbit: this concept uses large solar arrays (producing perhaps 600 kW) to electrolyze water launched from Earth, liquefy the resulting hydrogen and oxygen gases, and store them until needed by spacecraft. 5. Beam-Powered Lunar Polar Rover: a lunar rover powered by a microwave or laser beam can explore permanently shadowed craters near the lunar

  13. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.


    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163

  14. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar cells are the critical power source for the majority of space missions. The advancement from single junction silicon cells to current, state-of-the-art, triple...

  16. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey


    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  17. Radiation hardening of InP solar cells for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Freundlich, A.; Monier, C.; Newman, F.; Aguilar, L.


    The aim of this work is to develop a radiation resistant thin InP-based solar cells for space applications on more mechanically resistant, lighter, and cheaper substrates. In this paper, we present the development of a p + /nn + InP-based solar cell structures with very thin emitter and base layers. A thin emitter helps to increase the collection of carriers generated by high energy incident photons from the solar spectrum. The use of a thin n base structure should improve the radiation resistance of this already radiation resistant technology. A remarkable improvement of high energy photons response is shown for InP solar cells with emitters 400 A thick

  18. Thin film CdTe solar cells by close spaced sublimation: Recent results from pilot line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepchen, B.; Drost, C.; Späth, B.; Krishnakumar, V.; Richter, H.; Harr, M.; Bossert, S.; Grimm, M.; Häfner, K.; Modes, T.; Zywitzki, O.; Morgner, H.


    CdTe is an attractive material to produce high efficient and low cost thin film solar cells. The semiconducting layers of this kind of solar cell can be deposited by the Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) process. The advantages of this technique are high deposition rates and an excellent utilization of the raw material, leading to low production costs and competitive module prices. CTF Solar GmbH is offering equipment and process knowhow for the production of CdTe solar modules. For further improvement of the technology, research is done at a pilot line, which covers all relevant process steps for manufacture of CdTe solar cells. Herein, we present the latest results from the process development and our research activities on single functional layers as well as for complete solar cell devices. Efficiencies above 13% have already been obtained with Cu-free back contacts. An additional focus is set on different transparent conducting oxide materials for the front contact and a Sb 2 Te 3 based back contact. - Highlights: ► Laboratory established on industrial level for CdTe solar cell research ► 13.0% cell efficiency with our standard front contact and Cu-free back contact ► Research on ZnO-based transparent conducting oxide and Sb 2 Te 3 back contacts ► High resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of ion polished cross section

  19. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow


    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  20. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.


    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  1. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  2. On the effects of solar storms to the decaying orbital space debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Rachman, Abdul


    Any man-made object in Earth's orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose is classified as orbital debris. Debris objects come from a variety of sources. The majority is related to satellite fragmentation. Other major sources of debris are propulsion systems, and fragmentation of spent upper stages, payload and mission related debris. Serious concern about orbital debris has been growing. Knowledge of the future debris environment is important to both satellite designers, and mission planners, who need to know what hazards a satellite might encounter during the course of its mission. Therefore, it is important to know how much debris is in orbit, where it is located, and when it will decay. The debris environment is complex and dynamically evolving. Objects of different shape and size behave differently in orbit. The geoeffectiveness space environments include solar flux at 10.7 cm, solar energetic particles flux or speed, solar wind flow pressure, electric field, and geomagnetic indices. We study the decaying orbital debris from Tracking and Impact Prediction (TIP) messages in conjuction with geoeffectiveness space environments through time epoch correlation. We found that the decaying and reentry orbital debris are triggered by space environment enhancement within at least one week before reentry. It is not necessary a transient or high energetic and severe solar storm events are needed in decaying processes. We propose that the gradual enhancement processes of space environment will cause satellite surface charging due to energetic electron and enhance drag force

  3. Sporadic radio emission connected with a definite manifestation of solar activity in the near Earth space (United States)

    Dudnic, A. V.; Zaljubovski, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Shmatko, E. S.


    Sporadic radio emission of near Earth space at the frequency of 38 MHz is shown to appear in the event of a rapid development of instabilities in the ionospheric plasma. The instabilities are generated due to primary ionospheric disturbances occurring under the influence of solar chromospheric flares.

  4. Effect of the Space between Two Glasses on the Solar Sensor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented in this paper is a contribution to the theoretical study of the impact of space between the protective glass and the glass through the performance of a solar plan double glazing. Under the climatic conditions in the region of Ouargla Algeria. The study was carried out using a mathematical model obtained ...

  5. Prospects to solar energy power generation in space. Uchu taiyo hatsuden eno tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Solar energy power generation in space uses large arrays of solar cells developed on a geosynchronous orbit to obtain electric energy, which is transmitted to the earth using microwaves. The idea had already been advocated in 1968, which was followed a decade later by joint discussions done by NASA and DOE. The concept intended to take care of the U.S. power demand by using 60 power plant satellites, each having an output of 5 GW. This expanse of the scale, regarded reasonable even today, calls for the solar cell arrays in space spreading over an area of 10 km [times] 5 km if silicon solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 15% are used, and rectenna on the ground (a received wave converting facility) forming an ellipse of 10 km [times] 13 km (assuming a location at the north latitude of 36[degree]). Although there are a number of problems in the idea such as transportation means to lift construction materials into the space and effect of microwaves on the ionosphere and the ecosystems, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology organized a 'committee for investigating and studying the space power generation systems' in the fiscal year 1991, and has been moving discussions forward since then. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Space-Based Solar Power: A Technical, Economic, and Operational Assessment (United States)


    design concept for SBSP systems. Results from the research and develop- ment of individual components and subsystems could fill libraries , but from this...Solar Power System: A Business Plan to Make Space So- lar Power a Reality,” A Multicultural Team Project for Master of Business Administration in

  7. On the effects of solar storms to the decaying orbital space debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani, E-mail: [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Rachman, Abdul [Space Science Center, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space, Junjunan 133, Bandung 40173 (Indonesia)


    Any man-made object in Earth's orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose is classified as orbital debris. Debris objects come from a variety of sources. The majority is related to satellite fragmentation. Other major sources of debris are propulsion systems, and fragmentation of spent upper stages, payload and mission related debris. Serious concern about orbital debris has been growing. Knowledge of the future debris environment is important to both satellite designers, and mission planners, who need to know what hazards a satellite might encounter during the course of its mission. Therefore, it is important to know how much debris is in orbit, where it is located, and when it will decay. The debris environment is complex and dynamically evolving. Objects of different shape and size behave differently in orbit. The geoeffectiveness space environments include solar flux at 10.7 cm, solar energetic particles flux or speed, solar wind flow pressure, electric field, and geomagnetic indices. We study the decaying orbital debris from Tracking and Impact Prediction (TIP) messages in conjuction with geoeffectiveness space environments through time epoch correlation. We found that the decaying and reentry orbital debris are triggered by space environment enhancement within at least one week before reentry. It is not necessary a transient or high energetic and severe solar storm events are needed in decaying processes. We propose that the gradual enhancement processes of space environment will cause satellite surface charging due to energetic electron and enhance drag force.

  8. High resolution solar observations in the context of space weather prediction (United States)

    Yang, Guo

    Space weather has a great impact on the Earth and human life. It is important to study and monitor active regions on the solar surface and ultimately to predict space weather based on the Sun's activity. In this study, a system that uses the full power of speckle masking imaging by parallel processing to obtain high-spatial resolution images of the solar surface in near real-time has been developed and built. The application of this system greatly improves the ability to monitor the evolution of solar active regions and to predict the adverse effects of space weather. The data obtained by this system have also been used to study fine structures on the solar surface and their effects on the upper solar atmosphere. A solar active region has been studied using high resolution data obtained by speckle masking imaging. Evolution of a pore in an active region presented. Formation of a rudimentary penumbra is studied. The effects of the change of the magnetic fields on the upper level atmosphere is discussed. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) have a great impact on space weather. To study the relationship between CMEs and filament disappearance, a list of 431 filament and prominence disappearance events has been compiled. Comparison of this list with CME data obtained by satellite has shown that most filament disappearances seem to have no corresponding CME events. Even for the limb events, only thirty percent of filament disappearances are associated with CMEs. A CME event that was observed on March 20, 2000 has been studied in detail. This event did not show the three-parts structure of typical CMEs. The kinematical and morphological properties of this event were examined.

  9. What can the annual 10Be solar activity reconstructions tell us about historic space weather? (United States)

    Barnard, Luke; McCracken, Ken G.; Owens, Mat J.; Lockwood, Mike


    Context: Cosmogenic isotopes provide useful estimates of past solar magnetic activity, constraining past space climate with reasonable uncertainty. Much less is known about past space weather conditions. Recent advances in the analysis of 10Be by McCracken & Beer (2015, Sol Phys 290: 305-3069) (MB15) suggest that annually resolved 10Be can be significantly affected by solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes. This poses a problem, and presents an opportunity, as the accurate quantification of past solar magnetic activity requires the SEP effects to be determined and isolated, whilst doing so might provide a valuable record of past SEP fluxes. Aims: We compare the MB15 reconstruction of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), with two independent estimates of the HMF derived from sunspot records and geomagnetic variability. We aim to quantify the differences between the HMF reconstructions, and speculate on the origin of these differences. We test whether the differences between the reconstructions appear to depend on known significant space weather events. Methods: We analyse the distributions of the differences between the HMF reconstructions. We consider how the differences vary as a function of solar cycle phase, and, using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we compare the distributions under the two conditions of whether or not large space weather events were known to have occurred. Results: We find that the MB15 reconstructions are generally marginally smaller in magnitude than the sunspot and geomagnetic HMF reconstructions. This bias varies as a function of solar cycle phase, and is largest in the declining phase of the solar cycle. We find that MB15's excision of the years with very large ground level enhancement (GLE) improves the agreement of the 10Be HMF estimate with the sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions. We find no statistical evidence that GLEs, in general, affect the MB15 reconstruction, but this analysis is limited by having too few samples. We do find

  10. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.


    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  11. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications (United States)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.


    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  12. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.


    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  13. Solar Effects on Tensile and Optical Properties of Hubble Space Telescope Silver-Teflon(Registered Trademark) Insulation (United States)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Kaminski, Sharon; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rapoport, Alison L.; Rucker, Rochelle N.


    A section of the retrieved Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array drive arm (SADA) multilayer insulation (MLI), which experienced 8.25 years of space exposure, was analyzed for environmental durability of the top layer of silver-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Ag-FEP). Because the SADA MLI had solar and anti-solar facing surfaces and was exposed to the space environment for a long duration, it provided a unique opportunity to study solar effects on the environmental degradation of Ag-FEP, a commonly used spacecraft thermal control material. Data obtained included tensile properties, solar absorptance, surface morphology and chemistry. The solar facing surface was found to be extremely embrittled and contained numerous through-thickness cracks. Tensile testing indicated that the solar facing surface lost 60% of its mechanical strength and 90% of its elasticity while the anti-solar facing surface had ductility similar to pristine FEP. The solar absorptance of both the solar facing surface (0.155 plus or minus 0.032) and the anti-solar facing surface (0.208 plus or minus 0.012) were found to be greater than pristine Ag-FEP (0.074). Solar facing and anti-solar facing surfaces were microscopically textured, and locations of isolated contamination were present on the anti-solar surface resulting in increased localized texturing. Yet, the overall texture was significantly more pronounced on the solar facing surface indicating a synergistic effect of combined solar exposure and increased heating with atomic oxygen erosion. The results indicate a very strong dependence of degradation, particularly embrittlement, upon solar exposure with orbital thermal cycling having a significant effect.

  14. Space plasma observations - observations of solar-terrestrial environment. Space Weather Forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Eiichi; Akioka, Maki


    The space environment becomes more important than ever before because of the expansion in the utilization of near-earth space and the increase in the vulnerability of large scale systems on the ground such as electrical power grids. The concept of the Space Weather Forecast program emerged from the accumulation of understanding on basic physical processes and from our activities as one of the regional warning centers of the international network of space environment services. (author)

  15. Solar thermal space heating combined with swimming pool heating: A promising solution for southern Europe climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.J.; Neves, Ana [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)


    The system concept evaluation performed focused on systems that can provide hot water, space heating and swimming-pool heating, and are designed for application in southern climates specifically for single-family houses. Due to the climate characteristics of southern Europe, space heating is required only for a few months in the year. In this evaluation it was considered a six month period for space heating and, on the other six months, swimming pool heating was considered. This type of systems are applicable to a niche market of people who are building their houses as single-family houses and want also to take profit of the good climate conditions for the use of solar energy. It is common that the construction of a swimming pool is also planned and constructed. The evaluation is made considering as reference system a factory made with 4m{sup 2} collector area and 300 l storage tank. The system in evaluation offers extra service - space heating and swimming pool heating and is formed by a collector field and a combistore providing solar hot water preparation and space heating in the winter period and providing also swimming pool heating in the summer period. The evaluation made shows that in southern Europe climates this system will give extra service in comparison to the traditional solar systems used and can be economically interesting.

  16. Heat receivers for solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla Esther

    A review of state-of-the-art technology is presented and discussed for phase change materials. Some of the advanced solar dynamic designs developed as part of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study performed for LeRC are discussed. The heat receivers are analyzed and several recommendations are proposed, including two new concepts. The first concept evaluated the effect of tube geometries inside the heat receiver. It was found that a triangular configuration would provide better heat transfer to the working fluid, although not necessarily with a reduction in receiver size. A sensible heat receiver considered in this study uses vapor grown graphite fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage media and was designed for a 7 kW Brayton engine. The proposed heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The proposed heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material. In addition to the new concepts, the effect of atomic oxygen on several materials is reviewed. A test was conducted for atomic oxygen attack on boron nitride, which experienced a negligible mass loss when exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 5 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. This material could be used to substitute the graphite aperture plate of the heat receiver.

  17. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George


    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  18. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,


    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  19. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities (United States)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.


    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  20. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide


    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  1. Space Solar Patrol data and changes in weather and climate, including global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, S V; Leonov, N B; Voronin, N A; Baranova, L A; Savinov, E P


    In this paper, the results obtained during the execution of several ISTC projects are presented. The general aim of these projects has been the study of global changes in the environment, connected with solar activity. A brief description of the optical apparatus of the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) developed and built in the framework of the ISTC projects 385, 385.2, 1523 and 2500 is given. The SSP is intended for permanent monitoring of spectra and absolute fluxes of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (x-ray/EUV) radiation from the full disk of the Sun which ionizes the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Permanent solar monitoring in the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8–115 (119) nm does not exist. The apparatus of the SSP was developed in the years 1996–2005 with multiyear experience of developing such apparatus in S I Vavilov State Optical Institute. The basis of this apparatus is the use of unique detectors of ionizing radiation—open secondary electron multipliers, which are 'solar blind' to near UV, visible and IR radiation from the Sun, and new methodology of these solar spectroradiometric absolute measurements. The prospects are discussed of using the SSP data for the investigation and forecast of the influence of solar variability on the weather and climate including global warming and also on the biosphere including human beings (proposal 3878)

  2. Study of the Most Harmful Solar Energetic Particle for Shielding next Human Space Flights (United States)

    Komei Yamashiro, Bryan


    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections are radiation risks for humans in space on board the International Space Station (ISS), and will be significant obstacles for future long-duration manned space flight missions. This research supported efforts to improve predictions of large solar storms and aimed for a better understanding of Heliophysics. The main objective was to generate a dated catalog of the highest energy range SEPs measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). Using online graphical user interfaces from the satellites, Solar and Heliospeheric Observatory (SOHO) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13, 15), the generated data files from the mounted particle detectors were plotted along a specified energy range. The resulting histograms illustrated the low energy range data from SOHO (4 MeV to 53 MeV) and the low-mid energy range from GOES (0.8 MeV to 500 MeV), which collectively provided a low- to mid-energy range spectrum of the specific event energy ranges versus the SEP proton flux. The high energy range results of the AMS-02 (125 MeV to a few TeV) will eventually be incorporated with the two alternative space satellites of lower energy ranges for a complete analysis across a full SEP energy range. X-ray flux from GOES-15 were then obtained and plotted with the corresponding time to portray initial phenomena of the solar events. This procedure was reproduced for 5 different events determined energetic enough to be measured by AMS-02. The generated plots showed correlation between the different satellite detectors.

  3. Solar Energetic Particles Events and Human Exploration: Measurements in a Space Habitat (United States)

    Narici, L.; Berrilli, F.; Casolino, M.; Del Moro, D.; Forte, R.; Giovannelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Picozza, P.; Rizzo, A.; Scardigli, S.; Sparvoli, R.; Zeitlin, C.


    Solar activity is the source of Space Weather disturbances. Flares, CME and coronal holes modulate physical conditions of circumterrestrial and interplanetary space and ultimately the fluxes of high-energy ionized particles, i.e., solar energetic particle (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) background. This ionizing radiation affects spacecrafts and biological systems, therefore it is an important issue for human exploration of space. During a deep space travel (for example the trip to Mars) radiation risk thresholds may well be exceeded by the crew, so mitigation countermeasures must be employed. Solar particle events (SPE) constitute high risks due to their impulsive high rate dose. Forecasting SPE appears to be needed and also specifically tailored to the human exploration needs. Understanding the parameters of the SPE that produce events leading to higher health risks for the astronauts in deep space is therefore a first priority issue. Measurements of SPE effects with active devices in LEO inside the ISS can produce important information for the specific SEP measured, relative to the specific detector location in the ISS (in a human habitat with a shield typical of manned space-crafts). Active detectors can select data from specific geo-magnetic regions along the orbits, allowing geo-magnetic selections that best mimic deep space radiation. We present results from data acquired in 2010 - 2012 by the detector system ALTEA inside the ISS (18 SPEs detected). We compare this data with data from the detector Pamela on a LEO satellite, with the RAD data during the Curiosity Journey to Mars, with GOES data and with several Solar physical parameters. While several features of the radiation modulation are easily understood by the effect of the geomagnetic field, as an example we report a proportionality of the flux in the ISS with the energetic proton flux measured by GOES, some features appear more difficult to interpret. The final goal of this work is to find the

  4. Midcourse Space Experiment Observations of Small Solar System Bodies (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Lisse, C. M.; Price, Stephan D.; Mizuno, D.; Walker, R. G.; Farnham, T. L.; Mäkinen, T.


    Eight comets, two transition objects (extinct comet candidates), and two near-Earth asteroids were imaged in four infrared bands with the SPIRIT III instrument on the Midcourse Space Experiment, namely, C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake), C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/1996 Q1 (Tabur), 126P/IRAS, 22P/Kopff, 46P/Wirtanen, (3200) Phaethon, (4015) 107P/Wilson-Harrington, (4179) Toutatis, (4197) 1982 TA, 125P/Spacewatch, and 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. We present maps of each object detected and a description of their characteristics. Five of the comets had extended dust tails, all of which show evidence for silicate emission in the 8.3 μm band. The comet C/Hyakutake had a strong secondary dust tail along the direction of the comet's motion, which the dynamical models showed was consistent with emission from large particles. The dust trail from P/Kopff was detected more than 2° from the coma in three of the four bands and is probably composed of large particles emitted during the 1996 apparition.

  5. Overview of NASA's Space Solar Power Technology Advanced Research and Development Program (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Mankins, John C.; Davis, N. Jan (Technical Monitor)


    Large solar power satellite (SPS) systems that might provide base load power into terrestrial markets were examined extensively in the 1970s by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Following a hiatus of about 15 years, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the 'fresh look' study, and during 1998 in an SSP 'concept definition study', and during 1999-2000 in the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program. As a result of these efforts, during 2001, NASA has initiated the SSP Technology Advanced Research and Development (STAR-Dev) program based on informed decisions. The goal of the STAR-Dev program is to conduct preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt to gigawatt-class space solar power (SSP) systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). Specific objectives include: (1) Release a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for SSP Projects; (2) Conduct systems studies; (3) Develop Component Technologies; (4) Develop Ground and Flight demonstration systems; and (5) Assess and/or Initiate Partnerships. Accomplishing these objectives will allow informed future decisions regarding further SSP and related research and development investments by both NASA management and prospective external partners. In particular, accomplishing these objectives will also guide further definition of SSP and related technology roadmaps including performance objectives, resources and schedules; including 'multi-purpose' applications (commercial, science, and other government).

  6. Solar concentrator panel and gore testing in the JPL 25-foot space simulator (United States)

    Dennison, E. W.; Argoud, M. J.


    The optical imaging characteristics of parabolic solar concentrator panels (or gores) have been measured using the optical beam of the JPL 25-foot space simulator. The simulator optical beam has been characterized, and the virtual source position and size have been determined. These data were used to define the optical test geometry. The point source image size and focal length have been determined for several panels. A flux distribution of a typical solar concentrator has been estimated from these data. Aperture photographs of the panels were used to determine the magnitude and characteristics of the reflecting surface errors. This measurement technique has proven to be highly successful at determining the optical characteristics of solar concentrator panels.

  7. Solar radiation interception of various planting space patterns of maize and its relation to yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhir, N.


    A research was carried out to study solar radiation interception and its relation to yield of maize in various plant spacing patterns at high elevation. The goal of this research was to contribute the development of crop science, especially the plant ecophysiology. A field experiment was executed from March to August 1998 at Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology, Sukarami, West Sumatra. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment data was analyzed by ANOVA and path analysis. The results of experiment indicated that the percentage of solar radiation interception gave high contribution to the dry grain yield for Pioneer-7 cultivar, and the solar radiation interception was depend on LAI and leaf angle

  8. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.


    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  10. Implications for space radiation environment models from CREAM and CREDO measurements over half a solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Peerless, C.L.; Watson, C.J.; Evans, H.E.; Knight, P.; Cosby, M.; Underwood, C.; Cousins, T.; Noulty, R.; Maag, C.


    Flight data obtained between 1990 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM and CREDO carried on UoSAT-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) provide coverage over half a solar cycle. The modulation of cosmic rays and evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly are observed, the former comprising a factor of three increase at high latitudes and the latter a general increase accompanied by a north-westward drift. Comparison of particle fluxes and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra is made with improved environment and radiation transport calculations which account for shield distributions and secondary particles. While there is an encouraging convergence between predictions and observations, significant improvements are still required, particularly in the treatment of locally produced secondary particles. Solar-particle events during this time period have LET spectra significantly below the October 1989 event which has been proposed as a worst case model

  11. Development, Qualification and Production of Space Solar Cells with 30% EOL Efficiency (United States)

    Guter, Wolfgang; Ebel, Lars; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Kostler, Wolfgang; Meusel, Matthias


    AZUR SPACE's latest qualified solar cell product 3G30-advanced provides a high end-of-life (EOL) efficiency of 27.8% for 5E14 (1 MeV e-/cm2) at low production costs. In order to further reduce the mass, the 3G30-advanced was thinned down to as thin as 20 μm and tested in space. Next generation solar cells must exceed the EOL efficiency of the 3G30-advanced and therefore will utilize the excess current of the Ge subcell. This can be achieved by a metamorphic cell concept. While average beginning-of-life efficiencies above 31% have already been demonstrated with upright metamorphic triple-junction cells, AZUR's next generation product will comprise a metamorphic 4- junction device targeting 30% EOL.

  12. Harnessing solar pressure to slew and point large infrared space telescopes (United States)

    Errico, Simona; Angel, Roger P.; Calvert, Paul D.; Woof, Neville


    Large astronomical Gossamer telescopes in space will need to employ large solar shields to safeguard the optics from solar radiation. These types of telescopes demand accurate controls to maintain telescope pointing over long integration periods. We propose an active solar shield system that harnesses radiation pressure to accurately slew and acquire new targets without the need for reaction wheels or thrusters. To provide the required torques, the solar shield is configured as an inverted, 4-sided pyramidal roof. The sloped roof interior surfaces are covered with hinged “tiles” made from piezoelectric film bimorphs with specular metallized surfaces. Nominally, the tiles lie flat against the roof and the sunlight is reflected outward equally from all sloped surfaces. However, when the tiles on one roof pitch are raised, the pressure balance is upset and the sunshade is pushed to one side. By judicious selection of the tiles and control of their lift angle, the solar pressure can be harvested to stabilize the spacecraft orientation or to change its angular momentum. A first order conceptual design performance analysis and the results from the experimental design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric bimorph hinge elements will be presented. Next phase challenges in engineering design, materials technology, and systems testing will be discussed.

  13. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system (United States)

    Faget, N. M.


    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  14. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.


    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the

  15. Powering an in-space 3D printer using solar light energy (United States)

    Leake, Skye; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Hirsch, Michael P.; Straub, Jeremy


    This paper describes how a solar power source can enable in-space 3D printing without requiring conversion to electric power and back. A design for an in-space 3D printer is presented, with a particular focus on the power generation system. Then, key benefits are presented and evaluated. Specifically, the approach facilitates the design of a spacecraft that can be built, launched, and operated at very low cost levels. The proposed approach also facilitates easy configuration of the amount of energy that is supplied. Finally, it facilitates easier disposal by removing the heavy metals and radioactive materials required for a nuclear-power solution.

  16. Cost-Loss Analysis of Ensemble Solar Wind Forecasting: Space Weather Use of Terrestrial Weather Tools (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Pope, E. C. D.


    This commentary concerns recent work on solar wind forecasting by Owens and Riley (2017). The approach taken makes effective use of tools commonly used in terrestrial weather—notably, via use of a simple model—generation of an "ensemble" forecast, and application of a "cost-loss" analysis to the resulting probabilistic information, to explore the benefit of this forecast to users with different risk appetites. This commentary aims to highlight these useful techniques to the wider space weather audience and to briefly discuss the general context of application of terrestrial weather approaches to space weather.

  17. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)


    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  18. Microparticle impacts in space: Results from Solar Max and shuttle witness plate inspections (United States)

    Mckay, David S.


    The Solar Maximum Satellite developed electronic problems after operating successfully in space for several years. Astronauts on Space Shuttle mission STS-41C retrieved the satellite into the orbiter cargo bay, replaced defective components, and re-deployed the repaired satellite into orbit. The defective components were returned to Earth for study. The space-exposed surfaces were examined. The approach and objectives were to: document morphology of impact; find and analyze projectile residue; classify impact by origin; determine flux distribution; and determine implications for space exposure. The purpose of the shuttle witness plate experiment was to detect impacts from PAM D2 solid rocket motor; determine flux and size distribution of particles; and determine abrasion effects on various conditions. Results are given for aluminum surfaces, copper surfaces, stainless steel surfaces, Inconel surfaces, and quartz glass surfaces.

  19. A 100 kW-Class Technology Demonstrator for Space Solar Power (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe; Day, Greg


    A first step in the development of solar power from space is the flight demonstration of critical technologies. These fundamental technologies include efficient solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, and thermal management. In addition, the integration and utilization of these technologies into a viable satellite bus could provide an energy-rich platform for a portfolio of payload experiments such as wireless power transmission (WPT). This paper presents the preliminary design of a concept for a 100 kW-class fiee-flying platform suitable for flight demonstration of technology experiments. Recent space solar power (SSP) studies by NASA have taken a stepping stones approach that lead to the gigawatt systems necessary to cost-effectively deliver power from space. These steps start with a 100 kW-class satellite, leading to a 500 kW and then a 1 MW-class platform. Later steps develop a 100 M W bus that could eventually lead to a 1-2 GW pilot plant for SSP. Our studies have shown that a modular approach is cost effective. Modular designs include individual laser-power-beaming satellites that fly in constellations or that are autonomously assembled into larger structures at geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Microwave power-beamed approaches are also modularized into large numbers of identical units of solar arrays, power converters, or supporting structures for arrays and microwave transmitting antennas. A cost-effective approach to launching these modular units is to use existing Earth-to-orbit (ETO) launch systems, in which the modules are dropped into low Earth orbit (LEO) and then the modules perform their own orbit transfer to GEO using expendable solar arrays to power solar electric thrusters. At GEO, the modules either rendezvous and are assembled robotically into larger platforms, or are deployed into constellations of identical laser power-beaming satellites. Since solar electric propulsion by the modules is cost-effective for both

  20. Flexible Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Karsten; Makhova, Liudmila; Braun, Alexander; Konovalov, Igor


    Thin film solar cells (TFSC) with Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) as absorber layer have been produced on rigid glass substrates for the terrestrial market. There exist, however, different investigations for manufacturing of TFSC on flexible substrates in order to achieve very thin and highly flexible (rollable) solar cells. Besides their capability to open new terrestrial market segments, they are considered as competitive candidates for future flexible thin film space power generators compared to traditional crystalline solar cells. This paper explains the advantages of flexible TFSC for usage in space, including:-low mass and storage volume, -high power/mass ratio [>100 W/kg at array level], -high radiation resistance against proton and electron radiation and, -lower production costs. These cells can be produced on flexible conductive and insulating substrate materials and have efficiency potentials of up to 15%. We report on the current development steps to adopt the TFSC technology to space requirements as well as the first European industrial approach to the roll-to-roll production of flexible CIGS-TFSC on polyimide as substrate material. Stability issues in space environment concern not only the TFSC itself, but all system components such as interconnects, cell assembly and flexible blankets. The adhesion of the back-contact to the substrate, the emissivity control in the infrared wavelength range, the electrical contacting and interconnection as well as flexible encapsulation are currently under investigation and are discussed in the paper. The production costs for TFSC for space application can be further reduced by sharing resources for the production of flexible TFSC for the terrestrial market; namely by using both, the existing terrestrial investment in production facilities as well as the synergies in R and D

  1. Energetical and ecological assessment of solar- and heat pump technologies for hot water preparation and space heating in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.


    Solar and heat pump systems have been proved in many applications on the market. To achieve an efficient energy output it is necessary to consider the special conditions of these technologies. The energetical and ecological criteria of solar and heat pump systems for hot water preparation and space heating are analysed on the basis of experimental data. (author)

  2. High Fidelity Measurement of Free Space Solar Particle Event and Galactic Cosmic Ray Environments at Intermediate Energies (United States)

    Leitgab, M.


    A charged particle measurement experiment mounted externally to the Deep Space Gateway is proposed, contributing to improving astronaut radiation exposure management during Solar Particle Events and Extra Vehicular Activities.

  3. A Dedicated Space Observatory For Time-domain Solar System Science (United States)

    Wong, Michael H.; Ádámkovics, M.; Benecchi, S.; Bjoraker, G.; Clarke, J. T.; de Pater, I.; Hendrix, A. R.; Marchis, F.; McGrath, M.; Noll, K.; Rages, K. A.; Retherford, K.; Smith, E. H.; Strange, N. J.


    Time-variable phenomena with scales ranging from minutes to decades have led to a large fraction of recent advances in many aspects of solar system science. We present the scientific motivation for a dedicated space observatory for solar system science. This facility will ideally conduct repeated imaging and spectroscopic observations over a period of 10 years or more. It will execute a selection of long-term projects with interleaved scheduling, resulting in the acquisition of data sets with consistent calibration, long baselines, and optimized sampling intervals. A sparse aperture telescope would be an ideal configuration for the mission, trading decreased sensitivity for reduced payload mass, while preserving spatial resolution. Ultraviolet capability is essential, especially once the Hubble Space Telescope retires. Specific investigations will include volcanism and cryovolcanism (on targets including Io, Titan, Venus, Mars, and Enceladus); zonal flow, vortices, and storm evolution on the giant planets; seasonal cycles in planetary atmospheres; mutual events and orbit determination of multiple small solar system bodies; auroral activity and solar wind interactions; and cometary evolution. The mission will produce a wealth of data products--such as multi-year time-lapse movies of planetary atmospheres--with significant education and public outreach potential. Existing and planned ground- and space-based facilities are not suitable for these time-domain optimized planetary dynamics studies for numerous reasons, including: oversubscription by astrophysical users, field-of-regard limitations, sensitive detector saturation limits that preclude bright planetary targets, and limited mission duration. The abstract author list is a preliminary group of scientists who have shown interest in prior presentations on this topic; interested parties may contact the lead author by 1 September to sign the associated Planetary Science Decadal Survey white paper or by 1 October to

  4. Space Solar Patrol data and changes in weather and climate, including global warming (United States)

    Avakyan, S. V.; Baranova, L. A.; Leonov, N. B.; Savinov, E. P.; Voronin, N. A.


    In this paper, the results obtained during the execution of several ISTC projects are presented. The general aim of these projects has been the study of global changes in the environment, connected with solar activity. A brief description of the optical apparatus of the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) developed and built in the framework of the ISTC projects 385, 385.2, 1523 and 2500 is given. The SSP is intended for permanent monitoring of spectra and absolute fluxes of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (x-ray/EUV) radiation from the full disk of the Sun which ionizes the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Permanent solar monitoring in the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8-115 (119) nm does not exist. The apparatus of the SSP was developed in the years 1996-2005 with multiyear experience of developing such apparatus in S I Vavilov State Optical Institute. The basis of this apparatus is the use of unique detectors of ionizing radiation—open secondary electron multipliers, which are 'solar blind' to near UV, visible and IR radiation from the Sun, and new methodology of these solar spectroradiometric absolute measurements. The prospects are discussed of using the SSP data for the investigation and forecast of the influence of solar variability on the weather and climate including global warming and also on the biosphere including human beings (proposal 3878). This article was originally submitted for inclusion with the papers from the 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009), published in the May 2010 issue.

  5. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics (United States)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.


    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  6. Development of micro-mirror slicer integral field unit for space-borne solar spectrographs (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Kosuke; Koyama, Masatsugu; Enokida, Yukiya; Okura, Yukinobu; Nakayasu, Tomoyasu; Sukegawa, Takashi


    We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and a manufacturing method that overcomes optical limitations of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of a micro-mirror slicer of 45 arrayed, highly narrow, flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo-pupil-mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates that the final optical quality is sufficiently high for a visible light spectrograph. Each slicer micro-mirror is 1.58 mm long and 30 μm wide with surface roughness ≤1 nm rms, and edge sharpness ≤ 0.1 μm, etc. This IFU is small size and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics, in which one slit is real and the others are pseudo slits from the IFU. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a space-qualified, protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength regions. These properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph such as the future Japanese solar space mission SOLAR-C. We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU, and space qualification tests of the silver coating.

  7. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 11: Electrical characteristics of 2 ohm-cm, 228 micron wraparound solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation. [for solar electric propulsion (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Weiss, R. S.


    Parametric characterization data on Spectrolab 2 by 4 cm, 2 ohm/cm, 228 micron thick wraparound cell, a candidate for the Solar Electric Propulsion Mission, are presented. These data consist of the electrical characteristics of the solar cell under a wide range of temperature and illumination intensity combinations of the type encountered in space applications.

  8. Theoretical energy and exergy analyses of solar assisted heat pump space heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmaca Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Due to use of alternative energy sources and energy efficient operation, heat pumps come into prominence in recent years. Especially in solar-assisted heat pumps, sizing the required system is difficult and arduous task in order to provide optimum working conditions. Therefore, in this study solar assisted indirect expanded heat pump space heating system is simulated and the results of the simulation are compared with available experimental data in the literature in order to present reliability of the model. Solar radiation values in the selected region are estimated with the simulation. The case study is applied and simulation results are given for Antalya, Turkey. Collector type and storage tank capacity effects on the consumed power of the compressor, COP of the heat pump and the overall system are estimated with the simulation, depending on the radiation data, collector surface area and the heating capacity of the space. Exergy analysis is also performed with the simulation and irreversibility, improvement potentials and exergy efficiencies of the heat pump and system components are estimated.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests

  10. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents. (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham


    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  11. SOHO celebrates its first year in space with new results on the solar wind (United States)


    space, and sees it carrying intermittent bright patches corresponding with relatively dense concentrations of solar material. These gusts are milder than the occasional mass ejections also seen by LASCO, which accompany great convulsions in the solar magnetic field. SOHO's solar wind analyser CELIAS has detected many previously unrecorded elements and isotopes among the charged atoms of the solar wind. The solar wind mapper, SWAN, observes the widespread effects of solar wind particles as they interact with the atoms of an interstellar breeze blowing into the solar system. Yet the results on the solar wind represent only a fraction of SOHO's achievements so far, with twelve sets of instruments observing everything from oscillations deep inside the Sun, to the solar influence on energetic cosmic rays coming from the Galaxy. Stealing the show in helioseismology SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO and provides the ground stations and an operations centre at the Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington. SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from a halo orbit around Lagrangian Point N 1 where the gravity of the Sun and the Earth are in balance, 1,500,000 kilometres out on the sunward side of the Earth. The spacecraft's engineering has proved to be excellent and no practical difficulty is anticipated in keeping SOHO operational into the sunspot maximum expected in 2000-2001. SOHO was launched on 2 December 1995. Check-out observations with some instruments began just a few days later. SOHO attained its L1 halo orbit on 14 February 1996, and commissioning was formally completed on 16 April. Already the first results were showing unprecedented images of the solar atmosphere, of the heliosphere filled by the solar wind, and even of the Sun's interior as revealed by oscillations due to sound waves in the

  12. Flight Plasma Diagnostics for High-Power, Solar-Electric Deep-Space Spacecraft (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Conroy, David; Lobbia, Robert; Huang, Wensheng; Choi, Maria; Sekerak, Michael J.


    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) project plans included a set of plasma and space environment instruments, the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), to fulfill ARRM requirements for technology extensibility to future missions. The PDP objectives were divided into the classes of 1) Plasma thruster dynamics, 2) Solar array-specific environmental effects, 3) Plasma environmental spacecraft effects, and 4) Energetic particle spacecraft environment. A reference design approach and interface requirements for ARRM's PDP was generated by the PDP team at JPL and GRC. The reference design consisted of redundant single-string avionics located on the ARRM spacecraft bus as well as solar array, driving and processing signals from multiple copies of several types of plasma, effects, and environments sensors distributed over the spacecraft and array. The reference design sensor types were derived in part from sensors previously developed for USAF Research Laboratory (AFRL) plasma effects campaigns such as those aboard TacSat-2 in 2007 and AEHF-2 in 2012.

  13. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station (United States)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin


    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  14. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen


    Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission

  15. Tobacco Addiction (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  16. Energetic and financial evaluation of solar assisted heat pump space heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Moschos, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.


    Highlights: • Four solar heating systems are presented in this work. • Various combinations between solar collectors and heat pumps are presented. • The systems are compared energetically and financially. • The use of PV and an air source heat pump is the best choice financially. • The use of PVT with a water source heat pump is the best solution energetically. - Abstract: Using solar energy for space heating purposes consists an alternative way for substituting fossil fuel and grid electricity consumption. In this study, four solar assisted heat pump heating systems are designed, simulated and evaluated energetically and financially in order to determine the most attractive solution. The use of PV collectors with air source heat pump is compared to the use of FPC, PVT and FPC with PV coupled with a water source heat pump. A sensitivity analysis for the electricity cost is conducted because of the great variety of this parameter over the last years. The final results proved that for electricity cost up to 0.23 €/kW h the use of PV coupled with an air source heat pump is the most sustainable solution financially, while for higher electricity prices the coupling of PVT with an water source heat pump is the best choice. For the present electricity price of 0.2 €/kW h, 20 m"2 of PV is able to drive the air source heat pump with a yearly solar coverage of 67% leading to the most sustainable solution. Taking into account energetic aspects, the use of PVT leads to extremely low grid electricity consumption, fact that makes this technology the most environmental friendly.

  17. Dropouts, spreading, and squeezing of solar particle distributions and space weather variability (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Seripienlert, A.; Tooprakai, P.; Chuychai, P.


    In the past 15 years, observations and theories concerning dropouts of solar energetic particles have made it clear that the lateral spread of field lines and particles from a given location near the Sun is not a purely diffusive process. Particles of low energy from impulsive solar events exhibit abrupt changes in flux (dropouts) due to filamentation of magnetic connection from the Sun, indicating that magnetic flux tube-like structures at least partially persist to Earth orbit. Our simulations based on a corresponding spherical two-component model of Alfvénic (slab) and 2D magnetic fluctuations indicate that such particles mostly follow field lines, which spread over ˜25° at Earth orbit, and exhibit dropout features. On the other hand, gradual solar events are of practical interest because they can produce greatly enhanced high-energy ion fluxes, which can cause radiation damage to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts. While gradual events do not exhibit dropouts in the above sense, we show that the distribution of high-energy (E≥1 GeV) protons is squeezed toward magnetic flux tube-like structures with a specific polarity due to the structures' conical shape. Since it is difficult to observationally determine what polarity of flux structure the Earth is in at a given time, this transport phenomenon contributes to event-to-event variability in ground level enhancements of GeV-range ions from solar storms, presenting a fundamental uncertainty in space weather prediction. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund (Grant BRG5880009), a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, a Research Fellowship from the Faculty of Science at Mahidol University, the U.S. NSF (AGS-1063439 and SHINE AGS-1156094), NASA (Heliophysics Theory NNX14AI63G, and LWS NNX15AB88G), and the Solar Probe Plus/ISIS project (D99031L).

  18. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li


    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  19. Production of Solar Cells in Space from Non Specific Ores by Utilization of Electronically Enhanced Sputtering (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.


    An ideal method of construction in space would utilize some form of the Universal Differentiator and Universal Constructor as described by Von Neumann (1). The Universal Differentiator is an idealized non ore specific extractive device which is capable of breaking any ore into its constituent elements, and the Universal Constructor can utilize these elements to build any device with controllability to the nanometer scale. During the Human Exploration Initiative program in the early 1990s a conceptual study was done (2) to understand whether such devices were feasible with near term technology for the utilization of space resources and energy. A candidate system was proposed which would utilize electronically enhanced sputtering as the differentiator. Highly ionized ions would be accelerated to a kinetic energy at which the interaction between them and the lattice elections in the ore would be at a maximum. Experiments have shown that the maximum disintegration of raw material occurs at an ion kinetic energy of about 5 MeV, regardless of the composition and structure of the raw material. Devices that could produce charged ion beams in this energy range in space were being tested in the early 1990s. At this energy, for example an ion in a beam of fluorine ions yields about 8 uranium ions from uranium fluoride, 1,400 hydrogen and oxygen atoms from ice, or 7,000 atoms from sulfur dioxide ice. The ions from the disintegrated ore would then be driven by an electrical field into a discriminator in the form of a mass spectrometer, where the magnetic field would divert the ions into collectors for future use or used directly in molecular beam construction techniques. The process would require 10-7 Torr vacuum which would be available in space or on the moon. If the process were used to make thin film silicon solar cells (ignoring any energy inefficiency for beam production), then energy break even for solar cells in space would occur after 14 days.

  20. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.


    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated

  1. Optical Characteristics of the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (United States)

    West, E. A.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.; Gary, G. A.; Adams, M.; Smith, S.; Hraba, J. F.


    This paper will describe the scientific objectives of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) and the optical components that have been developed to meet those objectives. In order to test the scientific feasibility of measuring magnetic fields in the UV, a sounding rocket payload is being developed. This paper will discuss: (1) the scientific measurements that will be made by the SUMI sounding rocket program, (2) how the optics have been optimized for simultaneous measurements of two magnetic lines CIV (1550 Angstroms) and MgII (2800 Angstroms), and (3) the optical, reflectance, transmission and polarization measurements that have been made on the SUMI telescope mirror and polarimeter.

  2. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power (United States)

    Strickland, John K., Jr.


    uses of electricity and fuels currently covered by fossil fuels. This is a global replacement load of about 9000 gigawatts. Green theorists are divided on this issue. Some claim that ground based solar, wind, and other renewable sources will supply all the energy we need, ignoring economic costs that severely limit their use. Others would (unrealistically) require the developed countries to reduce their energy consumption per capita to a level closer to that of the developing world, thereby admitting the limitations of the "appropriate" systems they espouse. Both sides in the past have rejected as "non-appropriate" and/or "dangerous" all the chemically clean energy sources of high capacity that have been previously proposed, such as safer nuclear fission, fusion power, and space solar power. If ground based "appropriate" energy sources are not sufficient, the economic and social effects of sudden forced curtailments of fossil energy use could be drastic. This paper supports the thesis that Space Solar Power does have the potential to provide such a clean, abundant, and economical energy source. It will cover both the limitations and promise of ground based energy sources, including the difficulties of using intermittent energy sources. It will discuss whether specified levels of energy cost increases would be damaging to the world economy and whether economical ground based sources alone would have sufficient capacity. It will show how the one major problem of launch costs, (currently preventing economical implementation of Space Solar Power), has a number of quite reasonable solutions. Finally, it will consider whether Space Solar Power, along with the other major space goals of Science &Exploration, Mars Colonization, Non- terrestrial Materials Recovery and Space Tourism, could be another space "killer app" which, by creating a high demand for launch services, could force large reductions in launch costs.

  3. Space Resource Utilization and Extending Human Presence Across the Solar System (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.


    investment enables commercial and private viability beyond Earth orbit. For example, analysis has shown the lunar oxygen production for propellant becomes commercially viable after the exploration program completes the R&D, and power from lunar derived photovoltaics could, according to past NASA sponsored studies, pay for themselves while supplying most of Earth's electrical energy after about 17 years. Besides the Moon and Mars the resources of the near Earth asteroids enable the building of large space structures and science payloads. Analysis has shown that one of the thousands of these objects (some as easily accessible in space as the Moon and Mars), 2 km dia, the size of a typical open pit mine, would cost the total global financial product of Earth for 30,000 years if we were to launch it from Earth. Beyond Mars, the belt asteroids have been calculated to contain enough materials for habitat and life to support 10 quadrillion people. Thus, the development and use of space resources enables the extension of human life through the solar system allowing humanity to move from a planetary to a solar system society.

  4. Recent results from advanced research on space solar cells at NASA (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.


    The NASA program in space photovoltaic research and development encompasses a wide range of emerging options for future space power systems, and includes both cell and array technology development. The long range goals are to develop technology capable of achieving 300 W/kg for planar arrays, and 300 W/sq m for concentrator arrays. InP and GaAs planar and concentrator cell technologies are under investigation for their potential high efficiency and good radiation resistance. The Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program is a near term effort aimed at demonstrating 130 W/kg beginning of life specific power using thin (62 pm) silicon cells. It is intended to be technology transparent to future high efficiency cells and provides the baseline for development of the 300 W/kg array.

  5. Impacts on Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays: discrimination between natural and man-made particles. (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Moussi, A.

    A Post-Flight Investigation was initiated by the European Space Agency to analyze impact fluxes on solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), exposed to space for 8.25 years at approximately 600 km altitude. The solar cells were deployed during servicing mission SM-1 (December 1993), and retrieved by shuttle orbiter Columbia in March 2002 (SM-3B). A sub-panel of 2 m2 was cut from the --V2 wing and cells were selected for in-depth analysis. Twelve cells (9.6x10-3 m2) were surveyed for flux of all craters of sizes greater than 5 microns Dco; six at the NHM, and six at ONERA. Cumulative flux plots reveal slightly greater abundance of very small craters than in a comparable survey of SM-1 cells. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to locate impact features and to analyse residues at the NHM. 103 features of 3 -- 4000 micron conchoidal detachment diameter (Dco) were located on a total of 17 solar cells. 78 features show identifiable residue: 36 are Space Debris impacts and 42 Micrometeoroid impacts. Of the remaining 25: 4 contain residue of ambiguous origin, 1 is a minor manufacturing flaw, 1 is obscured by contamination, and 19 are unresolved, lacking recognizable residue. Space debris impacts on the SM-3B cells are all less than 80 microns Dco, dominated by Al- rich residue, probably of solid rocket motor origin, some may be unburnt fuel. Three craters may be sodium metal droplet impacts. No residues from paint pigment, aluminium or ferrous alloys, or copper- and tin-bearing metal were found. All craters larger than 100 microns are of micrometeoroid origin, or unresolved. Most residues are magnesium-iron silicate or iron sulfide. A few craters show vesicular Mg, S, Fe and Ni residue. A single Fe Ni metal residue was found, as well as enigmatic Mg- and S-bearing residues, all considered of micrometeoroid origin. A few Fe-, O- and C-bearing residues were classified as of ambiguous origin. The quality and quantity of residue is clearly linked to the

  6. Solar activity during the space weather incident of Nov 4., 2015 - Complex data and lessons learned (United States)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Pulkkinen, Antti; Buchert, Stephan; Monstein, Christian; Klein, Karl Ludwig; Marqué, Christophe; Krucker, Säm


    During the afternoon of November 4, 2015 most southern Swedish aviation radar systems experienced heavy disturbances, which eventually forced an outing of the majority of the radars. In consequence the entire southern Swedish aerospace had to be closed for incoming and leaving air traffic for about 2 hours. Immediately after the incident space weather anomalies were made responsible for the radar disturbances, but it took a very thorough investigation to differentiate disturbances from an ongoing magnetic storm caused by earlier solar activity, which had no disturbing effects on the flight radars, from a new and, indeed, extreme radio-burst on the Sun, which caused the Swedish radar anomalies. Other systems in various European countries also experienced major radio-disturbances during this extreme event, but they were not of the gravity as experienced in Sweden, or at least not causing a similar damage. One of the problems in reaching the right conclusions about the incident was that the extreme radio-burst around 1400 UT on Nov 4 (more than 50000 SFU at GHz frequencies), emerged from a medium size M3.7 Flare on the Sun, which did not trigger any immediate warnings. We will report about the analysis leading to the improved understanding of this extreme space weather event, evaluate the importance of solar radio observations, and discuss possible mitigation strategies for future events of similar nature.

  7. Adjustment, error analysis and modular strategy for Space Solar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xian-Long; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang; Hou, Xin-Bin


    Highlights: • The optimal adjustment method for SSPS when it travels on orbit is determined. • Two solutions for the arrangement of transverse truss are proposed. • The effect and regulating method for the tracking error are investigated. • The mathematical partition model of a flat hexagon module concept is built. • The flux distributions on solar panel based on different number of modules are simulated. - Abstract: Space Solar Power Station (SSPS) is a very potential candidate for supplying abundant electrical energy. Symmetrical two-stage flat reflected concentrator (STFC) has many advantages when used in SSPS. However the steady performance and control method on orbit has become a big problem which will be discussed in this paper. The actual posture of entire station is analyzed in detail due to the requirements of good flux uniformity, circular concentrated spot and controlled concentration ratio. Here two regulating directions are studied. And the most optimal method in multidimensional space of adjusting parameters is developed. In order to verify the correctness and reliability, the concentrating characteristics in different cases are simulated by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method (MCRTM). Based on the optimal adjusting parameters, solutions for the arrangement of transverse truss are proposed. After that the effect and regulating method for tracking error is investigated to improve the tolerance performance as highly as possible. Finally the construction of concentrators is much important to the realizability, cost and working performance. A flat hexagon module concept and the regular pattern are investigated to build the optical model. The flux distribution on solar panel based on different big number of modules is simulated, which provides certain reference for the build of SSPS

  8. A large-scale view of Space Technology 5 magnetometer response to solar wind drivers. (United States)

    Knipp, D J; Kilcommons, L M; Gjerloev, J; Redmon, R J; Slavin, J; Le, G


    In this data report we discuss reprocessing of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) magnetometer database for inclusion in NASA's Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) virtual observatory. The mission consisted of three spacecraft flying in elliptical orbits, from 27 March to 27 June 2006. Reprocessing includes (1) transforming the data into the Modified Apex Coordinate System for projection to a common reference altitude of 110 km, (2) correcting gain jumps, and (3) validating the results. We display the averaged magnetic perturbations as a keogram, which allows direct comparison of the full-mission data with the solar wind values and geomagnetic indices. With the data referenced to a common altitude, we find the following: (1) Magnetic perturbations that track the passage of corotating interaction regions and high-speed solar wind; (2) unexpectedly strong dayside perturbations during a solstice magnetospheric sawtooth oscillation interval characterized by a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component that may have enhanced the accompanying modest southward IMF; and (3) intervals of reduced magnetic perturbations or "calms," associated with periods of slow solar wind, interspersed among variable-length episodic enhancements. These calms are most evident when the IMF is northward or projects with a northward component onto the geomagnetic dipole. The reprocessed ST5 data are in very good agreement with magnetic perturbations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, which we also map to 110 km. We briefly discuss the methods used to remap the ST5 data and the means of validating the results against DMSP. Our methods form the basis for future intermission comparisons of space-based magnetometer data.

  9. An Investigation of Interplanetary Structures for Solar Cycles 23 and 24 and their Space Weather Consequences. (United States)

    Sultan, M. S.; Jules, A.; Marchese, P.; Damas, M. C.


    It is crucial to study space weather because severe interplanetary conditions can cause geomagnetic storms that may damage both space- and ground-based technological systems such as satellites, communication systems, and power grids. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the primary drivers of geomagnetic storms. As they travel through interplanetary space and reach geospace, their spatial structures change which can result in various geomagnetic effects. Therefore, studying these drivers and their structures is essential in order to better understand and mitigate their impact on technological systems, as well as to forecast geomagnetic storms. In this study, over 150 storms were cross-checked for both solar cycles (SC) 23 and 24. This data has revealed the most common interplanetary structures, i.e., sheath (Sh); magnetic cloud following a shock front (sMC); sheath region and magnetic cloud (Sh/MC); and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Furthermore, plasma parameters as well as variation in the intensity and duration of storms resulting from different interplanetary structures are studied for their effect on geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), as well as for their effect on power grids. Although preliminary results for SC 23 indicate that storm intensity may play a dominant role for GICs, duration might also be a factor, albeit smaller. Results from both SC 23 and 24 are analyzed and compared, and should lead to an enhanced understanding of space weather consequences of interplanetary structures and their possible forecasting.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.


    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1σ, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  11. A 1 cm space debris impact onto the Sentinel-1A solar array (United States)

    Krag, H.; Serrano, M.; Braun, V.; Kuchynka, P.; Catania, M.; Siminski, J.; Schimmerohn, M.; Marc, X.; Kuijper, D.; Shurmer, I.; O'Connell, A.; Otten, M.; Muñoz, Isidro; Morales, J.; Wermuth, M.; McKissock, D.


    Sentinel-1A is a 2-ton spacecraft of the Copernicus Earth observation program operated by ESA's Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany. Sentinel-1A and its sister spacecraft Sentinel-1B operate in a sun-synchronous orbit at about 700 km altitude. On 2016/08/23 17:07:37 UTC, Sentinel-1A suffered from an anomaly resulting in a sudden permanent partial power loss and significant impulsive orbit and attitude changes. A deeper investigation identified that an impulsive orbit change against flight direction of 0.7 mm/s, estimated at the time of the event, gave the best results in terms of GPS residuals. At the same time, a peak attitude off-pointing of 0.7° (around the spacecraft yaw axis) and peak attitude rate increase of 0.04°/s (around the same axis) were observed. The simultaneous occurrence of these anomalies, starting from a sudden attitude change and ending with a permanent partial power loss, made an MMOD (Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris) impact onto a solar array a possible explanation for this event. While the spacecraft is able to continue its mission nominally, a detailed investigation involving ESA's Space Debris and Flight Dynamics experts was conducted. An MMOD impact as an explanation gained further credibility, due to the pictures of the solar array taken by the on-board camera displaying a significant damage area. On September 7th, JSpOC (US Joint Space Operations Centre) informed SDO on 8 tracked fragments that are considered to be released by Sentinel-1A after the impact. This paper addresses the analysis that was performed on the data characterising the attitude and orbit change, the on-board camera image, and the tracked fragments. The data helped to identify the linear momentum vector while a flux analysis helped to identify the origin of the impactor and allowed to understand its mass and size characteristics.

  12. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System (United States)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni


    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  13. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.


    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  14. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2) (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.


    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  15. Johnson Space Center's Solar and Wind-Based Renewable Energy System (United States)

    Vasquez, A.; Ewert, M.; Rowlands, J.; Post, K.


    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas has a Sustainability Partnership team that seeks ways for earth-based sustainability practices to also benefit space exploration research. A renewable energy gathering system was installed in 2007 at the JSC Child Care Center (CCC) which also offers a potential test bed for space exploration power generation and remote monitoring and control concepts. The system comprises: 1) several different types of photovoltaic panels (29 kW), 2) two wind-turbines (3.6 kW total), and 3) one roof-mounted solar thermal water heater and tank. A tie to the JSC local electrical grid was provided to accommodate excess power. The total first year electrical energy production was 53 megawatt-hours. A web-based real-time metering system collects and reports system performance and weather data. Improvements in areas of the CCC that were detected during subsequent energy analyses and some concepts for future efforts are also presented.

  16. Non-thermal Power-Law Distributions in Solar and Space Plasmas (United States)

    Oka, M.; Battaglia, M.; Birn, J.; Chaston, C. C.; Effenberger, F.; Eriksson, E.; Fletcher, L.; Hatch, S.; Imada, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Kuhar, M.; Livadiotis, G.; Miyoshi, Y.; Retino, A.


    Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies in solar and space plasma environments. While energy spectra of accelerated particles often exhibit a power-law and are characterized by the power-law index δ, it remains unclear how particles are accelerated to high energies and how δ is determined. Here, we review previous observations of the power-law index δ in a variety of different plasma environments with a particular focus on sub-relativistic electrons. It appears that in regions more closely related to magnetic reconnection (such as the "above-the-looptop" solar hard X-ray source and the plasma sheet in Earth's magnetotail), the spectra are typically soft (δ> 4). This is in contrast to the typically hard spectra (δuniform in the plasma sheet, while power-law distributions still exist even in quiet times. The role of magnetotail reconnection in the electron power-law formation could therefore be confounded with these background conditions. Because different regions have been studied with different instrumentations and methodologies, we point out a need for more systematic and coordinated studies of power-law distributions for a better understanding of possible scaling laws in particle acceleration as well as their universality.

  17. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust. (United States)

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A


    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Space Weather Action Plan Solar Radio Burst Phase 1 Benchmarks and the Steps to Phase 2 (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; White, S. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Black, C.; Love, J. J.; Pierson, J.


    Solar radio bursts, when at the right frequency and when strong enough, can interfere with radar, communication, and tracking signals. In severe cases, radio bursts can inhibit the successful use of radio communications and disrupt a wide range of systems that are reliant on Position, Navigation, and Timing services on timescales ranging from minutes to hours across wide areas on the dayside of Earth. The White House's Space Weather Action Plan asked for solar radio burst intensity benchmarks for an event occurrence frequency of 1 in 100 years and also a theoretical maximum intensity benchmark. The benchmark team has developed preliminary (phase 1) benchmarks for the VHF (30-300 MHz), UHF (300-3000 MHz), GPS (1176-1602 MHz), F10.7 (2800 MHz), and Microwave (4000-20000) bands. The preliminary benchmarks were derived based on previously published work. Limitations in the published work will be addressed in phase 2 of the benchmark process. In addition, deriving theoretical maxima requires additional work, where it is even possible to, in order to meet the Action Plan objectives. In this presentation, we will present the phase 1 benchmarks, the basis used to derive them, and the limitations of that work. We will also discuss the work that needs to be done to complete the phase 2 benchmarks.

  19. Solar pumping of solid state lasers for space mission: a novel approach (United States)

    Boetti, N. G.; Lousteau, J.; Negro, D.; Mura, E.; Scarpignato, G. C.; Perrone, G.; Milanese, D.; Abrate, S.


    Solar pumped laser (SPL) can find wide applications in space missions, especially for long lasting ones. In this paper a new technological approach for the realization of a SPL based on fiber laser technology is proposed. We present a preliminary study, focused on the active material performance evaluation, towards the realization of a Nd3+ -doped fiber laser made of phosphate glass materials, emitting at 1.06 μm. For this research several Nd3+ -doped phosphate glass samples were fabricated, with concentration of Nd3+ up to 10 mol%. Physical and thermal properties of the glasses were measured and their spectroscopic properties are described. The effect of Nd3+ doping concentration on emission spectra and lifetimes was investigated in order to study the concentration quenching effect on luminescence performance.

  20. James Webb Space Telescope Observations of Stellar Occultations by Solar System Bodies and Rings (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; French, R. G.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Stansberry, J.; Lin, Z-Y.; Zhang, Z-W.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, Th.; Ortiz, J. L.; Braga-Ribas, F.; hide


    In this paper, we investigate the opportunities provided by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for significant scientific advances in the study of Solar System bodies and rings using stellar occultations. The strengths and weaknesses of the stellar occultation technique are evaluated in light of JWST's unique capabilities. We identify several possible JWST occultation events by minor bodies and rings and evaluate their potential scientific value. These predictions depend critically on accurate a priori knowledge of the orbit of JWST near the Sun–Earth Lagrange point 2 (L2). We also explore the possibility of serendipitous stellar occultations by very small minor bodies as a byproduct of other JWST observing programs. Finally, to optimize the potential scientific return of stellar occultation observations, we identify several characteristics of JWST's orbit and instrumentation that should be taken into account during JWST's development.

  1. Structural assessment of a space station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Kerslake, T. W.; Tong, M. T.


    The structural performance of a space station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start up operating conditions was assessed. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes 188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally measured temperature data.

  2. Success Stories of Undergraduate Retention: A Pathways Study of Graduate Students in Solar and Space Physics (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Stoll, W.; Moldwin, M.; Gross, N. A.


    This presentation describes results from an NSF-funded study of the pathways students in solar and space physics have taken to arrive in graduate school. Our Pathways study has documented results from structured interviews conducted with graduate students attending two, week-long, NSF-sponsored scientific workshops during the summer of 2011. Our research team interviewed 48 solar and space physics students (29 males and 19 females currently in graduate programs at US institutions,) in small group settings regarding what attracted and retained them along their pathways leading to grad school. This presentation addresses what these students revealed about the attributes and influences that supported completion of their undergraduate experience and focused their aspirations toward graduate school. In advance of the interview process, we collected 125 on-line survey responses from students at the two workshops. This 20-item survey included questions about high school and undergraduate education, as well as about research and graduate experience. A subset of the 125 students who completed this on-line survey volunteered to be interviewed. Two types of interview data were collected from the 48 interviewees: 1) written answers to a pre-interview questionnaire; and 2) detailed notes taken by researchers during group interviews. On the pre-interview questionnaire, we posed the question: "How did you come to be a graduate student in your field?" Our findings to date are based on an analysis of responses to this question, cross correlated with the corresponding on-line survey data. Our analysis reveals the importance of early research experiences. About 80% of the students participating in the Pathways study cited formative undergraduate research experiences. Moreover, about 50% of participants reported undergraduate research experiences that were in the field of their current graduate studies. Graduate students interviewed frequently cited a childhood interest in science

  3. Youth and Tobacco Use (United States)

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  4. Physics-based Space Weather Forecasting in the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) in Japan (United States)

    Kusano, K.


    Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) is a Japanese nation-wide research collaboration, which was recently launched. PSTEP aims to develop a synergistic interaction between predictive and scientific studies of the solar-terrestrial environment and to establish the basis for next-generation space weather forecasting using the state-of-the-art observation systems and the physics-based models. For this project, we coordinate the four research groups, which develop (1) the integration of space weather forecast system, (2) the physics-based solar storm prediction, (3) the predictive models of magnetosphere and ionosphere dynamics, and (4) the model of solar cycle activity and its impact on climate, respectively. In this project, we will build the coordinated physics-based model to answer the fundamental questions concerning the onset of solar eruptions and the mechanism for radiation belt dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. In this paper, we will show the strategy of PSTEP, and discuss about the role and prospect of the physics-based space weather forecasting system being developed by PSTEP.

  5. Simulation of the impact of financial incentives on solar energy utilization for space conditioning and water heating: 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H C


    Financial incentives designed to accelerate the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and water heating of buildings have been proposed by both state and federal legislative bodies in the U.S.A. Among the most frequently mentioned incentives are sales and property tax exemptions, tax deductions and credits, rapid amortization provisions, and interest rate subsidies. At the present time there is little available information regarding the ability of such incentives to advance the rate of solar energy utilization. This paper describes the derivation and use of a computer simulation model designed to estimate solar energy use for space conditioning and water heating for given economic, climatic, and technological conditions. When applied to data from the Denver, Colorado metropolitan area, the simulation model predicts that sales tax exemptions would have little impact over the next decade, interest rate subsidies could more than double solar energy use, and the other proposed incentives would have an intermediate impact.

  6. The Survival and Resistance of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus hamelinensis, and Halococcus morrhuae to Simulated Outer Space Solar Radiation. (United States)

    Leuko, S; Domingos, C; Parpart, A; Reitz, G; Rettberg, P


    Solar radiation is among the most prominent stress factors organisms face during space travel and possibly on other planets. Our analysis of three different halophilic archaea, namely Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus morrhuae, and Halococcus hamelinensis, which were exposed to simulated solar radiation in either dried or liquid state, showed tremendous differences in tolerance and survivability. We found that Hcc. hamelinensis is not able to withstand high fluences of simulated solar radiation compared to the other tested organisms. These results can be correlated to significant differences in genomic integrity following exposure, as visualized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. In contrast to the other two tested strains, Hcc. hamelinensis accumulates compatible solutes such as trehalose for osmoprotection. The addition of 100 mM trehalose to the growth medium of Hcc. hamelinensis improved its survivability following exposure. Exposure of cells in liquid at different temperatures suggests that Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 is actively repairing cellular and DNA damage during exposure, whereas Hcc. morrhuae exhibits no difference in survival. For Hcc. morrhuae, the high resistance against simulated solar radiation may be explained with the formation of cell clusters. Our experiments showed that these clusters shield cells on the inside against simulated solar radiation, which results in better survival rates at higher fluences when compared to Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 and Hcc. hamelinensis. Overall, this study shows that some halophilic archaea are highly resistant to simulated solar radiation and that they are of high astrobiological significance. Halophiles-Solar radiation-Stress resistance-Survival.

  7. Investigation of a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Sol&Træ A.m.b.a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility.......A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility....

  8. Investigation of a low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Aidt Miljø A/S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility.......A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility....

  9. Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space (United States)

    Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

    Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant No.12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4

  10. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert


    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  11. Opportunities for Space Science Education Using Current and Future Solar System Missions (United States)

    Matiella Novak, M.; Beisser, K.; Butler, L.; Turney, D.


    The Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) office in The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department strives to excite and inspire the next generation of explorers by creating interactive education experiences. Since 1959, APL engineers and scientists have designed, built, and launched 61 spacecraft and over 150 instruments involved in space science. With the vast array of current and future Solar System exploration missions available, endless opportunities exist for education programs to incorporate the real-world science of these missions. APL currently has numerous education and outreach programs tailored for K-12 formal and informal education, higher education, and general outreach communities. Current programs focus on Solar System exploration missions such as the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) Moon explorer, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Satellite, to name a few. Education and outreach programs focusing on K-12 formal education include visits to classrooms, summer programs for middle school students, and teacher workshops. APL hosts a Girl Power event and a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Day each year. Education and outreach specialists hold teacher workshops throughout the year to train educators in using NASA spacecraft science in their lesson plans. High school students from around the U.S. are able to engage in NASA spacecraft science directly by participating in the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT) and the Student Principal Investigator Programs. An effort is also made to generate excitement for future missions by focusing on what mysteries will be solved. Higher education programs are used to recruit and train the next generation of scientists and engineers. The NASA/APL Summer Internship Program offers a

  12. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  13. Heliosheath Space Environment Interactions with Icy Bodies in the Outermost Solar System (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.


    The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring the space environment of the outermost solar system at the same time that earth-based astronomy continues to discover new icy bodies, one larger than Pluto, in the transitional region outward from the Classical Kuiper Belt to the Inner Oort Cloud. Some of the Scattered Disk Objects in this region periodically pass through the heliosheath, entered by Voyager 1 in Dec. 2004 and later expected to be reached by Voyager 2, and out even beyond the heliopause into the Very Local Interstellar Medium. The less energetic heliosheath ions, important for implantation and sputtering processes, are abundant near and beyond the termination shock inner boundary, but the source region of the more penetrating anomalous cosmic ray component has not yet been found. Advantageous for modeling of icy body interactions, the measured heliosheath flux spectra are relatively more stable within this new regime of isotropic compressional magnetic turbulence than in the upstream heliospheric environment. The deepest interactions and resultant radiation-induced chemistry arise from the inwardly diffusing component of the galactic cosmic ray ions with significant intensity modulation also arising in the heliosheath beyond Voyager 1. Surface gardening by high-velocity impacts of smaller bodies (e.g., fragments of previous KBO collisions) and dust is a further space weathering process setting the time scales for long term exposure of different regolith layers to the ion irradiation. Sputtering and ionization of impact ejecta grains may provide a substantial feedback of pickup ions for multiple cycles of heliosheath acceleration and icy body interaction. Thus the space weathering interactions are potentially of interest not only for effects on sensible surface composition of the icy bodies but also for evolution of the heliosheath plasma energetic ion, and neutral emission environment.

  14. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.


    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  15. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.


    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  16. Enhancement of Solar Cell Efficiency for Space Applications Using Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postigo P.A.


    Full Text Available The effects of having a nanopatterned photonic crystal (PC structure in the surface of a solar cell can be usefully employed to increase the energy conversion efficiency, which may be critical for space applications. In this work, we have measured the reflectance (R and transmittance (T of thin InP layers (270 nm thick bonded to a glass substrate and nanopatterned with holes down to the glass in a triangular symmetry lattice separated by a lattice parameter a=450nm and maintaining a value of r/a=0.32. The optical spectra were measured with angular resolution in the range from 0.55 to 2.0 eV. There are noticeable changes in the spectra of the PC sample, with minima and maxima of the R and T clearly shifted with respect to the unpatterned sample, and new features that alter significantly the overall lineshape of each spectrum. Those features correspond in a first approximation to the well-known Fano-like resonances of the discrete photonic modes of the PC lattice and they have been used before to determine experimentally the position of the PC bands. The observed features can be translated to the optical absorption (A defined as A=1-R-T provided there are low or negligible scattering effects. The generated absorption spectra show enhancements above and below the electronic band edge of the InP that can be correlated with the photonic band structure. Even using a thicker semiconductor layer, the abovementioned effects can justify to use a photonic crystal front surface with sub-wavelength motifs. In this way, we have fabricated and characterized a complete Ge/InGaP solar cell with a 2D-PC on its front surface. An increase in the photocurrent up to a 8% was achieved on a solar cell with a 40% of its surface covered with a PC pattern. Enhancements of the external quantum efficiency (EQE of 22% for a wide range of wavelengths and up to a 46% for specific wavelengths have been measured, without use of any anti-reflection coating (ARC. A correlation

  17. Solar Flare Five-Day Predictions from Quantum Detectors of Dynamical Space Fractal Flow Turbulence: Gravitational Wave Diminution and Earth Climate Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available Space speed fluctuations, which have a 1 / f spectrum, are shown to be the cause of solar flares. The direction and magnitude of the space flow has been detected from numer- ous different experimental techniques, and is close to the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. Zener diode data shows that the fluctuations in the space speed closely match the Sun Solar Cycle 23 flare count, and reveal that major solar flares follow major space speed fluctuations by some 6 days. This implies that a warning period of some 5 days in predicting major solar flares is possible using such detectors. This has significant conse- quences in being able to protect various spacecraft and Earth located electrical systems from the subsequent arrival of ejected plasma from a solar flare. These space speed fluctuations are the actual gravitational waves, and have a significant magnitude. This discovery is a significant application of the dynamical space phenomenon and theory. We also show that space flow turbulence impacts on the Earth’s climate, as such tur- bulence can input energy into systems, which is the basis of the Zener Diode Quantum Detector. Large scale space fluctuations impact on both the sun and the Earth, and as well explain temperature correlations with solar activity, but that the Earth temperatures are not caused by such solar activity. This implies that the Earth climate debate has been missing a key physical process. Observed diminishing gravitational waves imply a cooling epoch for the Earth for the next 30 years.

  18. Assessment of the energy performance of the solar space system attached to the CE – INCERC Bucharest experimental house – experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The INCERC Bucharest experimental house is equipped on the Southern façade with a ventilated solar space. The solar space ensures the ventilation of the entire building at a constant rate of 0.60 exchanges / h during the cold season, by inletting the pre-heated space in the greenhouse space. In the hot season the system ensures the building reversible ventilation by providing the fresh air rate by air suction in the building Northern zone, a consequence of the natural draught effect ensured by the solar space. This report presents the experiments performed in the season 2008-2009 and the experimental validation of the mathematical model used in assessing the solar space energy performance in the heating season.

  19. Using Microporous Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Sheets as a Flexible Solar Diffuser to Minimize Sunlight Glint to Cameras in Space (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  20. Adjusted NIEL calculations for estimating proton-induced degradation of GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ming; Wang Rong; Liu Yunhong; Hu Wentao; Feng Zhao; Han Zhaolei


    The non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) values for protons in solar cells should be modified by taking into account the distribution of the Bragg damage peak in the active region to calculate the corresponding displacement damage dose. In this paper, based upon a thin target approximation, a new approach is presented to modify NIEL values for protons on a GaAs sub-cell. Adjusted NIEL values can be used to estimate the degradation induced by protons on GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells.

  1. Using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene thin sheets as a flexible solar diffuser to minimize sunlight glint to cameras in space (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  2. Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students (United States)

    Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.


    Institute of Technology's Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research and supported by a two-year grant from NASA's Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Program (NASA NAG5-12733 EPO-02-219).

  3. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.


    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions

  4. Solar energy (United States)

    Rapp, D.


    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  5. Space chamber experiments of ohmic heating by high power microwave from the solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.


    It is quantitatively predicted that a high power microwave from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) nonlinearly interacts with the ionospheric plasma. The possible nonlinear interactions are ohmic heating, self-focusing and parametric instabilities. A rocket experiment called MINIX (Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment) has been attempted to examine these effects, but is note reported here. In parallel to the rocket experiment, a laboratory experiment in a space plasma simulation chamber has been carried out in order to examine ohmic heating in detail and to develop a system of the rocket experiment. Interesting results were observed and these results were utilized to revise the system of the rocket experiments. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 150% temperature increase was observed with little electron density decrease. It was shown that the temperature increase is not due to the RF breakdown but to the ohmic heating in the simulated ionospheric plasma. These microwave effects have to be taken into account in the SPS Project in the future.

  6. Analysis of a 10 megawatt space-based solar-pumped neodymium laser system (United States)

    Kurweg, U. H.


    A ten megawatt solar-pumped continuous liquid laser system for space applications is examined. It is found that a single inflatable mirror of 434 m diameter used in conjunction with a conical secondary concentrator is sufficient to side pump a liquid neodymium lasant in an annular tube of 6 m length and 1 m outer and 0.8 m inner diameter. About one fourth of intercepted radiation converging on the laser tube is absorbed and one fifth of this radiation is effective in populating the upper levels. The liquid lasant is flowed through the annular laser cavity at 1.9 m/s and is cooled via a heat exchanger and a large radiator surface comparable in size to the concentrating mirror. The power density of incident light within the lasant of approximately 68 watt/cu cm required for cw operation is exceeded in the present annular configuration. Total system weight corresponds to 20,500 kg and is thus capable of being transported to near Earth orbit by a single shuttle flight.

  7. CIGS Solar Cells for Space Applications: Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Traps Created by High-Energy Electron and Proton Irradiation on the Performance of Solar Cells (United States)

    Dabbabi, Samar; Ben Nasr, Tarek; Turki Kamoun, Najoua


    Numerical simulation is carried out using the Silvaco ATLAS software to predict the effect of 1-MeV electron and 4-MeV proton irradiation on the performance of a Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell that operates under the air mass zero spectrum (AM0). As a consequence of irradiation, two types of traps are induced including the donor- and acceptor-type traps. Only one of them (the donor-type trap) is found responsible for the degradation of the open-circuit voltage (V OC), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η), while the short circuit current (J SC) remains essentially unaffected. The modelling simulation validity is verified by comparison with the experimental data. This article shows that CIGS solar cells are suited for space applications.

  8. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions (United States)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    This thesis investigates the design of interplanetary missions for the continual habitation of Mars via Earth-Mars cyclers and for the detection of variations in nuclear decay rates due to solar influences. Several cycler concepts have been proposed to provide safe and comfortable quarters for astronauts traveling between the Earth and Mars. However, no literature has appeared to show how these massive vehicles might be placed into their cycler trajectories. Trajectories are designed that use either Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust to establish cycler vehicles in their desired orbits. In the cycler trajectory cases considered, the use of Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust substantially reduces the total propellant needed to achieve the cycler orbit compared to direct orbit insertion. In the case of the classic Aldrin cycler, the propellant savings due to Vinfinity leveraging can be as large as a 24 metric ton reduction for a cycler vehicle with a dry mass of 75 metric tons, and an additional 111 metric ton reduction by instead using low thrust. The two-synodic period cyclers considered benefit less from Vinfinity leveraging, but have a smaller total propellant mass due to their lower approach velocities at Earth and Mars. It turns out that, for low-thrust establishment, the propellant required is approximately the same for each of the cycler trajectories. The Aldrin cycler has been proposed as a transportation system for human missions between Earth and Mars. However, the hyperbolic excess velocity values at the planetary encounters for these orbits are infeasibly large, especially at Mars. In a new version of the Aldrin cycler, low thrust is used in the interplanetary trajectories to reduce the encounter velocities. Reducing the encounter velocities at both planets reduces the propellant needed by the taxis (astronauts use these taxis to transfer between the planetary surfaces and the cycler vehicle) to perform hyperbolic rendezvous. While the propellant

  9. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education (United States)


    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  10. You(th) & Tobacco (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  11. 3DCORE: Forward modeling of solar storm magnetic flux ropes for space weather prediction (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.


    3DCORE forward models solar storm magnetic flux ropes called 3-Dimensional Coronal Rope Ejection (3DCORE). The code is able to produce synthetic in situ observations of the magnetic cores of solar coronal mass ejections sweeping over planets and spacecraft. Near Earth, these data are taken currently by the Wind, ACE and DSCOVR spacecraft. Other suitable spacecraft making these kind of observations carrying magnetometers in the solar wind were MESSENGER, Venus Express, MAVEN, and even Helios.

  12. Study of solar array switching power management technology for space power system (United States)

    Cassinelli, J. E.


    This report documents work performed on the Solar Array Switching Power Management Study. Mission characteristics for three missions were defined to the depth necessary to determine their power management requirements. Solar array switching concepts which could satisfy the mission requirements were identified. The switching concepts were compared with a conventional buck regulator system for cost, weight and volume, reliability, efficiency and thermal control. Solar array switching provided significant advantages in all areas of comparison for the reviewed missions.

  13. Correlation of propagation characteristics of solar cosmic rays detected onboard the spatially separated space probes Mars-7 and Prognoz-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.; Somogyi, A.J.; Kolesov, G.Ya.; Kurt, V.G.; Kuzhevskii, B.M.; Logachev, Yu.I.; Savenko, I.A.


    Solar flare generated particle fluxes during the period 3-5 November, 1973 are analysed using the data of the Mars 7 and Prognoz-3 spacecrafts. The intensity profiles registrated onboard these satellites were quite similar, although the space probes were spatially separated by 0.3 AU. The general characteristics of the event can well be understood in terms of the effect of a corotating streat-stream interaction region on the general behaviour of energetic charged particles. (author)

  14. A Contemporary Analysis of the O'Neill-Glaser Model for Space-Based Solar Power and Habitat Construction (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Detweiler, Michael K.


    In 1975 Gerard O Neill published in the journal Science a model for the construction of solar power satellites. He found that the solar power satellites suggested by Peter Glaser would be too massive to launch economically from Earth, but could be financially viable if the workforce was permanently located in free space habitats and if lunar and asteroid materials were used for construction. All new worldwide electrical generating capacity could be then achieved by solar power satellites. The project would financially break even in about 20 years after which it would generate substantial income selling power below fossil fuel prices. Two NASA / Stanford University led studies at Ames Research center during the summers of 1974 and 1976 found the concept technically sound and developed a detailed financial parametric model. Although the project was not undertaken when suggested in the 1970s, several contemporary issues make pursuing the O Neill -- Glaser concept more compelling today. First, our analysis suggests that if in the first ten years of construction that small habitats (compared to the large vista habitats envisioned by O Neill) supporting approximately 300 people were utilized, development costs of the program and the time for financial break even could be substantially improved. Second, the contemporary consensus is developing that carbon free energy is required to mitigate global climate change. It is estimated that 300 GW of new carbon free energy would be necessary per year to stabilize global atmospheric carbon. This is about 4 times greater energy demand than was considered by the O Neill Glaser model. Our analysis suggests that after the initial investments in lunar mining and space manufacturing and transportation, that the profit margin for producing space solar power is very high (even when selling power below fossil fuel prices). We have investigated the financial scaling of ground launched versus space derived space solar power satellites. We

  15. Solar Atmosphere to Earth's Surface: Long Lead Time dB/dt Predictions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Manchester, W.; Savani, N.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Gombosi, T. I.


    The future of space weather prediction depends on the community's ability to predict L1 values from observations of the solar atmosphere, which can yield hours of lead time. While both empirical and physics-based L1 forecast methods exist, it is not yet known if this nascent capability can translate to skilled dB/dt forecasts at the Earth's surface. This paper shows results for the first forecast-quality, solar-atmosphere-to-Earth's-surface dB/dt predictions. Two methods are used to predict solar wind and IMF conditions at L1 for several real-world coronal mass ejection events. The first method is an empirical and observationally based system to estimate the plasma characteristics. The magnetic field predictions are based on the Bz4Cast system which assumes that the CME has a cylindrical flux rope geometry locally around Earth's trajectory. The remaining plasma parameters of density, temperature and velocity are estimated from white-light coronagraphs via a variety of triangulation methods and forward based modelling. The second is a first-principles-based approach that combines the Eruptive Event Generator using Gibson-Low configuration (EEGGL) model with the Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM). EEGGL specifies parameters for the Gibson-Low flux rope such that it erupts, driving a CME in the coronal model that reproduces coronagraph observations and propagates to 1AU. The resulting solar wind predictions are used to drive the operational Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) for geospace. Following the configuration used by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center, this setup couples the BATS-R-US global magnetohydromagnetic model to the Rice Convection Model (RCM) ring current model and a height-integrated ionosphere electrodynamics model. The long lead time predictions of dB/dt are compared to model results that are driven by L1 solar wind observations. Both are compared to real-world observations from surface magnetometers at a variety of geomagnetic latitudes

  16. Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network) - A Meaningful Practice of New Cyberinfrastructure on Space Science (United States)

    Hu, X.; Zou, Z.


    For the next decades, comprehensive big data application environment is the dominant direction of cyberinfrastructure development on space science. To make the concept of such BIG cyberinfrastructure (e.g. Digital Space) a reality, these aspects of capability should be focused on and integrated, which includes science data system, digital space engine, big data application (tools and models) and the IT infrastructure. In the past few years, CAS Chinese Space Science Data Center (CSSDC) has made a helpful attempt in this direction. A cloud-enabled virtual research platform on space science, called Solar-Terrestrial and Astronomical Research Network (STAR-Network), has been developed to serve the full lifecycle of space science missions and research activities. It integrated a wide range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary resources, to provide science-problem-oriented data retrieval and query service, collaborative mission demonstration service, mission operation supporting service, space weather computing and Analysis service and other self-help service. This platform is supported by persistent infrastructure, including cloud storage, cloud computing, supercomputing and so on. Different variety of resource are interconnected: the science data can be displayed on the browser by visualization tools, the data analysis tools and physical models can be drived by the applicable science data, the computing results can be saved on the cloud, for example. So far, STAR-Network has served a series of space science mission in China, involving Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Science (this program has invested some space science satellite as DAMPE, HXMT, QUESS, and more satellite will be launched around 2020) and Meridian Space Weather Monitor Project. Scientists have obtained some new findings by using the science data from these missions with STAR-Network's contribution. We are confident that STAR-Network is an exciting practice of new cyberinfrastructure architecture on

  17. Space-charge-limited-current diode model for amorphous silicon solar cell degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partain, L.D.


    A space-charge-limited-current (SCLI) diode model for trap controlled rectification in the dark is extended to a continuous trap distribution for p-i-n a-Si:H solar cells in the light. Light degradation, thermal annealing recovery, and 10% efficient device data are quantitatively fit with i layer, conduction electron concentrations between 1.95 (10 11 ) and 1.90 (10 12 ) cm -3 and band gap trap concentration densities between 7.66 (10 14 ) and 1.14 (10 18 ) cm -3 ev -1 for 0.2 to 0.5 eV below the conduction band edge (E/sub c/). Light exposure increased the trap density at 0.4 eV below E/sub c/ by a factor of 7. Annealing decreased the distance of the peak trap density from E/sub c/ by 0.2 eV. These results agree with trap distributions measured with field effect, DLTS, and ICTS and with theoretical models based on dangling bonds or on defect rearrangements. The model indicates that a minimum peak amplitude of 10 17 cm -3 eV -1 of trapping states is required at about 0.5 eV below E/sub c/ for high fill factors (FF) and open circuit voltages (V/sub oc/). Improved FF values of 0.76 are predicted for trap densities below 10 15 cm -3 eV -1 at 0.2 to 0.4 eV below E/sub c/. Increased V/sub oc/ values of 0.99 V are predicted for a peak trap density of 3.5 (10 17 ) cm -3 eV -1 at 0.5 eV below E/sub c/

  18. Solar Sailing (United States)

    Johnson, Les


    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  19. Theoretical comparison of solar water/space-heating combi systems and stratification design options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon


    A theoretical analysis of differently designed solar combi systems is performed with weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year (55ºN). Three solar combi system designs found on the market are investigated. The investigation focuses on the influence of stratification on the thermal perfor...

  20. Economic Evaluation of a Solar Charged Thermal Energy Store for Space Heating


    Melo, Manuel


    A thermal energy store corrects the misalignment of heating demand in the winter relative to solar thermal energy gathered in the summer. This thesis reviews the viability of a solar charged hot water tank thermal energy store for a school at latitude 56.25N, longitude -120.85W

  1. Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D


    The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

  2. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri (United States)


    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  4. Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the creation and development of an automated robotic manufacturing infrastructure...

  5. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.


    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  6. Technologies and Methods Used at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) to Serve Solar Irradiance Data (United States)

    Pankratz, Chris; Beland, Stephane; Craft, James; Baltzer, Thomas; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Doug; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas; Woodraska, Don


    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado in Boulder, USA operates the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) NASA mission, as well as several other NASA spacecraft and instruments. Dozens of Solar Irradiance data sets are produced, managed, and disseminated to the science community. Data are made freely available to the scientific immediately after they are produced using a variety of data access interfaces, including the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter (LISIRD), which provides centralized access to a variety of solar irradiance data sets using both interactive and scriptable/programmatic methods. This poster highlights the key technological elements used for the NASA SORCE mission ground system to produce, manage, and disseminate data to the scientific community and facilitate long-term data stewardship. The poster presentation will convey designs, technological elements, practices and procedures, and software management processes used for SORCE and their relationship to data quality and data management standards, interoperability, NASA data policy, and community expectations.

  7. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  8. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites (United States)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher


    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  9. InGaAs/InP solar cells for space application (United States)

    Karlina, L. B.; Kazantsev, A. B.; Kozlovskii, V. V.; Mokina, I. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.


    The effects of irradiation of In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/InP (InGaAs/InP) solar cells illuminated through a transparent InP substrate with 1 MeV electrons were measured. These solar cells were developed for bottom cells in tandem solar photovoltaic cell structures. Some InGaAs/InP heterostructures with four layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The structure of the solar cells allowed lightly doped materials in n and p photoactive layers to be used. The base dopant levels ranged from 1.10(exp 17) to 5.10(exp 17) cm(exp -3). The open circuit voltage and the short circuit current were moderately degraded after irradiation with 10(exp 16) cm(exp-2) 1 MeV electrons. This behavior is explained in terms of the device structure and the n and p layer thicknesses.

  10. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22. (United States)

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  11. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.


    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  12. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.


    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  13. NEAT: an astrometric space telescope to search for habitable exoplanets in the solar neighborhood (United States)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Kern, P.; Feautrier, P.; Preiss, O.; Martin, G.; Henault, F.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Behar, E.; Saintpe, M.; Dupont, J.; Potin, S.; Lagage, P.-O.; Cara, C.; Leger, A.; Leduigou, J.-M.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.


    The last decade has witnessed a spectacular development of exoplanet detection techniques, which led to an exponential number of discoveries and a great diversity of known exoplanets. However, it must be noted that the quest for the holy grail of astrobiology, i.e. a nearby terrestrial exoplanet in habitable zone around a solar type star, is still ongoing and proves to be very hard. Radial velocities will have to overcome stellar noise if there are to discover habitable planets around stars more massive than M ones. For very close systems, transits are impeded by their low geometrical probability. Here we present an alternative concept: space astrometry. NEAT (Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope) is a concept of astrometric mission proposed to ESA which goal is to make a whole sky survey of close (less then 20 pc) planetary systems. The detection limit required for the instrument is the astrometric signal of an Earth analog (at 10 pc). Differential astrometry is a very interesting tool to detect nearby habitable exoplanets. Indeed, for F, G and K main sequence stars, the astrophysical noise is smaller than the astrometric signal, contrary to the case for radial velocities. The difficulty lies in the fact that the signal of an exo-Earth around a G type star at 10 pc is a tiny 0.3 micro arc sec, which is equivalent to a coin on the moon, seen from the Earth: the main challenge is related to instrumentation. In order to reach this specification, NEAT consists of two formation flying spacecraft at a 40m distance, one carries the mirror and the other one the focal plane. Thus NEAT has a configuration with only one optical surface: an off-axis parabola. Consequently, beamwalk errors are common to the whole field of view and have a small effect on differential astrometry. Moreover a metrology system projects young fringes on the focal plane, which can characterize the pixels whenever necessary during the mission. NEAT has two main scientific objectives: combined with

  14. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henley, Marion


    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  15. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.


    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  16. Studies of Solar Flare and Interplanetary Particle Acceleration and Coordination of Ground-Based Solar Observations in Support of US and International Space Missions (United States)

    Kiplinger, Alan L.


    A primary focus has been to conduct studies of particular types of hard X-ray evolution in solar flares and their associations with high energy interplanetary protons observed near Earth. Previously, two large investigations were conducted that revealed strong associations between episodes of progressive spectral hardening seen in solar events and interplanetary proton events (Kiplinger, 1995). An algorithm was developed for predicting interplanetary protons that is more accurate than those currently in use when hard X-ray spectra are available. The basic research on a third study of the remaining independent subset of Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) events randomly not selected by the original studies was completed. This third study involves independent analyses of the data by two analysts. The results echo the success of the earlier studies. Of 405 flares analyzed, 12 events were predicted to have associated interplanetary protons at the Space Environment Service Center (SESC) level. Of these, five events appear to be directly associated with SESC proton events, six other events had lower level associated proton events, and there was only one false alarm with no protons. Another study by Garcia and Kiplinger (1995) established that progressively hardening hard X-ray flares associated with interplanetary proton events are intrinsically cooler and not extremely intense in soft X-rays unless a "contaminating" large impulsive flare accompanies the hardening flare.

  17. Multi-A.U. SOLAROSA Concentrator Solar Array for Space Science Missions, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS), in partnership with MOLLC will focus the proposed NASA Phase 2 effort on the development and demonstration of our innovative...

  18. Automated High-Volume Manufacturing of Modular Photovoltaic Panel Assemblies for Space Solar Arrays, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR Phase 2 program on the development and demonstration of an automated robotic manufacturing...

  19. Dosimetric control on board the MIR space station during the solar proton events of September-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghin, V.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Chernykh, I.V.; Teltsov, M.V.; Shumshurov, V.I.


    A set of dosimetric units for the control of radiation doses to cosmonauts on board the MIR space station contains an active dosimeter R-16 and a personal display dosimeter IPD-2. During the powerful solar proton events (SPE) in September-October 1989, the readings of these devices were used for the control of the crew's radiation damage. Results of the dose measurements and analysis of the dynamics caused by some heliogeophysical factors are given. It is shown that the total doses from SPE registered by the dosimeters R-16 and IPD-2 were 3.6 x 10 -2 and 0.9 x 10 -2 Gy, respectively. (author)

  20. The applicability of DOE solar cell and array technology to space power (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Berman, P. A.


    An evaluation of the main terrestrial photovoltaic development projects was performed. Technologies that may have applicability to space power are identified. Where appropriate, recommendations are made for programs to capitalize on developed technology. It is concluded that while the funding expended by DOE is considerably greater than the space (NASA and DOD) budget for photovoltaics, the terrestrial goals and the means for satisfying them are sufficiently different from space needs that little direct benefit currently exists for space applications.

  1. Space power system utilizing Fresnel lenses for solar power and also thermal energy storage (United States)

    Turner, R. H.


    A solar power plant suitable for earth orbits passing through Van Allen radiation belts is described. The solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency is estimated to be around 9 percent, and the expected power-to-weight ratio is competitive with photovoltaic arrays. The system is designed to be self-contained, to be indifferent to radiation belt exposures, store energy for periods when the orbiting system is in earth shadow (so that power generation is contant), have no moving parts and no working fluids, and be robust against micrometeorite attack. No electrical batteries are required.

  2. Modelling and design of high efficiency radiation tolerant indium phosphide space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, C.; Geier, J.V.; Weinberg, I.


    Using a fairly comprehensive model, the authors did a parametric variation study of the InP shallow homojunction solar cell with a view to determining the maximum realistically achievable efficiency and an optimum design that would yield this efficiency. Their calculations show that with good quality epitaxial material, a BOL efficiency of about 20.3% at 1AMO, 25 0 C may be possible. The design parameters of the near-optimum cell are given. Also presented are the expected radiation damage of the performance parameters by 1MeV electrons and a possible explanation of the high radiation tolerance of InP solar cells

  3. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain]. (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo


    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  4. Youth access to tobacco. (United States)

    Rigotti, N A


    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  5. Tobacco-Related Mortality (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  6. Risks of tobacco (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  7. Modelling, interpolation and stochastic simulation in space and time of global solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechini, L.; Ducco, G.; Donatelli, M.; Stein, A.


    Global solar radiation data used as daily inputs for most cropping systems and water budget models are frequently available from only a few weather stations and over short periods of time. To overcome this limitation, the Campbell–Donatelli model relates daily maximum and minimum air temperatures to

  8. A feasibility study on active solar space heating technology for office buildings in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letiane Benincá


    Full Text Available Este artigo explora a viabilidade de utilizar coletores solares térmicos com capacidade de armazenamento e radiadores convencionais para aquecimento de edifícios de escritórios na Grécia. Um modelo dinâmico de simulação na ferramenta ESP-r é utilizado para analisar o desempenho do sistema de coleta solar integrado ao edifício para diferentes perfis de demanda em todas as zonas climáticas da Grécia. O impacto da capacidade do sistema de armazenamento, a área do coletor e o ângulo de inclinação são investigados quanto ao desempenho geral do sistema. Os escritórios na Grécia se enquadram em vários cenários de demanda anual, determinados pela orientação do edifício, a localização e a exposição ao ambiente externo. Finalmente, uma tentativa é feita para extrapolar as descobertas para todo o estoque de escritórios da Grécia. A partir desse ponto, utilizando o sistema de aquecimento de energia solar ativo proposto, a economia de energia térmica alcançaria 29% no total devido à cobertura solar.

  9. The Descent of the Serpent: Using a Successful Ancient Solar Observatories Webcast from Chichen Itza to Highlight Space Weather Research (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Higdon, R.; Cline, T.


    Over the past seven years, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education and public outreach events to highlight NASA's heliophysics research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial events, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus, as well as Sun-Earth Day during the March Equinox, to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium and other museums, Ideum, NASA TV, NASA heliophysics missions, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide and internationally. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. As part of an Ancient Observatories theme in 2005, we have successfully featured solar alignments with ancient structures made by indigenous cultures that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices in cultural and historical parks in the Americas. In partnership with the Exploratorium, we produced broadcast-quality and webcast programming during the March equinox that shared heliophysics within a broad cultural context with formal and informal education audiences internationally. The program: "Descent of the Serpent" featured the light and shadow effect at sunset that takes place during the spring equinox at the Pyramid of El Castillo, in Chichén Itzá (México). This program made unique and authentic cultural connections to the knowledge of solar astronomy of the Maya, the living Mayan culture of today, and the importance of the Sun across the ages. We involved Sun-Earth Connection scientists, their missions, and research

  10. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)


    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  11. Solar flare X-radiation and energetic particles by the observation data from the Venera-13,14 space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, S.A.; Dajbog, E.I.; D'yachkov, A.P.


    The relationship between bursts of solar hard X-radiation quanta (Esub(x) > 0.055 MeV) and flares of solar cosmic rays (SCR) was considered on the basis of the data from the Venera-13, 14 space probes. The data on solar flares in Hsub(α) and thermal X-radiation range as well as radio-frequency radiation of the 3d type were used for analysis. It was established that the intensity amplitude of flare electrons (Esub(e) > 0.025 and > 0.07 MeV) and protons (Esub(p) > 1.0 MeV) correlates best with the flare importance in the thermal X-radiation range (r approximately 0.8+-0.03). The use of flare importance in thermal X-radiation range was independent measure of flare power in which SCR particles were generated enabled to construct heliolongitudinal dependences of the flare electron fluxes and to obtain the idea of the heliolongitudinal flare interval in which the effects of coronal propagation could be ignored. It is shown that the flux of the flare nonrelativistic electrons is related with the total energy release in the burst of hard X-radiation better than with the amplitude of this burst. Distributions of the solar events were studied with respect to the amplitudes of the intensity of electrons of SCR, thermal and hard X-radiation. It is shown that in the most part of the varying amplitude ranqe the distribution functions are approximated according to the power law. It is shown that the distribution function factor depends both on the parameter used for its construction and the type of events being used for analysis

  12. Method and Circuit for In-Situ Health Monitoring of Solar Cells in Space (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.


    This innovation represents a method and circuit realization of a system designed to make in-situ measurements of test solar-cell operational parameters on orbit using readily available high-temperature and high-ionizing-radiation- tolerant electronic components. This innovation enables on-orbit in-situ solar-array health monitoring and is in response to a need recognized by the U.S. Air Force for future solar arrays for unmanned spacecraft. This system can also be constructed out of commercial-grade electronics and can be embedded into terrestrial solar power system as a diagnostics instrument. This innovation represents a novel approach to I-V curve measurement that is radiation and temperature hard, consumes very few system resources, is economical, and utilizes commercially available components. The circuit will also operate at temperatures as low as 55 C and up to +225 C, allowing it to reside close to the array in direct sunlight. It uses a swept mode transistor functioning as a resistive load while utilizing the solar cells themselves as the biasing device, so the size of the instrument is small and there is no danger of over-driving the cells. Further, this innovation utilizes nearly universal spacecraft bus resources and therefore can be readily adapted to any spacecraft bus allowing for ease of retrofit, or designed into new systems without requiring the addition of infrastructure. One unique characteristic of this innovation is that it effects the measurement of I-V curves without the use of large resistor arrays or active current sources normally used to characterize cells. A single transistor is used as a variable resistive load across the cell. This multi-measurement instrument was constructed using operational amplifiers, analog switches, voltage regulators, MOSFETs, resistors, and capacitors. The operational amplifiers, analog switches, and voltage regulators are silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology known for its hardness to the effects of ionizing

  13. Performace of Dilute Nitride Triple Junction Space Solar Cell Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho Arto


    Full Text Available Dilute nitride arsenide antimonide compounds offer widely tailorable band-gaps, ranging from 0.8 eV to 1.4 eV, for the development of lattice-matched multijunction solar cells with three or more junctions. Here we report on the performance of GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb solar cell grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An efficiency of 27% under AM0 conditions is demonstrated. In addition, the cell was measured at different temperatures. The short circuit current density exhibited a temperature coefficient of 0.006 mA/cm2/°C while the corresponding slope for the open circuit voltage was −6.8 mV/°C. Further efficiency improvement, up to 32%, is projected by better current balancing and structural optimization.

  14. Analysis on anomalous degradation in silicon solar cell designed for space use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Takeshi; Morita, Yousuke; Nashiyama, Isamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawasaki, Osamu; Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Yasunari; Matsuda, Sumio; Nakao, Tetsuya; Wakow, Yoshihito


    Recently, we have found the anomalous degradation of electrical performance in silicon solar cells irradiated with charged particles in a high-fluence region. This anomalous phenomenon has two typical features, which are sudden-drop-down of electrical performances in a high-fluence region and slight recovery of the short circuit current I{sub SC} just before the sudden-drop-down. These features cannot be understood by a conventional model coming from the decrease of minority-carriers life-time. We introduce this anomalous degradation of the electrical performance in Si solar cells irradiated with electrons or protons. We also report the result of simulation for the fluence dependence of the I{sub SC}, and discuss the mechanism of this anomalous phenomenon. (author)

  15. A Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Science (United States)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; hide


    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  16. SCEPS In Space - Non-Radioisotope Power Systems for Sunless Solar System Exploration Missions (Phase II) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stored Chemical Energy Power Systems (SCEPS) have been used in U.S. Navy torpedos for decades. The Penn State Applied Research Lab proposes to continue the study of...

  17. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum dots are nanoscale materials that have already improved the performance of optical sensors, lasers, and light emitting diodes. The unique properties of these...

  18. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.


    The development of photovoltaic arrays beyond the next generation is discussed with attention given to the potentials of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells. Of particular importance is the efficiency (the fraction of incident solar energy converted to electricity) and specific power (power to weight ratio). It is found that the radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1-MeV electrons.

  19. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

  20. Reconstructing Space- and Energy-Dependent Exciton Generation in Solution-Processed Inverted Organic Solar Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yajie; Lu, Guanghao; Feng, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Tong; Xie, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Jiahui; Wei, Zhixiang; Bu, Laju


    Photon absorption-induced exciton generation plays an important role in determining the photovoltaic properties of donor/acceptor organic solar cells with an inverted architecture. However, the reconstruction of light harvesting and thus exciton generation at different locations within organic inverted device are still not well resolved. Here, we investigate the film depth-dependent light absorption spectra in a small molecule donor/acceptor film. Including depth-dependent spectra into an optical transfer matrix method allows us to reconstruct both film depth- and energy-dependent exciton generation profiles, using which short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency of the inverted device are simulated and compared with the experimental measurements. The film depth-dependent spectroscopy, from which we are able to simultaneously reconstruct light harvesting profile, depth-dependent composition distribution, and vertical energy level variations, provides insights into photovoltaic process. In combination with appropriate material processing methods and device architecture, the method proposed in this work will help optimizing film depth-dependent optical/electronic properties for high-performance solar cells.

  1. Engineering experimental program on the effects of near-space radiation on lithium doped solar cells (United States)


    The results of an experimental evaluation of the real-time degradation characteristics of lithium-diffused silicon solar cells are reported. A strontium-90 radioisotope was used for simulation of a typical earth-orbital electron environment. The experiment was performed in an ion pump vacuum chamber with samples maintained at -50, +20, +50, and +80 C. Samples were illuminated during the 6-month exposure run with solar cell 1-5 characteristics measured periodically in situ. This 6-month exposure corresponded to a 1 MeV equivalent fluence of approximately 10 to the 14th power electrons/sq cm. Several types of lithium cells were irradiatied and compared directly with conventional N/P cells. The best lithium cells compared favorably with N/P cells, particularly at the higher test temperatures. With a slight improvement of initial performance characteristics, lithium cells appear feasible for 5 to 10 year missions at synchronous altitude. Based on the reported results and those of other irradiation experiments, lithium cells would appear to be superior to N/P cells in proton-dominated earth-orbital environments. Another important conclusion of the effort was that illuminated/loaded cells degrade more rapidly than do dark/unloaded cells. The irradiation experiment provided data of high quality with a high degree of confidence because of the experimental and statistical analysis techniques utilized.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierchio, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Plavchan, P.; Stauffer, J. R.; Gorlova, N. I.


    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 μm of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% ± 6.8%, have excesses at 24 μm at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity on the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.

  3. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  4. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet In-Space Bases and Moon Bases for Resource Processing (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. The propulsion and transportation requirements for all of the major moons of Uranus and Neptune are presented. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, factories, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) low gravity processing factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. Several artificial gravity in-space base designs and orbital sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  5. Caliste-SO X-ray micro-camera for the STIX instrument on-board Solar Orbiter space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Hurford, G.; Bednarzik, M.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Horeau, B.; Grimm, O.; Resanovic, R.; Krucker, S.; Orleański, P.


    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is an instrument on the Solar-Orbiter space mission that performs hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of solar flares. It consists of 32 collimators with grids and 32 spectrometer units called Caliste-SO for indirect Fourier-transform imaging. Each Caliste-SO device integrates a 1 cm 2 CdTe pixel sensor with a low-noise low-power analog front-end ASIC and circuits for supply regulation and filtering. The ASIC named IDeF-X HD is designed by CEA/Irfu (France) whereas CdTe-based semiconductor detectors are provided by the Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). The design of the hybrid, based on 3D Plus technology (France), is well suited for STIX spectroscopic requirements (1 keV FWHM at 6 keV, 4 keV low-level threshold) and system constraints (4 W power and 5 kg mass). The performance of the sub-assemblies and the design of the first Caliste-SO prototype are presented.

  6. Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Viorel


    Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two non-linear coupled partial differential equations for the temperature of the storage medium and heat transfer fluid, respectively. Preliminary results show that smaller TES units provide a higher heat flux to the heat pump vaporiser. This makes the small TES unit discharge more rapidly during time periods with higher thermal loads. The larger TES units provide heat during longer time periods, even if the heat flux they supply is generally smaller. The maximum heat flux is extracted from the TES unit during the morning. Both the heat pump COP and exergy efficiency decrease when the TES unit length increases. Also, the monthly thermal energy stored by the TES unit and the monthly energy necessary to drive the heat pump compressor are increased by increasing the TES unit length

  7. The Solar System According to General Relativity: The Sun's Space Breaking Meets the Asteroid Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.


    Full Text Available This study deals with the exact solution of Einstein’s field equations for a sphere of incompressible liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Schwarzschild, by which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The ob- tained exact solution is then applied to the Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of incompressible liq- uid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object whose characteristics (mass, density, and size are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun’s space meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter’s space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side. Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun’s space break.

  8. The Orbitrap mass analyzer as a space instrument for the understanding of prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System (United States)

    Vuitton, Véronique; Briois, Christelle; Makarov, Alexander

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that organic molecules are widespread in our Solar System and beyond. The better understand of the prebiotic chemistry leading to their formation is a primary objective of many ongoing space missions. Cassini-Huygens revealed the existence of very large molecular structures in Titan's atmosphere as well as on its surface, in the form of dune deposits, but their exact nature remains elusive. One key science goal of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is to assess the presence of organics on the red planet. Rosetta will characterize the elemental and isotopic composition of the gas and dust ejected from comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while amino acids have been detected in meteorites. This search for complex organics relies heavily on mass spectrometry, which has the remarkable ability to analyze and quantify species from almost any type of sample (provided that the appropriate sampling and ionizing method is used). Because of the harsh constraints of the spatial environment, the mass resolution of the spectrometers onboard current space probes is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, leading to significant limitations in the scientific return of the data collected. Therefore, future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from instruments relying on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Since 2009, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies form a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercializes Orbitrap based laboratory instruments. The Orbitrap is an electrostatic mass analyzer, it is compact, lightweight, and can reach a good sensitivity and dynamic range. A prototype is under development at

  9. The 100 kW space station. [regenerative fuel cells and nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium batteries for solar arrays (United States)

    Mckhann, G.


    Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most appropriate and should be studied for a 100 KWe SCB system. A conservative NiH2 battery DOD (18.6%) was elected due to lack of test data and offers considerable improvement potential. Multiorbit load averaging and reserve capacity requirements limit nominal DOD to 30% to 50% maximum, independent of life considerations.

  10. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Program SEPSIM (solar electric propulsion stage simulation). [in FORTRAN: space tug (United States)

    Lang, T. J.


    Program SEPSIM is a FORTRAN program which performs deployment, servicing, and retrieval missions to synchronous equatorial orbit using a space tug with a continuous low thrust upper stage known as a solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS). The SEPS ferries payloads back and forth between an intermediate orbit and synchronous orbit, and performs the necessary servicing maneuvers in synchronous orbit. The tug carries payloads between the orbiter and the intermediate orbit, deploys fully fueled SEPS vehicles, and retrieves exhausted SEPS vehicles when, and if, required. The program is presently contained in subroutine form in the Logistical On-orbit VEhicle Servicing (LOVES) Program, but can also be run independently with the addition of a simple driver program.

  11. The role of oxygen in CdS/CdTe solar cells deposited by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.H.; Levi, D.H.; Matson, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    The presence of oxygen during close-spaced sublimation (CSS) of CdTe has been previously reported to be essential for high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar cells because it increases the acceptor density in the absorber. The authors find that the presence of oxygen during CSS increases the nucleation site density of CdTe, thus decreasing pinhole density and grain size. Photoluminescence showed that oxygen decreases material quality in the bulk of the CdTe film, but positively impacts the critical CdS/CdTe interface. Through device characterization the authors were unable to verify an increase in acceptor density with increased oxygen. These results, along with the achievement of high-efficiency cells (13% AM1.5) without the use of oxygen, led the authors to conclude that the use of oxygen during CSS deposition of CdTe can be useful but is not essential.

  12. Development of an industrialized space-frame system for the support of medium to large solar collector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A low-cost industrialized space-frame system suitable for the economical support of medium to large solar collector arrays was designed following a study of building types, collector interface conditions, structural design requirements, and market and procurement factors. The system consists of a series of welded truss modular sections which may be bolted together in the field to create a support structure with a span capability up to 25 m, thus minimizing expensive structural beams and roof penetrations. Collectors can be readily attached to top and bottom channels. The system meets all current government specifications for collector support. A full-size prototype was built to prove the concept and identify any fabrication and on-site assembly problems. Collectors were attached to test collector interface conditions, and a manufacturing strategy developed. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  14. The role of MEXART in the National Space Weather Laboratory of Mexico: Detection of solar wind, CMEs, ionosphere, active regions and flares. (United States)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.; Andrade, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Chang, O.; Romero Hernandez, E.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Perez Alanis, C. A.; Reyes-Marin, P. A.


    The National Space Weather Laboratory - Laboratorio Nacional de Clima Espacial (LANCE) - of Mexico has different ground based instruments to study and monitor the space weather. One of these instruments is the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) which is principally dedicated to remote sensing the solar wind and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at 140 MHz, the instrument can detect solar wind densities and speeds from about 0.4 to 1 AU by modeling observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS). MEXART is also able to detect ionospheric disturbances associated with transient space weather events by the analysis of ionospheric scintillation (IONS) . Additionally, MEXART has followed the Sun since the beginning of the current Solar Cycle 24 with records of 8 minutes per day, and occasionally, has partially detected the process of strong solar flares. Here we show the contributions of MEXART to the LANCE by reporting recent detections of CMEs by IPS, the arrive of transient events at Earth by IONS, the influence of active regions in the flux of the Sun at 140 MHz and the detection of a M6.5 class flare. Furthermore we report the status of a near real time analysis of IPS data for forecast purposes and the potential contribution to the Worldwide IPS Stations network (WIPSS), which is an effort to achieve a better coverage of the solar wind observations in the inner heliosphere.

  15. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic and Human Missions in Near-Earth Space (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John


    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science, lunar exploration, lunar exploitation, planetary science, and planetary exploration. These missions span SEP power range from 10s of kWe to several MWe. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  16. Application of Solar-Electric Propulsion to Robotic Missions in Near-Earth Space (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Dankanich, John


    Interest in applications of solar electric propulsion (SEP) is increasing. Application of SEP technology is favored when: (1) the mission is compatible with low-thrust propulsion, (2) the mission needs high total delta V such that chemical propulsion is disadvantaged; and (3) performance enhancement is needed. If all such opportunities for future missions are considered, many uses of SEP are likely. Representative missions are surveyed and several SEP applications selected for analysis, including orbit raising, lunar science and robotic exploration, and planetary science. These missions span SEP power range from 10 kWe to about 100 kWe. A SEP design compatible with small inexpensive launch vehicles, and capable of lunar science missions, is presented. Modes of use and benefits are described, and potential SEP evolution is discussed.

  17. One-year assessment of a solar space/water heater--Clinton, Mississippi (United States)


    Unit called "System 4" integrated into space-heating and hot-water systems of dormitory satisfied 32 percent of building heat load. System 4 includes flat-plate air collectors, circulation blowers, rock storage bed with heat exchanger, two hot water tanks, and auxiliary heaters. Report describes performance of system and subsystems, operating-energy requirements and savings, and performance parameters.

  18. Progress in the development of metamorphic multi-junction III-V space solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinharoy, S.; Patton, M.O.; Valko, T.M.; Weizer, V.G. [Essential Research Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Theoretical calculations have shown that highest-efficiency III-V multi-junction solar cells require alloy structures that cannot be grown on a lattice-matched substrate. Ever since the first demonstration of high efficiency metamorphic single-junction 1.1 and 1.2 eV InGaAs solar cells, interest has grown in the development of multi-junction cells of this type, using graded buffer layer technology. Essential Research Incorporated (ERI) is currently developing a dual-junction 1.6 eV InGaP/1.1 eV InGaAs tandem cell (projected practical air-mass zero (AMO), one-sun efficiency of 27%, and 100-sun efficiency of 31.1%) under a Ballistic Missile Defense Command (BMDO) SBIR Phase II program. A second ongoing research effort involves the development of a 2.1 eV A1GaInP/1.6 eV InGaAsP/1.2 eV InGaAs triple-junction concentrator tandem cell (projected practical AMO efficiency 36.5% under 100 suns) under a SBIR Phase II program funded by the Air Force. We are in the process of optimizing the dual-junction cell performance. For the triple-junction cell, we have developed the bottom and the middle cell, and are in the process of developing the layer structures needed for the top cell. A progress report is presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Cooling design and evaluation for photovoltaic cells within constrained space in a CPV/CSP hybrid solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng; Shi, Junxiang; Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Schafer, Steven R.; Munir, Moiz; Stecker, Greg; Pan, Wei; Lee, Jong-Jan; Chen, Chung-Lung


    Highlights: • A practical cooling solution is proposed for a novel CPV/CSP hybrid solar system. • Both passive and active cooling techniques were systematically investigated. • Comprehensive experimental and numerical studies were conducted for optimal design. • Active cooling is in great need for a high waste heat flux of 21.8 W/cm 2 . • Passive cooling becomes attractive for a waste heat flux less than 13.0 W/cm 2 . - Abstract: A hybrid solar energy system has been designed by combining the advantages of concentrated solar power (CSP) technology and high performance concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) cells which outperforms either single technology. Thermal management is crucial to CPV cells in this hybrid solar system, as concentrated solar radiation onto the PV cells leads to higher heat flux. If the heat is not dissipated effectively, it can cause obvious temperature rise and efficiency reduction in the cell. In addition, the constrained space available for PV cell cooling in such hybrid solar systems presents more challenges. In this study both passive cooling and active cooling techniques were systematically investigated in both numerical and experimental ways. For the passive cooling method, two different designs from off-the-shelf heat pipes with radial fins or annular fins were proposed and studied under various heat rejection requirements. Results shows that heat pipes with radial fins exhibited narrow capability of dumping the heat, while heat pipes with annular fins presented better performances under the same conditions. Numerical optimal designs of annular fin numbers and fin gaps were then carried out and experimentally validated, indicating a capability of dumping moderate waste heat (∼45 W). For active cooling technique, a comprehensive study of designing plate fin heatsinks were conducted corresponding to high Ingress Protection (IP) rated off-the-shelf fans. Results show that with a less than 2 W fan power consumption, this active

  20. Triple Junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cell Optimization: The Design Parameters for a 36.2% Efficient Space Cell Using Silvaco ATLAS Modeling & Simulation


    Tsutagawa, Michael H.; Michael, Sherif


    This paper presents the design parameters for a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge space solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 36.28% using Silvaco ATLAS Virtual Wafer Fabrication tool. Design parameters include the layer material, doping concentration, and thicknesses.

  1. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian


    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  2. Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security: Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study (United States)


    density liquid hydrocarbons.  Put plainly, SBSP  could be utilized to split hydrogen from  water  and the carbon monoxide (syngas) from carbon  dioxide...facilitate  water   purification and irrigation, prevent frosts, extend growing seasons (if a little of the  energy were used locally) etc.  In the plains of...SBSP Issues    Alan  Wasser   Chairman  The Space Settlement Institute  Key Expertise: harnessing space property rights as a driver  for privately funded

  3. Advanced controls for stability assessment of solar dynamics space power generation (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Anwah, Nnamdi A.


    In support of the power requirements for the Space Station Alpha (SSA), a joint program by the U.S. and Russia for a permanently manned space station to be launched into orbit by 1998, a robust control scheme is needed to assure the stability of the rotating machines that will be integrated into the power subsystem. A framework design and systems studies for modeling and analysis is presented. It employs classical d-q axes machine model with voltage/frequency dependent loads. To guarantee that design requirements and necessary trade studies are done, a functional analysis tool CORE is used for the study. This provides us with different control options for stability assessment. Initial studies and recommendations using advanced simulation tools are also presented. The benefits of the stability/control scheme for evaluating future designs and power management are discussed.

  4. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  5. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim


    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  6. A solar combi-system based on a heat exchanger between the collector loop and space-heating loop (IEA task 26 generic system 2). A report of IEA SHC - task 26 solar combisystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.


    The most common Danish solar combi-system is theoretically investigated in the report. The principle in the system is that in a normal solar hot water system a heat exchanger is added to deliver solar energy from the collector loop directly to the space heating loop. In this way solar energy for space heating is not stored which is expected to decrease the performance. On the other hand the system is relatively inexpensive, which can compensate for a reduced performance. A TRNSYS model of the system is developed and sensitivity analyses of parameters are performed by simulation. The analyses show no major improvements of the system. Special emphasis has been put on investigating the control strategy and to investigate if the thermal mass of radiators of floor could act as buffer for the solar energy delivered to space heating and in this way improve the performance. The analyses show that this is possible and has advantages at larger collector areas. However the improvements are not as large as expected. An economic optimisation gives and optimum solar collector area of approximately 10 m 2 . However the optimum curve is quite flat for areas above 7 m 2 , and collector areas up to 15 m 2 are also feasible. The calculated performacnes have been the basis for comparisons with the other systems modelled in the task 26. The comparison shows that the performance is not among the best, but however probably not as bad as expected. Furthermore the inexpensive design compensates to some extent for the lower performance. Furthermore the material use of the system and the energy used to produce the materials has been estimated. The energy demand is in a range that gives energy pay back times of 1.9-2.5 years. (au)

  7. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H


    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  8. Large area, low cost space solar cells with optional wraparound contacts (United States)

    Michaels, D.; Mendoza, N.; Williams, R.


    Design parameters for two large area, low cost solar cells are presented, and electron irradiation testing, thermal alpha testing, and cell processing are discussed. The devices are a 2 ohm-cm base resistivity silicon cell with an evaporated aluminum reflector produced in a dielectric wraparound cell, and a 10 ohm-cm silicon cell with the BSF/BSR combination and a conventional contact system. Both cells are 5.9 x 5.9 cm and require 200 micron thick silicon material due to mission weight constraints. Normalized values for open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and maximum power calculations derived from electron radiation testing are given. In addition, thermal alpha testing values of absorptivity and emittance are included. A pilot cell processing run produced cells averaging 14.4% efficiencies at AMO 28 C. Manufacturing for such cells will be on a mechanized process line, and the area of coverslide application technology must be considered in order to achieve cost effective production.

  9. Thermal analysis of heat storage canisters for a solar dynamic, space power system (United States)

    Wichner, R. P.; Solomon, A. D.; Drake, J. B.; Williams, P. T.


    A thermal analysis was performed of a thermal energy storage canister of a type suggested for use in a solar receiver for an orbiting Brayton cycle power system. Energy storage for the eclipse portion of the cycle is provided by the latent heat of a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF2 contained in the canister. The chief motivation for the study is the prediction of vapor void effects on temperature profiles and the identification of possible differences between ground test data and projected behavior in microgravity. The first phase of this study is based on a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinates model using an interim procedure for describing void behavor in 1-g and microgravity. The thermal analysis includes the effects of solidification front behavior, conduction in liquid/solid salt and canister materials, void growth and shrinkage, radiant heat transfer across the void, and convection in the melt due to Marangoni-induced flow and, in 1-g, flow due to density gradients. A number of significant differences between 1-g and o-g behavior were found. This resulted from differences in void location relative to the maximum heat flux and a significantly smaller effective conductance in 0-g due to the absence of gravity-induced convection.

  10. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.


    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  11. Effect of electron irradiation on defect distribution in solar cells for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, J.P.; Bruguier, G.; Mialhe, P.; Ruas, R.


    The distribution of the recombination centers in the spacecharge region was highly dissymetrical before irradiation. After irradiation by a high density electron beam of 10 15 cm -2 with an energy of 1 MeV, the recombination process predominates in the whole bias range. The irradiation yields both an increase in density of the recombination centers and a more homogeneous distribution of traps in the space charge region with an improvement in the behaviour of cells (via the fill factor). This effect is counterbalanced by poor operation in the base and the emitter with a decrease in the efficiency of the device by 20% [fr

  12. The Earth in space: An essay on the origin of the Solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The origin of the sun and planets has been reviewed
    from manifold considerations — nuclear, astrophysical, chemical and geophysical.
    Basically, there are two schools of thought: monistic, which
    postulates that the sun and the planets formed from some primordial system
    of gases; and dualistic, which holds that the planets and meteorites had
    genesis in the sun's collision wtili another star. The extreme improbability
    of collision almost discards this hypothesis.
    The present day accepted theories are, hence, the monistic ones, and
    the one particularly favored is the Dust — cloud hypothesis — that the sun
    condensed into a star due to the gravitational collapse of a massive interstellar
    gas-cloud, and subsequently gave birth to planets as further evolution
    of the cloud progressed. Studies of extinct radioactivities, within the
    framework of the above hypothesis, give clue to the early history of the
    solar system and in particular indicate that the time interval between the
    start of condensation and the formation of the meteorite parent-bodies is
    less six million years (Cameron. In this context the origin of stars from
    " globules " or proto-stars has been briefly discussed.
    A somewhat " exotic " theory of the formation of planets from the
    sun which hinged on the concept of secular decrease of the ' constant ' of
    gravitation with the age of the universe (Dirac's hypothesis has been discussed.
    The earth (with expansion of its volume and other celestial
    bodies might provide empirical confirmation of the concept of diminishing
    gravitation — an important problem of general relativity. This new idea
    of physics might revolutionise fundamental concepts in geology and geophysics.

  13. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects (United States)

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  14. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  15. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  16. Radiation Measured with Different Dosimeters for ISS-Expedition 18-19/ULF2 on Board International Space Station during Solar Minimum (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Gaza, R.; Roed, Y.; Semones, E.; Lee, K.; Steenburgh, R.; Johnson, S.; Flanders, J.; Zapp, N.


    Radiation field of particles in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). GCR are modulated by solar activity, at the period of solar minimum activity, GCR intensity is at maximum and the main contributor for space radiation is GCR. At present for space radiation measurements conducted by JSC (Johnson Space Center) SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), the preferred active dosimeter sensitive to all LET (Linear Energy Transfer) is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. For the method using passive dosimeters, radiation quantities for all LET can be obtained by combining radiation results measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs. TEPC, TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 detectors were used to measure the radiation field for the ISS (International Space Station) - Expedition 18-19/ULF2 space mission which was conducted from 15 November 2008 to 31 July 2009 - near the period of the recent solar minimum activity. LET spectra (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) and radiation quantities were measured for positions TEPC, TESS (Temporary Sleeping Station, inside the polyethylene lined sleep station), SM-P 327 and 442 (Service Module - Panel 327 and 442). This paper presents radiation LET spectra measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs and radiation dose measured with TLDs/OSLDs as well as the radiation quantities combined from results measured with passive dosimeters.

  17. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART B : Results and Capacity Building (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Petitdidier, M.; Soula, S.; Masson, F.; Davila, J.; Doherty, P.; Elias, A.; Gadimova, S.; Makela, J.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Richardson, J.; Touzani, A.; Girgea Team


    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern solar terrestrial physics, atmospheric physics and space weather. This part B is devoted to the results and capacity building. Our network began in 1991, in solar terrestrial physics, by our participation in the two projects: International Equatorial Electrojet Year IEEY [1992-1993] and International Heliophysical Year IHY [2007-2009]. These two projects were mainly focused on the equatorial ionosphere in Africa. In Atmospheric physics our research focused on gravity waves in the framework of the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis project n°1 [2005-2009 ], on hydrology in the Congo river basin and on lightning in Central Africa, the most lightning part of the world. In Vietnam the study of a broad climate data base highlighted global warming. In space weather, our results essentially concern the impact of solar events on global navigation satellite system GNSS and on the effects of solar events on the circulation of electric currents in the earth (GIC). This research began in the framework of the international space weather initiative project ISWI [2010-2012]. Finally, all these scientific projects have enabled young scientists from the South to publish original results and to obtain positions in their countries. These projects have also crossed disciplinary boundaries and defined a more diversified education which led to the training of specialists in a specific field with knowledge of related scientific fields.

  18. Effects of CdCl2 on the growth of CdTe on CdS films for solar cells by isothermal close-spaced vapor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccaro, P.O.; Meyer, G.O.; Saura, J.


    CdS/CdTe solar cells were made by depositing CdTe films by an isothermal close-spaced vapor transport method on sintered CdS/glass substrates. The influence of amounts of CdCl2 ranging from 0 wt% to 8 wt% in the CdTe source on the solar cells performance was studied. Increasing the CdCl2 content enhances the CdTe grainsize but degrades the spectral response and increases the reverse saturation current. An optimal CdCl2 concentration of 1 wt% was found for a growth temperature of 620 deg C. (Author)

  19. Tobacco and Pregnancy (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  20. Frosting characteristics and heating performance of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump for space heating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenzhu; Ji, Jie; Xu, Ning; Li, Guiqiang


    Highlights: • Frosting and heating performance of DX-SAHP under frosting conditions is investigated. • The conditions when DX-SAHP frosts are studied. • The frosting process is observed during 360 min of operating. • The effect of ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar irradiation is analyzed. - Abstract: Direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump system (DX-SAHP) is promising in energy saving applications, but the performance of DX-SAHP under frosting conditions is rarely reported in the published literatures. In this paper, a DX-SAHP system with bare solar collectors for space heating is designed and experimentally investigated in the enthalpy difference lab with a solar simulator. The system is tested under a range of frosting conditions, with the ambient temperatures from 7 °C to −3 °C, the relative humidities of 50%, 70% and 90% and the solar irradiances of 0 W/m"2, 100 W/m"2, 200 W/m"2 and 300 W/m"2. The conditions when the DX-SAHP system frosts are studied. Results show that solar irradiance as low as 100 W/m"2 can totally prevent frosting when the ambient temperature is above −3 °C and the relative humidity is 70%. Besides, the frosting process is observed to be slower than that of fin-and-tube heat exchangers. The evaporator is not seriously frosted and the system performance is not significantly influenced after 360 min of continuous operating. Moreover the effects of ambient parameters, including the ambient temperature and the relative humidity, especially solar irradiation, on the system performance are studied and analyzed. Solar irradiation can effectively prevent or retard frosting, and also improve the heating performance of the DX-SAHP system. The DX-SAHP system is proved to be applicable under frosting conditions.

  1. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow


    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  2. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.


    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model

  3. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations (United States)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)


    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  4. Determination of space charge region width and diffusion length in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorber from solar cell spectral characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tivanov, M.; Mazanik, A.; Drozdov, N.; Zaretskaya, E.


    Full text : The space-charge region width and diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the base region (Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 absorber) are the most important parameters of the solar cell. These parameters determine the efficiency of a solar cell therefore the problem of their control is essential. In this work it is present simple non-destructive method of extracting the parameters of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 -based solar cell (space-charge region width and diffusion length of minority charge carriers in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 absorber) from the analysis of solar cell spectral photoresponse. The method is based on one-dimensional model of a solar cell and on the change of in-depth distribution of the photogenerated carriers in the solar cell and, hence, on the change of its photoresponse with the wave-length variation. The following assumptions are accepted: the reflection of charge carriers from a back contact and the ''drawing'' field in the quasi-neutral area of the absorber layers are absent, window and buffer layers are transparent in the analyzed part of photoresponse spectrum, the injection level of minority charge carriers is low, the recombination losses at the metallurgical p-n-junction interface of the studied photosensitive structure linearly depend on the photocurrent density. For the calculation it is necessary to obtain the following set of the experimental data: the spectral density of incident radiation, the spectral dependence of photocurrent or photovoltage of the studied photosensitive structure, the spectral dependences of optical absorption coefficient and reflectance.

  5. Thermal Performance of Solar Air Heater Having Absorber Plate with V-Down Discrete Rib Roughness for Space-Heating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karwa


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of thermal performance analysis of a solar air heater with v-down discrete rib roughness on the air flow side of the absorber plate, which supplies heated air for space heating applications. The air heater operates in a closed loop mode with inlet air at a fixed temperature of 295 K from the conditional space. The ambient temperature varied from 278 K to 288 K corresponding to the winter season of Western Rajasthan, India. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of performance plots, which can be utilized by a designer for calculating desired air flow rate at different ambient temperature and solar insolation values.

  6. Ratioing methods for in-flight response calibration of space-based spectro-radiometers, operating in the solar spectral region (United States)

    Lobb, Dan


    One of the most significant problems for space-based spectro-radiometer systems, observing Earth from space in the solar spectral band (UV through short-wave IR), is in achievement of the required absolute radiometric accuracy. Classical methods, for example using one or more sun-illuminated diffusers as reflectance standards, do not generally provide methods for monitoring degradation of the in-flight reference after pre-flight characterisation. Ratioing methods have been proposed that provide monitoring of degradation of solar attenuators in flight, thus in principle allowing much higher confidence in absolute response calibration. Two example methods are described. It is shown that systems can be designed for relatively low size and without significant additions to the complexity of flight hardware.

  7. Hazards in the Solar System: Out-of-School Time Student Activities Focused on Engineering Protective Space Gloves (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Meyer, N.; Anderson, R. B.; Sokol, K.; Nolan, B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Clark, J.


    "In Good Hands: Engineering Space Gloves" is a new Engineering Adventures® curriculum unit created for students in grades 3-5 in out-of-school time programs. It was designed and created by the Engineering is Elementary® team at the Museum of Science in Boston, MA, in collaboration with subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center and teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University's Center for Science Teaching and Learning. As part of the NASA-funded PLANETS (Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science) project, the goals for this unit are to introduce students to some of the potential hazards that would be faced by astronauts exploring planetary bodies in the solar system, and to engage students in thinking about how to engineer solutions to these challenges. Potential human health hazards in planetary exploration include: little to no breathable oxygen, exposure to extreme temperatures and pressures, radiation, dusty or toxic environments, and/or high velocity debris. First, students experiment with gloves made of different materials to accomplish tasks like picking up paper clips, entering numbers on a calculator, and using simple tools, while also testing for insulating properties, protection from crushing forces, and resistance to dust contamination. Students explore the trade-offs between form and multiple desired functions, and gain an introduction to materials engineering. Students are then presented with three different missions. Mission 1 is to collect and return a sample from Saturn's moon, Titan; Mission 2 is mining asteroids for useful minerals; and Mission 3 is to build a radio tower on the far side of Earth's moon. Each of these missions exhibits different potential hazards. Based on their previous experiments with different types of glove materials, students develop and test glove designs that will protect astronauts from mission-specific hazards, while still

  8. A review of vertical coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere system: Effects of waves, sudden stratospheric warmings, space weather, and of solar activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yigit, E.; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Georgieva, K.; Ward, W.


    Roč. 141, April (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmosphere–ionosphere * vertical coupling * gravity waves * tides * space weather * solar activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016

  9. Preface to the Special Issue on "Connection of Solar and Heliospheric Activities with Near-Earth Space Weather: Sun-Earth Connection"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chun Wu Sunny W. Y. Tam


    Full Text Available This special issue of the Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (TAO presents a small collection of the materials presented at the 2011 International Space Plasma Symposium (ISPS, held at National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU in Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China (ROC, from August 15 - 19, 2011. The purpose of the Symposium was to bring space physicists together to present their recent research results and discuss some outstanding questions in, but not limited to, the solar corona, interplanetary medium, planetary magnetosphere and ionospheres. A total number of 59 papers were presented at the Symposium by scientists from 11 countries and regions.

  10. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  11. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  12. Solar Air Collectors for Space Heating and Ventilation Applications—Performance and Case Studies under Romanian Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Budea


    Full Text Available Solar air collectors have various applications: on the one hand, they can be used for air heating in cold seasons; on the other hand they can be used in summer to evacuate the warm and polluted air from residential, offices, industrial, and commercial buildings. The paper presents experimental results of a solar collector air, under the climatic conditions of the Southeastern Europe. The relationships between the direct solar irradiation, the resulting heat flow, the air velocity at the outlet, the air flow rate, the nominal regime of the collector and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy into thermal energy are all highlighted. Thus, it was shown that after a maximum 50 min, solar air collectors, with baffles and double air passage can reach over 50% efficiency for solar irradiation of 900–1000 W/m2. The article also presents a mathematical model and the results of a computational program that allows sizing solar collectors for the transfer of air, with the purpose of improving the natural ventilation of buildings. The article is completed with case studies, sizing the area to be covered with solar collectors, to ensure ventilation of a house with two floors or for an office building. In addition, the ACH (air change per hour coefficient was calculated and compared.

  13. Space-based solar power conversion and delivery systems study. Volume 2: Engineering analysis of orbital systems (United States)


    Program plans, schedules, and costs are determined for a synchronous orbit-based power generation and relay system. Requirements for the satellite solar power station (SSPS) and the power relay satellite (PRS) are explored. Engineering analysis of large solar arrays, flight mechanics and control, transportation, assembly and maintenance, and microwave transmission are included.

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition Re Ective Coatings For Future Astronomical Space Telescopes And The Solar Corona Viewed Through The Minxss (Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer) Cubesats (United States)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel


    Advances in technology and instrumentation open new windows for observing astrophysical objects. The first half of my dissertation involves the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings to create high reflectivity UV mirrors for future satellite astronomical telescopes. Aluminum (Al) has intrinsic reflectance greater than 80% from 90 – 2,000 nm, but develops a native aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer upon exposure to air that readily absorbs light below 250 nm. Thus, Al based UV mirrors must be protected by a transmissive overcoat. Traditionally, metal-fluoride overcoats such as MgF2 and LiF are used to mitigate oxidation but with caveats. We utilize a new metal fluoride (AlF3) to protect Al mirrors deposited by ALD. ALD allows for precise thickness control, conformal and near stoichiometric thin films. We prove that depositing ultra-thin ( 3 nm) ALD ALF3 to protect Al mirrors after removing the native oxide layer via atomic layer etching (ALE) enhances the reflectance near 90 nm from 5% to 30%.X-ray detector technology with high readout rates are necessary for the relatively bright Sun, particularly during large flares. The hot plasma in the solar corona generates X-rays, which yield information on the physical conditions of the plasma. The second half of my dissertation includes detector testing, characterization and solar science with the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats. The MinXSS CubeSats employ Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) detectors called X123, which generate full sun spectrally resolved ( 0.15 FWHM at 5.9 keV) measurements of the sparsely measured, 0.5 – 12 keV range. The absolute radiometric calibration of the MinXSS instrument suite was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive sources. I used MinXSS along with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Reuven Ramaty

  15. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king. (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A


    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at, and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  16. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.


    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  17. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  18. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use. (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin


    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Delivery of Exogenous Complex Organic Compounds by Solar System Small Bodies and Space Dusts and Its Relevance to Origins of Life (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Fushimi, Hidehiko; Motoyama, Takuya; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Okudaira, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    A wide variety of organic compounds including amino acid precursors have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated frozen mixtures of possible constituents of ice mantles of interstellar dust particles including water, methanol and ammonia with high-energy heavy ions from HIMAC, National Institute of Radiological Science, Japan. Amino acid precursors with complex structures were detected whose molecular weights are up to a few thousands. Such complex amino acid precursors are much stronger than free amino acids against radiation. Such organics could have been incorporated in solar system small bodies after the formation of the solar system and delivered to the primitive Earth. Possible carriers of such organics are meteorites, comets and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) that were formed from comets and meteorites. It is suggested that IDPs brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, nature of organics in IDPs is little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning a space experiments named Tanpopo, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes in the interplanetary space. We will report some preliminary results for the preparation of the mission including the capture of amino acid-containing particles at high velocity with ultra-low density aerogel.

  20. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  1. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer. (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  2. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua


    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  3. Cluster and SOHO - a joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Domingo, V.; Shawhan, S.D.; Bohlin, D.


    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed. 19 references

  4. Meteoroid Measurements in the Deep Space Cruising and the Jupiter Trojan Rendezvous Phases of the Solar Power Sail Mission by the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary Space (ALADDIN)-II (United States)

    Yano, H.; Hirai, T.; Arai, K.; Fujii, M.


    The PVDF thin films have been long, space-proven instruments for hypervelocity impact detection in the diverse regions of the Solar System from orbits of Venus by IKAROS and of Pluto by New Horizons. In particular, light weight but large area membranes of a solar sail spacecraft is an ideal location for such detectors to be deployed for detecting statistically enough nubers of so large micrometeoroids that are sensitive to mean motion resonances and other gravitational effects of flux enhancements and voids with planets. The IKAROS spacecraft first detected in situ dust flux enhancement and gap region within the Earth's circumsolar dust ring as well as those of Venus by 0.54 m^2 detection area of ALADDIN sensors on the slar sail membrane. Advancing this heritage, the Solar Power Sail membrane will carry 0.4+ m^2 ALADDIN-II PVDF sensors with improved impact signal prosessng units to detect both hyperveloity dust impacts in the interplanetary space cruising phase and slow dust impacts bound to the Jupiter Trojan region in its rendezvours phase.

  5. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail establishment...

  6. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display space...

  7. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia. (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark


    ground" to reduce consumption and social acceptability. To do this, we need to take back social spaces that the tobacco industry has laid claim to through advertising. Active monitoring and surveillance of tobacco advertising strategies is necessary and legislation and enforcement to curb the industry should be put in place.

  8. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.


    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  9. Effect of the grain sizes on the photovoltaic parameters of CdTe solar cells prepared by close space sublimation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potlog, T.


    Thin Film CdS/CdTe solar cells were fabricated by Close Space Sublimation at the substrate temperature ranging from 300 degrees ± 5 degrees to 340 degrees ± degrees. The best photovoltaic parameters were achieved at substrate temperature 320 degrees and source temperature 610 degrees. The open circuit voltage and current density changes significantly with the substrate temperature and depends on the dimension of the grain sizes. Grain size is an efficiency limiting parameter for CdTe layers with large grains. The open circuit voltage and current density are the best for the cells having dimension of grains between 1.0 μm and ∼ 5.0 μm. CdS/CdTe solar cells with an efficiency of ∼ 10% were obtained. (author)

  10. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood


    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  11. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use. (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie


    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  12. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  13. Three-dimensional reciprocal space profile of an individual nanocrystallite inside a thin-film solar cell absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodskyy, Taras; Schroth, Philip; Minkevich, Andrey; Grigoriev, Daniil; Fohtung, Edwin; Riotte, Markus; Baumbach, Tilo; Powalla, Michael; Lemmer, Uli; Slobodskyy, Anatoliy


    The strain profile of an individual Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 nanocrystallite in a solar cell absorber layer is accessed using synchrotron radiation. We find that the investigated crystallite is inhomogeneously strained. The strain is most likely produced by a combination of intergranular strain and composition variations in nanocrystals inside the polycrystalline semiconductor film and carries information about the intercrystalline interaction. The measurements are made nondestructively and without additional sample preparation or x-ray beam nanofocusing. This is the first step towards measurements of strain profiles of individual crystallites inside a working solar cell. (paper)

  14. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas


    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  15. Photovoltaic solar energy like an alternative in the urban spaces; La energia solar fotovoltaica como una alternativa en los espacios urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque, G. S.; Domingo, M. N.; Puig, J.


    The present report is a study about the possibility and viability of installing photovoltaic panels at the roof of neighbourhood buildings in the Districte de l'Eixmple of Barcelona. Its purpose is to raise awareness among the population about the actual problem of climate change, having the cities as a key element to encourage energy saving and reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The results show and approximate value of surface and power needed to satisfy the household energy consumption for the inhabitants in Barcelona and Catatonia with solar energy. The results also show a comparative in the Districte de l'Eixample in its three main dimensions: socio-economic, environmental and politic. (Author)

  16. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART A: TUTORIAL (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Menvielle, M.; Curto, J-J.; Le Huy, M.


    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Physics and Space Weather. In this part A, we introduce knowledge on the Sun-Earth system. We consider the physical process of the dynamo which is present in the Sun, in the core of the Earth and also in the regions between the Sun and the Earth, the solar wind-magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Equations of plasma physics and Maxwell's equations will be recalled. In the Sun-Earth system there are permanent dynamos (Sun, Earth's core, solar wind - magnetosphere, neutral wind - ionosphere) and non-permanent dynamos that are activated during magnetic storms in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. All these dynamos have associated electric currents that affect the variations of the Earth's magnetic field which are easily measurable. That is why a part of the tutorial is also devoted to the magnetic indices which are indicators of the electric currents in the Sun-Earth system. In order to understand some results of the part B, we present some characteristics of the Equatorial region and of the electrodynamics coupling the Auroral and Equatorial regions.

  17. A Data-driven Model of the Solar Wind, Interstellar Pickup Ions, and Turbulence Throughout the Interplanetary Space (United States)

    Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Elliott, H. A.; Zank, G. P.


    The outer heliosphere is an interesting region characterized by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar neutral atoms. Having accomplished the mission to Pluto in 2015 and currently on the way to the Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft is following the footsteps of the two Voyager spacecraft that previously explored this region lying roughly beyond 30 AU from the Sun. We model the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind plasma flow to the outer heliosphere using our own software Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS), which, in addition to the thermal solar wind plasma, takes into account charge exchange of the solar wind protons with interstellar neutral atoms and treats nonthermal ions (i.e., pickup ions) born during this process as a separate fluid. Additionally, MS-FLUKSS allows us to model turbulence generated by pickup ions. We use MS-FLUKSS to investigate the evolution of plasma and turbulent fluctuations along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft using plasma and turbulence parameters from OMNI data as time-dependent boundary conditions at 1 AU for the Reynolds-averaged MHD equations. We compare the model with in situ plasma observations by New Horizons, Voyager 2, and Ulysses. We also compare the model pickup proton parameters with those derived from the Ulysses-SWICS data.

  18. Dynamo generation of magnetic fields in three-dimensional space: Solar cycle main flux tube formation and reversals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.


    Dynamo processes as a magnetic field generation mechanism in astrophysics can be described essentially by movement and deformation of magnetic field lines due to plasma fluid motions. A basic element of the processes is a kinematic problem. As an important prototype of these processes, we investigate the case of the solar magnetic cycle. To follow the movement and deformation, we solve magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations by a numerical method with a prescribed velocity field. A simple combination of differential rotation and global convection, given by a linear analysis of fluid dynamics in a rotating sphere, can perpetually create and reverse great magnetic flux tubes encircling the Sun. We call them the main flux tubes of the solar cycle. They are progenitors of small-scale flux ropes of the solar activity. This shows that magnetic field generation by fluid motions is, in fact, possible and that MHD equations have a new type of oscillatory solution. The solar cycle can be identified with one of such oscillatory solutions. This means that we can follow detailed stages of the field generation and reversal processes of the dynamo by continuously observing the Sun. It is proposed that the magnetic flux tube formation by streaming plasma flows exemplified here could be a universal mechanism of flux tube formation in astrophysics

  19. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.


    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  20. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.


    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  1. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon


    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  2. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro


    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  3. Solar sail deployment experiment


    Shimose, Shigeru; 下瀬 滋


    Solar Sail move by receiving momentum of photons in sunlight. This paper presents results of some Spin-Stabilized Solar Sail deployment experiment. ISAS has successfully deployed, for the first time in the world, the polyimide Solar Sail taking advantage of centrifugal force in space. Based on this result, the new deployment mechanism is being developed which retracts the 50 m diameter sail.

  4. Radiolysis of N2-rich astrophysical ice by swift oxygen ions: implication for space weathering of outer solar system bodies. (United States)

    Vasconcelos, F A; Pilling, S; Rocha, W R M; Rothard, H; Boduch, P


    In order to investigate the role of medium mass cosmic rays and energetic solar particles in the processing of N 2 -rich ice on frozen moons and cold objects in the outer solar system, the bombardment of an N 2  : H 2 O : NH 3  : CO 2 (98.2 : 1.5 : 0.2 : 0.1) ice mixture at 16 K employing 15.7 MeV 16 O 5+ was performed. The changes in the ice chemistry were monitored and quantified by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate the formation of azide radicals (N 3 ), and nitrogen oxides, such as NO, NO 2 , and N 2 O, as well as the production of CO, HNCO, and OCN - . The effective formation and destruction cross-sections are roughly on the order of 10 -12 cm 2 and 10 -13 cm 2 , respectively. From laboratory molecular analyses, we estimated the destruction yields for the parent species and the formation yields for the daughter species. For N 2 , this value was 9.8 × 10 5 molecules per impact of ions, and for the most abundant new species (N 3 ), it was 1.1 × 10 5 molecules per impact of ions. From these yields, an estimation of how many species are destroyed or formed in a given timescale (10 8 years) in icy bodies in the outer solar system was calculated. This work reinforces the idea that such physicochemical processes triggered by cosmic rays, solar wind, and magnetospheric particles (medium-mass ions) in nitrogen-rich ices may play an important role in the formation of molecules (including pre-biotic species precursors such as amino acids and other "CHON" molecules) in very cold astrophysical environments, such as those in the outer region of the solar system (e.g. Titan, Triton, Pluto, and other KBOs).

  5. Solar Imagery - GONG (Magnetogram) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  6. Solar Imagery - GONG (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  7. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn


    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  8. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  9. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  10. Tobacco and chemicals (image) (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  11. Youth and Tobacco (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  12. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  13. Women and Tobacco Use (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  14. Analysis of changes in the federal funding trends to higher education for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences compared to government and industry: 1967-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veasey, C. Jr.


    The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from fiscal years 1955 to 1985. The NSF data were organized into tables, presented, and analyzed to help determine what changes had occurred in the amounts of federal funds allocated to higher education, government, and industry for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences for fiscal years 1967 to 1985. The study provided six recommendations to augment declining federal funds for basic research. (1) Expand participation in applied research, (2) Develop and expand consortia arrangements with other academic institutions of higher education. (3) Pursue other funding sources such as alumni, private foundations, industry, and state and local government. (4) Develop and expand joint research with national and industrial laboratories. (5) Expand participation in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research to develop technological solutions to local, regional, and national problems. (6) Develop and expand programs of reciprocal internships, and sabbaticals with industrial and national laboratories

  15. Advanced Technology in Small Packages Enables Space Science Research Nanosatellites: Examples from the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer CubeSat (United States)

    Woods, T. N.


    Nanosatellites, including the CubeSat class of nanosatellites, are about the size of a shoe box, and the CubeSat modular form factor of a Unit (1U is 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) was originally defined in 1999 as a standardization for students developing nanosatellites. Over the past two decades, the satellite and instrument technologies for nanosatellites have progressed to the sophistication equivalent to the larger satellites, but now available in smaller packages through advanced developments by universities, government labs, and space industries. For example, the Blue Canyon Technologies (BCT) attitude determination and control system (ADCS) has demonstrated 3-axis satellite control from a 0.5-Unit system with 8 arc-second stability using reaction wheels, torque rods, and a star tracker. The first flight demonstration of the BCT ADCS was for the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat. The MinXSS CubeSat mission, which was deployed in May 2016 and had its re-entry in May 2017, provided space weather measurements of the solar soft X-rays (SXR) variability using low-power, miniaturized instruments. The MinXSS solar SXR spectra have been extremely useful for exploring flare energetics and also for validating the broadband SXR measurements from the NOAA GOES X-Ray Sensor (XRS). The technology used in the MinXSS CubeSat and summary of science results from the MinXSS-1 mission will be presented. Web site:

  16. Whither tobacco product regulation? (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral


    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  17. Radiation resistance of wide band gap n+/p AlInGaP solar cell for high-efficient multijunction space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-Seok; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.; Khan, Aurangzeb; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Ohshima, Takeshi; Itoh, Hisayoshi


    The effects of 30 keV proton irradiation on n + /p AlInGaP solar cells are presented here. As the proton fluence increases to more than 1x10 10 cm -2 , the maximum power P max of the cell decreases markedly due to the introduction of defects by proton irradiation. From the changes in minority-carrier diffusion length determined by quantum efficiency modeling as a function of fluence, the damage constant K L for p-AlInGaP was estimated to be about 5.0x10 -5 . This value is comparable to that observed from 3 MeV proton-irradiated p-InGaP whereas it is lower than that observed from 3 MeV proton-irradiated p-InGaAsP and p-InGaAs cells. The maximum power recovery of the cell was observed by minority-carrier-injection-enhanced annealing (1 A/cm 2 ), and the annealing activation energy for 30 keV proton-irradiation-induced defects in p-AlInGaP was determined as ΔE=0.42 eV. (author)

  18. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven


    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  19. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T


    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL (United States)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Photo of a large silicon solar

  1. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS proposes to systematically mature, mitigate risk for; and perform hardware-based ground validations / demonstrations of a low-cost, high technology payoff,...

  2. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  3. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula. (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  4. Live Streaming of the Moon's Shadow from the Edge of Space across the United States during the August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.


    On August 21, 2017 approximately 55 teams across the path of totality of the eclipse across America will use sounding balloon platforms to transmit, in real-time from an altitude of 90,000 feet, HD video of the moon's shadow as it crosses the U.S. from Oregon to South Carolina. This unprecedented activity was originally organized by the Montana Space Grant Consortium in order to 1) use the rare total eclipse event to captivate the imagination of students and encourage the development of new ballooning teams across the United States, 2) provide an inexpensive high bandwidth data telemetry system for real-time video streaming, and 3) establish the basic infrastructure at multiple institutions enabling advanced "new generation" student ballooning projects following the eclipse event. A ballooning leadership group consisting of Space Grant Consortia in Montana, Colorado, Louisiana, and Minnesota was established to support further development and testing of the systems, as well as to assist in training the ballooning teams. This presentation will describe the high bandwidth telemetry system used for the never before attempted live streaming of HD video from the edge of space, the results of this highly collaborative science campaign stretching from coast-to-coast, potential uses of the data telemetry system for other student science projects, and lessons learned that can be applied to the 2024 total solar eclipse.

  5. Space Microbiology (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.


    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502


    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  7. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  8. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  9. Investigation of defects in Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells by space charge spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riediger, Julia; Ohland, Joerg; Knipper, Martin; Parisi, Juergen; Riedel, Ingo [Thin Film Photovoltaics, Energy- and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Meeder, Alexander [Soltecture GmbH, 12487 Berlin (Germany)


    If deep defect states in the absorber of a solar cell act as recombination centers, they may limit the carrier lifetime and thus the open circuit voltage. This is related to the defect's activation energy and spatial position. In this study the defect landscape of chalcopyrite thin film solar cells with varied absorber composition was investigated by space charge spectroscopy. The absorber layer in Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} samples arises from rapid thermal process (RTP) in sulfur vapor while Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorbers were processed via co-evaporation of the constituents. Several defect states were found by deep level spectroscopy (DLTS) and thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS). With the knowledge of the defect activation energies we derived the spatial defect concentrations from (illuminated) capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements and discuss the results for both material systems. To identify the often discussed ''N1'' defect, the measurements were repeated after annealing and changes in the defect spectra were evaluated.

  10. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.


    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  11. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  12. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.


    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  13. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.


    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  14. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo


    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  15. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  16. Solar Adaptive Optics. (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  17. The time and spatial behavior of solar flare proton anisotropies observed in deep space on Pioneers 10 and 11 (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ogallagher, J. J.


    The anisotropy of solar flare protons from the direction of the 'garden hose' magnetic field line has been analyzed for 24 events observed by the University of Chicago experiment on Pioneers 10 and 11 in 1972 and 1973. The anisotropy versus time profiles during individual events are in general consistent with diffusive propagation, but several cases are observed where the decay is better described by an exponential time decay. The anisotropy amplitude evaluated at the time of maximum intensity for each event shows evidence for a gradual decrease with increasing distance from the sun which is qualitatively consistent with diffusive propagation and suggests that the effective interplanetary diffusion coefficient parallel to the magnetic field increases slowly with heliocentric distance.

  18. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  19. Filling-in of Near-infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial Fluorescence and Other Geophysical Effects: Simulations and Space-based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna (Editor); Yoshida, Yasuko; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M. (Editor); Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Huze, A.; Corp, L. A.


    Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution (nu/nu greater than 35 000) measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SAellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for photon pathlength characterization in cloud- and aerosol-contaminated pixels for trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we examine whether fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution (nu/nu approximately 1600) than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. We discuss laboratory measurements of fluorescence near one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the long-wave tail of the fluorescence emission region, the calcium (Ca) II line at 866 nm that is observable with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5 nm. The filling-in of the Ca II line due to additive signals from various atmospheric and terrestrial effects, including fluorescence, is simulated. We then examine filling-in of this line using the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. In order to interpret the satellite measurements, we developed a general approach to correct for various instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in of solar lines in satellite measurements. The approach is applied to SCIAMACHY at the 866 nm Ca II line and to GOSAT at 758 and 770 nm on the shoulders of the O2-A feature where there are several strong solar Fraunhofer lines that are filled in primarily by vegetation fluorescence. Finally, we compare temporal and

  20. Modulated solar pressure-based surface shape control of paraboloid space reflectors with an off-axis Sun-line (United States)

    Liu, Jiafu; McInnes, Colin R.


    This paper considers utilizing solar radiation pressure (SRP) to actively control the surface shape of a reflector consisting of a rigid hoop and slack membrane with embedded reflectivity control devices. The full nonlinear static partial differential governing equations for a reflector with negligible elastic deformations are established for the circumferential, radial and transverse directions respectively, in which the SRP force with ideal/non-perfect models, the centripetal force caused by the rotation of the reflector and the internal stresses are considered. The inverse problem is then formulated by assuming that the required surface shape is known, and then the governing algebraic-differential equations used to determine the required surface reflectivity, together with the internal stresses where are presented accordingly. The validity of the approach is verified by comparing the results in this paper with corresponding published results as benchmarks. The feasible regions of the angular velocity and Sun angle for a paraboloidal reflector with an invariant radius and focal length (case 1), and the achievable focal lengths with a specific angular velocity and Sun angle (case 2) are presented for two SRP models respectively, both by considering the constraints on the reflectivity and internal stresses. It is then found that the feasible region is toward a larger angular velocity and Sun angle when using the non-perfect SRP model, compared with the ideal one in case 1. The angular velocity of the spinning reflector should be within a certain range to make the required reflectivity profiles within a practical range, i.e., [0, 0.88], as indicated from prior NASA solar sail studies. In case 2, it is found that the smallest achievable focal length of the reflector with the non-perfect SRP model is smaller than that with the ideal SRP model. It is also found that the stress level is extremely low for all cases considered and that the typical real material strength

  1. Solar and interplanetary disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Alurkar, S K


    Over the last three decades, a spate of solar wind observations have been made with sophisticated ground-based and space-borne instruments. Two highly successful space missions of the Skylab and the twin spacecraft Helios 1 and 2 have amassed an invaluable wealth of information on the large scale structure of the inner heliosphere, the solar and interplanetary magnetic field, coronal holes, interplanetary dust, solar windflows, etc.Solar and interplanetary propagating phenomena have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Very recently, a new simple model based on results from a

  2. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi


    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  3. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh


    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  4. Tobacco ringspot virus (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek


    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  8. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Students Attending Local Government Schools in Mumbai, India (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Todankar, Priyamvada; Mandal, Gauri; Gupte, Himanshu; Thawal, Vaibhav; Bhutia, Tshering; Choudhuri, Leni


    Purpose: Factors associated with ever-use and differences between ever-users and non-users of tobacco among adolescent school students from low income families in Mumbai were assessed. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, completed by 1918 students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in 12 schools managed by the city municipal corporation in July 2015, gathered data on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use and tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Results: Although only 1% of respondents thought tobacco was cool, nearly 35% were unaware of associations between tobacco use and health problems. Male students were almost twice as likely (OR=2.5, P <= 0.05) to have ever used tobacco compared to females and Supari (areca nut) users were eight times more likely (OR=8.99, P < 0.001) than Supari non -users. Tobacco-users were more likely to agree with statements: ‘People who use tobacco have more friends’ (OR=2.8, P = 0.004), ‘Smoking relieves stress’ (OR=5.6, P = 0.002) and ‘It is possible to purchase any tobacco product within 100 yards of school’ (OR=10.8, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study highlights the gains made by tobacco prevention campaigns in that almost all students did not consider tobacco as cool or a stress reliever. However, they still need education about health consequences of tobacco-use. In addition, Supari use has to be addressed in school-based tobacco prevention and cessation initiatives. Furthermore, programs must also address perceptions and norms related to peers and tobacco use and ensure active implementation of existing laws. Such integrated measures will help ensure tobacco-free spaces around schools. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice


    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  10. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 7: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab HEWAC BSF, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 225 micron solar cells as a function of intensity and temperature (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.


    Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab HEWAC BSF, textured, 10 ohm cm, 225 micron solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature.

  11. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 12: Electrical characteristics of Solarex BSF, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron solar cells (1978 pilot line) as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.


    Electrical characteristics of Solarex back-surface-field, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and irradiation.

  12. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS (United States)

    Wilt, David M.


    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  13. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.


    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  14. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.


    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  15. Gender differences in tobacco use. (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E


    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  16. Experimental studies and economic considerations on a living space heated through passive solar gain and through electric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminosu Iona


    Full Text Available The Trombe wall, of an area AT = 8.8 m, built on the southern facade of a room, heats the accommodation during the transition months, complementary to electric power. The statistical processing of the experimental data led to a global quantitative image of the wall’s behavior during the average day of the months March, April, September, and October 1999. The inner climate parameters are: tint = = 21 °C, trad = 17.9 °C, troom= 19.5 °C, j= 35-70%, E Î80 + 120 lx. The thermal comfort factor is B = -0.325. These values insure a room’s comfort close to the optimal one prescribed by the hygienists. The heliothermal conversion’s efficiency is hT = 10.4%. The proportion of heat supplied by the wall in the entire energy required by the room is hheat = 45.8%. The wall’s specific cost is Pu = 24.9 € /m. The write-off period of the initial investment is n = 53 years. The development of passive solar architecture in the Euro-region Danube-Cris-Mures-Tisa which includes the town of Timisoara (45° north, 22° east, was proven feasible by the experiments from both the energy and the economical point of view.

  17. Tobacco advertising in retail stores. (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J


    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  18. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation. (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton


    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  19. Packaging a successful NASA mission to reach a large audience within a small budget. Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Goldberg, R.; Barnes, R. J.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Beisser, K. B.; Moore, T. E.; Hoffman, R. A.; Russell, C. T.; Scudder, J.; Spann, J. F.; Newell, P. T.; Hobson, L. J.; Gribben, S. P.; Obrien, J. E.; Menietti, J. D.; Germany, G. G.; Mobilia, J.; Schulz, M.


    To showcase the on-going and wide-ranging scope of the Polar science discoveries, the Polar science team has created a one-stop shop for a thorough introduction to geospace physics, in the form of a DVD with supporting website. The DVD, Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission, can be viewed as an end-to-end product or split into individual segments and tailored to lesson plans. Capitalizing on the Polar mission and its amazing science return, the Polar team created an exciting multi-use DVD intended for audiences ranging from a traditional classroom and after school clubs, to museums and science centers. The DVD tackles subjects such as the aurora, the magnetosphere and space weather, whilst highlighting the science discoveries of the Polar mission. This platform introduces the learner to key team members as well as the science principles. Dramatic visualizations are used to illustrate the complex principles that describe Earth’s dynamic space. In order to produce such a wide-ranging product on a shoe-string budget, the team poured through existing NASA resources to package them into the Polar story, and visualizations were created using Polar data to complement the NASA stock footage. Scientists donated their time to create and review scripts in order to make this a real team effort, working closely with the award winning audio-visual group at JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory. The team was excited to be invited to join NASA’s Sun-Earth Day 2005 E/PO program and the DVD will be distributed as part of the supporting educational packages.

  20. Experimental Study of the Slit Spacing and Bed Height on the Thermal Performance of Slit-Glazed Solar Air Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mahdi Taheri Mousavi


    Full Text Available The thermal performances of three slit-glazed solar air heaters (SGSAHs were investigated experimentally. Three SGSAHs with different bed heights (7 cm, 5 cm, and 3 cm were fabricated with multiple glass panes used for glazing. The length, width, and thickness of each pane were 154 cm, 6 cm, and 0.4 cm, respectively. Ambient air was continuously withdrawn through the gaps between the glass panes by fans. The experiments were conducted for four different gap distances between the glass panes (0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm and the air mass flow rate was varied between 0.014 kg/s and 0.057 kg/s. The effects of air mass flux on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. For the SGSAH with bed height of 7 cm and glass pane gap distance of 0.5 mm, the highest efficiency was obtained as 82% at a mass flow rate of 0.057 kg/s and the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet (∆T was maximum (27°C when the mass flow rate was least. The results demonstrate that for lower mass flow rates and larger gaps, the performance of SGSAH with a bed height of 3 cm was better compared to that of others. However, for higher mass flow rates, the SGSAH with 7 cm bed height performed better.

  1. Probing the Solar System (United States)

    Wilkinson, John


    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  2. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.


    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  3. New media and tobacco control. (United States)

    Freeman, Becky


    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  4. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary. (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S


    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  5. Gravitational influences on the liquid-state homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [space processing of solar cell material (United States)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.


    Typical commercial or laboratory-prepared samples of polycrystalline AlSb contain microstructural inhomogeneities of Al- or Sb-rich phases in addition to the primary AlSb grains. The paper reports on gravitational influences, such as density-driven convection or sedimentation, that cause microscopic phase separation and nonequilibrium conditions to exist in earth-based melts of AlSb. A triple-cavity electric furnace is used to homogenize the multiphase AlSb samples in space and on earth. A comparative characterization of identically processed low- and one-gravity samples of commercial AlSb reveals major improvements in the homogeneity of the low-gravity homogenized material.

  6. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton


    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  7. Psychopathology and tobacco demand. (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane


    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton


    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Corona (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies. (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer


    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  14. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  15. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980. (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  16. The Solar Energy Notebook. (United States)

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  17. Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Smoke-Free Worksites and Public Spaces in Cameroon. Existing data indicate a tobacco epidemic of the first order in Africa, but the rapid increase in tobacco consumption continues. This situation justifies the current project by Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC), an initiative of IDRC and the Bill and Melinda ...

  18. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kahler, Stephen W


    ...) particle events, the solar wind, and geomagnetic storms. The investigators, working at Hanscom AFB, MA, have used many different kinds of space- and ground-based observations and have collaborated with workers at various institutions in this work...

  19. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  20. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...