WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar soccer sidewalk

  1. Solar soccer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-11-01

    What do Italy and Germany have in common? The world's largest PV markets and world class soccer. But while PV systems are frequently found on the rooftops of Germany's soccer stadiums, Italy has left this potential largely untapped.

  2. Sidewalk Survey Implementation for the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    With funding from GDOT and STRIDE, the team deployed the Online Sidewalk Assessment Survey to gather input on local sidewalk repair and maintenance preferences across a variety of community types in the southeast. The team targeted four major cities ...

  3. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  4. Measuring sidewalk distances using Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Ian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is an important determinant of health. Walking is the most common physical activity performed by adults and the presence of sidewalks along roads is a determinant of walking. Geographic information systems (GIS can be used to measure sidewalks; however, GIS sidewalk data are difficult to access. The purpose of this study was to present a new GIS method for measuring the distance and coverage of sidewalks along roadways. Methods The new method contains three stages. Stage 1 involves calculating the distance of all road segments within the region of interest (e.g., neighborhood, extracting geospatial information on these road segments, and saving this information as a Google Earth file. This stage was performed in ArcGIS software. Stage 2 involves opening the extracted road segment geospatial data in Google Earth, visually examining road segments to see if they contain sidewalks, and deleting road segments without sidewalks. Stage 3 involves importing the modified road geospatial data into ArcGIS and calculating the length of road segments with sidewalks. The new method was tested in 315 sites across Canada. Each site consisted of a one km radius circular buffer surrounding a school. Results A detailed, step-by-step protocol is provided in the paper. The length of road segments with sidewalks in the testing sites ranged from 0.00 to 55.05 km (median 16.20 km. When expressed relative to the length of all road segments, the length of road segments with sidewalks ranged from 0% to 100% (median 53%. By comparison to urban testing sites, rural sites had shorter sidewalk lengths and a smaller proportion of the roads had sidewalk coverage. Conclusion This study provides a new GIS protocol that researchers can use to measure the distance and coverage of sidewalks along roadways.

  5. Relativity on a two-way moving sidewalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccarini, Antoine

    1989-01-01

    Some classical thought experiments in Special Relativity are performed on a two-way moving sidewalk. Since each of the two sides moves at constant speed, this device provides a simple, intuitive way to illustrate relative velocity, time dilation, and length contraction. It should, therefore allow for a better understanding of the basic concepts of the theory. Furthermore, being a closed system the two-way sidewalk exhibits some of the characteristics of a rotating disc, and might therefore be helpful in an introduction to General Relativity. (author)

  6. 14 CFR 151.93 - Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking....93 Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping. (a) Only buildings or parts of buildings intended to house facilities or activities directly related to the safety of persons at the...

  7. Isolated and Single Pedestrians and Pedestrian Groups on Sidewalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pinna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Walking freedom can define the quality of an urban area, but this freedom is conditioned by various factors. The research objective is to study pedestrian behavior on sidewalks. Data are collected during on site surveys by means of concealed camcorders. For each pedestrian many factors are observed, such as gender, age, direction, distractions, transport of objects, etc., which could influence pedestrian behavior. Data processing allows the identification of mathematical models describing the average pedestrian’s behavior, subdivided for user type (isolated, single, group. In general, the mean walking pedestrian speed decreases depending on user type (in a linear manner if age class grows for isolated pedestrians, while with the square of age for other user types, of gender, and of facing type. Models obtained for the different pedestrian types were compared to understand the differences in speeds, underlining that pedestrian interferences play a significant role in defining behavior and, therefore, speed. The results support the idea that, to define a smooth pedestrian speed as an indicator of the “walkability” of a path, in addition to considering the path and user’s characteristics, it is also necessary to define the type of user for which the infrastructure is designed.

  8. Laughter as a scientific problem: An adventure in sidewalk neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Laughter is a stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that provides an ideal simple system for neurobehavioral analyses of the sort usually associated with such animal models as walking, wing-flapping, and bird song. Laughter research is in its early stages, where the frontiers are near and accessible to simple observational procedures termed "sidewalk neuroscience." The basic, nontechnical approach of describing the act of laughter and when humans do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, contagiousness, the "punctuation effect" that describes the placement of laughter in conversation, the dominance of speech over laughter, the role of breath control in the evolution of speech, the evolutionary trajectory of laughter in primates, and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. If one knows where to look and how to see, advances in neuroscience are accessible to anyone and require minimal resources. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Managing sidewalk pavement maintenance: A case study to increase pedestrian safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Corazza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort is a major requirement in planning pedestrian facilities. Pedestrians walk where they feel comfortable and when they do not feel at ease, they walk elsewhere. A typical example is that filthy, distressed, or too narrow sidewalks induce pedestrians to walk on carriageways. This behaviour jeopardizes road safety and highly dangerous to most users, leave them vulnerable. Unsuitable pavements can be the result of irregular maintenance operations to restore evenness after shock damage, weather phenomena, installation of equipment (e.g., posts, fences, urban furniture with a reduction of walkable surface, or substandard repair work on pavements and patches due to emergency operations. These problems can be solved with an appropriate maintenance management system, which optimizes financial resources to make smart decisions about how to intervene with an adequate and lasting maintenance operation. This paper defines an evaluation index for sidewalk conditions as a part of an efficient set-up of a Sidewalk Management System, which is similar to the better known Road Management System. The study relies on surveys, as well as the classification and analysis of sidewalk distresses. The authors adapted an index already standardized by ASTM for roads and airports: the Pavement Condition Index (PCI. PCI has been modified to consider the specific types on the sidewalks studied within this paper. To validate the method, a case study of a residential district in Rome, Italy, was carried out. The chosen area lacks regular maintenance and has therefore resulted in a network of unsafe sidewalks. Frequent detour routes were surveyed and related to the level of distresses within a general assessment of safety. This study concentrates on sidewalks with flexible pavements because this type of pavement is the only one adopted in the survey areas and, in general, throughout Italy.

  10. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  11. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti Suriptiastuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  12. Sidewalk Landscape Structure and Thermal Conditions for Child and Adult Pedestrians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Chanam; Kim, Jun-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Walking is being promoted for health and transportation purposes across all climatic regions in the US and beyond. Despite this, an uncomfortable microclimate condition along sidewalks is one of the major deterrents of walking, and more empirical research is needed to determine the risks of heat exposure to pedestrians while walking. This study examined the effect of street trees and grass along sidewalks on air temperatures. A series of thermal images were taken at the average heights of adults and children in the US to objectively measure the air temperatures of 10 sidewalk segments in College Station, TX, USA. After controlling the other key physical environmental conditions, sidewalks with more trees or wider grass buffer areas had lower air temperatures than those with less vegetation. Children were exposed to higher temperatures due to the greater exposure or proximity to the pavement surface, which tends to have higher radiant heat. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that the configuration of trees and grass buffers along the sidewalks helped to promote pleasant thermal conditions and reduced the differences in ambient air temperatures measured at child and adult heights. This study suggests that street trees and vegetated ground help reduce the air temperatures, leading to more thermally comfortable environments for both child and adult pedestrians in warm climates. The thermal implications of street landscape require further attention by researchers and policy makers that are interested in promoting outdoor walking. PMID:29346312

  13. Moving sidewalk for snow board gelande; Snow board gerendemuke ugoku hodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This is a moving sidewalk installed on the indoor type artificial snow board gelande at Shigenobu-cho, Ehime prefecture, constructed for the first time in Shikoku. It carries snow boarders in gelande. The main specifications are as follows. Type: 800 type. Sidewalk width: 600mm. Length: 76.0m. Speed: 30m/min. Inclination angle: 13 degrees (inclination type). The features are as follows. (1) The tread is rubber-belt made and skid-resistant if it gets wet. (2) It is equipped with the each-part antifreezer, considering the snow quality and the environment where it is used at low temperature. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Fatigue in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-01-01

    This review describes when fatigue may develop during soccer games and the potential physiological mechanisms that cause fatigue in soccer. According to time?-?motion analyses and performance measures during match-play, fatigue or reduced performance seems to occur at three different stages......, acidity or the breakdown of creatine phosphate. Instead, it may be related to disturbances in muscle ion homeostasis and an impaired excitation of the sarcolemma. Soccer players' ability to perform maximally is inhibited in the initial phase of the second half, which may be due to lower muscle...... concentrations in a considerable number of individual muscle fibres. In a hot and humid environment, dehydration and a reduced cerebral function may also contribute to the deterioration in performance. In conclusion, fatigue or impaired performance in soccer occurs during various phases in a game, and different...

  15. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  16. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  17. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  18. Soccer injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  19. A review of tree root conflicts with sidewalks, curbs, and roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.B. Randrup; E.G. McPherson; L.R. Costello

    2003-01-01

    Literature relevant to tree root and urban infrastructure conflicts is reviewed. Although tree roots can conflict with many infrastructure elements, sidewalk and curb conflicts are the focus of this review. Construction protocols, urban soils, root growth, and causal factors (soil conditions, limited planting space, tree size, variation in root architecture, management...

  20. Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....

  1. The Creative Soccer Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johan Torp Rasmussen, Ludvig; Østergaard, Lars Domino

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is essential in soccer due to the unpredictable and complex situations occurring in the game, where stereotypical play gradually loses its efficiency. Further, creativity is an important psychological factor for the development of soccer expertise, and valuing creativity increases...... sessions where TSCP was implemented at a youth team indicate that the application of TCSP exercises establishes a playful, judgment-free and autonomy-supportive training environment, where soccer players are able to unfold their creative potential. The creative environment helped the youth players...... in the intervention engage in unfamiliar activities that they did not dare to do in normal training sessions (i.e., performed difficult, new and playful technical skills), which developed creative abilities important for game performance (i.e., idea generation abilities and not fearing mistakes)....

  2. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    -dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  3. Collisions in soccer kicking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Bull; Dörge, Henrik C.; Thomsen, Franz Ib

    1999-01-01

    An equation to describe the velocity of the soccer ball after the collision with a foot was derived. On the basis of experimental results it was possible to exclude certain factors and only describe the angular momentum of the system, consisting of the shank, the foot and the ball, leading...

  4. "Soccer": The Beautiful Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Soccer, or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated 240 million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game." Millions, worldwide, watch it on television. In 2006, the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…

  5. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  6. Soccer Endurance Development in Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.

    The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In

  7. Thermic Attenuation on Concrete Sidewalk under Urban Trees. Case Study: Santa Marta – Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Devia; Andrés Torres

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Urban trees provide a number of services including shade and thermal attenuation. This is related to morphological and physiological characteristics of trees and may vary between species and even between individuals of the same species. The aim of this work was to identify thermic attenuations on concrete sidewalks under six tropical urban trees with six different types of shadows. Material and Methods: In Santa Marta City, Colombia (10º12´20” N, 74º13´33” W, 10 met...

  8. Geometric methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths applied to Vienna's streetscape surfaces database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Tadej; Graser, Anita; Leth, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Space, and in particular public space for movement and leisure, is a valuable and scarce resource, especially in today's growing urban centres. The distribution and absolute amount of urban space—especially the provision of sufficient pedestrian areas, such as sidewalks—is considered crucial for shaping living and mobility options as well as transport choices. Ubiquitous urban data collection and today's IT capabilities offer new possibilities for providing a relation-preserving overview and for keeping track of infrastructure changes. This paper presents three novel methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths and applies them to the official Viennese streetscape surface database. The first two methods use individual pedestrian area polygons and their geometrical representations of minimum circumscribing and maximum inscribing circles to derive a representative width of these individual surfaces. The third method utilizes aggregated pedestrian areas within the buffered street axis and results in a representative width for the corresponding road axis segment. Results are displayed as city-wide means in a 500 by 500 m grid and spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's I is studied. We also compare the results between methods as well as to previous research, existing databases and guideline requirements on sidewalk widths. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these methods for monitoring and regression analysis and suggest future methodological improvements for increased accuracy.

  9. Evaluating the impact of connectivity, continuity, and topography of sidewalk network on pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Ahmed; Sayed, Tarek

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing demand for sustainability, walking is being encouraged as one of the main active modes of transportation. However, pedestrians are vulnerable to severe injuries when involved in crashes which can discourage road users from walking. Therefore, studying factors that affect the safety of pedestrians is important. This paper investigates the relationship between pedestrian-motorist crashes and various sidewalk network indicators in the city of Vancouver. The goal is to assess the impact of network connectivity, directness, and topography on pedestrian safety using macro-level collision prediction models. The models were developed using generalized linear regression and full Bayesian techniques. Both walking trips and vehicle kilometers travelled were used as the main traffic exposure variables in the models. The safety models supported the safety in numbers hypothesis showing a non-linear positive association between pedestrian-motorist crashes and the increase in walking trips and vehicle traffic. The model results also suggested that higher continuity, linearity, coverage, and slope of sidewalk networks were associated with lower crash occurrence. However, network connectivity was associated with higher crash occurrence. The spatial effects were accounted for in the full Bayes models and were found significant. The models provide insights about the factors that influence pedestrian safety and the spatial variability of pedestrian crashes within a city, which can be useful for the planning of pedestrian networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sidewalk as a Contested Space: Women’s Negotiation of Socio-Spatial Processes of Exclusion in Public Urban Space in Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Schulze, Oliver; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2018-01-01

    the use of outdoor seating to men only, thus sidewalks adjacent to, e.g., cafes function as mono-gender spaces dominated by men. However, young women negotiate spatially bounded gender norms through their presence, behaviour, and dress. Although sidewalks are conceived as men’s space, women account...

  11. Mental skills training in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychological Skills Training (PST) has been a tool used by sport psychology consultants. However, within soccer many of these programs have been delivered as workshops, homework tasks, or individual consultations with athletes. The aim of the project was to develop an ecological intervention...... by creating a series of drillbased sessions to train psychological skills, and educate coaches about how to implement and integrate PST as a natural part of daily training. The program was delivered to the youth academies in nine Danish professional soccer clubs and consisted of three phases: (a) planning...... of the program, (b) education and designing soccer drills, and (c) delivery of the drills on the soccer pitch. The program was well received by clubs, coaches, and players. With regards to project aims, the intervention was generally considered a success. Coaches reported that the drill-based nature...

  12. Nutrition for young soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña Alvarado, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    El artículo también se encuentra escrito en español. The growing participation of young people in soccer is a motivation so that the trainers, physical educators and parents know which are the special requirements to practice this sport in a safe manner, specially the nutritional requirements. The present revision includes generalities on the physiological demands of soccer, the differences between young people and adults when making prolonged exercise, the necessities ...

  13. Talent identification in youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Viswanath; White, Jordan; Georgiou, Andreas; Iga, John; Drust, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of investing in sidewalks as a means of increasing physical activity: a RESIDE modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Gunn, Lucy; McCormack, Gavin R; Cobiac, Linda J; Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shiell, Alan

    2016-09-20

    Studies consistently find that supportive neighbourhood built environments increase physical activity by encouraging walking and cycling. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of investing in built environment interventions as a means of promoting physical activity is lacking. In this study, we assess the cost-effectiveness of increasing sidewalk availability as one means of encouraging walking. Using data from the RESIDE study in Perth, Australia, we modelled the cost impact and change in health-adjusted life years (HALYs) of installing additional sidewalks in established neighbourhoods. Estimates of the relationship between sidewalk availability and walking were taken from a previous study. Multistate life table models were used to estimate HALYs associated with changes in walking frequency and duration. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of variations in population density, discount rates, sidewalk costs and the inclusion of unrelated healthcare costs in added life years. Installing and maintaining an additional 10 km of sidewalk in an average neighbourhood with 19 000 adult residents was estimated to cost A$4.2 million over 30 years and gain 24 HALYs over the lifetime of an average neighbourhood adult resident population. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was A$176 000/HALY. However, sensitivity results indicated that increasing population densities improves cost-effectiveness. In low-density cities such as in Australia, installing sidewalks in established neighbourhoods as a single intervention is unlikely to cost-effectively improve health. Sidewalks must be considered alongside other complementary elements of walkability, such as density, land use mix and street connectivity. Population density is particularly important because at higher densities, more residents are exposed and this improves the cost-effectiveness. Health gain is one of many benefits of enhancing neighbourhood walkability and future studies might

  15. Executive Functioning in Highly Talented Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735

  16. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Verburgh

    Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  17. Nutritional aspects of women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J

    1994-01-01

    Female soccer players often have only limited time available to prepare and consume meals, due to the constraints faced by having to combine training and playing with full-time occupations. The energy expenditure of females playing soccer has been estimated at approximately 70% VO2 max, corresponding to an energy production of around 4600 kJ (1100 kcal). As with male soccer players, carbohydrate consumption is essential to support the demands of playing, training and to facilitate recovery. There are some reports to suggest that females in team sports may consume diets with a low energy intake, due to the desire to lose or maintain body weight. In extreme cases, this can result in eating disorders. However, there is no clear evidence to suggest that this problem is common among female soccer players. To maintain a consistent balance between energy intake and expenditure, players should receive nutritional advice to cover all phases of the year, not just the competitive season. Dietary calcium and iron supplements may be a useful precautionary measure, in players who are known to be at risk of deficiencies in these areas. Correct and sensitive nutritional counselling is essential for players and coaches.

  18. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition). PMID:29910389

  19. Nutrition and Supplementation in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica

    2017-05-12

    Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition).

  20. Soccer injuries and recovery in dutch male amateur soccer players: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Steffen, K.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To describe characteristics of outdoor soccer injury and recovery among Dutch soccer players. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: The 2009-2010 competitive season (33 weeks). PARTICIPANTS:: Four hundred fifty-six Dutch male soccer players of 23 amateur teams. MAIN OUTCOME

  1. Thermic Attenuation on Concrete Sidewalk under Urban Trees. Case Study: Santa Marta – Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Devia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Urban trees provide a number of services including shade and thermal attenuation. This is related to morphological and physiological characteristics of trees and may vary between species and even between individuals of the same species. The aim of this work was to identify thermic attenuations on concrete sidewalks under six tropical urban trees with six different types of shadows. Material and Methods: In Santa Marta City, Colombia (10º12´20” N, 74º13´33” W, 10 meters above sea level and 31ºC temperature, we selected six trees (species with different types of shade, and they are evaluated for soil temperature and the temperature in the shade and off throughout the day for four different days of the year. ANOVA and t-tests were performed with R program in order to identify the influence of the specie, the day, the hour and the position (at the thermic comfort level, surface temperature on the temperature results obtained. Results and Conclusion: Some trees have the most translucent shadows most likely due to nictinastic movements and consequently less temperature attenuation. On the other hand, other trees have denser shadows and can generate more substantial thermic attenuations. Regarding temperature data, the hour of the day shows the greatest influence on the variability of air temperature and the species shows the greatest influence on the variability of surface temperature. Honey berry (Meliccoca bijugatus and Malay almond (Terminalia atappa trees have denser shadows and can generate more substantial thermic attenuations. Tree physiology can play an important role in temperature attenuation in cities as a result of shadow effects and can be applied as a criterion to select urban trees in tropical cities.

  2. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  3. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  4. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  5. EVALUATION METHOD ON LEVEL-OF-SERVICE OF SHARED USE SIDEWALKS BY PEDESTRIANS AND BICYCLES USING HINDRANCE EVENTS INDICES FOR ANALYSIS OF NECESSITY OF SEPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hideo

    Problems of shared use of bicycles and pedestrians on sidewalks have been an important issue for cycling policy promotion in Japan. Several studies on evaluation methods of shared use have been carried out, but it remains no appropriate index which can be used operationally in planning process. The aim of this study is to develop a method of evaluation of level-of-service for the shared use sidewalks using hindrance events index which newly considers the gap width in meeting and passing of cycling and pedestrians. This index can be estimated only by traffic volume, velocity, width of sidewalks which can be obtained in usual traffic observation. In conclusion, the author shows the appropriate indices which can explains conflicts behavior and unsafe sense of street users, and show the present situation of necessity of separation of existing streets in Japan by analyzing the ratio of street miles by the LOS.

  6. Intelligent Prediction of Soccer Technical Skill on Youth Soccer Player's Relative Performance Using Multivariate Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M. R; Maliki, A. B. H. M; Musa, R. M; Kosni, N. A; Juahir, H

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to predict the potential pattern of soccer technical skill on Malaysia youth soccer players relative performance using multivariate analysis and artificial neural network techniques. 184 male youth soccer players were recruited in Malaysia soccer academy (average age = 15.2±2.0) underwent to, physical fitness test, anthropometric, maturity, motivation and the level of skill related soccer. Unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ident...

  7. The Soccer-Ball Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    The idea that Lorentz-symmetry in momentum space could be modified but still remain observer-independent has received quite some attention in the recent years. This modified Lorentz-symmetry, which has been argued to arise in Loop Quantum Gravity, is being used as a phenomenological model to test possibly observable effects of quantum gravity. The most pressing problem in these models is the treatment of multi-particle states, known as the 'soccer-ball problem'. This article briefly reviews the problem and the status of existing solution attempts.

  8. Is Heading in Youth Soccer Dangerous Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, John W

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.

  9. SoccerStories: a kick-off for visual soccer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Charles; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-12-01

    This article presents SoccerStories, a visualization interface to support analysts in exploring soccer data and communicating interesting insights. Currently, most analyses on such data relate to statistics on individual players or teams. However, soccer analysts we collaborated with consider that quantitative analysis alone does not convey the right picture of the game, as context, player positions and phases of player actions are the most relevant aspects. We designed SoccerStories to support the current practice of soccer analysts and to enrich it, both in the analysis and communication stages. Our system provides an overview+detail interface of game phases, and their aggregation into a series of connected visualizations, each visualization being tailored for actions such as a series of passes or a goal attempt. To evaluate our tool, we ran two qualitative user studies on recent games using SoccerStories with data from one of the world's leading live sports data providers. The first study resulted in a series of four articles on soccer tactics, by a tactics analyst, who said he would not have been able to write these otherwise. The second study consisted in an exploratory follow-up to investigate design alternatives for embedding soccer phases into word-sized graphics. For both experiments, we received a very enthusiastic feedback and participants consider further use of SoccerStories to enhance their current workflow.

  10. Intact Capture, Aerogel, SOCCER, Stardust and LIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.

    2013-11-01

    In order to definitively determine many complex exploration curiosities, we must bring samples to terrestrial laboratories for detailed analyses by collaborating laboratories and analysts. We report this endeavor in SOCCER, NEARER, Stardust and LIFE.

  11. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Zipora

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  12. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  13. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Veneroso, Christiano Eduardo; Morandi, Rodrigo Figueiredo; Pacheco, Diogo Antônio Soares; Pereira, Emerson Rodrigues; Coelho, Leonardo Gomes Martins; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes' training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical e...

  14. Head Impact Biomechanics in Women's College Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Clark, Michael D; Grand, Erin E; Stucker, Jaclyn C; Littleton, Ashley C; Aguilar, Alain J; Petschauer, Meredith A; Teel, Elizabeth F; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-09-01

    There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves). Head impact biomechanics were collected from female college soccer players (n = 22; mean ± SD age = 19.1 ± 0.1 yr, height = 168.0 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 6.0 kg). We employed a helmetless head impact measurement device (X2 Biosystems xPatch) before each competition and practice across a single season. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were categorized based on impact magnitude and subsequently analyzed using appropriate nonparametric analyses. Overall, women's college soccer players experience approximately seven impacts per 90 min of game play. The overwhelming majority (~90%) of all head impacts were categorized into our mildest linear acceleration impact classification (10g-20g). Interestingly, a higher percentage of practice impacts in the 20g-40g range compared with games (11% vs 7%) was observed. Head impact biomechanics studies have provided valuable insights into understanding collision sports and for informing evidence-based rule and policy changes. These have included changing the football kickoff, ice hockey body checking ages, and head-to-head hits in both sports. Given soccer's global popularity, and the growing public concern for the potential long-term neurological implications of collision and contact sports, studying soccer has the potential to impact many athletes and the sports medicine professionals caring for them.

  15. Detection of goal events in soccer videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.

  16. The Creative Soccer Platform: New Strategies for Stimulating Creativity in Organized Youth Soccer Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Ludvig Johan Torp; Østergaard, Lars Domino

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is essential in soccer due to the unpredictable and complex situations occurring in the game, where stereotypical play gradually loses its efficiency. Further, creativity is an important psychological factor for the development of soccer expertise, and valuing creativity increases satisfaction and well-being. Although creative players…

  17. Epidemiology of injuries in female high school soccer players.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... commonly injured. Keywords: Epidemiology, soccer injuries, youth ... fun and enjoyment while burning up calories especially when electronic devices ... ture on female soccer players has also grown significant- ly9,10. In the last decade, ...

  18. Validating rankings in soccer championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibal Parracho Sant'Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The final ranking of a championship is determined by quality attributes combined with other factors which should be filtered out of any decision on relegation or draft for upper level tournaments. Factors like referees' mistakes and difficulty of certain matches due to its accidental importance to the opponents should have their influence reduced. This work tests approaches to combine classification rules considering the imprecision of the number of points as a measure of quality and of the variables that provide reliable explanation for it. Two home-advantage variables are tested and shown to be apt to enter as explanatory variables. Independence between the criteria is checked against the hypothesis of maximal correlation. The importance of factors and of composition rules is evaluated on the basis of correlation between rank vectors, number of classes and number of clubs in tail classes. Data from five years of the Brazilian Soccer Championship are analyzed.

  19. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  20. Effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of intercollegiate female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Mengesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is an important training program in improving physical fitness and soccer skills of players. The study was conducted to find out the effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of Haramaya University intercollegiate female soccer players. For this study forty female (age, 20±1.5 years; height, 1.61±0.7 m; BMI, 20.41±0.7Kg/cm2 soccer players were selected through purposive sampling. Experimental group (n= 20 participants were engaged in a supervised plyometric training program 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group (n= 20 did not participate in any of the program except regular soccer training however, the tests were conducted for them. The physical fitness and soccer skill variables selected for the study were: Speed, Explosive power, Agility, Dribbling, Kicking Right and Left Feet. Tests were taken three times at pre training, during training and post training. Comparison of mean was done by paired t-test. The results obtained in this study indicated that there was significant improvement in selected physical fitness and soccer skill variables due to the effects of plyometric training. After 12 weeks of plyometric training participant’s speed (0.78 m/sec., agility (2.64 sec, and explosive power (7.85 cm were changed significantly (p<0.05. Participant’s dribbling soccer skill (1.92 sec., kicking right foot for distance (2.19 m and kicking left foot for distance (2.91 m were significantly improved through plyometric training. This study proved that plyometric training was significantly better in improving the physical fitness variables and soccer skills of female soccer players.

  1. Factors influencing the implementation of soccer injury prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest and participation in soccer continue to grow in every part of the world. The increase in the number of people participating in soccer in Rwanda is also prominent. However, with the increase in the number of people participating in soccer there is an increase in the risk of injuries, thus making prevention of injury more ...

  2. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  3. Explaining soccer match outcomes with goal scoring opportunities predictive analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggels, H.; van Elk, R.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2016-01-01

    In elite soccer, decisions are often based on recent results and emotions. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the expected winner of a match in elite soccer. The expected result of a soccer match is determined by estimating the probability of scoring for the individual goal scoring

  4. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Mitchell R.; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M. S.; Coutts, Aaron J.

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30

  5. Relationship Between the Brazilian Soccer Confederation Rankings and the Economical-Financial Indicators of Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleston Alexandre dos Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian soccer teams are required to present good results inside and outside the field. The main demand is about winning titles, to present continuous and increasing profits, and, consequently, to reach economic-financial stability. The present study aims at analyzing the relationship between the ranking formed by the Brazilian Soccer Confederation (CBF and the economic-financial indicators of the Brazilian soccer teams. The sample consisted of 36 Brazilian soccer teams that belong to the series A, B and C. Such teams are linked to CBF and published their financial statements of 2014. For data analysis, we used multi-criteria decision making method VIKOR that was applied along with Kendall rank correlation. Results revealed that the majority of Brazilian soccer teams have insufficient economical liquidity; they cannot bear their own expenses; they dependent of third-party resources; and they present negative profitability. Results also showed, through VIKOR technique, that the soccer teams studied occupy different positions in CBF ranking and in the economical-financial indicators, except for Botafogo club. Kendall rank correlation revealed no correlation and no significance between the rankings. Findings seem to support the idea that there is no relationship between CBF rankings and the economical-financial indicators of Brazilian soccer teams.

  6. Motivational factors and performance in soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Chimelo Paim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify what were the motivational factors that made teenagers to choose ADUFSM soccer school, and to verify the difference among the groups, the performance and gain scores at soccer basis. The sample comprised 32 persons, 10 to 16 years old, that practice soccer at ADUFSM. The sample was divided in four groups. The motivational factors inventory (MFI was applied in the beginning of the semester. It was verified, through descriptive statistics, that the stronger motivation for the subjects involvement with soccer was to develop skills (78%, followed by excitation and challenge (72%; affiliation (70% and aptitude (68%. The performance level evaluation in three different phases was done through soccer basis analytical matrix (SBAM, always in game situation. Five observations per subject were made for each base listed in SBAM, and the execution mistakes were identifies. Initially, an ANOVA was used to deal with the data; later, a post-hoc test. The results showed that learning occurred and that there was a significant difference favoring GF10 in the learning gain scores after the treatment.

  7. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  8. Study of soccer ball flight trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javorova Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the trajectories of a soccer ball for the most important kicks in the football game - a corner kick and a direct free kick are studied. The soccer ball is modelled as an ideal rigid hollow spherical body with six degrees of freedom, which performs a general motion in an immovable air environment with constant parameters. The ball 3D orientation is determined by the three Cardan angles. The aerodynamic forces and moments with which the air environment acts to the ball are taken into account. Two of the most dangerous areas of the football goal are defined. Differential equations which describe the motion of the soccer ball are solved numerically by MatLab-Simulink.

  9. Biology and medicine of soccer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    1999-10-01

    Recent literature on the biology and medicine of soccer (primarily since 1990) has been accumulated by a combination of computer searching of relevant databases and review of the author's extensive files. From a total of 9681 papers, 540 were selected for closer scrutiny and 370 are discussed in the present review. These articles cover patterns of play and the resulting energy demands, the nutritional requirements of soccer, the anthropometric, physiological, biochemical and immunological characteristics of successful players, the influence of environmental stressors (heat, cold, hypoxia and time zone shifts), special features of female and junior competitors, selected issues in training, and the incidence and prevention of injuries. The information presented has important implications for the safety and success of soccer players; the challenge is now to ensure that this information is understood and acted upon by coaches and individual team members.

  10. Anticipation in Soccer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Eder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine the current methods employed to assess anticipation in soccer players as well as to elicit the main findings of recent studies. Methods. The study was carried out in systematic review form and its sample comprised nine scientific papers published in academic journals. Only the studies involving soccer players (professionals and amateurs, except goalkeepers were included in this review. Results and conclusions. We observed that most of the studies employed video footage obtained from soccer matches, which are occluded at a given point for study participants to quickly and precisely elicit the positions of opponents, teammates and the ball as well as anticipate actions (dribbling, shooting, passing from surrounding players (teammates and opponents. In addition, the studies compared the performance of players from both high and low competitive levels in anticipation tasks.

  11. Talent identification and development in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A M; Reilly, T

    2000-09-01

    In this review, we attempt to integrate the main research findings concerned with talent identification and development in soccer. Research approaches in anthropometry, physiology, psychology and sociology are considered and, where possible, integrated. Although some progress has been made in identifying correlates of playing success, it appears that no unique characteristics can be isolated with confidence. Both biological and behavioural scientists have indicated a strong genetic component in performance of sports such as soccer; nevertheless, the influence of systematic training and development programmes should not be underestimated. We conclude that the sport and exercise sciences have an important support role in the processes of identifying, monitoring and nurturing talented soccer players towards realizing their potential.

  12. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  13. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  14. A preliminary examination of neurocognitive performance and symptoms following a bout of soccer heading in athletes wearing protective soccer headbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbin, R J; Beatty, Amanda; Covassin, Tracey; Schatz, Philip; Hydeman, Ana; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared changes in neurocognitive performance and symptom reports following an acute bout of soccer heading among athletes with and without protective soccer headgear. A total of 25 participants headed a soccer ball 15 times over a 15-minute period, using a proper linear heading technique. Participants in the experimental group completed the heading exercise while wearing a protective soccer headband and controls performed the heading exercise without wearing the soccer headband. Neurocognitive performance and symptom reports were assessed before and after the acute bout of heading. Participants wearing the headband showed significant decreases on verbal memory (p = 0.02) compared with the no headband group, while the no headband group demonstrated significantly faster reaction time (p = 0.03) than the headband group following the heading exercise. These findings suggest that protective soccer headgear likely does not mitigate the subtle neurocognitive effects of acute soccer heading.

  15. SoccerNet: A Scalable Dataset for Action Spotting in Soccer Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio; Amine, Mohieddine; Dghaily, Tarek; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce SoccerNet, a benchmark for action spotting in soccer videos. The dataset is composed of 500 complete soccer games from six main European leagues, covering three seasons from 2014 to 2017 and a total duration of 764 hours. A total of 6,637 temporal annotations are automatically parsed from online match reports at a one minute resolution for three main classes of events (Goal, Yellow/Red Card, and Substitution). As such, the dataset is easily scalable. These annotations are manually refined to a one second resolution by anchoring them at a single timestamp following well-defined soccer rules. With an average of one event every 6.9 minutes, this dataset focuses on the problem of localizing very sparse events within long videos. We define the task of spotting as finding the anchors of soccer events in a video. Making use of recent developments in the realm of generic action recognition and detection in video, we provide strong baselines for detecting soccer events. We show that our best model for classifying temporal segments of length one minute reaches a mean Average Precision (mAP) of 67.8%. For the spotting task, our baseline reaches an Average-mAP of 49.7% for tolerances $\\delta$ ranging from 5 to 60 seconds.

  16. SoccerNet: A Scalable Dataset for Action Spotting in Soccer Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-04-12

    In this paper, we introduce SoccerNet, a benchmark for action spotting in soccer videos. The dataset is composed of 500 complete soccer games from six main European leagues, covering three seasons from 2014 to 2017 and a total duration of 764 hours. A total of 6,637 temporal annotations are automatically parsed from online match reports at a one minute resolution for three main classes of events (Goal, Yellow/Red Card, and Substitution). As such, the dataset is easily scalable. These annotations are manually refined to a one second resolution by anchoring them at a single timestamp following well-defined soccer rules. With an average of one event every 6.9 minutes, this dataset focuses on the problem of localizing very sparse events within long videos. We define the task of spotting as finding the anchors of soccer events in a video. Making use of recent developments in the realm of generic action recognition and detection in video, we provide strong baselines for detecting soccer events. We show that our best model for classifying temporal segments of length one minute reaches a mean Average Precision (mAP) of 67.8%. For the spotting task, our baseline reaches an Average-mAP of 49.7% for tolerances $\\\\delta$ ranging from 5 to 60 seconds.

  17. Retirement planning among South African professional soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inevitable reality that all athletes have to face is retirement from competition and this experience can lead an acute sense of loss in the athlete. Professional soccer players are no exception. While retirement traditionally occurs for most non-athletes after a long working career that allows them to plan and anticipate the ...

  18. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,

  19. Injuries in Spanish female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p  0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women

  20. Balance in competition in Dutch soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate an ordered probit model for soccer results in The Netherlands. The result of a game is assumed to be determined by home advantage and quality differences of the opposing teams. The parameters of the model are used to assess whether competitive balance in Dutch professional

  1. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The

  2. Mean Free Path in Soccer and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, J.

    2010-01-01

    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could…

  3. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  4. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d  ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.

  5. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  6. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  7. Anaerobic conditioning of soccer players: the evaluation of different anaerobic training methods on soccer player's physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shalfawi, Shaher

    2015-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 Background: High performance in soccer depends on various physical qualities and skills, including tactical and technical skills as the two most import factors that contribute to success. These skills could be more important than small differences in physical performance abilities. Nevertheless, to be able to utilize the tactical and technical skills during a top soccer match, a soccer player has to cope with the physical demands...

  8. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E macro much larger than M P . We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E macro /N·M P .

  9. On the mathematical modeling of soccer dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Lopes, António M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper addresses the modeling and dynamical analysis of soccer teams. Two modeling perspectives based on the concepts of fractional calculus are adopted. In the first, the power law behavior and fractional-order integration are explored. In the second, a league season is interpreted in the light of a system where the teams are represented by objects (particles) that evolve in time and interact (collide) at successive rounds with dynamics driven by the outcomes of the matches. The two proposed models embed implicitly details of players and coaches, or strategical and tactical maneuvers during the matches. Therefore, the scale of observation focuses on the teams behavior in the scope of the observed variables. Data characterizing two European soccer leagues in the season 2015-2016 are adopted and processed. The model leads to the emergence of patterns that are analyzed and interpreted.

  10. Nellis Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    dental care, pharmacy, laboratory, pathology, radiology, dietetic and nutritional medicine, medical benefits and information. The 99th Security...Construct Sidewalks Area III Roads/parking lots RKMF070024 Construct Soccer Field Parking Lot Roads/parking lots RKMF110155 Construct Solar

  11. The reliability and validity of a soccer-specific nonmotorised treadmill simulation (intermittent soccer performance test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, Jeffrey W F; Akubat, Ibrahim; Chrismas, Bryna C R; Watkins, Samuel L; Mauger, Alexis R; Midgley, Adrian W; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of a novel nonmotorised treadmill (NMT)-based soccer simulation using a novel activity category called a "variable run" to quantify fatigue during high-speed running. Twelve male University soccer players completed 3 familiarization sessions and 1 peak speed assessment before completing the intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT) twice. The 2 iSPTs were separated by 6-10 days. The total distance, sprint distance, and high-speed running distance (HSD) were 8,968 ± 430 m, 980 ± 75 m and 2,122 ± 140 m, respectively. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between repeated trials of the iSPT for all physiological and performance variables. Reliability measures between iSPT1 and iSPT2 showed good agreement (coefficient of variation: 0.80). Furthermore, the variable run phase showed HSD significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in the last 15 minutes (89 ± 6 m) compared with the first 15 minutes (85 ± 7 m), quantifying decrements in high-speed exercise compared with the previous literature. This study validates the iSPT as a NMT-based soccer simulation compared with the previous match-play data and is a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring physiological and performance variables in soccer players. The iSPT could be used in a number of ways including player rehabilitation, understanding the efficacy of nutritional interventions, and also the quantification of environmentally mediated decrements on soccer-specific performance.

  12. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  13. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Bangsbo, J; Franks, A

    2000-09-01

    This review is focused on anthropometric and physiological characteristics of soccer players with a view to establishing their roles within talent detection, identification and development programmes. Top-class soccer players have to adapt to the physical demands of the game, which are multifactorial. Players may not need to have an extraordinary capacity within any of the areas of physical performance but must possess a reasonably high level within all areas. This explains why there are marked individual differences in anthropometric and physiological characteristics among top players. Various measurements have been used to evaluate specific aspects of the physical performance of both youth and adult soccer players. The positional role of a player is related to his or her physiological capacity. Thus, midfield players and full-backs have the highest maximal oxygen intakes ( > 60 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and perform best in intermittent exercise tests. On the other hand, midfield players tend to have the lowest muscle strength. Although these distinctions are evident in adult and elite youth players, their existence must be interpreted circumspectly in talent identification and development programmes. A range of relevant anthropometric and physiological factors can be considered which are subject to strong genetic influences (e.g. stature and maximal oxygen intake) or are largely environmentally determined and susceptible to training effects. Consequently, fitness profiling can generate a useful database against which talented groups may be compared. No single method allows for a representative assessment of a player's physical capabilities for soccer. We conclude that anthropometric and physiological criteria do have a role as part of a holistic monitoring of talented young players.

  14. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p667 Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical education students participated in the study and were evaluated in two matches: the semi-final and final games of the college tournament at the federal university where they studied. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer pre- and post-match. Cortisol, IL-6 and CK concentrations were increased after the match (p < 0.05. Testosterone and alpha-actin concentrations did not change. Our results indicate that changes in some of the acute response markers evaluated in players before and after competitive soccer matches provide important information for planning training or recovery, as well as nutritional strategies for improving performance.

  15. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical education students participated in the study and were evaluated in two matches: the semi-final and final games of the college tournament at the federal university where they studied. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer pre- and post-match. Cortisol, IL-6 and CK concentrations were increased after the match (p < 0.05. Testosterone and alpha-actin concentrations did not change. Our results indicate that changes in some of the acute response markers evaluated in players before and after competitive soccer matches provide important information for planning training or recovery, as well as nutritional strategies for improving performance.

  16. 'Violence-by-proxy': A recent trend of soccer violence in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most recent trend of soccer violence in the South African context is explored though a synthesis of theoretical perspectives and the 'sociogenesis' of soccer hooliganism. Against the background of profiling South African soccer spectators and an analysis of soccer violence since 1977, three trends were identified.

  17. Developing soccer coaches in South Africa through mentoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was undertaken to establish soccer coaches' views and experiences with regard to mentoring as a way of developing their skills and knowledge. The authors conducted a qualitative phenomenological study with seven purposively selected participants (coded as M1 – M7) who were involved in soccer ...

  18. Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; van der Kamp, J.; Williams, A.M.; Ward, P.

    2005-01-01

    A novel methodological approach is presented to examine the visual search behaviours employed by expert goalkeepers during simulated penalty kick situations in soccer. Expert soccer goalkeepers were classified as successful or unsuccessful based on their performance on a film-based test of

  19. Epidemiology of soccer-related injuries among male high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soccer in Rwandan high schools can expose players to the risk of injury warranting prevention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the type, causes, severity and management of injuries among high school soccer players in Rwanda, in order to obtain baseline data for injury prevention programmes.

  20. Coping strategies of soccer players | Plaatjie | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...

  1. Epidemiology of injuries in female high school soccer players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sport is a compulsory activity in schools in South Africa. Female learners participating in soccer are more vulnerable to injuries than males. Objective: This study determined the epidemiology of injuries in female high school soccer players. Methods: A cross sectional survey captured the epidemiology of ...

  2. Physical profiles of elite male field hockey and soccer players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The physical demands of field hockey and soccer, based on match analysis, are comparable. As a consequence many exercise scientists and coaches have started to use the same type of field tests for hockey and soccer for the purposes of talent identification and training prescription. The validity of this ...

  3. A multilateral modelling of Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the most dominant factors that influencing performance of soccer player and to predict group performance for soccer players. A total of 184 of youth soccer players from Malaysia sport school and six soccer academy encompasses as respondence of the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were computed to identify the most dominant factors whereas reducing the initial 26 parameters with recommended >0.5 of factor loading. Meanwhile, prediction of the soccer performance was predicted by regression model. CFA revealed that sit and reach, vertical jump, VO2max, age, weight, height, sitting height, calf circumference (cc), medial upper arm circumference (muac), maturation, bicep, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, 5M, 10M, and 20M speed were the most dominant factors. Further index analysis forming Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI) resulting by categorizing three groups namely, high, moderate, and low. The regression model for this study was significant set as p < 0.001 and R2 is 0.8222 which explained that the model contributed a total of 82% prediction ability to predict the whole set of the variables. The significant parameters in contributing prediction of YSPI are discussed. As a conclusion, the precision of the prediction models by integrating a multilateral factor reflecting for predicting potential soccer player and hopefully can create a competitive soccer games.

  4. Somatotype and stress hormone levels in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (Psoccer training process could indicate a stagnation of training process, accordingly with insignificant changes of AnT. The significant correlations of some somatotypes with stress hormonal responses could only suggest that the somatotype characteristics of young soccer players could be of interest in process of selection and planning of soccer training process with an essential need for more studies.

  5. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  6. Slip sliding away: Promoting ethical behaviours in soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slip sliding away: Promoting ethical behaviours in soccer. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... after the 2010 Soccer World Cup, has led to increased demands on sport organisations, coaches and players ... While the natural law steers individuals to act morally, a performance ethic motivates many ...

  7. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time reg...

  8. Assessment and Accountability in Youth Soccer: How Parents Grade Coaching, Refereeing, and the Soccer Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The term accountability is used extensively in performance management. In youth soccer, accountability is often discussed in the context of issues such as quality of coaching, officiating, responsiveness to stakeholders, scheduling of games, building parental involvement and support, and philosophical orientation to the sport. As part of the…

  9. The Effects on Soccer Passing Skills When Warming Up with Two Different Sized Soccer Balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcak, Keskin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is studying the effects of warm-up with two different sizes of balls on passing skills. Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) was conducted on 28 non-elite football players, who participated in the present research for 10 training days. LSPT is a passing skill protocol established on completing 16 passes…

  10. Between-game variation of physical soccer performance measures in highly trained youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, Greg; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2017-07-12

    To assess the between-game variation in measures of physical performance during 11 v 11 soccer match-play, over a short period of time, in highly trained youth soccer players. A single cohort observational study design was employed. Physical match performance data were collected from 17 male, highly trained youth soccer players (age: 13.3 ± 0.4 y) over three, 2 x 20min, 11 v 11 matches. Using 10 Hz GPS, the variables selected for analyses were total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR), very high-speed running (VHSR), number of high-speed running efforts (HSReff) and number of very high-speed running efforts (VHSReff). Match data was also separated into cumulative 5 min epochs, to identify the peak 5 min epoch and the mean of the cumulative 5 min epochs for each match. Variability was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV), Standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Between- and within-player smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) were also calculated for each variable to aid in the interpretation of the data. Analysis of the variance between games reported a low CV for TD (3.8%) but larger CVs for HSR (33.3%), HSReff (35.4%) and VHSR and VHSReff (59.6 and 57.4 %, respectively). Analysis of 5 min epochs (peak and average) found an increase in the CVs beyond that of the values reported for the whole match. Between-player SWC in high intensity physical performance data ranged from 24.7 - 42.4 %, whereas within-player SWC ranged from 1.2 - 79.9%. The between-game variability of high and very high intensity activities in youth soccer players, across three soccer matches over a short period of time (2 weeks), is relatively 'large' and specific to the individual, thus highlighting the need for caution when interpreting physical performance data between games and players.

  11. The development of aerobic and skill assessment in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, John; Wong, Stephen H S

    2012-12-01

    Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation. Therefore, numerous soccer-specific simulations have been designed to re-create exercise patterns similar to those experienced during a match. Some of these studies have yet to be validated, while others have been shown to result in a similar physiological load to that encountered during regular match play. Further developments have led to specifically designed intermittent sprint tests, which are used as a sensitive tool to accurately measure the fluctuations in players' ability both between and within soccer seasons. Testing procedures have also been developed that incorporate elements of both skill and physical ability. Soccer-specific field tests have been designed, incorporating skill and dynamic movements, and this opens up the possibility of teams testing the aerobic capacity of their elite players using soccer-specific movements. Valid studies assessing soccer-specific skills in an ecologically sound environment have been quite rare until recently. Some test protocols have been deemed largely irrelevant to soccer match play, while others have had limited impact on scientific literature. More recently, skill tests have been developed and shown to be valid and reliable methods of assessing soccer skill performance. Many new skill tests continue to be developed, and some have been shown to be highly reliable, but further study of these relatively novel concepts is required before a more solid recommendation can be made. Overall, while significant

  12. Applied physiology of female soccer: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datson, Naomi; Hulton, Andrew; Andersson, Helena; Lewis, Tracy; Weston, Matthew; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2014-09-01

    The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high speed (>15 kmh(-1)) [corrected].Elite players complete 28% more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4-57.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2-6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player.

  13. Soccer-Related Facial Trauma: A Nationwide Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobian, Michael R; Hanba, Curtis J; Svider, Peter F; Hojjat, Houmehr; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Shkoukani, Mahdi A

    2016-12-01

    Soccer participation continues to increase among all ages in the US. Our objective was to analyze trends in soccer-related facial injury epidemiology, demographics, and mechanisms of injury. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was evaluated for soccer-related facial injuries from 2010 through 2014. Results for product code "soccer" were filtered for injures to the face. Number of injuries was extrapolated, and data were analyzed for age, sex, specific injury diagnoses, locations, and mechanisms. In all, 2054 soccer-related facial trauma entries were analyzed. During this time, the number of injures remained relatively stable. Lacerations were the most common diagnosis (44.2%), followed by contusions and fractures. The most common sites of fracture were the nose (75.1%). Of fractures with a reported mechanism of injury, the most common was head-to-head collisions (39.0%). Patients soccer-related facial trauma has remained stable, but the severity of such injuries remain a danger. Facial protection in soccer is virtually absent, and our findings reinforce the need to educate athletes, families, and physicians on injury awareness and prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho; Eduardo Mendonça Pimenta; Christiano Eduardo Veneroso; Rodrigo Figueiredo Morandi; Diogo Antônio Soares Pacheco; Emerson Rodrigues Pereira; Leonardo Gomes Martins Coelho; Emerson Silami Garcia

    2013-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p667 Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a socce...

  15. Mean free path in soccer and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzuriaga, J, E-mail: luzuriag@cab.cnea.gov.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche - CNEA, Instituto Balseiro UNC (8400), Bariloche (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could be suitable for an introductory course in vacuum techniques or undergraduate courses in kinetic theory of gases. Without going into the slightly harder quantitative results, the analysis presented might be used for introducing some ideas of kinetic theory qualitatively to high school students.

  16. Mean free path in soccer and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzuriaga, J

    2010-01-01

    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could be suitable for an introductory course in vacuum techniques or undergraduate courses in kinetic theory of gases. Without going into the slightly harder quantitative results, the analysis presented might be used for introducing some ideas of kinetic theory qualitatively to high school students.

  17. The cardiovascular profile of soccer referees: an echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toncelli L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During a soccer game, the cardiovascular system is severely taxed The referees must be alert and their level of fitness must be such that fatigue will not impair their decision-making. Referee's peak overall performance is usually after 40 when the performance starts to decline. We evaluated the morphological and functional cardiac profile of professional soccer referees. Materials and methods We submitted to a clinical and echocardiographic exam a group of 120 professional soccer referees aged 25 – 45 years, including the first division of the Italian Championship, matched with 120 soccer players, including élite soccer players. Data were compared using an unpaired Student's t test. Statistical significance was with p Results Right ventricle dimensions (22.2 ± 3.8 vs 25.9 ± 2.4 mm and Left Ventricular Mass Index (LVMi (100.5 ± 45.2 vs 105.4 ± 17.3 were significantly greater in referees than in active soccer players. Left atrium dimensions (33.7 ± 8.9 vs 36.2 ± 3.1 mm, aortic root (29.7 ± 7.9 vs 32.1 ± 3 mm and LVMi (115.1 ± 16.7 vs 134.1 ± 19.9 g/m2 were significantly greater in élite soccer players than in first-division referees. Conclusion Our investigation shows that right ventricle is greater in referees than in soccer players. The differences (left atrium, aortic root and LVMi between first division referees and élite soccer players may derive from the different training workloads.

  18. The beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bijelić, Borislav

    2008-01-01

    We do not know much about the beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo. Based on modest and not always representative historical sources, as well as memories of the first soccer activists, I feel that we are today nevertheless able to offer a sufficiently coherent genesis of football in Ðakovo from its beginnings till the outbreak of World War I. Soccer first began to be played in an organized fashion within the Section of the sport society “Hrvatski sokol” that was established in 1908, and afterwards ...

  19. The Copenhagen Soccer Test: Physiological response and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, Rasmus; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    in various phases of CST. METHODS: Twelve Danish Second and Third Division soccer players participated in the study. On separate days, heart rate (HR) measurements, frequent blood sampling and physical/technical tests were performed during 60- and 90-min versions of CST during which repeated m. vastus......INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate whether a multi-facetted simulated soccer game protocol, entitled the Copenhagen Soccer Test (CST), elicited a similar physiological loading as a competitive game, and 2) to determine muscle metabolites, blood variables and sprint performance...

  20. Level of functional capacities following soccer-specific warm-up methods among elite collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazini Taher, Amir; Parnow, Abdolhossein

    2017-05-01

    Different methods of warm-up may have implications in improving various aspects of soccer performance. The present study aimed to investigate acute effects of soccer specific warm-up protocols on functional performance tests. This study using randomized within-subject design, investigated the performance of 22 collegiate elite soccer player following soccer specific warm-ups using dynamic stretching, static stretching, and FIFA 11+ program. Post warm-up examinations consisted: 1) Illinois Agility Test; 2) vertical jump; 3) 30 meter sprint; 4) consecutive turns; 5) flexibility of knee. Vertical jump performance was significantly lower following static stretching, as compared to dynamic stretching (P=0.005). Sprint performance declined significantly following static stretching as compared to FIFA 11+ (P=0.023). Agility time was significantly faster following dynamic stretching as compared to FIFA 11+ (P=0.001) and static stretching (P=0.001). Knee flexibility scores were significantly improved following the static stretching as compared to dynamic stretching (P=016). No significant difference was observed for consecutive turns between three warm-up protocol. The present finding showed that a soccer specific warm-up protocol relied on dynamic stretching is preferable in enhancing performance as compared to protocols relying on static stretches and FIFA 11+ program. Investigators suggest that while different soccer specific warm-up protocols have varied types of effects on performance, acute effects of dynamic stretching on performance in elite soccer players are assured, however application of static stretching in reducing muscle stiffness is demonstrated.

  1. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  2. Determinants of feedback retention in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário Nuno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed soccer players’ retention of coaches’ feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes’ personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level, the quantity of information included in coach’s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes’ motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted over the course of 18 sessions of soccer practice, involved 12 coaches (8 males, 4 females and 342 athletes (246 males, 96 females, aged between 10 and 18 years old. All coach and athlete interventions were transposed to a written protocol and submitted to content analysis. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were calculated. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes; in 65.5% of cases, athletes experienced difficulty in completely reproducing the ideas of the coaches and, on average, the value of feedback retention was 57.0%. Six variables with a statistically significant value were found: gender, the athletes’ sports level, redundancy, the number of transmitted ideas, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and the athletes’ motivation level.

  3. A Fast Vision System for Soccer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fast colour-based object recognition and localization for soccer robots. The traditional HSL colour model is modified for better colour segmentation and edge detection in a colour coded environment. The object recognition is based on only the edge pixels to speed up the computation. The edge pixels are detected by intelligently scanning a small part of whole image pixels which is distributed over the image. A fast method for line and circle centre detection is also discussed. For object localization, 26 key points are defined on the soccer field. While two or more key points can be seen from the robot camera view, the three rotation angles are adjusted to achieve a precise localization of robots and other objects. If no key point is detected, the robot position is estimated according to the history of robot movement and the feedback from the motors and sensors. The experiments on NAO and RoboErectus teen-size humanoid robots show that the proposed vision system is robust and accurate under different lighting conditions and can effectively and precisely locate robots and other objects.

  4. Quality of sidewalks in the city of Camboriú/SC: in search of sustainable mobility and accessibility to tourist area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the walkability of the urban area in the city of Camboriú, showing the neighborhoods that have the best and the worst conditions of displacements on foot. The method of approach is the inductive and the procedure the case study. The research has been structured in four stages: preparation and approval of the project, data collection, tabulation and thematic mapping, analysis and discussion of the results. The techniques were adopted: bibliographic, documental and field research, with intensive direct observation. The result is a walkability of 1.93, which indicates a critical situation requiring improvement of the sidewalks as a way of improving the tourism infrastructure, ensuring the longer permanence and increasing the attractiveness. That´s an useful information in the process of territorial planning of tourism, in the quest for sustainable mobility and accessibility.

  5. [PREVALENCE OF DEHYDRATION BEFORE TRAINING IN PROFESIONAL CHILEAN SOCCER PLAYERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Astudillo, Sebastian; Álvarez, Cristian; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    there is a lack of studies concerning hydration status before training in professional soccer player. to describe hydration status before regular training practices in professional soccer players. a total of 156 male soccer players (age 25.4 ± 5.2 y) from six professional Chilean clubs were included. No hydration or food intake recommendations were made before experiment, with the aim to assess hydration status under athlete's regular "real" conditions. Body mass, height and urine specific gravity (USG) measurements were performed before training practices. 98% of athletes showed dehydration (between moderate and severe) before regular training practices. dehydration is the most prevalent hydration status in professional Chilean soccer players before training, which may negatively affect athlete's performance and may increase their risk of heat-related injuries. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  7. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  8. Predictors of pre-game anxiety dysphoria among teenage soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of pre-game anxiety dysphoria among teenage soccer players. ... The result confirmed a significant composite effect of the dependent variable on the independent variables (0.87637, 74.49548, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  10. Copenhagen hip and groin outcome score (HAGOS) in male soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Stensbirk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Reference values are needed in order to interpret the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) in male soccer players with hip and groin pain. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for HAGOS in hip and groin injury-free male soccer players. METHODS: We...... included 444 groin injury-free soccer players from 40 clubs (divisions 1-4) in Eastern Denmark, mean age (SD) 23.6 (4.4), training soccer 3.4 (1) times per week. All players were hip and groin injury-free at the time of inclusion (beginning of season, 2011). RESULTS: Of the 444 hip and groin injury...... HAGOS subscales (psoccer players, with no pain in the previous or present season (n=301), are: pain: 80.1-100, symptoms: 64.3-100, activities of daily living: 80...

  11. The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J.; Otten, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new estimation strategy that uses the variation in success between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the causal impact of gender equality on women’s soccer performance. In particular, we analyze whether within-country variations...... in labor force participation rates and life expectancies between the genders, which serve as measures for the country’s gender equality, are able to explain diff erences in the international success of male and female national soccer teams. Our results reveal that diff erences in male and female labor...... force participation rates and life expectancies are able to explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but not that of male teams, suggesting that gender equality is an important driver of female sport success....

  12. Analysis of the 30-m running speed test results in soccer players in third soccer leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz Drozd

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic goal of this study was to analysis of the results of the 30-m running speed test in soccer players in third soccer leagues. The study examined the group of randomly selected seventy athletes from two soccer teams from the Ekstraklasa league, two teams from the first league and two teams from the second leagues were randomized into the study group. All the measurements were performed in indoor arenas. The temperature in the arenas ranged from 22 to 24 C. Measurements were recorded in the morning (between 10:00 am and 12:00 am. The Running Speed Test was used in the study to diagnose speed potential in the athletes. The running speed was measured by means of a set of photocells located at 0m, 5m, 20m, 30m. The results obtained demonstrated that the elite-level matches are more dynamic since the players show higher values of speed parameters. Apart from starting speed, the results obtained for the distance of 5 m provide information for coaches concerning their work on special strength. The speed is indicated by the results obtained for 20 and 30 m distances, whereas flying measurements between 5/20m and 20/30m reflect inherited speed aptitudes.

  13. The Betting Odds Rating System: Using soccer forecasts to forecast soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Fabian; Memmert, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Betting odds are frequently found to outperform mathematical models in sports related forecasting tasks, however the factors contributing to betting odds are not fully traceable and in contrast to rating-based forecasts no straightforward measure of team-specific quality is deducible from the betting odds. The present study investigates the approach of combining the methods of mathematical models and the information included in betting odds. A soccer forecasting model based on the well-known ELO rating system and taking advantage of betting odds as a source of information is presented. Data from almost 15.000 soccer matches (seasons 2007/2008 until 2016/2017) are used, including both domestic matches (English Premier League, German Bundesliga, Spanish Primera Division and Italian Serie A) and international matches (UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europe League). The novel betting odds based ELO model is shown to outperform classic ELO models, thus demonstrating that betting odds prior to a match contain more relevant information than the result of the match itself. It is shown how the novel model can help to gain valuable insights into the quality of soccer teams and its development over time, thus having a practical benefit in performance analysis. Moreover, it is argued that network based approaches might help in further improving rating and forecasting methods.

  14. Differential Biofeedback Intervention in Moderating Inhibited Performance in Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Soumendra Saha; Srilekha Saha; Mohd Zahir Nurfarah Ezzaty Binti; Debashis C; Praba K C

    2016-01-01

    Performance excellence in soccer crucially depends on mental toughness or more specifically the aspect of emotional flexibility and hardiness of the player. Since indices of projective evaluations can reveal hidden emotional crises and internal conflicts, psychobiological evaluations could substantiate with the inner emotionality revealed to provide etiological information related to performance hindrances in soccer. Present study was carried out to identify the efficacy of skin conductance (...

  15. Association of Soccer and Genu Varum in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Kamran; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Mardani Kivi, Mohsen; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Rouhi Rad, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genu varum is a physical deformity marked by bowing of the leg. One of the risk factors of this musculoskeletal alignment is stress on the knee joint such as with exercise. Objectives: Since the evaluation of genu varum has not been widely studies, this study was conducted to examine the association between genu varum and playing soccer. Materials and Methods: Between Septembers 2010-2012, 750 soccer players and 750 non-soccer players 10-18 years of age were included in the study. A questionnaire of data including age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), years of soccer participation, the average time of playing soccer per week, previous trauma to the lower limbs, history of any fractures of the knee, previous hospitalizations, and the distance of joint lines between the knees was assessed for all subjects. Chi-square, student t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis by SPSS v.19.0 software. In all tests, a P value of less than 0.05 was construed as statistically significant. Results: Both soccer players and controls had genu varum. However, the incidence of genu varum was higher in the soccer players (P = 0.0001) and it was more prevalent in the 16-18 year age group (P = 0.0001). The results revealed a statistically significant association between the degree of practices and the prevalence of genu varum (P = 0.0001). Moreover, previous trauma to the knees and practicing in load-bearing sports led to an increase in the degree of genu varum (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: There was a higher incidence of genu varum in soccer players than in control adolescents; the stress and load imposed on the knee joint led to more severe genu varum. PMID:26290852

  16. Recovery in SoccerPart II—Recovery Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue...

  17. The Youth Soccer Coaches’ Visions and Thoughts of Leader Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertting Krister

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Objectives: The European Commission has highlighted the use of sports as an important venue for engaging citizens in health-enhancing activities, physical activity, volunteerism and active citizenship. Coaching is a central component of sports for children and youth, but there is little research on the promotion of sports coaches’ health. In the light of this gap, the aim of this paper was to elucidate youth soccer coaches’ visions and thoughts regarding leadership support from clubs and soccer associations.

  18. Analyzing In-Game Movements of Soccer Players at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gyarmati, Laszlo; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to get access to datasets related to the physical performance of soccer players. The teams consider such information highly confidential, especially if it covers in-game performance.Hence, most of the analysis and evaluation of the players' performance do not contain much information on the physical aspect of the game, creating a blindspot in performance analysis. We propose a novel method to solve this issue by deriving movement characteristics of soccer players. We use eve...

  19. Effect of exercise on lipid peroxidation in student soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Puspaningtyas, Desty Ervira; Afriani, Yuni; Mahfida, Silvi Lailatul; Kushartanti, Wara; Farmawati, Arta

    2018-01-01

    Training is conducted to improve physiological functions that can support improvementof cardio-respiratory function (O2max). However, intensive training can lead to oxidativestress, which can contribute to health problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe effect of training on serum lipid peroxidation levels in student soccer players. Thestudy was pre-experimental study with a one-shot case design conducted in April 2014.Twelve student soccer players from UGM who chosen by purposi...

  20. Violence in soccer: a socio-psychological review

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer; Nivia Marcia Velho; Mário Luiz C. Barroso

    2005-01-01

    Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggest...

  1. Exercise physiology and nutritional perspectives of elite soccer refereeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, K; Bizzini, M; Gatterer, H

    2018-03-01

    Referees are an integral part of soccer, and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players, most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity, and training load. Thus, referees' caloric needs and recommended daily carbohydrate intake may generally be lower compared to active soccer players, with higher intakes limited to periods of increased training load and match days or for referees engaged in physical demanding occupations. With respect to fluid intake, pre-match and in-match hydration strategies generally valid in sports are recommended also for referees to avoid cognitive and physical performance loss, especially when officiating in extreme climates and altitude. In contrast to elite soccer, professional assistance concerning nutrition and training is rarely available for national elite referees of most countries. Therefore, special attention on education about adequate nutrition and fluid intake, about the dietary prevention of deficiencies (iron in female referees, vitamin D irrespective of sex and age), and basic precautions for travels abroad is warranted. In conclusion, the simple adoption of nutritional considerations from active soccer for referees may not be appropriate. Recommendations should respect gender differences, population-specific physical characteristics, and demands just as well as individual characteristics and special needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for c...

  3. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Lore; Deleuze, Thomas; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macr...

  4. Mental Fatigue Impairs Soccer-Specific Physical and Technical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mitchell R; Coutts, Aaron J; Merlini, Michele; Deprez, Dieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Marcora, Samuele M

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical and technical performance. This investigation consisted of two separate studies. Study 1 assessed the soccer-specific physical performance of 12 moderately trained soccer players using the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Study 2 assessed the soccer-specific technical performance of 14 experienced soccer players using the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests (LSPT, LSST). Each test was performed on two occasions and preceded, in a randomized, counterbalanced order, by 30 min of the Stroop task (mentally fatiguing treatment) or 30 min of reading magazines (control treatment). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort and motivation were measured after treatment. Distance run, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded during the Yo-Yo IR1. LSPT performance time was calculated as original time plus penalty time. LSST performance was assessed using shot speed, shot accuracy, and shot sequence time. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher after the Stroop task in both studies (P motivation was similar between conditions. This mental fatigue significantly reduced running distance in the Yo-Yo IR1 (P performance time were not different between conditions; however, penalty time significantly increased in the mental fatigue condition (P = 0.015). Mental fatigue also impaired shot speed (P = 0.024) and accuracy (P performance.

  5. Heart Rate Variability Discriminates Competitive Levels in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.

  6. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Andrews Portes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitnesscharacteristics of Brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. Inthis study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. The athletesparticipated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3hours. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. The boys were divided intoage classes and prevalence data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Parametric datawere compared by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, when necessary. The resultsare expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequateand proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05. It was concluded that anthropometricand physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and areproportional to age. Children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Thepresent results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditionsand physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.

  7. Hand Grip Strength Vs. Sprint Effectiveness in Amputee Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marta; Wiliński, Wojciech; Struzik, Artur; Rokita, Andrzej

    2015-11-22

    Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 - 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.

  8. Hand Grip Strength Vs. Sprint Effectiveness in Amputee Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 – 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.

  9. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  10. Racism in soccer? Perception of challenges of black and white players by white referees, soccer players, and fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla

    2012-02-01

    This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.

  11. Leg Stiffness in Female Soccer Players: Intersession Reliability and the Fatiguing Effects of Soccer-Specific Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Hughes, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Read, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    De Ste Croix, MBA, Hughes, JD, Lloyd, RS, Oliver, JL, and Read, PJ. Leg stiffness in female soccer players: intersession reliability and the fatiguing effects of soccer-specific exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3052-3058, 2016-Low levels of leg stiffness and reduced leg stiffness when fatigue is present compromise physical performance and increase injury risk. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the reliability of leg stiffness measures obtained from contact mat data and (b) explore age-related differences in leg stiffness after exposure to a soccer-specific fatigue protocol in young female soccer players. Thirty-seven uninjured female youth soccer players divided into 3 subgroups based on chronological age (under 13 [U13], under 15 [U15], and under 17 [U17] year-olds) volunteered to participate in the study. After baseline data collection, during which relative leg stiffness, contact time, and flight time were collected, participants completed an age-appropriate soccer-specific fatigue protocol (SAFT). Upon completion of the fatigue protocol, subjects were immediately retested. Intersession reliability was acceptable and could be considered capable of detecting worthwhile changes in performance. Results showed that leg stiffness decreased in the U13 year-olds, was maintained in the U15 age group, and increased in the U17 players. Contact times and flight times did not change in the U13 and U15 year-olds, but significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the U17 age group. The data suggest that age-related changes in the neuromuscular control of leg stiffness are present in youth female soccer players. Practitioners should be aware of these discrepancies in neuromuscular responses to soccer-specific fatigue, and should tailor training programs to meet the needs of individuals, which may subsequently enhance performance and reduce injury risk.

  12. How coaches use their knowledge to develop small-sided soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How coaches use their knowledge to develop small-sided soccer games: a case study. ... The method employed by coaches when designing small-sided soccer games has had limited attention from the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  14. Cartilage Repair in Football (Soccer) Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; de Windt, Th.S.; Brittberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of focal articular cartilage lesions among athletes is higher than in the general population. Treatment goals differ considerably between the professional and recreational athlete. High financial stakes and the short duration of a professional career influence the treatment selection for the professional athlete, while such parameters weigh differently in recreational sports. This article describes our investigation of the relation between sports and a high prevalence of focal cartilage lesions. In addition, we provide a critical review of the best available evidence for cartilage surgery and treatment selection, evaluate specific patient profiles for professional and recreational athletes, and propose a treatment algorithm for the treatment of focal cartilage lesions in football (soccer) players. PMID:26069606

  15. The Importance of Vitaminsfor Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Günay

    2015-12-01

    Soccer is one of the most widely played and complex sports in the world, where success depends on technical, tactical and physical skills of the players. Studies to improve performance in soccer have often focused on technique and tactics. However, nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing athletic performance of the players. The duration of matches is long and the training is intense. This leads to increased requirements for energy and nutrients, as well as increased reactive oxygen radicals and hence increased muscle damage. Vitamins are micronutrients that a living organism requires in trace quantities for health. As these assume crucial functions in the body, the performance of the player is negatively affected particularly during long-term deficiency. Beta-carotene, C and E vitamins are antioxidants that protect against oxygen radicals. In case of their deficiency, oxidative stress and muscle fatigue increases. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining mineral balance, and it increases absorption of dietary calcium and phosphorus. In case of vitamin D deficiency, injuries resulting from the musculoskeletal system might increase. B Vitamins (B1, B2, niacin, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and pantothenic acid) perform duties such as energy production, absorption and transport of iron and blood cell production. Athletes who follow an energy-restricted and imbalanced diet might develop vitamin deficiency. In such a case, supplements can be used as recommended by the doctor/dietician. It is further reported that supplement use by athletes who have an adequate and balanced nutrition does not increase performance.

  16. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  17. Muscle adaptations and performance enhancements of soccer training for untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Christensen, Jesper F.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physical demands of small-sided soccer games in untrained middle-age males and muscle adaptations and performance effects over 12 weeks of recreational soccer training in comparison with continuous running. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (20-43 years) were randomized into a soccer....... Blood lactate during running at 11 km/h was lowered (p soccer organized as small-sided games stimulates both aerobic and anaerobic...

  18. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of thes...

  19. Nutritional intake and nutritional status in elite Mexican teenagers soccer players of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo y Terán Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Méndez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. Aims: analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. Methods: se...

  20. Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, J.H.; Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Knaap, S. van der; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Backx, F.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Context : Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective : To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design : Cohort

  1. Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbe, J.H.; van Beijsterveldt, A.M.M.C.; van der Knaap, S.; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Backx, F.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study.

  2. Ankle Injuries: Reduce the Risk by Using a Soccer-Specific Warm-up Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Steven; Ellis, Margery; Combs, Sue; Hunt Long, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the ankle are among the most common injuries for soccer players at any age. Soccer coaches should be aware of current research and best practices that suggest it is possible to decrease the incidence of soccer players' ankle injuries by providing an appropriate warm-up to utilize prior to practices and games. This article introduces…

  3. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  4. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer

  5. Soccer fan violence: a holistic approach: a reply to Braun and Vliegenthart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-01-01

    Building on Braun and Vliegenthart’s recent study of soccer hooliganism, this article develops an explanatory model of soccer fan violence and collective violence more generally. The fabric of soccer fan violence becomes a richer tapestry if the diversity of the phenomenon is recognized and the

  6. Oscillations of centroid position and surface area of soccer teams in small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Lemmink, Koen; Delleman, Nico; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a collective variable that captures the dynamics of team sports like soccer at match level. The centroid positions and surface areas of two soccer teams potentially describe the coordinated flow of attacking and defending in small-sided soccer games at team level. The aim of the

  7. Nutritional practices of national female soccer players: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louise; Lambeth, Anneliese; Scott, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the nutritional practices and activity patterns of elite female soccer players. The nutritional intake of 16 female England Soccer players was self-reported over a seven-day period. Participants were provided with written and verbal guidelines for the completion of the diaries. Training details were also recorded, and used in combination with BMR predictions to calculate daily energy expenditure. Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined using DietMaster 4.0 software. Results suggest that energy intake was low (1904 ± 366.3 kcal) in relation to previous recommendations for soccer players. Energy expenditure (2153.5 ± 596.2 kcal) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from intake, suggesting energy balance was achieved. Carbohydrate (53.8 ± 6.8%), protein (16.8 ± 2.1%) and fat (28.8 ± 6.6%) intakes were in line with recommendations. Fluid intake (2466 ± 1350.5ml·day(-1)) was sufficient to meet baseline recommendations, but would need to be higher to meet the additional requirement of training and competition. With the exception of vitamin A and iron, all micronutrient intakes were higher than the DRI. In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI. Key pointsFemale soccer players demonstrate a low energy intake in relation to predicted requirements, but were in energy balance in this study.Increased carbohydrate intake may be beneficial to both training and competition performance of elite female soccer playersFluid requirements should be addressed on an individual basis and matched to player requirements.The iron status of female soccer players may be compromised due to insufficient dietary intake to meet the DRV.

  8. Nutritional Practices of National Female Soccer Players: Analysis and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Louise; Lambeth, Anneliese; Scott, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the nutritional practices and activity patterns of elite female soccer players. The nutritional intake of 16 female England Soccer players was self-reported over a seven-day period. Participants were provided with written and verbal guidelines for the completion of the diaries. Training details were also recorded, and used in combination with BMR predictions to calculate daily energy expenditure. Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined using DietMaster 4.0 software. Results suggest that energy intake was low (1904 ± 366.3 kcal) in relation to previous recommendations for soccer players. Energy expenditure (2153.5 ± 596.2 kcal) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from intake, suggesting energy balance was achieved. Carbohydrate (53.8 ± 6.8%), protein (16.8 ± 2.1%) and fat (28.8 ± 6.6%) intakes were in line with recommendations. Fluid intake (2466 ± 1350.5ml·day-1) was sufficient to meet baseline recommendations, but would need to be higher to meet the additional requirement of training and competition. With the exception of vitamin A and iron, all micronutrient intakes were higher than the DRI. In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI. Key points Female soccer players demonstrate a low energy intake in relation to predicted requirements, but were in energy balance in this study. Increased carbohydrate intake may be beneficial to both training and competition performance of elite female soccer players Fluid requirements should be addressed on an individual basis and matched to player requirements. The iron status of female soccer players may be compromised due to insufficient dietary intake to meet the DRV. PMID:24198690

  9. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  10. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mitchell R; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M S; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30 min of the Stroop task (mental fatigue) or 30 min of reading from magazines (control). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort (referring to treatment) and motivation (referring to the decision-making task) were measured after treatment. Performance on the soccer-specific decision-making task was assessed using response accuracy and time. Visual search behaviour was also assessed throughout the decision-making task. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were almost certainly higher following the Stroop task compared to the magazines. Motivation for the upcoming decision-making task was possibly higher following the Stroop task. Decision-making accuracy was very likely lower and response time likely higher in the mental fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had unclear effects on most visual search behaviour variables. The results suggest that mental fatigue impairs accuracy and speed of soccer-specific decision-making. These impairments are not likely related to changes in visual search behaviour.

  11. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack Majgaard

    2010-01-01

    .06 +/- 0.06 seconds after the game, which was 4% slower (p game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both......Krustrup, P, Zebis, M, Jensen, JM, and Mohr, M. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res 24(2): 437-441, 2010-The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier...... League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood...

  12. A Case of Lung Lesions Induced by a soccer Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takemoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old youth soccer forward received a direct hit from a kicked soccer ball on the anterior right chest when the goal keeper kicked the ball from a distance of 1 meter. Immediately following the hit, the subject experienced dypnea, chest pain and had a cough, with several milliliters of hemoptysis. His symptoms subsided after 20 minutes of rest. However, he still felt mild discomfort and was taken to our department for evaluation. On examination, all vital signs were normal. A computed tomography scan of the chest was obtained, and revealed a small area of opacification in the right lung field suggesting a pulmonary contusion or traumatic lung edema. Ten days after the initial injury, he was cleared for full participation. We herein reported the first case of a lung lesion induced by a soccer ball. Conservative treatment resulted in a favorable outcome.

  13. Evolution of the soil cover of soccer fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrov, V. P.; Zamotaev, I. V.

    2014-04-01

    A soccer field can be considered a soil-like technogenic formation (STF). According to the theory of soil cover patterns, the artificially constructed (anthropogenic) soil cover of a soccer field is an analogue of a relatively homogeneous elementary soil area. However, the spatial homogeneity of the upper part (50-80 cm) of the STF of soccer fields is unstable and is subjected to gradual transformation under the impact of pedogenetic processes, agrotechnical loads, and mechanical loads during the games. This transformation is favored by the initial heterogeneity of the deep (buried) parts of the STF profile. The technogenic factors and elementary pedogenetic processes specify the dynamic functioning regime of the STF. In 50-75 years, the upper part of the STF is transformed into soil-like bodies with properties close to those in zonal soils. Certain micro- and nanopatterns of the soil cover are developed within the field creating its spatial heterogeneity.

  14. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes......ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...

  15. Adaptations to speed endurance training in highly trained soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects...... in type I and II fibers did not change. CONCLUSION: In highly trained soccer players, additional speed endurance training is associated with an improved ability to perform repeated high-intensity work. To what extent the training-induced changes in V˙O2 kinetics and mechanical efficiency in type I fibers...

  16. Diagnostic imaging of injuries and overuse in soccer players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, M.C. de; Maas, M.; Kuijk, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. There is a high incidence of injuries in soccer in which several intrinsic and extrinsic factors play a part. Most injuries are minor, self-limiting and do not need extensive medical treatment or imaging. Imaging can be required for several reasons e.g. when the clinical findings are doubtful, to replace arthroscopy (i. e. of the knee) or for prognostic reasons. All imaging modalities available to the radiologist can be used but MRI is the most valuable imaging modality with its superior contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Basically, injuries in the soccer player can occur anywhere in the body like in every sport. The lower extremities, more specific the knee and ankle, are however the most injured parts. (orig.) [de

  17. Differential Biofeedback Intervention in Moderating Inhibited Performance in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumendra Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance excellence in soccer crucially depends on mental toughness or more specifically the aspect of emotional flexibility and hardiness of the player. Since indices of projective evaluations can reveal hidden emotional crises and internal conflicts, psychobiological evaluations could substantiate with the inner emotionality revealed to provide etiological information related to performance hindrances in soccer. Present study was carried out to identify the efficacy of skin conductance (Sc biofeedback in regulation of sudomotor nerve activity (SNA and of electromyography (EMG biofeedback in regulation of peak torque and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC in modification of performance catastrophe in soccer. All of them were assessed with autonomic measures (SNA and Sc amplitude; electromyography evaluation of emotionality and MVC revealed through EMG. Forty National-selection group soccer players of Malaysia were randomly categorized into four groups (Gr. A, N = 10, no-intervention control group; Gr. B (who received Sc biofeedback training; Gr. C (received EMG biofeedback intervention and Gr. D (players who received combined training of Sc and EMG biofeedback intervention. Players of intervention groups received their respective trainings for 12 weeks (15 min.s /day for 3 days/ week. Post-intervention analyses revealed marked improvement in the soccer players who received Sc and EMG biofeedback intervention, and the combined biofeedback training was evident as most efficient intervention technique in modulating emotionality as well as muscle potentiality. Analysis of variance and repeated measure of ANOVA were done to observe shared aetiology in the form of direct, inverse and supportive relationships between psychobiological and emotional indices related to performance crises in soccer. Comprehensive understanding of the confounding relationships between subjective feelings emotionality and corroborative psychobiological indices as

  18. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  19. Soccer Players Cultural Capital and Its Impact on Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskošek, Bojan; Vodičar, Janez; Topič, Mojca Doupona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify factors that constituted the cultural capital among soccer players. We assumed that in the increasingly globalized world of professional soccer, a player’s success would often depend on migrating and adjusting to life in other countries. Willingness to migrate and successful adjustment are tied to player’s previous attitudes and/or behaviours (habitus), significant support from others, including family members, and previous experiences and success in sports and education. Our hypothesised model of the cultural capital was based on the Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. It consisted of 26 variables related to three sets of factors: soccer experiences, a family context and support, and educational achievements of the players and their parents. The model was tested using a sample of 79 current soccer coaches who also had been players at the elite level. A factor analysis was used to empirically verify the content of the hypothetical model of the soccer players’ cultural capital. Nine latent factors were extracted and together, they accounted for 55.01% of the total model variance. Individual factors obtained showed a sufficient level of substantial connection. The Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.77 confirmed the internal consistency of the operationalised variables in the hypothetical model. In addition, the impact of these aforementioned life dimensions on the migration of soccer players was studied. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the first factor of the hypothetical model (F1) had 2.2 times and the second factor (F8) had 3.9 times higher odds for migration abroad. Sociocultural findings using this new assessment approach could help create better “success conditions” in the talent development of young players. PMID:28031770

  20. Soccer Players Cultural Capital and Its Impact on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Križaj Jožef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify factors that constituted the cultural capital among soccer players. We assumed that in the increasingly globalized world of professional soccer, a player’s success would often depend on migrating and adjusting to life in other countries. Willingness to migrate and successful adjustment are tied to player’s previous attitudes and/or behaviours (habitus, significant support from others, including family members, and previous experiences and success in sports and education. Our hypothesised model of the cultural capital was based on the Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. It consisted of 26 variables related to three sets of factors: soccer experiences, a family context and support, and educational achievements of the players and their parents. The model was tested using a sample of 79 current soccer coaches who also had been players at the elite level. A factor analysis was used to empirically verify the content of the hypothetical model of the soccer players’ cultural capital. Nine latent factors were extracted and together, they accounted for 55.01% of the total model variance. Individual factors obtained showed a sufficient level of substantial connection. The Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.77 confirmed the internal consistency of the operationalised variables in the hypothetical model. In addition, the impact of these aforementioned life dimensions on the migration of soccer players was studied. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the first factor of the hypothetical model (F1 had 2.2 times and the second factor (F8 had 3.9 times higher odds for migration abroad. Sociocultural findings using this new assessment approach could help create better “success conditions” in the talent development of young players.

  1. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  2. Testing of tactical performance in youth elite soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This is a twofold study with the goals of evaluating tactical oriented game test situations for 12-13-year old highly-talented soccer players and to analyze dynamic, intra-individual developments of the players. A cross-sectional design was carried in study 1, using game test situations to measure specific tactics and creative performance for 195 expert players. The results from five evaluation criteria show that both diagnostic instruments can be used for recording football-specific creativity and game intelligence in talented young players. They produced tactical indicators that can be described as objective and valid, exhibit a sufficient degree of differentiation and are easy to record. Study 2 uses a longitudinal design to present a dynamic performance diagnostic tool for analyzing intra-individual improvements of German Soccer Foundation talents according to football-specific creativity and game intelligence. The results with respect to divergent tactical thinking clearly show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players. Finally, the practical implications for the training process are discussed on the basis of both studies. Key pointsWith game test situations it is possible to assess tactical performance as game intelligence and creativity objective, valid, with a sufficient degree of differentiation, and economically.The results with respect to game intelligence and creativity show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players dependend on the bases (trainers).Current literature on tactics for school sports as well as for children's, youth and high performance soccer at the club level should place much more emphasis on individual and group-tactical requirements in soccer.

  3. Social Hostility in Soccer and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Verburgh, Lot; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Social hostility is seldom expressed overtly. More often than not, individuals try to get their hostile message across without risking violent altercations. However, subtle and relatively covert hostility is not easy to research. We suggest a novel way with the SoMi paradigm, a social decision making task that offers participants the opportunity to be socially mindful or socially hostile by leaving or limiting choice to others. Sampling a general population we find that, relative to friends and strangers, foes are indeed met with greater social hostility (Study 1). Focusing on the highly competitive environment of youth soccer, we find that rival team members elicit social hostility, whereas teammates elicit social mindfulness (Study 2). We conclude that social mindfulness and social hostility play a subtle role in the dynamics of interpersonal and/or intergroup relationships, in which leaving or limiting choice is one of the subtle ways to express benevolent versus hostile intentions; the SoMi paradigm may thus be helpful in identifying which way the ball rolls. PMID:27077379

  4. Presence of Inguinal Hernia in Soccer Players with Osteitis Pubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eraslan

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed that soccer players with osteitis pubis may have concomitant inguinal hernia, and that osteitis pubis may develop in soccer players who have undergone hernia repair. In addition, more severe osteitis pubis findings on the same side with hernia indicate that the two pathologies occur with common mechanisms. It should not be forgotten that inguinal hernia be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteitis pubis, which it may accompany. Conservative methods are mostly used in the treatment of osteitis pubis, whereas the treatment of inguinal hernia is surgery. If only one entity is diagnosed when both are present, the success of treatment will decrease.

  5. EMG evaluation of hip adduction exercises for soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise programmes are used in the prevention and treatment of adductor-related groin injuries in soccer; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the intensity of frequently used exercises. OBJECTIVE: Primarily to investigate muscle activity of adductor longus during six...... traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...

  6. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports studies have focused on all parts of the world with one exception: the Middle East and North Africa. Nonetheless, sports and particularly soccer has been in various parts of the Middle East key to ...

  7. Soccer Injury Movement Screen (SIMS) Composite Score Is Not Associated With Injury Among Semi-Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunn, Robert; Fünten, Karen Aus der; Whalan, Matthew; Sampson, John A; Meyer, Tim

    2018-05-08

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The association between movement quality and injury is equivocal. No soccer-specific movement assessment has been prospectively investigated in relation to injury risk. Objectives To investigate the association between a soccer-specific movement quality assessment and injury risk among semi-professional soccer players. Methods Semi-professional soccer players (n=306) from 12 clubs completed the Soccer Injury Movement Screen (SIMS) during the pre-season period. Individual training/match exposure and non-contact time loss injuries were recorded prospectively for the entirety of the 2016 season. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, and presented with 90% confidence intervals (CI), for the SIMS composite and individual sub-test scores from generalized linear models with Poisson distribution offset for exposure. Results When considering non-contact time loss lower extremity injuries (primary level of analysis), there was a most likely trivial association with the SIMS composite score. Similarly, SIMS composite score demonstrated most likely to likely trivial associations to all injury categories included in the secondary level of analysis (non-contact time loss hip/groin, thigh, knee and ankle injuries). When considering hamstring strains and ankle sprains specifically (tertiary level of analysis) the SIMS composite score, again, demonstrated very likely trivial associations. A total of 262 non-contact time loss injuries were recorded. The overall (training and match exposure combined) incidence of non-contact time loss injury was 12/1000 hours. Conclusion The SIMS composite score demonstrated no association to any of the investigated categories of soccer-related injury. The SIMS composite score should not be used to group players into 'high' or 'low' risk groups. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 8 May 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8037.

  8. The efficacy of acute nutritional interventions on soccer skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Kingsley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The use of nutritional ergogenic aids in team sports such as soccer is now commonplace. Aligned with the primary aim of soccer, which is to score more goals than the opposition within the allotted time, the quality of performance of technical actions (i.e., skills) executed during soccer-specific exercise is likely to determine success. However, when seeking to maintain soccer skill performance, information about the efficacy of nutritional interventions is lacking and factors which might modulate the efficacy of such strategies are unclear. This review aimed (i) to systematically evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of nutritional interventions on soccer skills, and (ii) to provide a qualitative commentary on factors that have the potential to modulate the efficacy of such strategies. Relevant databases (PubMed and SPORTDiscus) were searched up to and including 1 July, 2013 for studies that investigated the efficacy of acute nutritional interventions on soccer skill performances. Overall, 279 records were retrieved. Articles were sequentially excluded from the review based on specific criteria, being: (A) articles that did not report outcomes directly relating to skilled performances in soccer, (B) articles that examined the influence of interventions that were not nutritional in origin and/or were nutritional in origin but provided >3 hours before skill testing commenced, (C) articles that were review papers, and (D) post-acceptance withdrawal of articles methods from database. Articles were independently assessed for the quality of the methods employed based upon the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Records achieving a minimum PEDro score of 5 out of 10 were included in this review. Qualitative appraisal of 13 articles was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes. The majority (n = 8) of articles examined the influence of carbohydrates on technical performance whereas fewer studies

  9. Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumilty, D

    1993-08-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. There is still much uncertainty and debate surrounding its physiological requirements because emphasis is on skills to the neglect of fitness, conservative training methods and the difficulty of studying the sport scientifically. The frequently found values for total distance covered in a game of about 10 km and an above-average, though not outstanding, maximum oxygen uptake of 60 ml/kg/min suggest a moderate overall aerobic demand. A comparison of top teams and players with less able participants indicates that the components of anaerobic fitness-speed, power, strength and the capacity of the lactic acid system may differentiate better between the 2 groups. Generally, there is a reduction in the level of activity in the second half of games compared with the first. There is some evidence that increased aerobic fitness may help counteract this. Progressively lower muscle glycogen stores are one likely cause of reduction in activity, and nutrition also appears to be a key factor in minimising performance deterioration, both in terms of overall diet and, more particularly, the ingestion of carbohydrates immediately before, during and after a game. There are evolutionary trends in the sport such as greater frequency of games, changes in the roles of players, and new strategies and tactics which are placing increasing demands on the all-round fitness of players. Many studies indicate scope for improvement in player fitness. The challenge for coaches and players is to meet these fitness requirements without sacrificing the skill work which makes the sport unique.

  10. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  11. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  12. Nosographic profile of soccer injuries according to the age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Pegoraro Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is one of the world’s most popular team sports and corresponds to one ofthe leading causes of sports injuries (SI. This study aimed to analyze the nosographic profile of the sports injuries common to soccer, according to theage group: childhood, youth and adulthood. We selected 209 soccer players, from amateurs to professional players of a sports club from Campo Grande/MS.Participants were divided into four age groups: G1 (childhood, G2 (juvenile,G3 (teenagers and G4 (adults. To obtain information about the injuries, we used a morbidity survey. Generally, 74 athletes reported sports injuries, with register of 92 SI. Concerning injury types, muscle injuries totalized 43.47%, followed by joint damage (34.78% and tendon injury (14.13%, respectively (p 0.05. A higher proportion of registers involved medical-therapeutic approach and asymptomatic return. The evidence shows a higher rate of muscle and joint injuries by contact in the lower limbs in soccer practitioners, regardless of age group. The practice of training seemsto be the main cause of injuries in adolescents and adults.

  13. Epidemiology of Patellar Tendinopathy in Elite Male Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hägglund, Martin; Zwerver, Johannes; Ekstrand, Jan

    Background: Patellar tendinopathy is common among athletes in jumping sports and in sports with prolonged repetitive stress of the knee extensor apparatus. The epidemiology in soccer is not well described. Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate and describe the epidemiology of patellar

  14. Interval endurance capacity of talented youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C; Elferink-Gemser, MT; Lemmink, KAPM

    The purpose of this study, in which 113 talented Youth soccer players (M = 16.0 yr., SD = 15), selected by their age and level of performance participated, was to investigate interval endurance capacity needed to play at the highest level of competition in the age-category 12 through 18.

  15. Nutritional guidance to soccer players for training and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for a nutrition education as applied to individual soccer players provide a key to guiding them towards appropriate food selection. Scientific investigations have associated energy requirements, composition of the diet and carbohydrate intake with muscle glycogen storage, and adequacy of fluids with optimal athletic performance. In general, soccer players appear to consume adequate energy but low carbohydrate diets. The training diet should be comprised of 55-65% carbohydrate, 12-15% protein and less than 30% fat. The goal of the training diet is to provide adequate energy for weight maintenance, and 7-10 g of carbohydrate per kg body weight for maximizing glycogen storage. Nutritional needs for competition include eating prior to and after matches. Consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods for energy needs and glycogen resynthesis are key behaviours soccer players need to focus on daily. Qualified dietitians should be on hand to provide personal nutrition counselling, carbohydrate resource lists and education on food labels as simple and quick nutrition education strategies to guide soccer players, their parents, coaches and trainers towards improved food selections.

  16. Accelerated hydrotherapy and land-based rehabilitation in soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of accelerated rehabilitation and accelerated hydrotherapy after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in male athletes participating in soccer. Design. A non-concurrent single subject, multiple baseline design (ABA design) was conducted over 10 weeks. A series of three ...

  17. Stressors among South African soccer officials: A profile analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of selected stressors to the level of stress experienced by South African soccer officials. Forty-two South African Football Association (SAFA) accredited officials, attending a training camp in Potchefstroom, participated in this study. The group comprised of 40 male ...

  18. The killing fields of soccer: Violence, villains and victims | Burnett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The destructive nature of soccer violence and the resultant deaths of hundreds of supporters since the sixties have directed academic enquiry and scholarly investigation. The aim of this study was to utilize a synthesis of theoretical paradigms in order to provide some explanations for this complex and multifaceted local ...

  19. Injury surveillance in a soccer tournament in Kenya | Onywera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of injuries in sports and the negligence of the injured players are key factors in the early exit of talented players from competitive sport in developing countries. It is for this reason that this study prospectively observed and documented injuries to male soccer players who participated in the 2001 Moi Golden ...

  20. Physiological profiles of South African soccer referees and assistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Referees are important role-players in soccer matches. The physical fitness of referees influences their optimal positioning throughout the game. The aim of this research was to determine the physiological profiles of South African referees and assistant referees and to determine the intensities that they are required to work ...

  1. Inclusive Masculinities of University Soccer Players in the American Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Male teamsport athletes have traditionally been described as some of the most homophobic and femphobic men in North American culture. However, in this ethnographic research of an education-based soccer team at a small Catholic university in a rural part of Middle America, I use inclusive masculinity theory to highlight that a softer version of…

  2. Robot soccer action selection based on Q learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper researches robot soccer action selection based on Q learning . The robot learn to activate particular behavior given their current situation and reward signal. We adopt neural network to implementations of Q learning for their generalization properties and limited computer memory requirements

  3. Flow and performance: a study among talented Dutch soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Oerlemans, Wido; Demerouti, E.; Bruins Slot, B.; Karamat Ali, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the relationship between environmental resources (autonomy,social support from the coach, and performance feedback), flow, and performance among young talented soccer players. Design: The design was non-experimental and involved both self- and coach-rated

  4. Tactical skills of world-class youth soccer teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannekens, Rianne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between tactical skills and competitive standard of two youth soccer teams by comparing 18 players (age 18-20 years) from the Dutch and 19 players (age 18-23 years) from the Indonesian national youth team. All players completed the declarative and

  5. Ball handling system for tech united soccer robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, K.P.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Hoogendijk, R.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    This pre-master end project is done for team Tech United of Eindhoven University of Technology. The Tech United team is a group of students and employees who design, build and program soccer robots to compete in the RoboCup Middle Size League. RoboCup is a worldwide competition in which two teams of

  6. The effects of institutional change in European soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have seen two profound changes in European soccer. First, international trade in talent has increased markedly. Second, international competitions such as the Champions League have become much more important. Using a theoretical model, we study how these changes affect competitive

  7. Level of knowledge and hydration strategies of young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate fluid replacement strategies of young soccer players and their level of knowledge regarding hydration management. A total of 216 males (age: 18 ± 0.9 years playing soccer for 8.7 ± 2.6 years were studied. The participants were members of four elite and subelite Brazilian soccer clubs. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 18 objective questions. The main results indicated that 32.3% and 30.1% of the athletes do not have an appropriate strategy for fluid replacement during competitions and training, respectively. In addition, 1.4% and 4.6% of the subjects reported to ingest no fluids during these exercise conditions. When asked about the type of solution (water or isotonic solution consumed before, during and after exercise, water was the main fluid ingested during these periods. Approximately 80 athletes only ingest fluids when feeling thirsty. Coca-Cola® accounted for 11.1% of ingested fluids. Only 27.8% of the participants measure their body weight and 54.2% were unaware of the adequate strategy for fluid replacement. The most common symptoms reported by the athletes were cramps (53.2%, intense thirst (37.5%, and headache (33.8%. These results suggest that young soccer players have inappropriate fluid replacement habits, a fact that may lead to low performance during training or competition.

  8. Nosographic profile of soccer injuries according to the age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Pegoraro Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p476 Soccer is one of the world’s most popular team sports and corresponds to one ofthe leading causes of sports injuries (SI. This study aimed to analyze the nosographic profile of the sports injuries common to soccer, according to the age group: childhood, youth and adulthood. We selected 209 soccer players, from amateurs to professional players of a sports club from Campo Grande/MS. Participants were divided into four age groups: G1 (childhood, G2 (juvenile,G3 (teenagers and G4 (adults. To obtain information about the injuries, we used a morbidity survey. Generally, 74 athletes reported sports injuries, with register of 92 SI. Concerning injury types, muscle injuries totalized 43.47%, followed by joint damage (34.78% and tendon injury (14.13%, respectively (p 0.05. A higher proportion of registers involved medical-therapeutic approach and asymptomatic return. The evidence shows ahigher rate of muscle and joint injuries by contact in the lower limbs in soccer practitioners, regardless of age group. The practice of training seems to be the main cause of injuries in adolescents and adults.

  9. The Effects of Institutional Change in European Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco A.; Koning, Ruud H.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    The last decades have seen two profound changes in European soccer. First, international trade in talent has increased markedly. Second, international competitions such as the Champions League have become much more important. Using a theoretical model, we study how these changes affect competitive

  10. System for notational analysis in small-sided soccer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maarseveen, Mariette J.J.; Oudejans, Raoul R.D.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compose an objective and detailed notational analysis system for 3 vs. 2GK smallsided soccer games, in which three roles are examined: attacker with ball, attacker without ball and defender. The actions and the outcome of the actions were registered for each player

  11. An audit of injuries in six english professional soccer academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2018-07-01

    Regulations now state that professional academies in the United Kingdom are required to substantially increase the volume of soccer training. This study assessed the current injury occurrence, providing an update to reports published prior to the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP). 608 soccer players aged 11-18 years from six professional soccer clubs were prospectively monitored, recording injuries during the 2014-2015 season. An injury rate of 1.32 injuries per player/season was indicated with a mean time loss of 21.9 days per injury. The greatest time loss per injury was in the U14s-U15s, and the highest rate of severe injuries in the U15s. Strains and sprains were the most common injury type, with the knee and ankle the most frequently injured anatomical sites. Seasonal variation indicated two peaks in injury incidence, occurring in September and January. In comparison to a published audit prior to the inception of the EPPP, this study indicates that academy soccer players are three-times more likely to experience an injury. Given that time loss and injury severity also increased during periods that typically follow rapid growth, these players should be considered an important group for training load monitoring and injury prevention strategies.

  12. Patellar tendinopathy in young elite soccer- clinical and sonographical analysis of a German elite soccer academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; Hammer, Thorsten; Karvouniaris, N; Feucht, M J; Konstantinidis, L; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2017-08-08

    The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy is elevated in elite soccer compared to less explosive sports. While the burden of training hours and load is comparably high in youth elite players (age soccer academy. One hundred nineteen male youth soccer players (age 15,97 ± 2,24 years, height 174, 60 ± 10,16 cm, BMI 21, 24 ± 2,65) of the U-13 to U-23 teams were part of the study. Data acquisition included sport specific parameters such as footwear, amount of training hours, leg dominance, history of tendon pathologies, and clinical examination for palpatory pain, indurations, muscular circumference, and range of motion. Subjective complaints were measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Patellar (VISA-P) Score. Furthermore, sonographical examinations (Aplio SSA-770A/80; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) with 12-MHz multifrequency linear transducers (8-14 MHz) of both patellar tendons were performed with special emphasis on hyper- and hypo echogenic areas, diameter and neovascularization. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathies was 13.4%. Seventy-five percent of the players complained of pain of their dominant leg with onset of pain at training in 87.5%. The injured players showed a medium amount of 10.34 ± 3.85 training hours and a medium duration of symptoms of 11.94 ± 18.75 weeks. Two thirds of players with patellar tendinopathy were at the age of 15-17 (Odds ratio 1.89) while no differences between players of the national or regional league were observed. In case of patellar tendinopathy, VISA-P was significantly lower in comparison to healthy players (mean ± SD 76.80 ± 28.56 points vs. 95.85 ± 10.37). The clinical examination revealed local pain at the distal patella, pain at stretching, and thickening of the patellar tendon (p = 0.02). The mean tendon diameter measured 2 cm distally to the patella was 4.10 ± 0.68 mm with a significantly increased diameter of 0.15 mm in case of an underlying tendinopathy (p = 0.00). The

  13. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  14. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  15. The Energy Cost of Running with the Ball in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Atmatzidis, Charalampos; Merni, Franco; Di Michele, Rocco

    2017-11-01

    Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver. The EC measured with indirect calorimetry was higher in running with the ball (4.60±0.42 J/kg/m) than in normal running (4.19±0.33 J/kg/m), with a very likely moderate difference between conditions. Instead, a likely small difference was observed between conditions for EC estimated from GPS data (4.87±0.07 vs. 4.83±0.08 J/kg/m). This study sheds light on the energy expenditure of playing soccer, providing relevant data about the EC of a typical soccer-specific activity. These findings may be a reference for coaches to precisely determine the training load in drills with the ball, such as soccer-specific circuits or small-sided games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Impact of Psychological Variables on Playing Ability of University Level Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Tufekcioglu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between psychological variables and soccer playing ability among the university level male players. 42 soccer players representing different universities who participated in inter university competitions were selected as the subjects of the study. The dependent variable was soccer playing ability and independent variables were the selected psychological variables. Soccer playing ability was determined through a 10 point scale at the time of competitions. Psychological variables included achievement motivation, anxiety, self-concept and aggression. The data was statistically analyzed using Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis using SPSS. It was concluded that soccer playing ability has a positive correlation with achievement motivation and self-concept whereas anxiety and aggression have a negative correlation with soccer playing ability.

  17. ACL injury risk in elite female youth soccer: Changes in neuromuscular control of the knee following soccer-specific fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ste Croix, M B A; Priestley, A M; Lloyd, R S; Oliver, J L

    2015-10-01

    Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. Thirty-six youth soccer players performed eccentric actions of the hamstrings in a prone position at 60, 120, and 180°/s before and after a soccer-specific fatigue trial. Surface electromyography was used to determine EMD from the semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. A time × age × muscle × velocity repeated measures analysis of variance was used to explore the influence of fatigue on EMD. A significant main effect for time (P = 0.001) indicated that EMD was significantly longer post- compared with pre-fatigue (58.4% increase). A significant time × group interaction effect (P = 0.046) indicated EMD was significantly longer in the U13 age group compared with the U15 (P = 0.011) and U17 (P = 0.021) groups and greater post-fatigue. Soccer-specific fatigue compromised neuromuscular feedback mechanisms and the age-related effects may represent a more compliant muscle-tendon system in younger compared with older girls, increasing risk of injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of Caffeinated Gum on a Battery of Soccer-Specific Tests in Trained University-Standard Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; King, George; Russell, Mitchell; Lynn, Anthony; Russell, Mark

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether caffeinated gum influenced performance in a battery of soccer-specific tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over design, ten male university-standard soccer players (age 19 ± 1 y, stature 1.80 ± 0.10 m, body mass 75.5 ± 4.8 kg) masticated a caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum on two separate occasions. After a standardised warm-up, gum was chewed for 5 min and subsequently expectorated 5 min before players performed a maximal countermovement jump, a 20 m sprint test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Performance on 20 m sprints were not different between trials (caffeine: 3.2 ± 0.3 s, placebo: 3.1 ± 0.3 s; p = 0.567; small effect size: d = 0.33), but caffeine did allow players to cover 2.0% more distance during Yo-YoIR1 (caffeine: 1754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1719 ± 139 m; p = 0.016; small effect size: d = 0.24) and increase maximal countermovement jump height by 2.2% (caffeine: 47.1 ± 3.4 cm, placebo: 46.1 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.008; small effect size: d = 0.30). Performance on selected physical tests (Yo-YoIR1 and countermovement jump) was improved by the chewing of caffeinated gum in the immediate period before testing in university-standard soccer players but the sizes of such effects were small. Such findings may have implications for the recommendations made to soccer players about to engage with subsequent exercise performance.

  19. Effects of Sex and Event Type on Head Impact in Collegiate Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885

  20. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  1. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... pronouncedly than small-sided game training, but comparable responses were in muscle ion transporters and antioxidative capacity in well-trained male soccer players....

  2. Do soccer and Zumba exercise improve fitness and indicators of health among female hospital employees?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, S; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, S R

    2014-01-01

    This randomized controlled study investigated the effectiveness of soccer and Zumba on fitness and health indicators in female participants recruited from a workplace. One hundred seven hospital employees were cluster-randomized to either a soccer group (SG), Zumba group (ZG), or control group (CG......-term soccer training as well asZumba outside working hours may result in fitness andmodest health benefits among female hospital employees...

  3. Dental Trauma and Mouthguard Usage among Soccer Players in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Uzel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of dental injuries in 343 amateur Turkish soccer players in İzmir and the level of knowledge of the teams’ soccer players about mouthguards. The soccer players were interviewed to determine the occurrence of dental trauma during soccer and mouthguard usage level. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis to determine absolute and relative frequencies of answers for each one of the questions. Only 35 (10.2% soccer players reported the occurrence of some type of dental injury during soccer practice. Regarding emergency conducts, approximately 84 players (24.48% answered that replantation could be obtained after teeth avulsion, 23 players (27.38% answered that successful replantation could be obtained within 2 hours immediately after injury, and 60.71% were not able to answer this question. Regarding mouthguard use, 61.8% of soccer players did not know about mouthguards. It was possible to conclude that dental injuries are common during amateur soccer practice and that there is a lack of information in the soccer players related to the emergency conducts and prevention of dental trauma.

  4. Is recreational soccer effective for improving VO2max?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA...... of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). METHODS: Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational...

  5. Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Giorgio; Stefani, Laura; Scacciati, Irene; Mascherini, Gabriele; Buti, Gabriella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P soccer player group (soccer players: 63.8±1.96%; cyclists : 59.8 ± 8.7%; and soccer players 43.9±3.1%, cyclists 43.8 ±2.1%, respectively). Fatty mass of the soccer player group (14.5±2.9%) was significantly lower than that of the cyclist group (19.5±3.6%). Daily food intake was similar between the two groups (2844 kCal/die for soccer players /2630 kcal/die for cyclists), and lower than recommended. There was a low intake of Calcium (soccer players 1120±128.9 mg/die, cyclists 718±309 mg/die) for both groups, and a low intake of Potassium for soccer player (2576 mg/die ± 52.4) The caloric intake of adolescent athletes is lower than recommended. Body composition is significantly different between soccer players and cyclists.

  6. The effect of recreational soccer training and running on postural balance in untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Krustrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent exercise performed as soccer training or interval running in comparison with continuous endurance running exercise on postural balance in young healthy untrained males. Young sedentary men were randomized to soccer training...... strength and countermovement jump velocity. Postural control was improved in response to 12 weeks of soccer training and high-intensity interval running, respectively, while less-marked changes were observed following continuous running. Notably, the reduced variability in CoP acceleration after soccer...

  7. The economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saayman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the potential economic value of the 2010 Soccer World Cup for South Africa. Problem investigated: The Soccer World Cup (SWC is regarded as the largest sporting event to be hosted and South Africa is investing billions of Rand in the hosting thereof. Based on this the question that comes to mind is, what is the potential economic value of such an event? Previous research attempts to determine the economic value were limited in their focus on what should be included when economic modelling of events is conducted. Most of these studies were done by consultants on behalf of various government departments and consequently, the results of these attempts are criticised for their over-inflating and overestimations by various other researchers. Methodology: The literature review identified many aspects that need to be taken into account when modelling the economic impact of such an event together with aspects identified in the literature review. Lessons from the 2002 Korea/Japan and 2006 Germany Soccer World Cups were used as premise for our estimations. In this article, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE modelling is used to estimate the potential economic value. Findings: The results showed that the 2010 Soccer World Cup would in all probability have positive impacts on the economy of the country in terms of GDP growth and employment, with possible negative effects that include higher inflation and net export losses. Value of research: The value of this research lies in the approach that was followed firstly, by introducing lessons learned from previous World Cups as well as aspects not taken into consideration previously in economic modelling and secondly, by using CGE modelling in determining the economic value. Conclusion: The hosting of the 2010 Soccer World Cup is a major achievement not only for South Africa, but also for the rest of Africa, especially from a marketing point of view. From an

  8. Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available The current study had two aims. The primary purpose was to examine the association between serum vitamin D levels and the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and speed in professional soccer players. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of the soccer off-season period on serum vitamin D levels.Sixty-seven Caucasian male soccer players (age 25.6 ± 6.2 and height 1.81 ± 0.08 m, members of two Greek Superleague Soccer teams and one Football-league championship team participated in this study. Exercise performance testing for the determination of squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, 10 (10 m and 20 meters (20 m sprint performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before (pre and after (post the six-week off-season period.Analysis of our results showed the following: (a a significant correlations between serum vitamin D levels and performance parameters in both pre (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, VO2max; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 and post (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P<0.001, VO2max; P = 0.006, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 experimental sessions. (b Vitamin D concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001 following the six-week off-season period compared to baseline, while at the same time all measured performance parameters decreased (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, 20 m; P < 0.001, VO2max; P<0.001.Our findings suggest that vitamin D levels are associated with the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, as expressed by SJ and CMJ, sprinting capacity, and VO2max in professional soccer players, irrespective the levels of performance. Furthermore, our data reaffirm the importance of UVB on serum vitamin D levels. Moreover, reductions in exercise training stress may also have beneficial effects on vitamin D levels, suggesting a possible association of its levels and the training-induced stress. Our results indicate a

  9. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users.

  10. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    1997-03-01

    To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population.

  11. Fatigue Responses in Various Muscle Groups in Well-Trained Competitive Male Players after a Simulated Soccer Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe Foged; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2018-01-01

    We examined the degree of post-game fatigue and the recovery pattern in various leg and upper-body muscle groups after a simulated soccer game. Well-trained competitive male soccer players (n = 12) participated in the study. The players completed the Copenhagen Soccer Test, a 2 x 45 min simulated...

  12. The Investigation of the Motor Skills of "U" Kategories Soccer Players Who Have Recreative Involvement in Other Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksu, Ömer Can; Yüksek, Selami; Ölmez, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of sports activities other than soccer on 10-15-year-old soccer players' motor skills. The sample included 146 registered soccer players in the U category (U10-U15) of the Turkish Football Federation's Aslantepe, Çeliktepe and Seyrantepe clubs. The players participated in this study on a voluntary…

  13. DEHYDRATION IN SOCCER PLAYERS AFTER A MATCH IN THE HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.B. Marins

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the level of dehydration after a match in 20 soccer players (mean ± SD, 17.9 ± 1.3 years old, height 1.75 ± 0.05 m, body mass 70.71± 7.65 kg from two teams that participate in a Brazilian Championship game performed at a temperature of 29 ± 1.1 C and a relative humidity of 64 ± 4.2%. Body mass, urine specific gravity and urinary protein were measured before and after the match, and self-perception measurements were performed during the match. Body mass loss was 1.00 ± 0.39 kg, corresponding to a dehydration percentage of 1.35 ± 0.87%. The mean sweating rate during the match was 866 ± 319 ml · h[sup]-1[/sup] and total fluid intake was 1265.00 ± 505.45 ml. The sweating rate and the quantity of ingested fluids correlated positively (r = 0.98; P<0.05. Protein occurred in the urine in 18 soccer players. The players showed no perception of thirst and considered themselves as comfortable during the match. At the end of the match the soccer players replaced 57.7 ± 15% of the water loss and presented a condition of significant to severe dehydration based on the post-match urine specific gravity data (1.027 ± 6 g · ml[sup]-1[/sup]. The results of this study demonstrate that most of the soccer players began the match with some degree of dehydration that worsened during the match.

  14. Psychological Gender and Emotional Intelligence in Youth Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many sports (for instance soccer are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training. It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak. As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was

  15. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wright

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS and lower-skilled (LS groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge.

  16. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  17. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.

  18. Fatigue-induced balance impairment in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Massimiliano; Ibba, Gianfranco; Attene, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Although balance is generally recognized to be an important feature in ensuring good performance in soccer, its link with functional performance remains mostly unexplored, especially in young athletes. To investigate changes in balance induced by fatigue for unipedal and bipedal static stances in young soccer players. Crossover study. Biomechanics laboratory and outdoor soccer field. Twenty-one male soccer players (age = 14.5 ± 0.2 years, height = 164.5 ± 5.6 cm, mass = 56.8 ± 6.8 kg). Static balance was assessed with postural-sway analysis in unipedal and bipedal upright stance before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test (2 × 15-m shuttle sprint interspersed with 20 seconds of passive recovery, repeated 6 times). On the basis of the center-of-pressure (COP) time series acquired during the experimental tests, we measured sway area, COP path length, and COP maximum displacement and velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Fatigue increased all sway values in bipedal stance and all values except COP velocity in the mediolateral direction in unipedal stance. Fatigue index (calculated on the basis of RSA performance) was positively correlated with fatigue/rest sway ratio for COP path length and COP velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for nondominant single-legged stance. Fatigued players exhibited reduced performance of the postural-control system. Participants with better performance in the RSA test appeared less affected by balance impairment, especially in single-legged stance.

  19. Psychological Gender and Emotional Intelligence in Youth Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Katarzyna; Bergier, Józef

    2015-09-29

    Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes' emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low

  20. An Identity Theory of Role Exit among Soccer Referees

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Jason Syme

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how identity processes affect role exit. I test a model of role exit that situates the identity processes of cognitive processes (reflected appraisals and social comparisons), rewards and costs related to the role, commitment to the role, and identity centrality as mediating factors between role-set and social characteristic background factors, and role exit. Using a sample of 940 current and former soccer referees in Virginia and the District of Columbia, the results s...

  1. Effects of horizontal plyometric training volume on soccer players' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanci, Javier; Los Arcos, Asier; Camara, Jesús; Castillo, Daniel; García, Alberto; Castagna, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dose response effect of strength and conditioning programmes, involving horizontally oriented plyometric exercises, on relevant soccer performance variables. Sixteen soccer players were randomly allocated to two 6-week plyometric training groups (G1 and G2) differing by imposed (twice a week) training volume. Post-training G1 (4.13%; d = 0.43) and G2 (2.45%; d = 0.53) moderately improved their horizontal countermovement jump performance. Significant between-group differences (p  0.05, d = trivial or small) post-training improvements in sprint, change of direction ability (CODA) and horizontal arm swing countermovement jump were reported in either group. Horizontal plyometric training was effective in promoting improvement in injury prevention variables. Doubling the volume of a horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to have no additional effect over functional aspects of soccer players' performance.

  2. Abnormal hip physical examination findings in asymptomatic female soccer athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Devyani; Rho, Monica; Yemm, Ted; Fong, Kathryn; Brophy, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Examination of the hip provides information regarding risk for pre-arthritic hip disorders, knee injuries, and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to report a hip screening examination of asymptomatic female soccer athletes and to test the hypothesis that these findings vary by competition experience. Methods Asymptomatic females from a youth soccer club, a college, and a professional team were evaluated. Passive hip range of motion, hip abduction strength, and hip provocative tests were assessed. Data were compared for the grade/middle school, high school, college, and professional athletes. Results One hundred and seventy-two athletes with a mean age of 16.7 ± 5 years (range 10–30) participated. Professional athletes had less flexion (HF) for both hips (p hips as compared to all other groups (p hip abduction strength as compared to other groups (p hip tests were found in 22 % of all players and 36 % of the professionals. In professionals, a positive provocative test was associated with ipsilateral decreased HF (p = 0.04). Conclusion Asymptomatic elite female soccer athletes with the most competition experience had less bilateral hip flexion and preferred kicking leg IR than less-experienced athletes. Positive provocative hip tests were found in 22 % of athletes. Future studies are needed to show whether these findings link to risk for intra-articular hip or lumbar spine and knee disorders. Level of evidence III. PMID:24150125

  3. JUMP LANDING CHARACTERISTICS IN ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP. Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2 was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2 was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102. This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics.

  4. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  5. Creating drag and lift curves from soccer trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Kelley, John; Hobson, Chad M.; Seo, Kazuya; Asai, Takeshi; Choppin, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Trajectory analysis is an alternative to using wind tunnels to measure a soccer ball’s aerodynamic properties. It has advantages over wind tunnel testing such as being more representative of game play. However, previous work has not presented a method that produces complete, speed-dependent drag and lift coefficients. Four high-speed cameras in stereo-calibrated pairs were used to measure the spatial co-ordinates for 29 separate soccer trajectories. Those trajectories span a range of launch speeds from 9.3 to 29.9 m s-1. That range encompasses low-speed laminar flow of air over a soccer ball, through the drag crises where air flow is both laminar and turbulent, and up to high-speed turbulent air flow. Results from trajectory analysis were combined to give speed-dependent drag and lift coefficient curves for the entire range of speeds found in the 29 trajectories. The average root mean square error between the measured and modelled trajectory was 0.028 m horizontally and 0.034 m vertically. The drag and lift crises can be observed in the plots of drag and lift coefficients respectively.

  6. Meniscal abnormalities in soccer players: prevalence and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Sup; Lee, Jong Ik; Kwak, Byeung Kook; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang; Seo, Kyung Mook

    1995-01-01

    We aimed to know the prevalence of abnormal meniscal signal on MR imaging in asymptomatic soccer players and its radiologic significance. Using T1 and gradient echo T2 weighted sagittal and coronal MR image, 48 knees in twenty-four full time soccer players were evaluated for the meniscal abnormalities, the status of ligament and existence of joint effusion. Meniscal abnormalities were interpreted using grading system of Lotysch. By using Chi-square method. We analyzed the existence of joint effusion could divide the healing state and healed state of the meniscus. The prevalence of Grade 2 and more and Grade 3 were 42% and 39% of asymptomatic knees. In the 24 knees with meniscus tear, nine of the 14 asymptomatic knee showed effusion while eight of the 10 symptomatic knee did. Of 24 knees with meniscal tear, only eleven knees were related to previous history of major knee trauma. The prevalence of meniscal abnormalities on MR imaging in asymptomatic soccer players was higher (grade 3: 39%) than we expected. The joint effusion was not helpful to divide the healing state and healed state of the meniscus. So we suggest baseline MR imaging in the athletes who have been using the knee vigorously could give decisive information for the interpretation of subsequent MRI that may be performed when the players wounded

  7. Physical fitness, injuries, and team performance in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Arni; Sigurdsson, Stefan B; Gudmundsson, Arni; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and team success in soccer, and to test for differences in physical fitness between different player positions. Participants were 306 male soccer players from 17 teams in the two highest divisions in Iceland. Just before the start of the 1999 soccer season, the following variables were tested: height and weight, body composition, flexibility, leg extension power, jump height, and peak O2 uptake. Injuries and player participation in matches and training were recorded through the 4-month competitive season. Team average physical fitness was compared with team success (final league standing) using a linear regression model. Physical fitness was also compared between players in different playing positions. A significant relationship was found between team average jump height (countermovement jump and standing jump) and team success (P = 0.009 and P = 0.012, respectively). The same trend was also found for leg extension power (P = 0.097), body composition (% body fat, P = 0.07), and the total number of injury days per team (P = 0.09). Goalkeepers demonstrated different fitness characteristics from outfield players. They were taller and heavier, more flexible in hip extension and knee flexion, and had higher leg extension power and a lower peak O2 uptake. However, only minor differences were observed between defenders, midfield players, and attackers. Coaches and medical support teams should pay more attention to jump and power training, as well as preventive measures and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries to increase team success.

  8. Conservative treatment of lumbar spondylolysis in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Pellisé, Ferran; Cugat, Ramón

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the functional outcomes of young active soccer players with lumbar spondylolysis undergoing conservative treatment. Between 2002 and 2004, all soccer players diagnosed with spondylolysis with a minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated nonoperatively with cessation of sports activity and rehabilitation for 3 months. The rehabilitation protocol was identical for all patients and emphasized strengthening of abdominal muscles, stretching of the hamstrings, "core" stability exercises, and trunk rotational movements in a pain-free basis. Those patients with pain at rest and with daily life activities were also treated with a thoracolumbar orthosis. Symptomatic patients or those with positive SPECT were not allowed to return to sports and continued the rehabilitation protocol for 3 more months. The mean time of cessation of sports activity was 3.9 months (SD 0.8) and 5.2 months (SD 2.1) for a complete return to sports. At the 2-year follow-up, 28 patients (82%) obtained excellent results, 4 (12%) good results, 1 patient (3%) a fair result, and 1 patient (3%) a poor result. Conservative treatment of spondylolysis in young soccer players with cessation of sports and rehabilitation, with or without thoracolumbar orthosis, was associated with excellent functional results in terms of return to sports and level of achievable physical activity.

  9. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metz Lore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook during a control day (CON and a day with a game (GAME. The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293. Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, p<0.05. The calories ingested during snacking were significantly increased during GAME compared with CON (p<0.05. The stress level was significantly higher during GAME and especially before the breakfast, lunch and snack (p<0.05. Hunger feeling was not different between conditions. Referring leads to nutritional adaptations in elite soccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

  10. Changes in urinary response in the soccer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. López-Mata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical parameters and urinary sediment changes before and after a soccer game. Seventeen players were selected from a selective universitary men's soccer team (age 21,8 ± 1,38 years, weight 73,2 ± 11,8 kg, height 1,71 ± 0,07 m and BMI 24,7 ± 2.3 kg/m2. Chemical parameters of the urine (specific gravity, pH, leukocytes, nitrite, proteins, glucose, bodies ketones, urobilinogene, bilirubin and erythrocytes and sediment (leukocytes, erythrocytes, crystals, epithelial cells, bacteria, casts, and mucine filaments were determined. We found a significant increase of specific gravity before and after of competition (1,019 ± 0.005 vs 1,025 ± 0.004; p= 0,0001, pH (6,0 ± 0,91 vs 5,35 ± 0,60; p= 0,008 urinary and in presence of bilirubin (0% vs 41,2%; p= 0,01. In urinary sediment was found a significant rise in the presence of casts (0% vs 29,4%; p= 0,04 and mucin filaments (11,7% vs 64,7% p= 0,004. Although some changes were found in urinary parameters, these chances may have been influenced by an increase in renal reabsortion of water.Key words: Soccer, urinary parameters, bilirubin, mucin, casts

  11. Changes in urinary response in the soccer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. López-Mata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical parameters and urinary sediment changes before and after a soccer game. Seventeen players were selected from a selective universitary men's soccer team (age 21,8 ± 1,38 years, weight 73,2 ± 11,8 kg, height 1,71 ± 0,07 m and BMI 24,7 ± 2.3 kg/m2. Chemical parameters of the urine (specific gravity, pH, leukocytes, nitrite, proteins, glucose, bodies ketones, urobilinogene, bilirubin and erythrocytes and sediment (leukocytes, erythrocytes, crystals, epithelial cells, bacteria, casts, and mucine filaments were determined. We found a significant increase of specific gravity before and after of competition (1,019 ± 0.005 vs 1,025 ± 0.004; p= 0,0001, pH (6,0 ± 0,91 vs 5,35 ± 0,60; p= 0,008 urinary and in presence of bilirubin (0% vs 41,2%; p= 0,01. In urinary sediment was found a significant rise in the presence of casts (0% vs 29,4%; p= 0,04 and mucin filaments (11,7% vs 64,7% p= 0,004. Although some changes were found in urinary parameters, these chances may have been influenced by an increase in renal reabsortion of water. Key words: Soccer, urinary parameters, bilirubin, mucin, casts

  12. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joon Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms. A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION, HORMONE PROFILE, PHYSICAL FITNESS, GENERAL PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILLS, SOCCER SKILLS AND ON-THE-BALL PERFORMANCE IN SOCCER-SPECIFIC LABORATORY TEST AMONG ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Vänttinen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group. The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (λ = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01 of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01 in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05, dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01, counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01, dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05 in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05, fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05, 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05 in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific

  14. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. The ambidextrous potential in soccer, and the trainability of the non-preferred foot of young elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koertz, Rune; Andersen, T. Bull

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: Participants were 23 male elite soccer players, 13-16 years of age. They trained 6 times a week. The participants, who were randomly divided into a training group (N.=12) and a control group (N.=11), completed a pre and post test, which for each player consisted of 16 shots with their non......AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if players and coaches should focus more on the non-preferred foot. The hypothesis of this study is that a small amount of training focusing on the non-preferred foot will improve the performance of the non-preferred foot for young elite players......-preferred foot towards a goal corner in a soccer goal. Velocity and accuracy were measured. The training intervention for the training group consisted of 7-13 training sessions. RESULTS: The result showed only few statistic significant differences (P

  19. Examination of the Relationship between Coaching Efficacy and Conflict Management Style in Soccer Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Melih

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between coaching efficacy and conflict management style of the soccer coaches. The sample included 224 male soccer coaches ranging in coaching experience from 2 to 15 years. The Coaching Efficacy Scale and The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory were used to measure coaching…

  20. Importance of peak height velocity timing in terms of injuries in talented soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, A; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Brink, M S; Visscher, C

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traumatic and overuse injury incidence between talented soccer players who differ in the timing of their adolescent growth spurt. 26 soccer players (mean age 11.9 ± 0.84 years) were followed longitudinally for 3 years around Peak Height

  1. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    huijgen, b.c.h.; Leemhuis, s.; kok, n.m.; Verburgh, L.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in

  2. Inequity and vulnerability to dropout symptoms : An exploratory causal analysis among highly skilled youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    This study investigated whether the perception of disadvantageous inequity makes athletes more vulnerable to dropping out. Sixty five talented youth male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years), attending a prestigious soccer school, completed a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the

  3. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Blessure preventie voor volwassen, mannelijke voetballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  4. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  5. Laterality related to the successive selection of Dutch national youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Jonker, Laura; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Visscher, Chris

    2017-01-01

    In the general population, estimates of left-foot preference are around 20%. In soccer, specific tasks create positional demands, requiring 40% of the players to be left-footed. Whether and how this is related to the selection of players is unknown. To examine the successive selection of soccer

  6. Goal line technology in soccer: Are referees ready for technology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When controversial decisions are made, the referee comes under extensive scrutiny by players, fans and spectators as well as commentators who have the tendency of scapegoating the referee. The purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of soccer referees regarding the use of goal line technology in soccer.

  7. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...

  8. Winning in NCAA Women?s Soccer: Does the Gender of the Coach Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Brian C.; Naples, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    While women's intercollegiate soccer has grown rapidly over the past three decades, men still hold nearly two-thirds of all head coaching positions in NCAA Division I women's soccer programs. This paper explores whether the gender of the head coach affects success in winning games. After considering various reasons why gender might matter, we…

  9. Freedom between the Lines: Clothing Behavior and Identity Work among Young Female Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendley, Alexandra; Bielby, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Our research examines the relationship among identity, age, gender and athleticism through a study of the association between sports clothing and the identity work of pre-adolescent female soccer players. Based on participant-observation and interviews conducted at three co-ed youth soccer camps, we find that age is an important element of…

  10. Leg Preference and Interlateral Asymmetry of Balance Stability in Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luis Augusto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Romano, Rosangela Guimaraes; Correa, Sonia Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of long lasting practice on pedal behavior in sport, we compared experienced adult soccer players and nonsoccer players on leg preference in motor tasks requiring general mobilization, soccer related mobilization, and body balance stabilization. We also evaluated performance asymmetry between the right and left legs in static…

  11. Global Mindedness as the "Goal": Soccer as a Pedagogical Tool in the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Christopher L.; Waring, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    As evidenced by the Super Bowl, the Olympics, and the World Cup, sports is a major part of global society, as millions of people throughout the world tune in to view renowned sporting events each and every week. This is especially true for soccer, which is the world's most popular and global sport. Because soccer is played in nearly every country…

  12. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  13. Interaction between Dutch soccer teams and fans: a mathematical analysis through cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Driessen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the first lustrum of the Club Positioning Matrix (CPM) for professional Dutch soccer teams, we model the interaction between soccer teams and their potential fans as a cooperative cost game based on the annual voluntary sponsorships of fans in order to validate their fan registration in

  14. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.

  15. Evidence for Acute Electrophysiological and Cognitive Changes Following Routine Soccer Heading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Di Virgilio

    2016-11-01

    Discussion: Sub-concussive head impacts routine in soccer heading are associated with immediate, measurable electrophysiological and cognitive impairments. Although these changes in brain function were transient, these effects may signal direct consequences of routine soccer heading on (long-term brain health which requires further study.

  16. Effect of Core Training Program on Physical Functional Performance in Female Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of core training program on speed, acceleration, vertical jump, and standing long jump in female soccer players. A total of 40 female soccer players volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: core training group (CTG; n = 20) and control group (CG;…

  17. Differences in injury risk and characteristics between Dutch amateur and professional soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne-Marie van Beijsterveldt, A. M C; Stubbe, J. H.; Schmikli, S. L.; Van De Port, I. G L; Backx, F. J G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the incidence and characteristics of injuries between Dutch amateur and professional male soccer players during one entire competition season. Design A prospective two-cohort design. Methods During the 2009–2010 season, 456 Dutch male amateur soccer players and 217 professional

  18. Mood states of soccer players in the english leagues: reflections of an increasing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thatcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.

  19. Examination of fatigue development in elite soccer in a hot environment: a multi-experimental approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Mujika, I; Santisteban, J

    2010-01-01

    The study examines fatigue in elite soccer played in hot conditions. High-profile soccer players (n=20) were studied during match play at ~31 °C. Repeated sprint and jump performances were assessed in rested state and after a game and activity profile was examined. Additionally, heart rate (HR...

  20. Effects of fatigue on soccer performance and the role of task motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates perceived effects of fatigue on different aspects of soccer performance and - in various ways - tested the potential role of task motivation in these effects. Soccer players (N=433) from the highest four divisions in the Netherlands completed a questionnaire. Results

  1. Mechanisms of injury for concussions in university football, ice hockey, and soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Correa, José A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the mechanisms of injury for concussions in university football, ice hockey, and soccer. Prospective cohort design. McGill University Sport Medicine Clinic. Male and female athletes participating in varsity football, ice hockey, and soccer. Athletes were followed prospectively over a 10-year period to determine the mechanisms of injury for concussions and whether contact with certain areas of the body or individual variables predisposed to longer recovery from concussions. For soccer, data were collected on whether concussions occurred while attempting to head the ball. There were 226 concussions in 170 athletes over the study period. The side/temporal area of the head or helmet was the most common area to be struck resulting in concussion in all 3 sports. Contact from another player's head or helmet was the most probable mechanism in football and soccer. In hockey, concussion impacts were more likely to occur from contact with another body part or object rather than another head/helmet. Differences in mechanisms of injuries were found between males and females in soccer and ice hockey. Athletes with multiple concussions took longer to return to play with each subsequent concussion. Half of the concussions in soccer were related to attempting to head the soccer ball. The side of the head or helmet was the most common area to be struck resulting in concussion in all 3 sports. In ice hockey and soccer, there are differences in the mechanisms of injury for males and females within the same sport.

  2. The new system of the talent development program in Hungarian soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csáki István

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: due to a series of failures and the drastic reduction in the quality of Hungarian soccer, greater emphasis should be put on coaches’ professional development and talent development programs. The aim of this study was to present the newly established Hungarian Soccer Development Program that focuses on the development of youth talent.

  3. Biomechanical Characteristics and Determinants of Instep Soccer Kick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Katis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    Good kicking technique is an important aspect of a soccer player. Therefore, understanding the biomechanics of soccer kicking is particularly important for guiding and monitoring the training process. The purpose of this review was to examine latest research findings on biomechanics of soccer kick performance and identify weaknesses of present research which deserve further attention in the future. Being a multiarticular movement, soccer kick is characterised by a proximal-to-distal motion of the lower limb segments of the kicking leg. Angular velocity is maximized first by the thigh, then by the shank and finally by the foot. This is accomplished by segmental and joint movements in multiple planes. During backswing, the thigh decelerates mainly due to a motion-dependent moment from the shank and, to a lesser extent, by activation of hip muscles. In turn, forward acceleration of the shank is accomplished through knee extensor moment as well as a motion-dependent moment from the thigh. The final speed, path and spin of the ball largely depend on the quality of foot-ball contact. Powerful kicks are achieved through a high foot velocity and coefficient of restitution. Preliminary data indicate that accurate kicks are achieved through slower kicking motion and ball speed values. Key pointsSoccer kick is achieved through segmental and joint rotations in multiple planes and via the proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental angular velocities until ball impact. The quality of ball - foot impact and the mechanical behavior of the foot are also important determinants of the final speed, path and spin of the ball.Ball speed values during the maximum instep kick range from 18 to 35 msec-1 depending on various factors, such as skill level, age, approach angle and limb dominance.The main bulk of biomechanics research examined the biomechanics of powerful kicks, mostly under laboratory conditions. A powerful kick is characterized by the achievement of maximal ball speed. However

  4. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ELITE MEXICAN TEENAGERS SOCCER PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT AGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo y Teran Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Mendez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José

    2015-10-01

    nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. seventy-two young male soccer players (15-20 years) from four junior teams of a soccer Club from the Mexican National Soccer League were measured for height, seat height, weight, 6 skinfolds, 6 diameters and 7 circumferences, height-for-age and BMI-for-age values. Skin, adipose, muscle, bone and residual tissue masses were calculated with the Ross and Kerr equation. Resting energy expenditure and intake was also measured. Daily dietary intake was self-recorded for 4 consecutive days (excluding the match day) using a digital food-weighing scale and a food record questionnaire. Dietary analysis was performed using the NutriBase 7 Clinical software. Several biochemical values were determined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing was performed using t-tests with a Bonferroni correction. all soccer players were within the normal range values for anthropometric parameters studies, when compared with other adolescent elite soccer teams. Values of plasma glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and total proteins were within normal range for young adult population, although albumin levels were high. Moreover, 14% and 20% of soccer players presented hyperuricemia and elevated total cholesterol levels respectively. Energy expenditure and intake were within normal range for all teenager elite soccer players. However, two teams shower significant lower intakes than demands. All macronutrient intakes were within recommendations, except protein that was higher. Micronutrient intake exceeded

  5. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus......, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new...

  6. Robot soccer anywhere: achieving persistent autonomous navigation, mapping, and object vision tracking in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.

  7. Nonverbal behavior in soccer: the influence of dominant and submissive body language on the impression formation and expectancy of success of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Dicks, Matt; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

  8. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  9. Effects of Plyometric and Sprint Training on Physical and Technical Skill Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, Gregory G; Ferrete, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    To determine the influence of a short-term combined plyometric and sprint training (9 weeks) within regular soccer practice on explosive and technical actions of pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Twenty-six players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (CG) (soccer training only) and combined group (CombG) (plyometric + acceleration + dribbling + shooting). All players trained soccer 4 times per week and the experimental groups supplemented the soccer training with a proposed plyometric-sprint training program for 40 minutes (2 days per weeks). Ten-meter sprint, 10-m agility with and without ball, CMJ and Abalakov vertical jump, ball-shooting speed, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test were measured before and after training. The experimental group followed a 9-week plyometric and sprint program (i.e., jumping, hurdling, bouncing, skipping, and footwork) implemented before the soccer training. Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the CG; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (effect size [ES] = 0.9), Abalakov vertical jump (ES = 1.3), 10-m sprint (ES = 0.7-0.9), 10-m agility (ES = 0.8-1.2), and ball-shooting speed (ES = 0.7-0.8). A specific combined plyometric and sprint training within regular soccer practice improved explosive actions compared with conventional soccer training only. Therefore, the short-term combined program had a beneficial impact on explosive actions, such as sprinting, change of direction, jumping, and ball-shooting speed which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for pubertal soccer players to include combined plyometric and speed training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  10. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund; Boesen, Mikael; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2015-05-01

    Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure. Participants underwent identical standardised and reliable clinical examination, and MRI scans (3 T) of the pelvis performed by a blinded observer. Images were consensus rated by three blinded radiologists according to a standardised MRI evaluation protocol. The associations between clinical adductor-related findings and pathological MRI findings were investigated with χ(2) statistics and OR. Central disc protrusion (p=0.027) and higher grades of pubic bone marrow oedema (BMO; p=0.027) were significantly more present in symptomatic players than asymptomatic players. However, up to 71% of asymptomatic soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc protrusion and higher grades of pubic BMO. Moreover, positive MRI findings were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with non-soccer players irrespective of symptoms, suggesting that these MRI changes may be associated with soccer play itself rather than clinical symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  12. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  13. Comparison of Localization Methods for a Robot Soccer Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Levent Akın

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several localization algorithms that are designed and implemented for Cerberus'05 Robot Soccer Team are analyzed and compared. These algorithms are used for global localization of autonomous mobile agents in the robotic soccer domain, to overcome the uncertainty in the sensors, environment and the motion model. The algorithms are Reverse Monte Carlo Localization (R-MCL, Simple Localization (S-Loc and Sensor Resetting Localization (SRL. R-MCL is a hybrid method based on both Markov Localization (ML and Monte Carlo Localization (MCL where the ML module finds the region where the robot should be and MCL predicts the geometrical location with high precision by selecting samples in this region. S-Loc is another localization method where just one sample per percept is drawn, for global localization. Within this method another novel method My Environment (ME is designed to hold the history and overcome the lack of information due to the drastically decrease in the number of samples in S-Loc. ME together with S-Loc is used in the Technical Challenges in Robocup 2005 and play an important role in ranking the First Place in the Challenges. In this work, these methods together with SRL, which is a widely used successful localization algorithm, are tested with both offline and real-time tests. First they are tested on a challenging data set that is used by many researches and compared in terms of error rate against different levels of noise, and sparsity. Besides time required recovering from kidnapping and speed of the methods are tested and compared. Then their performances are tested with real-time tests with scenarios like the ones in the Technical Challenges in ROBOCUP. The main aim is to find the best method which is very robust and fast and requires less computational power and memory compared to similar approaches and is accurate enough for high level decision making which is vital for robot soccer.

  14. Comparison of Localization Methods for a Robot Soccer Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kose

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several localization algorithms that are designed and implemented for Cerberus'05 Robot Soccer Team are analyzed and compared. These algorithms are used for global localization of autonomous mobile agents in the robotic soccer domain, to overcome the uncertainty in the sensors, environment and the motion model. The algorithms are Reverse Monte Carlo Localization (R-MCL, Simple Localization (S-Loc and Sensor Resetting Localization (SRL. R-MCL is a hybrid method based on both Markov Localization (ML and Monte Carlo Localization (MCL where the ML module finds the region where the robot should be and MCL predicts the geometrical location with high precision by selecting samples in this region. S-Loc is another localization method where just one sample per percept is drawn, for global localization. Within this method another novel method My Environment (ME is designed to hold the history and overcome the lack of information due to the drastically decrease in the number of samples in S-Loc. ME together with S-Loc is used in the Technical Challenges in Robocup 2005 and play an important role in ranking the First Place in the Challenges. In this work, these methods together with SRL, which is a widely used successful localization algorithm, are tested with both offline and real-time tests. First they are tested on a challenging data set that is used by many researches and compared in terms of error rate against different levels of noise, and sparsity. Besides time required recovering from kidnapping and speed of the methods are tested and compared. Then their performances are tested with real-time tests with scenarios like the ones in the Technical Challenges in ROBOCUP. The main aim is to find the best method which is very robust and fast and requires less computational power and memory compared to similar approaches and is accurate enough for high level decision making which is vital for robot soccer.

  15. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláková, Veronika; Boschek, Petr; Skalíková, Lucie

    2015-12-22

    The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches' assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: "kinetic finesse"; component 2: "mental strength") was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players' cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a reaction test (RT), a determination test (DT), a visual pursuit test (LVT), a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI), a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA), and a peripheral perception test (PP). To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019). A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 ("kinetic finesse") was a more significant factor than component 2 ("mental strength"). Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required.

  16. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches’ assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: “kinetic finesse”; component 2: “mental strength” was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players’ cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM, a reaction test (RT, a determination test (DT, a visual pursuit test (LVT, a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI, a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA, and a peripheral perception test (PP. To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019. A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 (“kinetic finesse” was a more significant factor than component 2 (“mental strength”. Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required.

  17. The relationship between movement speed and duration during soccer matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hubert; Heyde, Christian; Röll, Mareike; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the time duration of movement (t(dur)) and related maximum possible power output has been studied and modeled under many conditions. Inspired by the so-called power profiles known for discontinuous endurance sports like cycling, and the critical power concept of Monod and Scherrer, the aim of this study was to evaluate the numerical characteristics of the function between maximum horizontal movement velocity (HSpeed) and t(dur) in soccer. To evaluate this relationship, GPS data from 38 healthy soccer players and 82 game participations (≥30 min active playtime) were used to select maximum HSpeed for 21 distinct t(dur) values (between 0.3 s and 2,700 s) based on moving medians with an incremental t(dur) window-size. As a result, the relationship between HSpeed and Log(t(dur)) appeared reproducibly as a sigmoidal decay function, and could be fitted to a five-parameter equation with upper and lower asymptotes, and an inflection point, power and decrease rate. Thus, the first three parameters described individual characteristics if evaluated using mixed-model analysis. This study shows for the first time the general numerical relationship between t(dur) and HSpeed in soccer games. In contrast to former descriptions that have evaluated speed against power, HSpeed against t(dur) always yields a sigmoidal shape with a new upper asymptote. The evaluated curve fit potentially describes the maximum moving speed of individual players during the game, and allows for concise interpretations of the functional state of team sports athletes. PMID:28742832

  18. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player.

  19. Isokinetic evaluation of knee muscles in soccer players: discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fles Mazuquin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Muscle activity in soccer players can be measured by isokinetic dynamometer, which is a reliable tool for assessing human performance.Objectives:To perform isokinetic analyses and to determine which variables differentiate the under-17 (U17 soccer category from the professional (PRO.Methods:Thirty four players were assessed (n=17 for each category. The isokinetic variables used for the knee extension-flexion analysis were: peak torque (Nm, total work (J, average power (W, angle of peak torque (deg., agonist/ antagonist ratio (%, measured for three velocities (60°/s, 120°/s and 300°/s, with each series containing five repetitions. Three Wilks' Lambda discriminant analyses were performed, to identify which variables were more significant for the definition of each of the categories.Results:The discriminative variables at 60°/s in the PRO category were: extension peak torque, flexion total work, extension average power and agonist/antagonist ratio; and for the U17s were: extension total work, flexion peak torque and flexion average power. At 120°/s for the PRO category the discriminant variables were: flexion peak torque and extension average power; for the U17s they were: extension total work and flexion average power. Finally at 300°/s, the variables found in the PRO and U17 categories respectively were: extension average power and extension total work.Conclusion:Isokinetic variables for flexion and extension knee muscles were able to significantly discriminate between PRO and U17 soccer players.

  20. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (Pborn early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (Ptalent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  1. Self-efficacy, soccer skills and the influence on students’ learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Ahmad Fahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a student centered curricular intervention on students’ self-efficacy and soccer skills performance. Materials and methods: One group of 25 mixed-gender students (ages 11-13 participated in this study of student centered soccer lessons twice per week (30 minutes on a soccer field for three weeks at a Southwestern USA Middle School. The in­tervention was designed to engage students in the skill lessons by adopting a student-centered approach, and reciprocal/peer teaching of the soccer skills. Students’ self-efficacy was assessed using the modified Traits Sport-Confidence Inventory. Soccer skill performance was assessed using previously validated skill tests. Further, students’ perception of reciprocal teaching were gathered using exit slips. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-tests to explore pre/post differences. Results: The students’ skill performance slightly improved. Students’ self-efficacy related to soccer skills was significantly higher at post-test. Students’ positively perceived the opportunities to participate in student-centered lessons and the use recip­rocal teaching styles to work together in skill development. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that seventh-grade students could learn soccer skills, develop desirable perceptions and efficacy and improve their physical activity/sport participation levels as they engaged in student-centered teaching and learning.

  2. Soccer Attenuates the Asymmetry of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Observed in Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoate, Fernando; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA) in professional soccer players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (Psoccer players (P = 0.42) and in controls (P = 0.75) (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups). Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, Psoccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury. PMID:21541351

  3. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-18

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  4. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. García-Rovés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.

  5. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  6. Pole Soccer - Implementering af netværksmodul

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Frank B; Kierkegaard, Jakob R; Hirszhorn, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Abstrakt Målet med dette projekt er at designe og implementere et netværksmodul til spillet PoleSoccer, som er et spil udviklet i det foregående semester. Fokus i implementeringen er at opn°a bedst mulig synkronisering klienterne imellem. Programmet er udviklet i programmeringssproget Java. I rapporten diskuteres valg af netværksarkitektur, transportlagsprotokol samt hvilke metoder Java tilbyder til netværkskommunikation, med vægt på Sockets. Ydermere beskrives metoder vi har anvendt til at o...

  7. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain.......An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...

  8. Violence in soccer: a socio-psychological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggests a two way intervention in order to change the increasing aggressive behavior in Soccer: an internal action, consisting in an interdisciplinary task between coaching staff, psychologists and aggressive athletes; and an external action, involving important changes in Soccer rules to make athletes play as cautiously as if they were about to earn a second yellow card during that match or a third accumulative card before an important match. RESUMO A violência no Futebol é um assunto que vem preocupando profissionais da Educação Física, Psicologia, Sociologia, Direito e Imprensa há anos e, apesar dos esforços em minimizá-la, seu índice continua crescente. Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo levantar seu histórico e origens em livros, revistas e sites das ciências supra-citadas sobre o assunto. A literatura revista aponta para a existência de duas grandes teorias psico-sociais para a violência no Futebol: uma, interna e psicológica, e outra, externa e sociológica. Assim sendo, propõe-se duas soluções para amenizar os incidentes agressivos em campo: uma interna, onde a comissão técnica trabalha a questão de forma interdisciplinar junto ao atleta, e outra externa, onde mudanças de regras fariam com que o jogador sempre atuasse como se estivesse sob o risco de receber o segundo cartão amarelo na mesma partida ou o terceiro acumulativo antes de um jogo importante.

  9. Body Size of Male Youth Soccer Players: 1978-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Figueiredo, António J; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15. A third-order polynomial was fitted to the mean heights and weights across the age range for each interval, while the Preece-Baines model 1 was fitted to the grand means of mean heights and mean weights within each chronological year to estimate ages at peak height velocity and peak weight velocity for each time interval. Third-order polynomials applied to all data points and estimates based on the Preece-Baines model applied to grand means for each age group provided similar fits. Both indicated secular changes in body size between the two intervals. Secular increases in height and weight between 1978-99 and 2000-15 were especially apparent between 13 and 16 years of age, but estimated ages at peak height velocity (13.01 and 12.91 years) and peak weight velocity (13.86 and 13.77 years) did not differ between the time intervals. Although the body size of youth soccer players increased between 1978-99 and 2000-15, estimated ages at peak height velocity and peak weight velocity did not change. The increase in height and weight likely reflected improved health and nutritional conditions, in addition to the selectivity of soccer reflected in systematic selection and retention of players advanced in maturity status, and exclusion of late maturing players beginning at about 12-13 years of age. Enhanced training programs aimed at the development of strength and power are probably an additional factor contributing to secular increases in body weight.

  10. HIFK soccer the game book : - guidelines for junior coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Eero

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is based on the fact that HIFK (Idrottsförening Kamraterna i Helsingfors) Soccer has not had any guidelines or a manual on how the club wants to develop the players. The basic idea and aim of the game book is to collect all the important information about coaching and football in one book. Today there is a huge mass of information around football which makes it difficult for a football coach to find essential know-how from that flood of informa-tion. The game book is a practical t...

  11. Soccer increases bone mass in prepubescent boys during growth: a 3-yr longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouch, Mohamed; Zribi, Anis; Alexandre, Christian; Chaari, Hamada; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Vico, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3-yr soccer practice on bone acquisition in prepubescent boys. We investigated 65 boys (aged 10-13 yr, Tanner stage I) at baseline, among which only 40 boys (Tanner stages II and III) have continued the 3-yr follow-up: 23 soccer players (F) completed 2-5 h of training plus 1 competition game per week and 17 controls (C). Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. At baseline, BMD was higher in soccer players than in controls in the whole body and legs. In contrast, there was nonsignificant difference BMD in head, femoral neck, arms, and BMC in all measured sites between groups. At 3-yr follow-up, soccer players were found to have higher BMD and BMC at all sites than controls, except for head BMD and BMC and arms BMC in which the difference was nonsignificant between groups. During the 3-yr follow-up, the soccer players were found to gain significantly more in lumbar spine (31.2% ± 2.9% vs 23.9% ± 2.1%; p soccer players have less %BMD and %BMC changes in the head than controls. A nonsignificant difference was found in legs, dominant arm, head %BMD and %BMC changes, and whole-body %BMC changes between groups. In summary, we suggest that soccer has an osteogenic effect BMD and BMC in loaded sites in pubertal soccer players. The increased bone mass induced by soccer training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull bone mass after 3 yr of follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  13. Soccer attenuates the asymmetry of rectus abdominis muscle observed in non-athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Idoate

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA in professional soccer players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05 and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01 sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42 and in controls (P = 0.75 (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups. Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05 and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury.

  14. Physiological Demands, Morphological Characteristics, Physical Abilities and Injuries of Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players. Physiological demands are similar between men’s and women’s soccer, but competitive women’s matches were characterized by nearly 33% less distance covered, although at higher intensity levels (maximum speeds greater than 15 km/h than typically found in the men’s game. Sub-elite female players also tended to run less at higher intensity levels at the end of both halves in comparison with elite female players. High intensity running is an important factor of success in soccer since many critical moments of the game occur under this condition. The ability to rapidly change direction also determined elite, sub-elite and amateur levels. The implementation of functional training, which focused on soccer-specific drills and plyometric exercises, to improve explosive power, may improve conditioning in female soccer players as well as decrease the risk of injuries which was 3-8 times higher in females compared to males. This review presents an in-depth overview of the most influential factors for determining success in female soccer.

  15. Soccer improves fitness and attenuates cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the fitness and health effects of medium-term soccer training for untrained hypertensive middle-aged men. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained males (31-54 y) with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomised 2:1 to a soccer training group (STG, two 1-h...... sessions per week, n=22, 68% on medication) and a doctor advice group receiving traditional physician-guided recommendations on cardiovascular risk factor modification (DAG, n=11, 73% on medication). Two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA time-group statistics was applied. RESULTS: During soccer training...

  16. Parents role in the development of soccer players / Papel dos pais no desenvolvimento de jovens futebolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of parents in the development of soccer players. Twenty parents and 12 soccer players, between 15 and 18 years old participated in the study. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used by administrating questionnaires forms and interviews. It was observed that few changes occurred in the family routines and that parents were minimally involved in their sons' sport activities. This did not appear to be a constraint for their sons' development because of their passion for soccer, the total amount of practice, and a potential lucrative professional career. Researchers should carefully adopt important paradigms from first world countries to another country with contextual differences.

  17. Laterality-Specific Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stefanie; Jansen, Petra

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of specific soccer training with the non-dominant leg on mental rotation performance of 20 adolescent soccer players between 10 and 11 years of age. While the experimental group performed soccer specific tasks only with the non-dominant foot once a week for 10 weeks, the control group absolved the same exercises with the dominant foot for the same period of time. Both groups performed a mental rotation task and shot, dribbling and ball control tests before and after the 10 week intervention. The most relevant result was that the experimental group showed a significantly larger increase in mental rotation ability than the control group.

  18. Half-time re-warm up increases performance capacity in male elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edholm, P; Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of a half-time re-warm up on performance and movement patterns in soccer match play. Using a crossover design, 22 professional male players performed traditional passive rest (CON) or a low-intensity re-warm up (RW) during the half-time period of two soccer.......01). Moreover, RW had more possession of the ball in the beginning of the second half. In conclusion, traditional passive half-time rest leads to impaired sprint and jump performance during the initial phase of the second half in professional soccer players whereas a re-warm up effectively attenuates...

  19. Soccer and stock market risk: empirical evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Ceylan, Nildag Basak

    2013-06-01

    There is an emerging but important literature on the effects of sport events such as soccer on stock market returns. After a soccer team's win, agents discount future events more favorably and increase risk tolerance. Similarly, after a loss, risk tolerance decreases. This paper directly assesses risk tolerance after a sports event by using daily data from the three major soccer teams in Turkey (Beşiktaşç Fenerbahge and Galatasaray). Results provide evidence that risk tolerance increases after a win, but similar patterns were not found after a loss.

  20. Muscle and Blood Metabolites during a Soccer Game: Implications for Sprint Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Steensberg, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: To examine muscle and blood metabolites during soccer match play and relate it to possible changes in sprint performance. Methods: Thirty-one Danish fourth division players took part in three friendly games. Blood samples were collected frequently during the game, and muscle......, muscle pH, or total glycogen content. Conclusion: Sprint performance is reduced both temporarily during a game and at the end of a soccer game. The latter finding may be explained by low glycogen levels in individual muscle fibers. Blood lactate is a poor indicator of muscle lactate during soccer match...

  1. Recreational soccer is an effective health promoting activity for untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Krustrup, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effects of regular participation in recreational soccer on health profile, 38 healthy untrained Danish males aged 20-43 years were randomised into a soccer group (SO; n=14), a running group (RU; n=13) and a control group (CO; n=11). Training was performed for one hour two-three times.......05) in SO and RU, respectively, after 12 weeks. No changes in any of the measured variables were observed for CO. In conclusion, participation in regular recreational soccer training, organised as small-sided drills, has significant beneficial effects on health profile and physical capacity for untrained...

  2. Functional Assessment and Injury Risk in a Professional Soccer Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Piqueras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the last World Conference on Sport and Physical Therapy celebrated in Bern (Switzerland, 2015, it was confirmed that the functional skills of an athlete are a very important variable to be considered in the recovery of an injury. On the other hand, its use as a predictive risk tool still lacks solid evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a battery of functional tests (FPT could be used as a preliminary measure for the season in order to identify the injury risk in a professional soccer team in the Spanish Second Division B League. Fifty-two soccer players (ages of 25.3 ± 4.6 years, 10.33% ± 0.9% fat were functionally assessed during two seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 and analyzed from an injury perspective. A total of 125 injuries were recorded. The sample was grouped based on the number of injuries and the required absence days. Except for the bipodal vertical jump (CMJ, none of the functional tests revealed differences among the groups. The correlation study between the functional condition and the suffered injuries did not show any significant results.

  3. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Soccer Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Gundersen, Hilde Stokvold; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Thun, Eirunn; Harris, Anette

    2017-08-01

    Many athletes sleep poorly due to stress, travel, and competition anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on soccer skills (juggling, dribbling, ball control, continuous kicking, 20 and 40 m sprint, and 30 m sprint with changes of direction). In all, 19 male junior soccer players (14-19 years old) were recruited and participated in a cross-balanced experimental study comprising two conditions; habitual sleep and 24 hours sleep deprivation. In both conditions, testing took place between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. Order of tests was counterbalanced. Each test was conducted once or twice in a sequence repeated three times. The results revealed a negative effect of sleep deprivation on the continuous kicking test. On one test, 30 meter sprint with directional changes, a significant condition × test repetition interaction was found, indicating a steeper learning curve in the sleep deprived condition from Test 1 to Test 2 and a steeper learning curve in the rested condition from Test 2 to Test 3. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and strengths, and recommendations for future studies are outlined.

  4. The Brazilian World Cup: too hot for soccer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Rebecca Luna; Steinke, Ercília Torres; Pacheco, Christina; Vieira, Lucas Lima; Betancour, Maribel Olaya; Steinke, Valdir Adilson

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.

  5. Analysis and comparison of intensity in specific soccer training sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Antonacci Condessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the exercise intensity of four specific soccer training sessions (friendly and training match, tactical and technical workouts. Ten professional soccer players (24.2 ± 3.7 years, 177.9 ± 7.3 cm, 63.2 ± 4.6 mLO2•kg-1•min-l were recruited. A treadmill progressive interval test was performed to determine the players' VO2max, maximal heart rate (HRmax, HR-VO2 curve, and the heart rate corresponding to blood lactate concentrations of 2 and 4 mmol/L. The heart rate during the training sessions was used to estimate the exercise intensity and to classify them into intensity zones (low-intensity: 4 mmol/L. Exercise intensities were different among training sessions (friendly match: 86.0 ± 5.1% HRmax; training match: 81.2 ± 4.1% HRmax; tactical workout: 70.4 ± 5.3% HRmax; technical workout: 62.1 ± 3.6% HRmax. The friendly match presented the highest percentage of time performed in the high-intensity zone.

  6. Automatic summarization of soccer highlights using audio-visual descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventós, A; Quijada, R; Torres, Luis; Tarrés, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Automatic summarization generation of sports video content has been object of great interest for many years. Although semantic descriptions techniques have been proposed, many of the approaches still rely on low-level video descriptors that render quite limited results due to the complexity of the problem and to the low capability of the descriptors to represent semantic content. In this paper, a new approach for automatic highlights summarization generation of soccer videos using audio-visual descriptors is presented. The approach is based on the segmentation of the video sequence into shots that will be further analyzed to determine its relevance and interest. Of special interest in the approach is the use of the audio information that provides additional robustness to the overall performance of the summarization system. For every video shot a set of low and mid level audio-visual descriptors are computed and lately adequately combined in order to obtain different relevance measures based on empirical knowledge rules. The final summary is generated by selecting those shots with highest interest according to the specifications of the user and the results of relevance measures. A variety of results are presented with real soccer video sequences that prove the validity of the approach.

  7. Location and Position Determination Algorithm For Humanoid Soccer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oei Kurniawan Utomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of location and position determination was designed for humanoid soccer robot. The robots have to be able to control the ball effectively on the field of Indonesian Robot Soccer Competition which has a size of 900 cm x 600 cm. The algorithm of location and position determination uses parameters, such as the goalpost’s thickness, the compass value, and the robot’s head servo value. The goalpost’s thickness is detected using The Centre of Gravity method. The width of the goalpost detected is analyzed using the principles of camera geometry to determine the distance between the robot and the goalpost. The tangent value of head servo’s tilt angle is used to determine the distance between the robot and the ball. The distance between robot-goalpost and the distance between robot-ball are processed with the difference of head servo’s pan angle and compass value using trigonometric formulas to determine the coordinates of the robot and the ball in the Cartesian coordinates.

  8. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack M; Mohr, Magni

    2010-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier League performed a countermovement vertical jump test, a repeated 30-m sprint test, and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) test at rested state and after a competitive game. Average heart rate during the game was 86 +/- 1% of maximal heart rate with no differences between halves. Blood lactate was 5.1 +/- 0.5 mmol.L after the first half, which was higher (p game, which was 62% lower (p game, which was 4% slower (p game-induced effect was observed on vertical jump performance. Significant inverse correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and fatigue index during the repeated sprint test both at rest (r = -0.76, p game (r = -0.66, p game does cause marked impairment in intense intermittent exercise and repeated sprint performance but does not affect vertical jump performance. These findings support the notion that decrements in distance covered by sprinting and high-speed running toward the end of elite female games are caused by fatigue.

  9. Analysis of psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’ behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Pujals

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the psychological factors which interfere in soccer athletes’s behaviour, juvenile and infant categories. 40 athletes from a soccer school in Maringá – PR were studied and the instruments used were: inventories, interviews, questionnaires and research diary. Data were collected individually and in group. Intervention occurred for 12 months through observation, evaluation and showed the following factors: motivation, anxiety, aggression and self confidence. Results pointed out that the positive emotions expressed by the athletes were good mood, happiness, relaxation, interest in improving and hope while negative emotions were anxiety, rage, aggressiveness, low self-confidence, lack of motivation, insecurity, feeling of failure, pessimism and group instability. Relatives and coach were also generating factors of stress and anxiety. Thus, this sporting context shows that the sports psychology seems to be highly efficient to reduce anxiety and agression indexes as well as to increase motivation and self-confidence, demonstrating the importance of psychological preparation for sporting training.

  10. Predicting brain acceleration during heading of soccer ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Hasnun Arif Hassan, Mohd; Azri Aris, Mohd; Anuar, Zulfika

    2013-12-01

    There has been a long debate whether purposeful heading could cause harm to the brain. Studies have shown that repetitive heading could lead to degeneration of brain cells, which is similarly found in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. A two-degree of freedom linear mathematical model was developed to study the impact of soccer ball to the brain during ball-to-head impact in soccer. From the model, the acceleration of the brain upon impact can be obtained. The model is a mass-spring-damper system, in which the skull is modelled as a mass and the neck is modelled as a spring-damper system. The brain is a mass with suspension characteristics that are also defined by a spring and a damper. The model was validated by experiment, in which a ball was dropped from different heights onto an instrumented dummy skull. The validation shows that the results obtained from the model are in a good agreement with the brain acceleration measured from the experiment. This findings show that a simple linear mathematical model can be useful in giving a preliminary insight on what human brain endures during a ball-to-head impact.

  11. Match running performance and fitness in youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Simpson, B M; Bourdon, P C

    2010-11-01

    The activity profiles of highly trained young soccer players were examined in relation to age, playing position and physical capacity. Time-motion analyses (global positioning system) were performed on 77 (U13-U18; fullbacks [FB], centre-backs [CB], midfielders [MD], wide midfielders [W], second strikers [2 (nd)S] and strikers [S]) during 42 international club games. Total distance covered (TD) and very high-intensity activities (VHIA; >16.1 km·h (-1)) were computed during 186 entire player-matches. Physical capacity was assessed via field test measures (e. g., peak running speed during an incremental field test, VVam-eval). Match running performance showed an increasing trend with age ( Pperformance was position-dependent ( Pperformance and physical capacities were position-dependent, with poor or non-significant correlations within FB, CB, MD and W (e. g., VHIA vs. VVam-eval: R=0.06 in FB) but large associations within 2 (nd)S and S positions (e. g., VHIA vs. VVam-eval: R=0.70 in 2 (nd)S). In highly trained young soccer players, the importance of fitness level as a determinant of match running performance should be regarded as a function of playing position.

  12. Periodization and physical performance in elite female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L; Ball, Nick B

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the variation in training demands, physical performance, and player well-being across a women's soccer season. Seventeen elite female players wore GPS tracking devices during every training session (N=90) throughout 1 national-league season. Intermittent high-speed-running capacity and 5-, 15-, and 25-m-sprint testing were conducted at the beginning of preseason, end of preseason, midseason, and end of season. In addition, subjective well-being measures were self-reported daily by players over the course of the season. Time over 5 m was lowest at the end of preseason (mean 1.148 s, SE 0.017 s) but then progressively deteriorated to the end of the season (Pperformance over 15 m improved by 2.8% (P=.013) after preseason training, while 25-m-sprint performance peaked at midseason, with a 3.1% (P=.05) improvement from the start of preseason, before declining at the end of season (P=.023). Training demands varied between phases, with total distance and high-speed distance greatest during preseason before decreasing (Pphysical performance in elite female soccer players allow coaches to ensure that training periodization goals are being met and related positive training adaptations are being elicited.

  13. [Nutritional study of a third division soccer team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Reñón, Cristian; Sánchez Collado, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the nutritional habits and attitudes of a semiprofessional soccer team. Nutritional study of 21 semiprofessional soccer players (18-35 years) by analyzing the daily energy intake and expenditure also the distribution of macro and micro-nutrients, differentiated type of day (normal, training or competition). The energy balance is negative in the three days studied (- 31%, - 38% and -31% respectively). There were significant differences in caloric intake between the day of competition, a normal day and a day of training. These differences are observed both in absolute values (2,438 kcal vs 2,127 y 2,221 kcal respectively) as referring to body weight (30.5 kcal/kg vs 27 y 28 kcal/kg respectively). Regarding macronutrient intake, the samples eat a diet with an insufficient amount of carbohydrates (328 g vs 371 and 540 g recommended in function of physical activity). There were no significant differences in the composition of micronutrients. The football players studied show a negative energy balance with a diet low in carbohydrates. This poor nutritional status may interfere with the development of their sporting performance and, ultimately, increase the risk of lesions. This implies the need for design and implementation of a diet and introducing nutritional education programs for these athletes. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrition status of junior elite Canadian female soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer C; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth; Martin, Steven; Gaul, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent female team-sport athletes are faced with the challenge of meeting nutrition requirements for growth and development, as well as sport performance. There is a paucity of evidence describing the dietary adequacy of this population in respect to these physiological demands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the nutrition status of junior elite female soccer athletes. A total of 33 athletes (15.7 ± 0.7 yr) completed anthropometric assessment, 4-day food records analyzed for macro- and micronutrient intake, and hematological analysis. Energy expenditure was estimated using predictive equations. Mean sum of 7 skinfolds was 103.1 ± 35.2 mm, and body-mass index was 22.7 ± 2.7. Mean energy intake was 2,079 ± 460 kcal/day, and estimated energy expenditure was 2,546 ± 190 kcal/day. Of the athletes, 51.5% consumed nutrition status may affect soccer performance and physiological growth and development. More research is needed to understand the unique nutrition needs of this population and inform sport nutrition practice and research.

  15. Nutritional Adaptations in Elite Soccer Referees: First Evidence and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Lore; Deleuze, Thomas; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David

    2015-06-27

    Although the physiological cost of refereeing has been already studied in the literature, especially in soccer umpires, it remains unknown whether referees spontaneously adapt their energy intake during game days. Six national soccer referees completed 24-hour dietary recalls (assisted by the SU.VI.MAX copybook) during a control day (CON) and a day with a game (GAME). The stress level and hunger feelings were assessed using visual analogue scales. Total energy intake, energy derived from macronutrients and energy intake at each meal were analyzed using the Bilnuts nutrition software. Total daily energy intake was not significantly different between conditions (CON: 2270 ± 535 vs. GAME: 2782 ± 293). Energy derived from fat and protein was not different between conditions but the participants ingested more calories derived from carbohydrates during the GAME day (45.5 ± 5.9% vs. 54.9 ± 5.5%, respectively, psoccer umpires, who tend to increase their energy intake mainly during snacking, by increasing their carbohydrate consumption.

  16. Differences in game reading between selected and non-selected youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Van Der Steen, Steffie; Hakvoort, Bas; Frencken, Wouter G P; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-02-01

    Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels. These results demonstrate how Skill Theory can be used to assess, and distinguish game-reading of youth players with different expertise, a skill important for soccer, but also for other sports.

  17. Home advantage in soccer--A matter of expectations, goal setting and tactical decisions of coaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Kathrin; Lobinger, Babett; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    In soccer, home teams win about 67% of decided games. The causes for this home advantage are still unresolved. There is a shortage of research on the psychological states of actors involved. In this study, we examined soccer coaches' expectations, goal setting and tactical decisions in relation to game location. Soccer coaches (N = 297) with different expertise levels participated in an experimental, online management game and were randomly assigned to one of two groups, "home game (HG)" or "away game." Participants received information on the game for which they were asked to make decisions in multiple points. The only differing information between groups was game location. Regardless of expertise, HG coaches had higher expectations to win, set more challenging goals and decided for more offensive and courageous playing tactics. Possible consequences of these findings concerning home advantage in soccer are discussed.

  18. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....

  19. Development and validation of the Perceived Game-Specific Soccer Competence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Hannele; Gråstén, Arto; Blomqvist, Minna; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Konttinen, Niilo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to create a valid, self-reported, game-specific soccer competence scale. A structural model of perceived competence, performance measures and motivation was tested as the basis for the scale. A total of 1321 soccer players (261 females, 1060 males) ranging from 12 to 15 years (13.4 ± 1.0 years) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Game-Specific Soccer Competence Scale (PGSSCS), self-assessments of tactical skills and motivation, as well as technical and speed and agility tests. Results of factor analyses, tests of internal consistency and correlations between PGSSCS subscales, performance measures and motivation supported the reliability and validity of the PGSSCS. The scale can be considered a suitable instrument to assess perceived game-specific competence among young soccer players.

  20. No Relationship between Hamstring Flexibility and Hamstring Injuries in Male Amateur Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries

  1. The yo-yo IR2 test: physiological response, reliability, and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    biopsies and blood samples were obtained, and heart rate was measured before, during, and after the Yo-Yo IR2 test. Additionally, 119 Scandinavian elite soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IR2 test on two to four occasions. Results: Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 591 +/- 43 (320-920) m or 4.3 (2.6-7.9) min...... was better (P elite soccer players than for moderate elite players (1059 +/- 35 vs 771 +/- 26 m) and better (P elite soccer players...... turnover. Specifically, the Yo-Yo IR2 test was shown to be a sensitive tool to differentiate between intermittent exercise performance of soccer players in different seasonal periods and at different competitive levels and playing positions....

  2. Relationships between field performance tests in high-level soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Brochmann, Marit; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    after two and four minutes of the Yo-Yo IR tests by testing 57 high-level soccer players. All players played regularly in one of the three highest levels of Norwegian soccer and were tested during three sessions on three consecutive days. Large correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 test...... using only one of the Yo-Yo tests and a RSA test, in a general soccer-specific field test protocol. The sub-maximal heart rate measures during Yo-Yo tests are reproducible and may be utilized for frequent, time-efficient and non-exhaustive testing of intermittent exercise capacity of high-level soccer...

  3. The effect of two speed endurance training regimes on performance of soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players...... different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short......-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players....

  4. Iron deficiency and anemia: a common problem in female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Göran; Adolfsson, Peter; Börjesson, Mats; Mannheimer, Clas; Rödjer, Stig

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women's World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.

  5. An Evidence-Based Discussion of Heading the Ball and Concussions in High School Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Currie, Dustin W; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Fields, Sarah K

    2015-09-01

    Soccer, originally introduced as a safer sport for children and adolescents, has seen a rapid increase in popularity in the United States over the past 3 decades. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of soccer ball heading (when an athlete attempts to play the ball in the air with his or her head) given the rise in concussion rates, with some calling for a ban on heading among soccer players younger than 14 years. To evaluate trends over time in boys' and girls' soccer concussions, to identify injury mechanisms commonly leading to concussions, to delineate soccer-specific activities during which most concussions occur, to detail heading-related soccer concussion mechanisms, and to compare concussion symptom patterns by injury mechanism. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal surveillance data collected from 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 in a large, nationally representative sample of US high schools. Participants were boys and girls who were high school soccer players. Concussions sustained during high school-sanctioned soccer games and practices. Mechanism and sport-specific activity of concussion. Overall, 627 concussions were sustained during 1,393,753 athlete exposures (AEs) among girls (4.50 concussions per 10,000 AEs), and 442 concussions were sustained during 1,592,238 AEs among boys (2.78 concussions per 10,000 AEs). For boys (68.8%) and girls (51.3%), contact with another player was the most common concussion mechanism. Heading was the most common soccer-specific activity, responsible for 30.6% of boys' concussions and 25.3% of girls' concussions. Contact with another player was the most common mechanism of injury in heading-related concussions among boys (78.1%) and girls (61.9%). There were few differences in concussion symptom patterns by injury mechanism. Although heading is the most common activity associated with concussions, the most frequent mechanism was athlete-athlete contact. Such information is needed to drive evidence

  6. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara C H Huijgen

    Full Text Available Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9 and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2 performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span, inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task, cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test, and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test. "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05. In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  7. World cup soccer players tend to be born with sun and moon in adjacent zodiacal signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, J

    2000-01-01

    The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p = 0.00001) to be born on days when the sun and moon are in adjacent zodiacal signs. Key Words: soccer; World Cup; astrology; moon PMID:11131239

  8. Assessment of acute physiological demand for soccer.

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Veneroso, Christiano Eduardo; Pacheco, Diogo Antônio Soares; Pereira, Emerson Rodrigues; Coelho, Leonardo Gomes Martins; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical e...

  9. Injuries in youth amateur soccer and rugby players—comparison of incidence and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players.

  10. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  11. Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Janine H.; van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie M. C.; van der Knaap, Sissi; Stege, Jasper; Verhagen, Evert A.; van Mechelen, Willem; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Dutch premier soccer league. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2009–2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed. Main Outcome Measure(s): The medical staff recorded time-loss injuries, including information on injuries (ie, type, body part, duration) and exposure data for training sessions and matches. Results: A total of 286 injuries were recorded, affecting 62.7% of the players. The overall injury incidence was 6.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours, 2.8 in training sessions and 32.8 in matches. Most of the recorded injuries were acute (68.5%). Eight percent of the injuries were classified as recurrent. Injuries were most likely to be located in the lower extremities (82.9%). Injury time loss ranged from 1 to 752 days, with a median of 8 days. Knee injuries had the greatest consequences in terms of days of absence from soccer play (on average, 45 days). The most common diagnosis was muscle/tendon injury of the lower extremities (32.9%). Conclusions: Injury risk in the Dutch premier soccer league is high, especially during matches. Preventive measures should focus on the most common diagnoses, namely, muscle/tendon injuries of the lower extremities. PMID:25531144

  12. Reliability and validity of match performance analysis in soccer : a multidimensional qualitative evaluation of opponent interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tenga, Albin

    2010-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) – Norges idrettshøgskole, 2010. Match performance analysis is widely used as a method for studying technical, tactical and physical aspects of player and team performance in a soccer match. Therefore, ensuring the validity and reliability of the collected data is important for match performance analysis to meet its intents and purposes effectively. However, most studies on soccer match performance use unidimensional frequency data based on analyses done ...

  13. An Eye for Talent: Talent Identification and Practical Sense of Top-level Soccer Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how top-level soccer coaches identify talent. I draw on Bourdieu's work to challenge a commonly held assumption that talent identification is a rational or objective process. Analysis of in-depth interviews with eight coaches of national youth soccer teams indicated these coaches identified talent in three ways. Firstly, coaches use their practical sense and their visual experience to recognize patterns of movement among the players. Secondly, the coach...

  14. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on performance during a simulated soccer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H; White, Nicholas J; Chicktay, Waheed; Mahomed, Hafsa; Durandt, Justin; Lambert, Michael I

    2013-12-16

    This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min) completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81). Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11). Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass), such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87). The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO) did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.

  15. The Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Performance during a Simulated Soccer Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia H. Goedecke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Results: Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81. Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11. Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass, such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87. Conclusions: The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.

  16. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M.; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13–17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for “higher-level” cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). “Lower-level” cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA’s showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the “higher-level” cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of “higher-level” cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer. PMID:26657073

  17. Morphological, maturational, functional and technical profile of young Brazilian soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Matta

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the anthropometric profile, physical fitness and soccer-specific skills between under-15 and under-17 Brazilian soccer players, as well as to evaluate possible differences in these variables according to biological maturation in the age categories. The sample consisted of 245 male soccer players (under-15: n=161; under-17: n=84. Anthropometric measures included weight, height and skinfolds. Biological maturation was assessed based on pubic hair development. The following tests were used for functional assessment: static and countermovement jump, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (level 2, RAST, 5- and 30-meter running speed, and agility T-test. Soccer-specific skills were assessed using three tests: ball control, dribbling, and kick accuracy. Descriptive statistics, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The results showed a larger body size (stature and body mass, longer sports experience (years of formal training and better performance in most of the functional tests for under-17 soccer players compared to under-15 players. There were no significant differences in adiposity or soccer-specific skills between levels of competition. Significant differences as a function of maturation stage were observed in anthropometric and functional variables only in the under-15 category. In conclusion, the under-17 category differs from the under-15 category in terms of anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics. However, no difference was observed in two of the three soccer-specific skills. Physical fitness components and soccer-specific skills were associated with maturity only in the under-15 category.

  18. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  19. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  20. COMPARISONS OF SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS AND NON-ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siahkouhian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the plasma concentration of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, white blood cells (WBC, uric acid, and total cholesterol (TC between soccer players and non-athletes. We also intended to evaluate the relations of blood markers with ·VO2max and body composition variables. This cross-sectional study involved professional soccer players (n=40 and sedentary young men (n=60, aged 18-22 years. Blood markers such as CRP, WBC, uric acid, and TC were determined by laboratory tests. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max, body mass index (BMI and fat tissue (FM were determined by the standard test protocols. There were no significant differences between CRP levels of soccer players and non-athletes (0.32±0.13 vs. 0.34±0.19 mg/dl. CRP correlated significantly with FM among soccer players (r=0.482, p≤0.002. Our results also showed a significant correlation between TC and VO2max in soccer players (r=0.469, p≤0.002. Our results showed that long-term soccer training may have no significant effect on the CRP level

  1. Gender differences in the relative age effect among US olympic development program youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D

    2006-04-01

    A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.

  2. The Physiological Profile of Junior Soccer Players at SSBB Surabaya Bhakti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashirudin, M.; Kusnanik, N. W.

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players are required to have good physical fitness in order to achieve optimum accomplishment; physical fitness stands as the foundation of technical and tactical proficiency as well as the mental maturity during the matches. The purpose of this study was to identify the physiological profile of junior soccer players of SSB Surabaya Bhakti age 16-17. The research was conducted at 20 junior soccer players. This research was quantitative with descriptive analysis. Data were collected by testing of physiological (anaerobic power and capacity including explosive leg power, speed, agility; aerobic capacity: cardiovascular endurance). Data was analyzed using percentage. The result showed that the percentage of explosive leg power of junior soccer players were 30% (good category), speed was 85% (average category), right agility was 90% (average category), left agility was 75% (average category). On the other hand, the aerobic power and capacity of the junior soccer players in this study was 50% (average category). The conclusion of this research is that the physiological profile of junior soccer players at SSB Surabaya Bhakti age 16-17 was majority in average category.

  3. Physical characteristics that predict involvement with the ball in recreational youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ré, Alessandro H Nicolai; Cattuzzo, Maria Teresa; Henrique, Rafael Dos Santos; Stodden, David F

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of age, stage of puberty, anthropometric characteristics, health-related fitness, soccer-specific tests and match-related technical performance to variance in involvements with the ball during recreational 5-a-side small-sided (32 × 15 m) soccer matches. Using a cross-sectional design, 80 healthy male students (14.6 ± 0.5 years of age; range 13.6-15.4) who played soccer recreationally were randomly divided into 10 teams and played against each other. Measurements included height, body mass, pubertal status, health-related fitness (12-min walk/run test, standing long jump, 15-m sprint and sit-ups in 30 s), soccer-specific tests (kicking for speed, passing for accuracy and agility run with and without a ball), match-related technical performance (kicks, passes and dribbles) and involvements with the ball during matches. Forward multiple regression analysis revealed that cardiorespiratory fitness (12-min walk/run test) accounted for 36% of the variance in involvements with the ball. When agility with the ball (zigzag running) and power (standing long jump) were included among the predictors, the total explained variance increased to 62%. In conclusion, recreational adolescent players, regardless of their soccer-specific skills, may increase participation in soccer matches most through physical activities that promote improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle power and agility.

  4. Validation of Field Methods to Assess Body Fat Percentage in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Di Salvo, Valter; Paredes-Hernandez, Victor; Alcazar, Julian; Ara, Ignacio; Kreider, Richard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    This study determined the most effective field method for quantifying body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players and developed prediction equations based on anthropometric variables. Forty-four male elite-standard youth soccer players aged 16.3-18.0 years underwent body fat percentage assessments, including bioelectrical impedance analysis and the calculation of various skinfold-based prediction equations. Dual X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of body fat percentage. Correlation coefficients, bias, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop soccer-specific prediction equations. The equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967) reached very large correlations and the lowest biases, and they reached neither the practically worthwhile difference nor the substantial difference between methods. The new youth soccer-specific skinfold equation included a combination of triceps and supraspinale skinfolds. None of the practical methods compared in this study are adequate for estimating body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players, except for the equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967). The new youth soccer-specific equation calculated in this investigation is the only field method specifically developed and validated in elite male players, and it shows potentially good predictive power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Altered Neurochemistry in Former Professional Soccer Players without a History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Muehlmann, Marc; Merugumala, Sai; Liao, Huijun; Starr, Tyler; Kaufmann, David; Mayinger, Michael; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-09-01

    Soccer is played by more than 250 million people worldwide. Repeatedly heading the ball may place soccer players at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impacts (RSHI). This study evaluates the long-term effects of RSHI on neurochemistry in athletes without a history of clinically diagnosed concussion, but with a high exposure to RSHI. Eleven former professional soccer players (mean age 52.0±6.8 years) and a comparison cohort of 14 age- and gender-matched, former non-contact sport athletes (mean age 46.9±7.9 years) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and neurocognitive evaluation. In the soccer players a significant increase was observed in both choline (Cho), a membrane marker, and myo-inositol (ml), a marker of glial activation, compared with control athletes. Additionally, ml and glutathione (GSH) were significantly correlated with lifetime estimate of RSHI within the soccer group. There was no significant difference in neurocognitive tests between groups. Results of this study suggest an association between RSHI in soccer players and MRS markers of neuroinflammation, suggesting that even subconcussive head impacts affect the neurochemistry of the brain and may precede neurocognitive changes. Future studies will need to determine the role of neuroinflammation in RSHI and the effect on neurocognitive function.

  6. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  7. Difference in kick motion of adolescent soccer players in presence and absence of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojima, Michio; Torii, Suguru

    2018-01-01

    Many adolescent soccer players experience low back pain (LBP). However, there are no reports studying the kick motion of adolescent soccer players experiencing LBP. This study aimed to clarify the kick motion of adolescent soccer players in the presence and absence of LBP. We recruited 42 adolescent soccer players and divided them into two groups according to the presence of LBP (LBP group, n=22) and absence of LBP (NBP group, n=20). We measured real-time kick motion using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. We placed 65 spherical markers on each anatomical landmark and calculated the angle of the lumbar spine, center of mass (COM) of the whole body, and displacement of the support foot. We used an unpaired t-test to compare the data between the groups. Compared with the NBP group, the LBP group showed a lateral shift in COM, which increased the duration of kick motion. The presence of LBP affected the posterior positioning of the support foot and restricted the player's lumbar spine from bending laterally. A lateral shift in COM and larger rotation of the lumbar spine could stress the lumbar spine during kick motion. Therefore, coaches and athletic trainers should pay attention to soccer players' lumbar spine rotation and the COM shift during kick motion. This would be important for preventing LBP in adolescent soccer players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex Differences in Anthropometrics and Heading Kinematics Among Division I Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzin, Abigail C; Mansell, Jamie L; Tierney, Ryan T; McDevitt, Jane K

    Soccer players head the ball repetitively throughout their careers; this is also a potential mechanism for a concussion. Although not all soccer headers result in a concussion, these subconcussive impacts may impart acceleration, deceleration, and rotational forces on the brain, leaving structural and functional deficits. Stronger neck musculature may reduce head-neck segment kinematics. The relationship between anthropometrics and soccer heading kinematics will not differ between sexes. The relationship between anthropometrics and soccer heading kinematics will not differ between ball speeds. Pilot, cross-sectional design. Level 3. Division I soccer athletes (5 male, 8 female) were assessed for head-neck anthropometric and neck strength measurements in 6 directions (ie, flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexions and rotations). Participants headed the ball 10 times (25 or 40 mph) while wearing an accelerometer secured to their head. Kinematic measurements (ie, linear acceleration and rotational velocity) were recorded at 2 ball speeds. Sex differences were observed in neck girth ( t = 5.09, P soccer heading kinematics for sex and ball speeds. Neck girth and neck strength are factors that may limit head impact kinematics.

  9. Bone Turnover Markers and Lean Mass in Pubescent Boys: Comparison Between Elite Soccer Players and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebigh, Ammar; Abed, Mohamed Elfethi; Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Sellami, Slaheddine; Tabka, Zouhair; Rebai, Haithem

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mass and bone turnover markers with lean mass (LM) in pubescent soccer players. Two groups participated in this study, which included 65 elite young soccer players who trained for 6-8 hours per week and 60 controls. Bone mineral density; bone mineral content in the whole body, lower limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral neck; biochemical markers of osteocalcin; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase; C-telopeptide type I collagen; and total LM were assessed. Young soccer players showed higher bone mineral density and bone mineral content in the whole body and weight-bearing sites (P soccer players compared with the control group, but no significant difference in C-telopeptide type I collagen was observed between the 2 groups. This study showed a significant positive correlation among bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and total LM (r = .29; r = .31; P soccer players. Findings of this study highlight the importance of soccer practice for bone mineral parameters and bone turnover markers during the puberty stage.

  10. Body image and body composition: comparisons of young male elite soccer players and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.

  11. Carbohydrate ingestion improves performance of a new reliable test of soccer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Kevin; Conway, Steve; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a new test of soccer performance and evaluate the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) on soccer performance. Eleven university footballers were recruited and underwent 3 trials in a randomized order. Two of the trials involved ingesting a placebo beverage, and the other, a 7.5% maltodextrin solution. The protocol comprised a series of ten 6-min exercise blocks on an outdoor Astroturf pitch, separated by the performance of 2 of the 4 soccer-specific tests, making the protocol 90 min in duration. The intensity of the exercise was designed to be similar to the typical activity pattern during soccer match play. Participants performed skill tests of dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting throughout the protocol. The coefficients of variation for dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting were 2.2%, 1.2%, 7.0%, and 2.8%, respectively. The mean combined placebo scores were 42.4 +/- 2.7 s, 43.1 +/- 3.7 s, 210 +/- 34 cm, and 212 +/- 17 points for agility, dribbling, heading, and kicking, respectively. CHO ingestion led to a combined agility time of 41.5 +/- 0.8 s, for dribbling 41.7 +/- 3.5 s, 213 +/- 11 cm for heading, and 220 +/- 5 points for kicking accuracy. There was a significant improvement in performance for dribbling, agility, and shooting (p soccer performance, and ingesting CHO leads to an improvement in soccer performance.

  12. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Lex

    Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  13. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  14. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05), while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05). Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01). In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05). In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors) significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01) over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05). Moreover, change

  15. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Lesinski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass, body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass, and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05, while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05. Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01. In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01 over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05. Moreover, change

  16. Influence of modern studded and bladed soccer boots and sidestep cutting on knee loading during match play conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaila, Rajiv

    2007-09-01

    The influence of modern studded and bladed soccer boots and sidestep cutting on noncontact knee loading during match play conditions is not fully understood. Modern soccer boot type and sidestep cutting compared with straight-ahead running do not significantly influence knee internal tibia axial and valgus moments, anterior joint forces, and flexion angles. Controlled laboratory study. Fifteen professional male outfield soccer players undertook trials of straight-ahead running and sidestep cutting at 30 degrees and 60 degrees with a controlled approach velocity on a Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) approved soccer surface. Two bladed and 2 studded soccer boots from 2 manufacturers were investigated. Three-dimensional inverse dynamics analysis determined externally applied internal/external tibia axial and valgus/varus moments, anterior forces, and flexion angles throughout stance. The soccer boot type imparted no significant difference on knee loading for each maneuver. Internal tibia and valgus moments were significantly greater for sidestep cutting at 30 degrees and 60 degrees compared with straight-ahead running. Sidestep cutting at 60 degrees compared with straight-ahead running significantly increased anterior joint forces. Varying soccer boot type had no effect on knee loading for each maneuver, but sidestep cutting significantly increased internal tibia and valgus moments and anterior joint forces. Sidestep cutting, irrespective of the modern soccer boot type worn, may be implicated in the high incidence of noncontact soccer anterior cruciate ligament injuries by significantly altering knee loading.

  17. The effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer training program on anthropometry, physical fitness and skilled performance in Special Olympics soccer athletes and non-disabled partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Özer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Ağlamış, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were randomly selected out of all the students between the ages 12 and 15, with a diagnosis of educable mental retardation and no secondary disabilities, who were attending a special education school. Participants without ID (WoID) were randomly selected from a regular secondary school out of the same age groups of male students. All participants were given permission by their parents or guardians to participate in the study. Participants in the TRG included 23 youth WID and 23 youth WoID. Mean ages were = 14.1 (SD = 1.1) and 13.2 (SD = 0.79) respectively. Fifteen WID, and 15 WoID comprised the CG. Mean ages were 14.51 (SD = 0.81) and 13.78 (SD = 0.49) respectively. Prior to and following the program measurements were conducted, and data were collected on students' anthropometric and fitness components of the Brockport physical fitness test as well as a soccer skill performance based on the SO soccer skill test. Participants in the TRG trained 8 weeks, 1.5h per session, three times per week, in an after-school soccer program. CG did not participate in any sports program outside of the school physical education class. Dependent t tests and effect size calculations revealed that SO athletes and non-disabled partners scored significantly higher with regard to physical fitness and football skills in most variables compared with their CG. This Unified Program was successful in increasing fitness and soccer skill performance of youth WID as well as of those WoID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plantar fascia rupture in a professional soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed regenerative change of the ruptured fascia. Five months after the rupture, he returned to his original level of training. If professional athletes find it difficult to refrain from athletic activity, as in the present case, the risk of rupture due to corticosteroid injection should not be overlooked.

  19. Sports and soccer in the social formation of Brazilian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizabel Kowalski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to map the codes of behaviors and manners in social relations and in the recent changes in sport organization in Brazil. Ideological, social, cultural, political and economic dimensions are given relevance here as a methodology in that they organize statements. In bibliographical sources interpreting sociologic discourses and in the outline of Brazilian society development and evolution we observe several characteristics pertaining to self-restraint and emotion control through sport. In the economic sphere, we evidence an explanation of social changes resulting from Brazil’s late development process. However, drawing from the empirical theory, preliminary results show the recent sociocultural phenomenon of soccer as a factor to be considered in the formation of Brazilian social behavior.

  20. Biomechanics of Heading a Soccer Ball: Implications for Player Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Babbs

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the risk and safety of heading a soccer ball, the author created a set of simple mathematical models based upon Newton�s second law of motion to describe the physics of heading. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head. The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Safety is greatly improved when players head the ball with greater effective body mass, which is determined by a player�s size, strength, and technique. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls. Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Lower pressure balls also have greater “touch” and “playability”, measured in terms of contact time and contact area between foot and ball during a kick. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls.

  1. The Transition Period in Soccer: A Window of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joao Renato; Brito, Joao; Akenhead, Richard; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the physiological changes that occur during the transition period in soccer players. A secondary aim is to address the issue of utilizing the transition period to lay the foundation for the succeeding season. We reviewed published peer-reviewed studies if they met the following three selection criteria: (1) the studied population comprised adult soccer players (aged >18 years), (2) time points of physiological and performance assessments were provided, and (3) appropriate statistics for the calculation of effect sizes were reported. Following two selection phases, 12 scientific publications were considered, involving a total sample of 252 players. The transition period elicits small to moderate negative changes in body composition, a moderate decline in sprint performance with and without changes of direction, and small to moderate decrements in muscle power. Detraining effects are also evident for endurance-related physiological and performance outcomes: large decrements in maximal oxygen consumption V̇O2max) and time to exhaustion, and moderate to very large impairments have been observed in intermittent-running performance. Off-season programs should be characterized by clear training objectives, a low frequency of training sessions, and simple training tools in order to facilitate compliance. The program suggested here may constitute the 'minimum effective dose' to maintain or at least attenuate the decay of endurance- and neuromuscular-related performance parameters, as well as restore an adequate strength profile (reduce muscle strength imbalances). This periodization strategy may improve the ability of players to cope with the elevated training demands of pre-season training and therefore reduce the risk of injury. Moreover, this strategy will favor a more efficient development of other relevant facets of performance during the pre-competition phase (e.g., tactical organization). We contend that the transition period

  2. Investigation of kinematics of knuckling shot in soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T.; Hong, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we use four high-speed video cameras to investigate the swing characteristics of the kicking leg while delivering the knuckling shot in soccer. We attempt to elucidate the impact process of the kicking foot at the instant of its impact with the ball and the technical mechanisms of the knuckling shot via comparison of its curved motion with that of the straight and curved shots. Two high-speed cameras (Fastcam, Photron Inc., Tokyo, Japan; 1000 fps, 1024 × 1024 pixels) are set up 2 m away from the site of impact with a line of sight perpendicular to the kicking-leg side. In addition, two semi-high-speed cameras (EX-F1, Casio Computer Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 300 fps; 720 × 480 pixels) are positioned, one at the rear and the other on the kicking-leg side, to capture the kicking motion. We observe that the ankle joint at impact in the knuckling shot flexes in an approximate L-shape in a manner similar to the joint flexing for the curve shot. The hip's external rotation torque in the knuckling shot is greater than those of other shots, which suggests the tendency of the kicker to push the heel forward and impact with the inside of the foot. The angle of attack in the knuckling shot is smaller than that in other shots, and we speculate that this small attack angle is a factor in soccer kicks which generate shots with smaller rotational frequencies of the ball.

  3. Skill-related performance in soccer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and organize systematically the available literature on skill-related performance in young and adult male soccer players in an attempt to identify the most common topics, ascertain the weaknesses, and elucidate the main contributions of the scientific papers on this issue. A systematic review of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge database was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. The keywords ‘football’ and ‘soccer’ were used, each associated with the following terms: ‘technical analysis,’ ‘technical performance,’ ‘technical activity,’ ‘technical skill,’ ‘technical demands,’ ‘technical profiles,’ ‘technical characteristics,’ ‘technical actions,’ ‘technical scores,’ ‘technical ability,’ ‘motor skills,’ and ‘skill acquisition’. From the 2830 papers, only 60 were reviewed, of which 75% had been published in years 2011-2015 and 53.3% concerned professional or seniors players (above the U-20 category. Out of the 41 papers that analysed the skill-related performance in the match, 48.8% evaluated the performance in small-sided and conditioned games. Among the 27 papers that used validated instruments, 88.9% assessed technical actions outside the match context (e.g. dribbling, shooting tests. Future research should pay attention to the definition and classification of the skill-related variables under investigation in match context and propose tests for measured skill-related performance in soccer, considering that the representativeness task design allies the players’ possibilities of action to the situation of the match.

  4. Physical fitness of elite Belgian soccer players by player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Steyaert, Adelheid; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Bourgois, Jan

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into the physical and physiological profile of elite Belgian soccer players with specific regard to the player's position on the field. The sample consisted of 289 adult players from 6 different first division teams. The players were divided into 5 subgroups (goalkeepers, center backs, full backs, midfielders, and strikers) according to their self-reported best position on the field. The subjects performed anaerobic (10-m sprint, 5 × 10-m shuttle run [SR], squat jump [SJ], and countermovement jump [CMJ]) and aerobic (incremental running protocol) laboratory tests. The strikers had significantly shorter sprinting times (5-, 5- to 10-m time, and SR) compared with the midfielders, center backs, and goalkeepers, whereas the full backs were also significantly faster compared with the goalkeepers and the center backs. The goalkeepers and the center backs displayed higher jumping heights (total mean SJ = 40.7 ± 4.6 cm and CMJ = 43.1 ± 4.9 cm) compared with the other 3 positions, whereas the strikers also jumped higher than the full backs and the midfielders did. Regarding the aerobic performance, both full backs and the midfielders (61.2 ± 2.7 and 60.4 ± 2.8 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively) had a higher VO2max compared with the strikers, center backs, and goalkeepers (56.8 ± 3.1, 55.6 ± 3.5, and 52.1 ± 5.0 ml · min(-1) · kg(-1), respectively). From this study, it could be concluded that players in different positions have different physiological characteristics. The results of this study might provide useful insights for individualized conditional training programs for soccer players. Aside from the predominant technical and tactical skills, a physical profile that is well adjusted to the position on the field might enhance game performance.

  5. Strength and Jump Biomechanics of Elite and Recreational Female Youth Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Tencer, Allan F.; Mack, Christopher D.; Levy, Marni R.; Schiff, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Most researchers investigating soccer injuries have studied elite athletes because they have greater athletic-exposure hours than other athletes, but most youth participate at the recreational level. If risk factors for injury vary by soccer level, then recommendations generated using research with elite youth soccer players might not generalize to recreational players. Objective To examine injury risk factors of strength and jump biomechanics by soccer level in female youth athletes and to determine whether research recommendations based on elite youth athletes could be generalized to recreational players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Seattle Youth Soccer Association. Patients or Other Participants Female soccer players (N = 92) aged 11 to 14 years were recruited from 4 randomly selected elite (n = 50; age = 12.5 years, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) = 12.3, 12.8 years; height = 157.8 cm, 95% CI = 155.2, 160.3 cm; mass = 49.9 kg, 95% CI = 47.3, 52.6 kg) and 4 randomly selected recreational (n = 42; age = 13.2 years, 95% CI = 13.0, 13.5 years; height = 161.1 cm, 95% CI = 159.2, 163.1 cm; mass = 50.6 kg, 95% CI = 48.3, 53.0 kg) soccer teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) Players completed a questionnaire about demographics, history of previous injury, and soccer experience. Physical therapists used dynamometry to measure hip strength (abduction, adduction, extension, flexion) and knee strength (flexion, extension) and Sportsmetrics to measure vertical jump height and jump biomechanics. We compared all measurements by soccer level using linear regression to adjust for age and mass. Results Elite players were similar to recreational players in all measures of hip and knee strength, vertical jump height, and normalized knee separation (a valgus estimate generated using Sportsmetrics). Conclusions Female elite youth players and recreational players had similar lower extremity strength and jump biomechanics. This suggests that recommendations generated from

  6. Are Female Soccer Players at an Increased Risk of Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Compared With Their Athletic Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa M; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J; Dahm, Diane L

    2016-10-01

    Female soccer players have a well-known risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, but few studies have reported on second ACL injuries in this population. To (1) report the rates of subsequent ACL injury (ipsilateral graft rupture or contralateral tear) in competitive female soccer players, (2) compare these rates with those of other female athletes of similar competitive level, (3) determine risk factors for second ACL injury, and (4) report clinical outcome scores in this population. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The medical records at a single institution were reviewed for female patients who were injured during a competitive athletic event and treated with primary ACL reconstruction (ACLR) between 1998 and 2013. Patients were followed for a mean of 68.8 months postoperatively (range, 24-115.2 months). Clinical outcome was obtained via Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Soccer players were matched 1:1 to non-soccer athletes for age, activity level, and graft type. A total of 180 female ACLR patients with a mean ± SD age of 19.6 ± 6.9 years met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria (90 soccer players and 90 non-soccer players). Soccer players sustained more second ACL injuries, including both graft failures (11% vs 1%; P soccer players. Of the 67 patients who returned to soccer after ACLR (mean age, 17.5 years; range, 13-27 years), significantly more had graft tears compared with those who did not return to soccer (15% vs 0%, respectively; P = .04); however, the difference in contralateral ACL tears (19% for returning players vs 9% for those who did not return; P = .34) was not significant. Relatively older age (odds ratio, 1.5 per year; P = .03) was a significant risk factor for ACL graft tear but not for contralateral ACL injury. Both groups had similar mean Lysholm (96 vs 95) and IKDC scores (95 vs 96) at final follow-up. Twenty-eight percent of all female soccer players and 34% of those players who

  7. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  8. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  9. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  10. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Trecroci, Luca Cavaggioni, Riccardo Caccia, Giampietro Alberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG, children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG, executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2 from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14. Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills.

  11. The role of anthropometric, growth and maturity index (AGaMI) influencing youth soccer relative performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul

    2018-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop Anthropometric, Growth and Maturity Index (AGaMI) in soccer and explore its differences to soccer player physical attributes, fitness, motivation and skills. A total 223 adolescent soccer athletes aged 12 to 18 years old were selected as respondent. AGaMI was develop based on anthropometric components (bicep, tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, calf circumference and muac) with growth and maturity component using tanner scale. Meanwhile, relative performance namely physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes of soccer were measured as dependent variables. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are used to achieve the objective in this study. AGaMI had categorized players into three different groups namely; high (5 players), moderate (88 players) and low (91 players). PCA revealed a moderate to very strong dominant range of 0.69 to 0.90 of factor loading on AGaMI. Further analysis assigned AGaMI groups as treated as independent variables (IV) and physical, fitness, motivation and skills attributes were treated as dependent variables (DV). Finally, ANOVA showed that flexibility, leg power, age, weight, height, sitting height, short and long pass are the most significant parameters statistically differentiate by the groups of AGaMI (p<0.05). As a summary, body fat mass, growth and maturity are an essential component differentiating the output of the soccer players relative performance. In future, information of the AGaMI model are useful to the coach and players for identifying the suitable biological and physiological demand reflects more comprehensive means of youth soccer relative performance. This study further highlights the importance of assessing AGaMI when identifying soccer relative performance.

  12. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cerebrovascular reactivity changes in asymptomatic female athletes attributable to high school soccer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Diana O; McCuen, Emily C; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Nho, Yeseul; Hannemann, Robert; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    As participation in women's soccer continues to grow and the longevity of female athletes' careers continues to increase, prevention and care for mTBI in women's soccer has become a major concern for female athletes since the long-term risks associated with a history of mTBI are well documented. Among women's sports, soccer exhibits among the highest concussion rates, on par with those of men's football at the collegiate level. Head impact monitoring technology has revealed that "concussive hits" occurring directly before symptomatic injury are not predictive of mTBI, suggesting that the cumulative effect of repetitive head impacts experienced by collision sport athletes should be assessed. Neuroimaging biomarkers have proven to be valuable in detecting brain changes that occur before neurocognitive symptoms in collision sport athletes. Quantifying the relationship between changes in these biomarkers and head impacts experienced by female soccer athletes may prove valuable to developing preventative measures for mTBI. This study paired functional magnetic resonance imaging with head impact monitoring to track cerebrovascular reactivity changes throughout a season and to test whether the observed changes could be attributed to mechanical loading experienced by female athletes participating in high school soccer. Marked cerebrovascular reactivity changes were observed in female soccer athletes, relative both to non-collision sport control measures and pre-season measures and were localized to fronto-temporal aspects of the brain. These changes persisted 4-5 months after the season ended and recovered by 8 months after the season. Segregation of the total soccer cohort into cumulative loading groups revealed that population-level changes were driven by athletes experiencing high cumulative loads, although athletes experiencing lower cumulative loads still contributed to group changes. The results of this study imply a non-linear relationship between cumulative

  14. Differences in neuromuscular strategies between landing and cutting tasks in female basketball and soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Hanni R; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Kernozek, Thomas W; Hewett, Timothy E

    2006-01-01

    High school female athletes are most likely to sustain a serious knee injury during soccer or basketball, 2 sports that often involve a rapid deceleration before a change of direction or while landing from a jump. To determine if female high school basketball and soccer players show neuromuscular differences during landing and cutting tasks and to examine neuromuscular differences between tasks and between dominant and nondominant sides. A 3-way mixed factorial design investigating the effects of sport (basketball, soccer), task (jumping, cutting), and side (dominant, nondominant). Laboratory. Thirty high school female athletes who listed either basketball or soccer as their only sport of participation (basketball: n = 15, age = 15.1 +/- 1.7 years, experience = 6.9 +/- 2.2 years, height = 165.3 +/- 7.9 cm, mass = 61.8 +/- 9.3 kg; soccer: n = 15, age = 14.8 +/- 0.8 years, experience = 8.8 +/- 2.5 years, height = 161.8 +/- 4.1 cm, mass = 54.6 +/- 7.6 kg). Ground reaction forces, stance time, valgus angles, and valgus moments were assessed during (1) a drop vertical jump with an immediate maximal vertical jump and (2) an immediate side-step cut at a 45 degrees angle. Basketball athletes had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump, whereas soccer players had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump. Greater valgus moments (P = .006) were noted on the dominant side during cutting. Our subjects demonstrated differences in ground reaction forces and stance times during 2 movements associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Knee valgus moment and angle were significantly influenced by the type of movement performed. Sport-specific neuromuscular training may be warranted, with basketball players focusing on jumping and landing and soccer players focusing on unanticipated cutting maneuvers.

  15. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  16. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  17. Soccer-related performance in eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players: effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day on female soccer players' performances in the five-jump test (5JT), the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSA), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1). Eleven eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players volunteered to participate. Each subject individually participated in three testing periods: one in the early follicular phase (menses), one in the late follicular phase, and another in the luteal phase. In each period, two test sessions were conducted: one at 07:30 and another at 17:30. The testing routines included the 5JT, the RSSA, and the YYIRT1. None of the measured variables were altered due to menstrual cycle phase (all P>0.05). Mean time during RSSA was significantly lower in the afternoon session compared to the morning session (8.48±0.27 s and 8.77±0.34 s, respectively, P<0.001), while 5JT performance was significantly higher in the afternoon compared to the morning (9.08±0.58 m and 8.60±0.56 m, respectively, P<0.001). Soccer-specific endurance as well as jumping and repeated sprinting ability of Tunisian female high-level soccer players are not affected due to menstrual cycle phase neither in the morning nor in the afternoon.

  18. Sequencing Effects of Plyometric Training Applied Before or After Regular Soccer Training on Measures of Physical Fitness in Young Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Gentil, Paulo; Loturco, Irineu; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Izquierdo, Mikel; Moran, Jason; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Chaabene, Helmi; Granacher, Urs

    2018-03-22

    To compare the effects of short-term (i.e., 7 week) plyometric training applied before (PJT-B) or after (PJT-A) soccer practice on components of physical fitness in young soccer players, a single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Post-pubertal boys aged 17.0±0.5 years were allocated to three groups: PJT-B (n=12), PJT-A (n=14), and control (CON; n=12). The outcome measures included tests to evaluate 20-m speed, standing long jump [SLJ], squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], and drop jump [DJ], 20-m multistage shuttle running speed [MSSRT], and Illinois change of direction speed [ICODT]. While the CON performed soccer-specific training, the PJT-A and PJT-B groups conducted the same soccer-specific sessions but replaced ∼11% of their time with plyometric training. The PJT-B group performed plyometric exercises after a warm-up program, and the PJT-A group conducted plyometric exercises ∼10 minutes after the completion of soccer training. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to detect differences between groups in all variables for pre- and post-training tests. Main effects of time (all pplyometric training is effective in improving measures of physical fitness in young male soccer players when combined with regular soccer training. More specifically, larger training induced effects on physical fitness were registered if plyometric training was conducted prior to soccer specific training.

  19. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald

    2016-01-01

    -63 were cluster-randomised to a soccer group, a Zumba group or a control group. Training was conducted outside working hours as two to three 1-h weekly sessions the first 3 months and once a week the last 6 months. Tests were conducted at baseline, after 3 and 9 months. The soccer group improved maximal...... lean mass (0.4 kg; P

  20. Comparison of Blood Lipids, Blood Pressures and Left Ventricular Cavity Dimension between Soccer Players and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Ismail; Kurkcu, Recep; Cekin, Resul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare the investigate the effects of regular exercise on blood lipids, blood pressure and left ventricular cavity dimensions function between soccer players and non-athletes in football players. This study consisted included a total of 30 subjects, including an experimental group including 18 soccer players…

  1. Hormonal (Cortical-Gonadotropic Axis) and Physical Changes With Two Years Intense Exercise Training in Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Hackney, Anthony C; Kebsi, Wiem; Owen, Adam L; Nebigh, Amar; Racil, Ghazi; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane

    2017-09-01

    Hammami, MA, Ben Abderrahman, A, Hackney, AC, Kebsi, W, Owen, AL, Nebigh, A, Racil, G, Tabka, Z, and Zouhal, H. Hormonal (cortical-gonadotropic axis) and physical changes with two years intense exercise training in elite young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2388-2397, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 soccer-training seasons on physical fitness and hormone concentrations in elite youth soccer players. Twenty male elite soccer players (SP, age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) and 20 male control subjects (CS, age 14.3 ± 0.3 years) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 [YYIRT1]) and anaerobic soccer relevant performances (jump and sprint tests), blood testosterone (T), cortisol (C), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and T/C ratio were assessed 5 times (from T0 to T4) during 2 competitive seasons. Significant differences from basal values (Δ) of T, SHBG, and C between SP and CS were observed (p soccer players group compared with controls. Our findings also show that the T concentrations and power performance outcomes co-vary positively over the 2 soccer seasons in soccer players.

  2. Aggressor-Victim Dissent in Perceived Legitimacy of Aggression in Soccer: The Moderating Role of Situational Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascle, Olivier; Traclet, Alan; Souchon, Nicolas; Coulomb-Cabagno, Genevieve; Petrucci, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aggressor-victim difference in perceived legitimacy of aggression in soccer as a function of score information (tied, favorable, unfavorable), sporting penalization (no risk, yellow card, red card), and type of aggression (instrumental, hostile). French male soccer players (N = 133) read written…

  3. Small-Sided Games : An Optimal Training Tool to Represent Tactical Match Demands in Elite-Standard Youth Soccer Players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, S. B. H.; Frencken, W. G. P.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided games are an often used training tool in soccer practices. It has proven to provide a simultaneous physical, technical and tactical training stimulus for soccer players[1]. Small-sided games replicate the tactical character of a match, but in a simplified format with reductions in number

  4. Share Price Reactions to Sporty Performances of Soccer Clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the AIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Vanbrabant, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not the share prices of soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the Alternative Investment Market are influenced by the soccer teams' weekly sporty performances. Event studies corrected for thin trading and with Baysian updating reveal that at the

  5. Stress, Coping, and Emotions on the World Stage : The Experience of Participating in a Major Soccer Tournament Penalty Shootout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to capture the first-hand experiences of stressors, coping, and emotions that elite professional soccer players have during a major soccer penalty shootout. Eight players who each took part in an important European Championships penalty shootout were interviewed. The results

  6. Anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and dietary patterns in youth soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Hernández-Camacho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the morphological characteristics, fat mass, somatotype and dietary patterns of youth soccer players from an amateur Spanish team. Method: Height, weight, diameters, circumferences and skinfolds from sixteen youth soccer players were measured. Body fat percentage and somatotype were calculated. They completed the Kidmed questionnaire to analyze dietary patterns. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation were used. Results: The global body fat percentage was 9.16 ± 2.12 and the somatotype (2.56-3.73-2.77. The sum of the six skinfolds was 62.6 ± 2.7 mm. The sum of the eight skinfolds was 80.7 ± 3.1 mm. 75% of athletes consumed a fruit daily, 18.75% took a second fruit each day. 43.75% of players took vegetables once a day, 18.75% ate vegetables more than once a day. Conclusion: Body fat percentage, the sum of the six skinfolds, the sum of the eight skinfolds and somatotype results are in agreement with previous studies where youth non-professional soccer players were analyzed. Other studies have obtained lower values in body fat percentage or in sum of six skinfolds due to they have evaluated professional soccer players. Anthropometric measures would be important to prescribed personalized diet and training plans. Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar las características morfológicas, la masa grasa, el somatotipo y los patrones alimentarios de jugadores de fútbol jóvenes de un equipo amateur. Método: Se midieron la altura, el peso, los diámetros corporales, las circunferencias y los pliegues cutáneos de 16 jugadores. Se calcularon el porcentaje de grasa corporal y el somatotipo. Se administró el cuestionario Kidmed con objeto de conocer el patrón alimentario. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos descriptivos (media ± desviación estándar. Resultados: El porcentaje global de grasa corporal fue 9.16 ± 2.12 y el somatotipo (2.56-3.73-2.77. El sumatorio de 6 pliegues fue 62.6 ± 2.7 mm y el

  7. HANDBOOK OF SOCCER MATCH ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO IMPROVING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book addresses and appropriately explains the soccer match analysis, looks at the very latest in match analysis research, and at the innovative technologies used by professional clubs. This handbook is also bridging the gap between research, theory and practice. The methods in it can be used by coaches, sport scientists and fitness coaches to improve: styles of play, technical ability and physical fitness; objective feedback to players; the development of specific training routines; use of available notation software, video analysis and manual systems; and understanding of current academic research in soccer notational analysis. PURPOSE The aim is to provide a prepared manual on soccer match analysis in general for coaches and sport scientists. Thus, the professionals in this field would gather objective data on the players and the team, which in turn could be used by coaches and players to learn more about performance as a whole and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The book efficiently meets these objectives. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the athlete, the coach, the sports scientist professional or any sport conscious person who wishes to analyze relevant soccer performance. The editors and the contributors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depend on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book demonstrates how a notation system can be established to produce data to analyze and improve performance in soccer. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduction to Soccer Match Analysis, 2. Developing a Manual Notation System, 3. Video and Computerized Match Analysis Technology, 4. General Advice on Analyzing Match Performance, 5. Analysis and Presentation of the Results, 6. Motion Analysis and Consequences for Training, 7. What Match

  8. Influence of oxygen uptake kinetics on physical performance in youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, Greg; Marwood, Simon; Iga, John; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationship between oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2 kinetics) and physical measures associated with soccer match play, within a group of highly trained youth soccer players. Seventeen highly trained youth soccer players (age: 13.3 ± 0.4 year, self-assessed Tanner stage: 3 ± 1) volunteered for the study. Players initially completed an incremental treadmill protocol to exhaustion, to establish gaseous exchange threshold (GET) and VO2max (59.1 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). On subsequent visits, players completed a step transition protocol from rest-moderate-intensity exercise, followed by an immediate transition, and from moderate- to severe-intensity exercise (moderate: 95 % GET, severe: 60 %∆), during which VO2 kinetics were determined. Physical soccer-based performance was assessed using a maximal Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and via GPS-derived measures of physical soccer performance during soccer match play, three 2 × 20 min, 11 v 11 matches, to gain measures of physical performance during soccer match play. Partial correlations revealed significant inverse relationships between the unloaded-to-moderate transition time constant (tau) and: Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = -0.58, P = 0.02) and GPS variables [total distance (TD): r = -0.64, P = 0.007, high-speed running (HSR): r = -0.64, P = 0.008 and high-speed running efforts (HSReff): r = -0.66, P = 0.005]. Measures of VO2 kinetics are related to physical measures associated with soccer match play and could potentially be used to distinguish between those of superior physical performance, within a group of highly trained youth soccer players.

  9. Soccer-Related Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments: 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of youth soccer-related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States. A retrospective analysis was conducted of soccer-related injuries among children 7 through 17 years of age from 1990 through 2014 with data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Injury rates were calculated from soccer participation data. An estimated 2 995 765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 309 112-3 682 418) children 7 through 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for soccer-related injuries during the 25-year study period, averaging 119 831 (95% CI, 92 364-147 297) annually. The annual injury rate per 10 000 soccer participants increased significantly, by 111.4%, from 1990 to 2014. Patients 12 to 17 years old accounted for 72.7% of injuries, 55.5% of patients were male, and most injuries occurred in a place of sport or recreation (68.5%) or school (25.7%). Struck by (38.5%) and fell (28.7%) were the leading mechanisms of injury. Injuries most commonly were diagnosed as sprain or strain (34.6%), fracture (23.2%), and soft tissue injury (21.9%), and occurred to the upper extremity (20.7%), ankle (17.8%), and head or neck (17.7%). Concussions or other closed head injuries accounted for 7.3% of the injuries, but the annual rate of concussions/closed head injuries per 10 000 participants increased significantly, by 1595.6%, from 1990 to 2014. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate soccer-related injuries and calculate injury rates based on soccer participation data among children at the national level. The increasing number and rate of pediatric soccer-related injuries, especially soccer-related concussions/closed head injuries, underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  11. Winner’s Curse: An Analysis of Transactions Happening in Soccer Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar Pires da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature states the term winner’s curse as the fact that auction winners pay higher prices a good, above its actual value. The purpose of this article is to verify whether soccer clubs around the world conducting their main business transactions (buying and selling players incur so-called the “Curse of the Winner”. A descriptive research was conducted through the Transfermarkt database analyzes involving renowned clubs and soccer players transactions in recent years. The results point out that the biggest and more relevant soccer clubs in the market present the winner’s curse, i.e., they acquired players who do not deliver good results in performance and economy, paying a million dollar for them. Nevertheless, the analysis was limited for probabilistic expectations of the occurrence of the curse of the winner, as well as contingency factors such as: human behavior, injuries, etc. In addition, this article contributes to the literature about the winner’s curse, especially in relation to the uncertainties of the soccer market. Likewise, the very measurement and accounting recognition of such transactions are fragile in estimating the true economic resource arising from training or hiring a soccer player.

  12. No Relationship Between Hamstring Flexibility and Hamstring Injuries in Male Amateur Soccer Players: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2017-01-01

    In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24.5 years). Hamstring flexibility was measured by performing the sit-and-reach test (SRT). The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the occurrence of hamstring injuries in the following year, while adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age and previous hamstring injuries, was determined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 450 soccer players, 21.8% reported a hamstring injury in the previous year. The mean (±SD) baseline score for the SRT was 21.2 ± 9.2 cm. During the 1-year follow-up period, 23 participants (5.1%) suffered a hamstring injury. In the multivariate analysis, while adjusting for age and previous injuries, no significant relationship was found between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries ( P = .493). In this group of soccer players, hamstring flexibility (measured with the SRT) was not related to hamstring injuries. Age and previous hamstring injuries as possible confounders did not appear to influence this relationship. Other etiological factors need to be examined to further elucidate the mechanism of hamstring injuries.

  13. Evaluating injury risk in first and second league professional Portuguese soccer: muscular strength and asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75 and second league (n = 84 Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players.

  14. Hamstring Muscle Fatigue and Central Motor Output during a Simulated Soccer Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W. M.; Lovell, Ric; Jeppesen, Gitte K.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Siegler, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development. Method Eight amateur male soccer players performed a 90-minute simulated soccer match, with measures performed at the start of and every 15-minutes during each half. Maximal torque (Nm) and rate of torque development (RTD; Nm.s–1) were calculated from maximal isometric knee flexor contractions performed at 10° of flexion. Hamstring peripheral fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting twitch (RT). Hamstring central motor output was quantified from voluntary activation (%) and normalized biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MH) electromyographic amplitudes (EMG/M). Results Maximal torque was reduced at 45-minutes by 7.6±9.4% (phamstring peripheral fatigue. Conclusion Centrally mediated reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development provide insight into factors that may explain hamstring injury risk during soccer. Of particular interest were early reductions during the first-half of hamstring rate of torque development, and the decline in maximal EMG/M of biceps femoris in the latter stages of the half. These are important findings that may help explain why the hamstrings are particularly vulnerable to strain injury during soccer. PMID:25047547

  15. Higher plantar pressure on the medial side in four soccer-related movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chamari, Karim; Mao, De Wei; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hong, Youlian

    2007-02-01

    To measure the plantar pressure in four soccer-related movements in 15 male soccer players (mean (SD) age 20.9 (1.3) years, height 173 (4) cm, weight 61.7 (3.6) kg). To record plantar pressure distribution, the players wore soccer boots with 12 circular studs and with an insole pressure recorder device equipped with 99 sensors. Plantar pressure was recorded in five successful trials in each of the four soccer-related movements: running, sideward cutting, 45 degrees cutting and landing from a vertical jump. Each footprint was divided into 10 recorded areas for analysis. Compared with running at 3.3 m/s, maximal speed sideward cutting and 45 degrees cutting induced higher peak pressure (pplantar surface as compared with the lateral side. These data suggest that the medial side of the plantar surface may be more prone to injuries, and that foot orthosis adoption, improved soccer boot design and specific muscle training could be considered to reduce pressure and the subsequent risk of injury.

  16. Increase in upper extremity fractures in young male soccer players in the Netherlands, 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Putter, C E; van Beeck, E F; Burdorf, A; Borsboom, G J J M; Toet, H; Hovius, S E R; Selles, R W

    2015-08-01

    Young male soccer players have been identified as a target group for injury prevention, but studies addressing trends and determinants of injuries within this group are scarce. The goal of this study was to analyze age-specific trends in hospital-treated upper extremity fractures (UEF) among boys playing soccer in the Netherlands and to explore associated soccer-related factors. Data were obtained from a national database for the period 1998-2009. Rates were expressed as the annual number of UEF per 1000 soccer players. Poisson's regression was used to explore the association of UEF with the number of artificial turf fields and the number of injuries by physical contact. UEF rates increased significantly by 19.4% in boys 5-10 years, 73.2% in boys 11-14 years, and 38.8% in boys 15-18 years old. The number of injuries by physical contact showed a significant univariate association with UEF in boys 15-18 years old. The number of artificial turf fields showed a significant univariate association with UEF in all age groups, and remained significant for boys aged 15-18 years in a multivariate model. This study showed an increase of UEF rates in boys playing soccer, and an independent association between artificial turf fields and UEF in the oldest boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  18. Biomechanical Differences of Multidirectional Jump Landings Among Female Basketball and Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J

    2017-11-01

    Taylor, JB, Ford, KR, Schmitz, RJ, Ross, SE, Ackerman, TA, and Shultz, SJ. Biomechanical differences of multidirectional jump landings among female basketball and soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3034-3045, 2017-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multidirectional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of 89 female athletes who played competitive basketball (n = 40) or soccer (n = 49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump, double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with either less hip or knee, or both hip and knee excursion during all tasks (p ≤ 0.05) except for the SAGSL task, basketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p = 0.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (p soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.

  19. Lumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Rodriguez de La Cruz, Carlos; Giop, Romain; Tomasella, Marco; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter's bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players.

  20. Game Demands of Seven-A-Side Soccer in Young Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero-Alvarez, José C; Gómez-López, Maite; Castagna, Carlo; Barbero-Alvarez, Verónica; Romero, David V; Blanchfield, Anthony W; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2017-07-01

    Barbero-Alvarez, JC, Gómez-López, M, Castagna, C, Barbero-Alvarez, V, Romero, DV, Blanchfield, AW, and Nakamura, FY. Game demands of seven-a-side soccer in young players. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1771-1779, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the activity patterns and physiological demands of 7-a-side youth soccer matches across 2 chronological age categories (U12 and U14). Twenty-two soccer players of a national youth soccer academy were investigated. Players of each age category performed 2 training matches (2 × 25 minutes) and were monitored by global positioning system and heart rate monitor units. Players of both categories covered similar total distance (5,348 ± 307 m), at similar mean heart rate values (86 ± 4% of maximum). However, the number of high-intensity runs (82.5 ± 17.4 vs. 69.7 ± 15.2) and total distance covered during sprints (264 ± 207 vs. 128 ± 74 m) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in U14 compared with U12. The results suggest a highly demanding nature of 7-a-side soccer for skilled players, with physical maturity possibly influencing the match-related high-intensity performance at these ages.

  1. A prospective study of injury and activity profile in elite soccer referees and assistant referees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, F

    2010-03-01

    Injuries to soccer players have been extensively examined, but not the injury experience of referees and assistant referees. This study aimed to determine the injury incidence and activity profile of soccer match officials. A 12 month prospective cohort study was used to collect activity and injury data of 31 participants who reported their training and match exposure and their injury incidence by means of weekly online questionnaire. Study participants spent a mean of 2632 hrs training and 1704 hrs officiating over the 12 month study period. Thirty eight injuries were recorded, (8.8 injuries\\/1000 hr of training (CI 6.2 to 12.0) and 16.4 injuries\\/1000 hr for match officiating (CI 10.9 to 23.8)), (Risk Ratio 4.3, 2.1 to 8.9). Fifty five percent (CI 40 to 70%) of the injuries were to muscles, and 76% (CI 61 to 87%) were to the lower leg. Overuse injuries represented 61% (CI 45 to 74%) of all cases. Findings showed that the injury frequency rate associated with soccer referees is higher than that in a number of other non contact sports. The injury incidence associated with training for soccer referees is higher than that associated with training for soccer players. Further prospective studies are merited to examine effectiveness and availability of injury management programmes to establish the welfare of this population.

  2. Differences In Male Collegiate And Recreationally Trained Soccer Players On Balance, Agility, And Vertical Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Sauls

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences in collegiate and recreationally trained soccer players in sprint, vertical jump, and balance performance. Methods: Twenty-one soccer players, twelve Division II collegiate and nine recreationally trained volunteered to participate. Session one acted as a familiarization day, where the participants were familiarized with testing day protocols. During testing day, participants performed a dynamic warm-up, followed by balance measurements, three countermovement vertical jumps, and pro-agility shuttle test. Results: There were no significant (p>0.05 differences between groups in the all balance variables. Collegiate soccer players had a significantly (p0.05 differences in groups in all other variables. Conclusion: These results indicate that collegiate, Division II, soccer players had greater vertical jumping and sprinting velocities when compared to recreationally trained soccer players. These results may have been impacted by the lack of resistance training background in either of the two groups. With the addition of more time on a collegiate resistance training program, it is very likely the Division II athletes will see a significant increase in all balance, sprint, and vertical jump performance measures compared to recreationally trained players who receive little to no specialized resistance training.

  3. Relationship between Nutrition Knowledge and Physical Fitness in Semiprofessional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, P T; Theodoropoulou, E

    2014-01-01

    Whereas nutrition has a crucial role on sport performance, it is not clear to what extent nutrition knowledge is associated with physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the current level of nutrition knowledge of soccer players and whether this level is associated with physical fitness. Soccer players (n = 185, aged 21.3 ± 4.9 yr, weight 72.3 ± 8.4 kg, and height 177.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed a battery of physical fitness tests (sit-and-reach test, SAR; physical working capacity in heart rate 170, PWC170; and Wingate anaerobic test, WAnT) and completed an 11-item nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NKQ). Low to moderate Pearson correlations (0.15 Soccer players with high score in NKQ were older (4.4 yr (2.2; 6.6), mean difference (95% confidence intervals)) and heavier (4.5 kg (0.6; 8.3)) with higher FFM (4.0 kg (1.1; 6.8)) and peak power (59 W (2; 116)) than their counterparts with low score. The moderate score in the NKQ suggests that soccer players should be targeted for nutrition education. Although the association between NKQ and physical fitness was low to moderate, there were indications that better nutrition knowledge might result in higher physical fitness and, consequently, soccer performance.

  4. A comparison of isomaltulose versus maltodextrin ingestion during soccer-specific exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Watson, Anthony; Theis, Stephan; Holz, Anja; Harper, Liam D; Russell, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The performance and physiological effects of isomaltulose and maltodextrin consumed intermittently during prolonged soccer-specific exercise were investigated. University soccer players (n = 22) performed 120 min of intermittent exercise while consuming 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks (equivalent to ~ 20 g h -1 ) containing maltodextrin (Glycaemic Index: 90-100), isomaltulose (Glycaemic Index: 32) or a carbohydrate-energy-free placebo in a manner replicating the practices of soccer players (i.e., during warm-up and half-time). Physical (sprinting, jumping) and technical (shooting, dribbling) performance was assessed. Blood glucose and plasma insulin (both P  13% higher blood glucose concentrations between 75 and 90 min versus maltodextrin (P  0.05). Ratings of abdominal discomfort were influenced by trial (P soccer-specific exercise, isomaltulose maintained higher blood glucose at 75-90 min, lessened the magnitude of the exercise-induced rebound glycaemic response and attenuated epinephrine increases whilst maintaining similar abdominal discomfort values relative to maltodextrin. When limited opportunities exist to consume carbohydrates on competition-day, low-glycaemic isomaltulose may offer an alternative nutritional strategy for exercising soccer players.

  5. Cameroonian professional soccer players and risk of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Takam, Ruth Danielle M; Zing-Awona, Bertrand; Azabji-Kenfack, Marcel; Tankeu, Francine; Tchoula, Corinne M; Moukette, Bruno M; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2017-06-02

    Elevated titers of antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (ox-LDL-Ab) have been reported among professional athletes, paradoxically reflecting an increased risk of developing atherogenic and/or cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine titers of ox-LDL-Ab in a group of Cameroonian professional soccer players, and evaluate their evolution during part of a competition season as well as the plasmatic antioxidant status to find out if this latter correlates with ox-LDL-Ab . We conducted a descriptive cohort study in 2012 including 18 healthy male soccer players. Three samplings were performed in March (T1), May (T2), and July 2012 (T3) to assess the lipid profile, titers of ox-LDL-Ab, and plasmatic concentrations of four antioxidants: the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and uric acid. Ages ranged from 16 to 28 years with a median (interquartile range) of 19.5 (19-23) years. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides varied within normal ranges throughout the three samplings. While total cholesterol and LDL-C titers increased significantly (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively), triglycerides and HDL-C values varied non-significantly throughout the measurements (p = 0.061 and p = 0.192, respectively). The median ox-LDL-Ab titers were respectively: 653.3 (468.2-838.8) mIU/ml at T1, 777.7 (553.7-1150.7) mIU/ml at T2, and 1037.7 (901.7-1481.5) mIU/ml at T3. Overall, ox-LDL-Ab titers increased significantly from T1 to T3 (p = 0.006). Concomitantly, uric acid and FRAP concentrations decreased significantly (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively); on the contrary, GSH and SOD values increased, but insignificantly (p = 0.115 and p = 0.110, respectively). There was a positive and significant correlation between ox-LDL-Ab and HDL-C (ρ = 0.519, p = 0.027), and between ox

  6. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  7. An assessment of the nutritional intake of soccer referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Reñón, Cristian; Collado, Pilar S

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze the eating habits and attitudes of a group of soccer referees and linesmen. A nutritional study was undertaken of thirty-five soccer referees (aged between 18 and 50) refereeing at different levels, from the Spanish national third division down to the provincial second division. Through the use of a 3-day food diary and 24-hour recall, this study analyzed the intake and distribution of macro- and micro-nutrients and of dietary fiber consumed on different types of day (normal, training, and match days). There were no significant differences in calorie intake related to the three types of day (normal, training, and match days). This was true both of overall amounts (2371.1 kcal, 2479.7 kcal, and 2368.4 kcal, respectively) and amounts per unit of body weight (32.4 kcal/kg, 33.9 kcal/kg, and 32.4 kcal/kg, respectively). In respect of macro-nutrient intake, more specifically carbohydrates, the subjects consumed a diet with an insufficient amount of carbohydrates: 279 g, as against the 371 g (REC1) or 540 g (REC2) recommended according to physical activity levels. Slight increases were observed on game days, but were not statistically significant. Consideration of micro-nutrients showed that the quantities of three vitamins (B6, B12, and C) consumed were above the recommended amounts. However, this was not an issue, since the figures related to water-soluble vitamins. Finally, the amounts of minerals (Ca, Mg, and Fe) and fiber consumed were close to recommended values, regardless of the type of day being considered. This study found that the group of referees investigated consumed a diet that did not have sufficient calories from carbohydrates, in view of their occupation. This poor nutritional status might interfere with the development of their sporting performance and ultimately increase the risk of injury. This implies a need to design and implement a diet and to introduce educational programs on nutrition for these

  8. Concussion occurrence and knowledge in italian football (soccer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Steven P; Vagnozzi, Roberto; Sabin, Matthew; Signoretti, Stefano; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lazzarino, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate concussion history, knowledge, injury identification, and management strategies among athletes, coaches, and medical staff in Italian club level football (soccer) clubs. Surveys (N=727) were distributed among Italian football clubs. Athletes' surveys were designed to evaluate athlete knowledge of concussive signs and symptoms and injury reporting. Coaches' surveys explored the understanding of concussive signs and symptoms and management practices. Medical staff surveys explored the standard of care regarding concussions. A total of 342 surveys were returned, for a 47% response rate. Descriptive analyses indicated 10% of athletes sustaining a concussion in the past year and 62% of these injuries were not reported, primarily due to the athletes not thinking the injury was serious enough. Coaches consistently identified non-concussion related symptoms (98.7%), but were unable to identify symptoms associated with concussion (38.9%). Most understood that loss of consciousness is not the sole indicator of injury (82.6%). Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92%) and athlete symptom reports (92%) to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7%) or balance (0.0%) testing. Italian football athletes appear to report concussions at a rate similar to American football players, with a slightly higher rate of unreported injuries. Most of these athletes were aware they were concussed, but did not feel the injury was serious enough to report. Although coaches served as the primary person to whom concussions were reported, the majority of coaches were unable to accurately identify concussion related symptoms. With little use for neurocognitive and postural control assessments, the medical personnel may be missing injuries or returning athletes to play too soon. Collectively, these findings suggest that athletes, coaches, and medical personnel would benefit

  9. Return to Play and Future ACL Injury Risk Following ACL Reconstruction In Soccer Athletes From the MOON Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H.; Schmitz, Leah; Wright, Rick W.; Dunn, Warren R.; Parker, Richard D.; Andrish, Jack T.; McCarty, Eric C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited information on outcomes and return to play (RTP) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in soccer athletes. Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to (i) test the hypotheses that player sex, side of injury and graft choice do not influence RTP, and (ii) define the risk for future ACL injury in soccer players after ACLR. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Level II. Methods Soccer players in a prospective cohort were contacted to determine RTP following ACLR. Information regarding if and when they returned to play, their current playing status, the primary reason they stopped playing soccer (if relevant) and incidence of subsequent ACL surgery was recorded. Results Initially, 72% of 100 soccer athletes (55 male, 45 female) with a mean age of 24.2 years at the time of ACL reconstruction returned to soccer. At average follow up of 7.0 years, 36% were still playing, a significant decrease compared to initial RTP (psoccer athletes had undergone further ACL surgery, including 9 on the contralateral knee and 3 on the ipsilateral knee. In a univariate analysis, females were more likely to have future ACL surgery (20% v. 5.5%, p=0.03). Soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their non-dominant limb had a higher future rate of contra-lateral ACLR (16%) than soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their dominant limb (3.5%) (p=0.03). Conclusion Younger and male soccer players are more likely to return to play after ACL reconstruction. Return to soccer following ACLR declines over time. PMID:23002201

  10. Effects of soccer training on health-related physical fitness measures in male adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Amri; Randers, Morten B.; Kasmi, Sofien

    2018-01-01

    , and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion: Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness......, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results......: At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p postural balance. Small-sided games using 6 v 6 or 4 v 4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean: ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion...

  11. Preseason physiological profile of soccer and basketball players in different divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Thomas I; Koutlianos, Nikos; Sendelides, Thomas; Mandroukas, Athanasios

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the cardiorespiratory performance and isokinetic muscle strength between Greek soccer and basketball players of different divisions before starting the training season. Study participants included 100 soccer players and 61 basketball players, who were assigned according to the kind of sport and division. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and performed an exercise test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Peak torque for quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured on isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocity of 60 degrees/s(-1), 180 degrees/s(-1), and 300 degrees/s(-1). The statistical p value was set at p duration of the maintenance period and to the effect of the training session on each sport, respectively. Finally, a higher level of muscle strength would be preferable in soccer and basketball and would reduce the risk for injuries in the maintenance and rebuilding training periods.

  12. Playware Soccer – flexibility through modularity and layered multi-modal feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2010-01-01

    We developed the Playware Soccer game and tested this with more than 1,000 users during the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa in townships, orphanages for HIV/AIDS children, markets, FIFA fan parks, etc. The playware game is set up to motivate players to engage in training of technical soccer...... skills by receiving motivating, immediate feedback on the soccer playing on a modular interactive wall composed of modular interactive tiles that respond with coloured light, sound and scores on the players performance. The flexibility of the system was designed for with the modular interactive tiles......, and simple construction with these building blocks should give a high degree of flexibility for the designer and the user to create various set-ups and interaction possibilities in an easy manner....

  13. Strategies for hydration and energy provision during soccer-specific exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Drust, B; MacLaren, D P M; Reilly, T

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of manipulating the provision of sports drink during soccer-specific exercise on metabolism and performance. Soccer players (N = 12) performed a soccer-specific protocol on three occasions. On two, 7 mL/kg carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHOv) or placebo (PLA) solutions were ingested at 0 and 45 min. On a third, the same total volume of carbohydrate-electrolyte was consumed (CHOf) in smaller volumes at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min. Plasma glucose, glycerol, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, and CHO oxidation were not significantly different between CHOv and CHOf (P > 0.05). Sprint power was not significantly affected (P > 0.05) by the experimental trials. This study demonstrates when the total volume of carbohydrate consumed is equal, manipulating the timing and volume of ingestion elicits similar metabolic responses without affecting exercise performance.

  14. Incidence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in sub-elite male soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin injuries cause major problems in the football codes, as they are prevalent and lead to prolonged symptoms and high recurrence. The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in a large cohort of sub-elite soccer players.......0096). Having both adductor and abdominal pain also increased the injury time significantly when compared to injuries with no adductor and no abdominal pain (RIT=4.56, 95% CI 1.91 to 10.91, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Adductor-related groin injury was the most common clinical presentation of groin injuries in male...... during a season. METHODS: Physiotherapists allocated to each of the participating 44 soccer clubs recorded baseline characteristics and groin injuries sustained by a cohort of 998 sub-elite male soccer players during a full 10-month season. All players with groin injuries were examined using the clinical...

  15. Laterality-Specific Training Improves Mental Rotation Performance in Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Pietsch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of specific soccer training with the non-dominant leg on mental rotation performance of 20 adolescent soccer players between 10 and 11 years of age. While the experimental group performed soccer specific tasks only with the non-dominant foot once a week for 10 weeks, the control group absolved the same exercises with the dominant foot for the same period of time. Both groups performed a mental rotation task and shot, dribbling and ball control tests before and after the 10 week intervention. The most relevant result was that the experimental group showed a significantly larger increase in mental rotation ability than the control group.

  16. A vision framework for the localization of soccer players and ball on the pitch using Handycams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Tiago; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; Cardoso, P. J. S.; Silva, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The current performance requirements in soccer make imperative the use of new technologies for game observation and analysis, such that detailed information about the teams' actions is provided. This paper summarizes a framework to collect the soccer players and ball positions using one or more Full HD Handycams, placed no more than 20cm apart in the stands, as well as how this framework connects to the FootData project. The system was based on four main modules: the detection and delimitation of the soccer pitch, the ball and the players detection and assignment to their teams, the tracking of players and ball and finally the computation of their localization (in meters) in the pitch.

  17. Laterality related to the successive selection of Dutch national youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jan; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Jonker, Laura; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Visscher, Chris

    2017-11-01

    In the general population, estimates of left-foot preference are around 20%. In soccer, specific tasks create positional demands, requiring 40% of the players to be left-footed. Whether and how this is related to the selection of players is unknown. To examine the successive selection of soccer players for Dutch national youth teams in relation to foot preference, 280 youth players (age = 16.2 ± 1.08 years) were monitored from the U16 through the U19 teams over the last 5 years. No difference in successive selection between left- and right-footed players was found (p soccer teams.

  18. Assessing the Energy Expenditure of Elite Female Soccer Players: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Jocelyn K; Thompson, Kevin G; Pumpa, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the total and exercise energy expenditure of elite female soccer players during a training week. Eight elite female soccer players wore SenseWear Mini Armbands (SWAs) for 7 consecutive days during the preseason phase of a national league competition. In addition, players wore 15-Hz GPSports tracking devices during 4 training sessions and a friendly game. Total energy expenditure, exercise energy expenditure, and training and game demands were collected from the SWA and GPSports devices. Mean daily energy expenditure for the game day, training days, and rest days were 12,242 kJ (SD = 603 kJ), 11,692 (SD = 274 kJ), and 9,516 (SD = 369 kJ), respectively, with significant differences shown between activities (p soccer players. Nutritional intake should be adjusted accordingly to avoid energy imbalances for optimal performance and recovery.

  19. Is Recreational Soccer Effective for Improving VO2max A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim; Sporiš, Goran; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) introduced the slogan "Playing football for 45 min twice a week-best prevention of non-communicable diseases" in 2010. The objective of this paper was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the effects of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational physical activity, recreational small-sided games and VO2max using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: recreational small-sided games, recreational football, recreational soccer, street football, street soccer, effect, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake, cardiorespiratory fitness, VO2max. The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, type of participants, type of interventions and type of outcome measures. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations for baseline fitness. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Mean differences showed that VO2max increased by 3.51 mL/kg/min (95 % CI 3.07-4.15) over a recreational soccer training programme in comparison with other training models. The meta-analysed effects of recreational soccer on VO2max compared with the controls of no exercise, continuous running and strength

  20. Player-Driven Video Analysis to Enhance Reflective Soccer Practice in Talent Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Anders; Henriksen, Kristoffer; Elbæk, Lars

    2018-01-01

    consistent video analyses and tagging; coaches are important as role models and providers of feedback; and that the use of the platform primarily stimulated deliberate practice activities. PU can be seen as a source of inspiration for soccer players and clubs as to how analytical platforms can motivate......In the present article, we investigate the introduction of a cloud-based video analysis platform called Player Universe (PU). Video analysis is not a new performance-enhancing element in sports, but PU is innovative in how it facilitates reflective learning. Video analysis is executed in the PU...... platform by involving the players in the analysis process, in the sense that they are encouraged to tag game actions in video-documented soccer matches. Following this, players can get virtual feedback from their coach. Findings show that PU can improve youth soccer players' reflection skills through...

  1. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.......1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20.......7 ± 1.9 and 2.4 ± 2.9 %, respectively, in SOC, with a greater (P soccer training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone...

  2. Small-sided and conditioned games in soccer training the science and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the general acute effects and adaptations of small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in terms of physiological responses, technical performance and methodology/periodization in the game of soccer. It also reviews the many studies conducted in the past decade to investigate the influence of SSCGs on physiological responses and technical performance in soccer training. SSCGs, which are smaller and adapted versions of formal team sports, are very popular training drills for players at all ability levels and competitive levels and offer an alternative to traditional fitness training. Exploring their role in depth, this book offers a valuable resource for academics, researchers and coaches with an interest in developing improved training techniques for soccer.

  3. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  4. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  5. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  6. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Validity and reliability of new agility test among elite and subelite under 14-soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younés Hachana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agility is a determinant component in soccer performance. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of a "Modified Illinois change of direction test" (MICODT in ninety-five U-14 soccer players. METHODS: A total of 95 U-14 soccer players (mean ± SD: age: 13.61 ± 1.04 years; body mass: 30.52 ± 4.54 kg; height: 1.57 ± 0.1 m from a professional and semi-professional soccer academy, participated to this study. Sixty of them took part in reliability analysis and thirty-two in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC that aims to assess relative reliability of the MICODT was of 0.99, and its standard error of measurement (SEM for absolute reliability was <5% (1.24%. The MICODT's capacity to detect change is "good", it's SEM (0.10 s was ≤ SWC (0.33 s. The MICODT is significantly correlated to the Illinois change of direction speed test (ICODT (r = 0.77; p<0.0001. The ICODT's MDC95 (0.64 s was twice about the MICODT's MDC95 (0.28 s, indicating that MICODT presents better ability to detect true changes than ICODT. The MICODT provided good sensitivity since elite U-14 soccer players were better than non-elite one on MICODT (p = 0.005; dz = 1.01 [large]. This was supported by an area under the ROC curve of 0.77 (CI 95%, 0.59 to 0.89, p<0.0008. The difference observed in these two groups in ICODT was not statistically significant (p = 0.14; dz = 0.51 [small], showing poor discriminant ability. CONCLUSION: MICODT can be considered as more suitable protocol for assessing agility performance level than ICODT in U-14 soccer players.

  8. The Anthropometric Characteristics of Futsal Players Compared with Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukiewicz Anna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and

  9. Characteristics of anteroposterior curvatures of the spine in soccer and futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromik Krystyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine differences in anteroposterior spine curvatures between futsal players, soccer players, and non-training students. The results may contribute to the development of present-day knowledge of posturometry, and its implementation in training can help reduce the risk of body posture disorders in athletes. Methods. The examined group consisted of 48 athletes and 38 non-training college students. Body posture parameters were measured with the use of Posturometr-S. The normality of distribution was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk test, and the differences between the groups were measured with ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. The analysis of angle values revealed the widest and most similar measurements in the group of futsal players and soccer players. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between the soccer players and futsal players (p = 0.003. The difference between the soccer players and non-training students was statistically significant. The highest γ angular value was measured in non-training students, followed by futsal players and soccer players. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the non-training students and futsal players, as well as non-training students and soccer players (p < 0.001. Conclusions. A complex assessment of athletes’ body posture is crucial in injury prevention. Training overloads may often lead to disorders of the organ of locomotion and affect the correct body posture in athletes. This, in turn, may result in pains and injuries.

  10. Allergies and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in a Youth Academy and Reserve Professional Soccer Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Drouard, François; Legall, Franck; Dupont, Grégory; Wallaert, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    A high prevalence of respiratory allergies and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has been reported among endurance athletes. This study was designed to analyze the frequency of sensitization to respiratory allergens and EIB in young soccer players. Prospective cohort design. Youth academy and reserve professional soccer team during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Eighty-five soccer players (mean age: 20 ± 4 years) participated. Players underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Spirometry and a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test were performed on soccer players during the first season 2012 to 2013 (n = 51) to detect EIB. Two self-administered questionnaires on respiratory history and allergic symptoms (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes) were also distributed during both seasons (n = 59). The number of positive SPTs, exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, presence of asthma, airway obstruction, and EIB. Forty-nine percent of players were sensitized to at least one respiratory allergen, 33% reported an allergic disease, 1 player presented airway obstruction at rest, and 16% presented EIB. Factors predictive of EIB were self-reported exercise-induced symptoms and sensitization to at least 5 allergens. Questioning players about exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and allergies as well as spirometry at the time of the inclusion medical checkup would improve management of respiratory health of soccer players and would constitute inexpensive preliminary screening to select players requiring indirect bronchial provocation test or SPTs. This study showed that despite low frequencies, EIB and allergies are underdiagnosed and undertreated in young soccer players.

  11. Stress, Sleep and Recovery in Elite Soccer: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep, potentially leading to sleep deprivation. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current available literature regarding the potential acute and chronic stressors (i.e., psychological, sociological and physiological stressors) placed on elite soccer players that may result in compromised sleep quantity and/or quality. Sleep is an essential part of the recovery process as it provides a number of important psychological and physiological functions. The effects of sleep disturbance on post-soccer match fatigue mechanisms and recovery time course are also described. Physiological and cognitive changes that occur when competing at night are often not conducive to sleep induction. Although the influence of high-intensity exercise performed during the night on subsequent sleep is still debated, environmental conditions (e.g., bright light in the stadium, light emanated from the screens) and behaviours related to evening soccer matches (e.g., napping, caffeine consumption, alcohol consumption) as well as engagement and arousal induced by the match may all potentially affect subsequent sleep. Apart from night soccer matches, soccer players are subjected to inconsistency in match schedules, unique team schedules and travel fatigue that may also contribute to the sleep debt. Sleep deprivation may be detrimental to the outcome of the recovery process after a match, resulting in impaired muscle glycogen repletion, impaired muscle damage repair, alterations in cognitive function and an increase in mental fatigue. The role of sleep in recovery is a complex issue, reinforcing the need for future research to estimate the quantitative and qualitative importance of sleep and to identify influencing factors. Efficient and individualised solutions are likely needed.

  12. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  13. Impact Points and Their Effect on Trajectory in Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Kimachi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The kick skill and its analysis are important in Soccer. To detect impact point by using virtual impact model is aim of this study. The virtual impact model was made as a surface composed of virtual markers. As the result, mean coordinate values of impact point were below; straight (Lateral: −24.0 ± 5.6 mm, Horizontal: 152.7 ± 8.4 mm, Vertical: 52.3 ± 4.0 mm, curve (Lateral: −35.6 ± 4.8 mm, Horizontal: 151.6 ± 13.7 mm, Vertical: 47.5 ± 5.2 mm, knuckle (Lateral: −33.3 ± 9.0 mm, Horizontal: 140.8 ± 10.7 mm, Vertical: 52.1 ± 2.7 mm. According to comparison of coordinate value of each trial, mean point of straight was near the center line of foot on instep, mean point of curve was located on inside of foot, mean point of knuckle was near the foot joint. We revealed difference of impact point and showed trajectory of impact point.

  14. The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F; van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark

    2005-06-01

    The potential asymmetries in the birth-date distributions of youth soccer players across ten European countries (2175 age citations) were considered. First, we examined the birth-dates of players representing national youth teams in international competitions. Second, the birth-dates of players representing professional club teams in international youth tournaments were analysed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to assess differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between month of birth and number of players in the different samples. The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year (from January to March) for all the national youth selections at the under-15 (U-15), U-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup. Players with a greater relative age are more likely to be identified as "talented" because of the likely physical advantages they have over their "younger" peers. Some options for reducing the relative age effect are offered.

  15. Analysing the protective potential of padded soccer goalkeeper shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, K U; Nusser, M; Derler, S; Boesiger, P

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the potential of currently available padded soccer goalkeeper shorts to prevent hip injuries sustained in side jumps was investigated. Within the scope of this study, a survey among professional and amateur goalkeepers, trainers and the medical staff was performed. In addition, commercially available shorts were impact-tested using an artificial hip model. The results were compared with requirements established for hip protectors for elderly. The results of the survey found that contusions and abrasions were observed most often for all players. Fractures and arthritis were only reported by amateur players, whereas bursitis was more frequently observed by professional players. Amateurs have a significantly higher risk of injury than professional players, and the higher injury risk during training is significantly higher compared with the injury risk during a match. No difference of the injury risk was found between goalkeepers wearing padded shorts and those who did not. Impact tests indicated a wide range of performance of the currently available products. The padded shorts generally reduce impact forces, but mostly perform poorly. Only shorts that were made of visco-elastic foam fulfilled the basic requirements requested for hip protectors for elderly. The quality of most of the currently available goalkeeper shorts needs to be improved to effectively prevent hip injury sustained in side jumps.

  16. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  17. Perfectionism and perceptions of parenting styles in male youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapieja, Klaudia M; Dunn J, G H; Holt, Nicholas L

    2011-02-01

    Although perfectionist orientations have been linked to a variety of cognitive, affective, and behavioral correlates in youth sport, little is known about antecedent factors that may influence adolescent athletes' perfectionist orientations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceptions of parenting styles differ as a function of adolescent athletes' perfectionist orientations. A total of 194 male youth soccer players (M age = 13.64 years; SD = 1.51; range, 10.67-16.25 years) completed measures of their perfectionist orientations in sport and of their perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Scores from the parenting style measure were calculated such that higher scores were reflective of higher parental authoritativeness (as perceived by the athletes). Cluster analyses conducted on perfectionism responses produced independent clusters of unhealthy perfectionists, healthy perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. MANOVA results revealed that both healthy- and nonperfectionists had significantly higher perceptions of maternal and paternal authoritativeness than unhealthy perfectionists (ps authoritative parenting may play a role in developing healthy perfectionist orientations (or decrease the likelihood of developing unhealthy perfectionist orientations) in youth sport.

  18. Multiagent Reinforcement Learning with Regret Matching for Robot Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel multiagent reinforcement learning (MARL algorithm Nash- learning with regret matching, in which regret matching is used to speed up the well-known MARL algorithm Nash- learning. It is critical that choosing a suitable strategy for action selection to harmonize the relation between exploration and exploitation to enhance the ability of online learning for Nash- learning. In Markov Game the joint action of agents adopting regret matching algorithm can converge to a group of points of no-regret that can be viewed as coarse correlated equilibrium which includes Nash equilibrium in essence. It is can be inferred that regret matching can guide exploration of the state-action space so that the rate of convergence of Nash- learning algorithm can be increased. Simulation results on robot soccer validate that compared to original Nash- learning algorithm, the use of regret matching during the learning phase of Nash- learning has excellent ability of online learning and results in significant performance in terms of scores, average reward and policy convergence.

  19. Evaluation of the Match External Load in Soccer: Methods Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Carlo; Varley, Matthew; Póvoas, Susana C A; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    To test the interchangeability of 2 match-analysis approaches for external-load detection considering arbitrary selected speeds and metabolic power (MP) thresholds in male top-level soccer. Data analyses were performed considering match physical performance of 60 matches (1200 player cases) of randomly selected Spanish, German, and English first-division championship matches (2013-14 season). Match analysis was performed with a validated semiautomated multicamera system operating at 25 Hz. During a match, players covered 10,673 ± 348 m, of which 1778 ± 208 m and 2759 ± 241 m were performed at high intensity, as measured using speed (≥16 km/h, HI) and metabolic power (≥20 W/kg, MPHI) notations. High-intensity notations were nearly perfectly associated (r = .93, P Player high-intensity decelerations (≥-2 m/s 2 ) were very largely associated with MPHI (r = .73, P physical match-analysis methods can be independently used to track match external load in elite-level players. However, match-analyst decisions must be based on use of a single method to avoid bias in external-load determination.

  20. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a semi-structured protocol with a prospective sample, national coaches (n = 6), sport scientists (n = 3), and players (n = 4) were interviewed directly following international tournaments about the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. Qualitative content analysis revealed the following factors as major positive influences on performance: adhering to a consistent tournament strategy, player understanding, strong team cohesion, organized entertainment activities, detailed knowledge of opposition, an effective physical rest/recovery strategy, and previous tournament experience. Major factors perceived to have negatively influenced performance included: over-coaching, player boredom, player anxiety, physical superiority of the opposition, physical fatigue over the tournament, problems sleeping, and lack of information on the opposition. Eight overall dimensions emerged to describe the performance environment: planning and organization, physical environment, tactical factors, development and performance philosophy, psychological factors, physical factors, social factors, and coaching. The findings support recent work that suggests the performance environment is multifaceted, with performance being contingent upon a broad range of interacting factors that go beyond the traditional psychosocial and physical domains.

  1. Neural bases of ingroup altruistic motivation in soccer fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Tiago; Bado, Patrícia; Hoefle, Sebastian; Engel, Annerose; Zahn, Roland; de Oliveira Souza, Ricardo; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Moll, Jorge

    2017-11-23

    Humans have a strong need to belong to social groups and a natural inclination to benefit ingroup members. Although the psychological mechanisms behind human prosociality have extensively been studied, the specific neural systems bridging group belongingness and altruistic motivation remain to be identified. Here, we used soccer fandom as an ecological framing of group membership to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying ingroup altruistic behaviour in male fans using event-related functional magnetic resonance. We designed an effort measure based on handgrip strength to assess the motivation to earn money (i) for oneself, (ii) for anonymous ingroup fans, or (iii) for a neutral group of anonymous non-fans. While overlapping valuation signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) were observed for the three conditions, the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) exhibited increased functional connectivity with the mOFC as well as stronger hemodynamic responses for ingroup versus outgroup decisions. These findings indicate a key role for the SCC, a region previously implicated in altruistic decisions and group affiliation, in dovetailing altruistic motivations with neural valuation systems in real-life ingroup behaviour.

  2. THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS FROM SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009 as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE

  3. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  4. Splenic injury after blunt abdominal trauma during a soccer (football) game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padlipsky, Patricia S; Brindis, Seth; Young, Kelly D

    2014-10-01

    The spleen is the most commonly injured abdominal organ in children who sustain blunt abdominal trauma, and pediatric splenic injury may result from minor mechanisms of injury, including sports participation. We present 2 cases of splenic injury in soccer goalies because of blunt abdominal trauma sustained during game play. Although abdominal organ injuries are uncommon in soccer, emergency medicine and primary care physicians must be aware of the possibility. A high index of suspicion and careful physical examination are key in making the diagnosis.

  5. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Ultrasonography in Soccer Players With Acute Hamstring Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An injury to the hamstring muscle complex is the most common injury in soccer. Ultrasound of acute hamstring injuries is often used as a clinical tool for diagnosing hamstring injuries and guiding players in when they can return to play. PURPOSE: To (1) investigate the characteristic......) to investigate if ultrasonography can be used as a prognostic indicator of time to return to play. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Players from 50 teams participating in 1 of the top 5 Danish soccer divisions were followed in the period from January to December 2008. Of 67 players...

  6. IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES FOR SPEED AND CHANGE OF DIRECTION ABILITY IN ELITE FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmonds, S; Nicholson, G; Beggs, CB; Jones, B; Bissas, A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women’s Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body ...

  7. Partial isolated rupture of the popliteus tendon in a professional soccer player: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Pier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complete isolated rupture of the popliteus tendon has been described as a rare injury and this report describes the case of a 31-year-old soccer player who sustained a partial rupture of the popliteus tendon during a game. The injury was suspected clinically and at MRI but confirmed only by the arthroscopic examination. The treatment consisted in open debridment with no tendon repair or augmentation. Seven weeks post-operation the patient was symptom-free and returned to competitive professional soccer at the same preinjury level. The clinical and arthroscopic findings of the case reported suggest a possible overuse disease with degenerative expression.

  8. Coach Mid-Season Replacement and Team Performance in Professional Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Lago-Pe?as, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The coaching carousel or turnover is an extreme but frequently occurring phenomenon in soccer. Among the reasons for firing a coach, the most common is the existence of a shock-effect: a new coach would be able to motivate the players better and therefore to improve results. Using data from the Spanish Soccer League during the seasons from 1997?1998 to 2006?2007, this paper investigates the relationship between team performance and coach change over time. The empirical analysis shows that the...

  9. A new tool to measure training load in soccer training and match play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Seabra, A

    2012-01-01

    -based methods (TRIMP and Edwards' method). 51 soccer players (age 15.6±0.3 years) answered 2 questions to assess perceived exertion and fatigue (VAS1-TL, and VAS2-TL) after training sessions and official matches. Performance in the Yo-Yo tests, VAS scores and heart rate of training sessions and matches......An accurate evaluation of training load is paramount for the planning and periodization of training. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between a new method to monitor training load in soccer (Visual Analogic Scale training load; VAS-TL), and two established heart rate...

  10. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2009-01-01

    for 1 hour twice a week (mean heart rate of 165 b.min-1 in SO and 164 b.min-1 in RU) for 16 weeks. Test of reactions to sudden unexpected trunk loading was performed before and after the training period. Furthermore, time-motion analysis of the soccer training was performed for 9 subjects. Group...... training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed...

  11. Developing new behavior strategies of robot soccer team SjF TUKE Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Hajduk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are too many types of robotic soccer approaches at present. SjF TUKE Robotics, who won robot soccer world tournament for year 2010 in category MiroSot, is a team with multiagent system approach. They have one main agent (master and five agent players, represented by robots. There is a point of view, in the article, for code programmer how to create new behavior strategies by creating a new code for master. There is a methodology how to prepare and create it following some rules.

  12. Relationship between Nutrition Knowledge and Physical Fitness in Semiprofessional Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis, P. T.; Theodoropoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas nutrition has a crucial role on sport performance, it is not clear to what extent nutrition knowledge is associated with physical fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the current level of nutrition knowledge of soccer players and whether this level is associated with physical fitness. Soccer players (n = 185, aged 21.3 ± 4.9 yr, weight 72.3 ± 8.4 kg, and height 177.5 ± 6.4 cm) performed a battery of physical fitness tests (sit-and-reach test, SAR; physical working capacity in...

  13. The dilemma of soccer-related violence: between disapproval and complacency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andrea Salinas Arango

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of a research project whose objective was to identify the social representations of soccer-related violence in the Florida Nueva neighborhood of Medellín. The qualitative research based on the methodological approach of symbolic interactionism, which makes evident the relational, communicational, and situational dimensions of the phenomenon, was carried out using the case study modality, with an exploratory-descriptive scope. Observation techniques, semi-structured interviews, mapping, focal groups, talks with experts, and reviews of press publications were used to gather information in the neighborhood, the community, and among the actors associated with soccer.

  14. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Coupled solar still, solar heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, R R; Harris, W B; Moor, D H; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation of combinations of solar stills and solar heaters indicates the probable economic advantage of such an arrangement in many locations if the size of the heater is optimized relative to that of the still. Experience with various low cost solar heaters is discussed.

  16. Solar Sailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  17. Short-term performance effects of three different low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training.......001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players....

  18. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches’ evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Alan; Chassot, Steve; Chenevière, Xavier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46) young elite soccer players (including 2 female players) aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation). We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches’ judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle. PMID:28953958

  19. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 and Its Relationship With Other Typical Soccer Field Tests in Female Collegiate Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Jalilvand, Farzad; Moreno, Matthew R; Orjalo, Ashley J; Risso, Fabrice G; Nimphius, Sophia

    2017-10-01

    The ability to complete high-intensity running is essential for soccer. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIRT2) can measure this capacity, but there is limited information regarding this assessment in collegiate female soccer players. This study investigated the YYIRT2 as a measure of high-intensity running in this population, and its relationship to other soccer field tests. Twenty-one players from a Division I team were recruited. In addition to the YYIRT2, subjects completed linear (0-5, 0-10, and 0-30 m sprint intervals) and change-of-direction (pro-agility and 60-yard shuttle) speed tests, as well as the YYIRT Level 1 (YYIRT1), to assess relationships with YYIRT2 by correlations (p ≤ 0.05). The correlation of YYIRT1 with the speed tests was also assessed. The YYIRT1 and YYIRT2 were standardized using z-scores for comparison with elite benchmarks to investigate relative performance on each test. The YYIRT2 and YYIRT1 distances did not significantly correlate with those of the speed tests (r = -0.251 to 0.274). There was a large relationship between YYIRT2 and YYIRT1 distances (r = 0.582), although the explained variance was low (33.87%). Mean YYIRT2 z-scores (-4.29 ± 1.66) indicated a performance further from elite benchmarks than those of the YYIRT1 (-1.92 ± 1.61), and 90.5% (19 of 21) subjects performed relatively better in the YYIRT1 than YYIRT2. The YYIRT2 provided a more specific measure of high-intensity running to that of the YYIRT1 in collegiate female soccer players. Coaches may consider using the YYIRT2 to gauge and track progress of high-intensity running capabilities and create training programs to improve this ability in female players.

  20. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicheur, Halim; Chauvin, Alan; Chassot, Steve; Chenevière, Xavier; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46) young elite soccer players (including 2 female players) aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation). We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches' judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle.

  1. Effects of age on the soccer-specific cognitive-motor performance of elite young soccer players: Comparison between objective measurements and coaches' evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Hicheur

    Full Text Available The cognitive-motor performance (CMP, defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times in a large turf-artificial grass playfield. Forty-six (46 young elite soccer players (including 2 female players aged between 11 and 16 years who belonged to the same youth soccer academy were tested. Each player had to pass the ball as fast and as accurately as possible towards visual targets projected onto a large screen located 5.32 meters in front of him (a short pass situation. We observed a linear age-related increase in the CMP: the passing accuracy, speed and reactiveness of players improved by 4 centimeters, 2.3 km/h and 30 milliseconds per year of age, respectively. These data were converted into 5 point-scales and compared to the judgement of expert coaches, who also used a 5 point-scale to evaluate the same CMP parameters but based on their experience with the players during games and training. The objectively-measured age-related CMP changes were also observed in expert coaches' judgments although these were more variable across coaches and age categories. This demonstrates that high-technology systems like COGNIFOOT can be used in complement to traditional approaches of talent identification and to objectively monitor the progress of soccer players throughout a cognitive-motor training cycle.

  2. Descriptive-comparative study of aerobic performance parameters between soccer and futsal athletes. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n3p170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Manfredini Baroni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although soccer and futsal are sports with similar motor actions, the differences in size and match dynamics result in distinct physiological requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare parameters of aerobic capacity between professional soccer and futsal athletes. A total of 553 ergospirometric evaluations were performed: 367 soccer players (32 goalkeepers, 335 on-court players and 186 futsal athletes (22 goalkeepers, 164 on-court players. The results were analyzed separately for each modality (comparison between goalkeepers and on-court players and compared between soccer and futsal athletes. Soccer and futsal goalkeepers presented lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, second ventilatory threshold (VT2, and speed to reach these thresholds than on-court players of the respective modalities. Soccer goalkeepers were superior in terms of these parameters when compared to futsal goalkeepers. No differences in VO2max or VT2 were observed between soccer and futsal on-court players, although soccer athletes reached the thresholds at higher speeds. In conclusion, soccer and futsal goalkeepers present lower aerobic capacity than on-court players. Soccer players show better performance in aerobic tests than futsal athletes

  3. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2018-02-01

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHE BEF ; n=10) or after (NHE AFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s -1 . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHE BEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHE AFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHE AFT vs CON and NHE BEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHE BEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHE AFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In-season training periodization of professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Los Arcos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal perceived respiratory and muscular training loads (i.e., sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL completed by elite-oriented young professional soccer players. Twentyfour players (20.3 ± 2.0 years belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga club participated in this study. Only the players that were available to train for a whole week with the team and also to play the weekly game were considered: Starters, players that participated in the match for at least 45 min and Non- Starters, players that did not participate or played less than 45 minutes in the match. The competitive period was analysed after the division into 5x6-8 week blocks and 35x1 week microcycles. Data were also analysed with respect to number of days before the immediate match. Weekly TL variation across the in-season blocks was trivial-small for both groups except between Block 2 and Block 3 (ES= moderate. Substantial TL differences (ES= small–very likely were found between training days, the TL pattern being a progressive increase up to MD-3 followed by a decrease until MD-1. Except for the match, sRPEres-/sRPEmus-TL was very similar between Starters and Non-Starters. In summary, perceived TL across the season displayed limited variation. Coaches periodized training contents to attain the highest weekly TL 72 hours before the match to progressively unload the players between MD-3 and the match day. The data revealed that the TL arising from the weekly game was solely responsible for the observed higher weekly TL of Starters in comparison with Non-Starters.

  5. CONCUSSION OCCURRENCE AND KNOWLEDGE IN ITALIAN FOOTBALL (SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Broglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate concussion history, knowledge, injury identification, and management strategies among athletes, coaches, and medical staff in Italian club level football (soccer clubs. Surveys (N=727 were distributed among Italian football clubs. Athletes' surveys were designed to evaluate athlete knowledge of concussive signs and symptoms and injury reporting. Coaches' surveys explored the understanding of concussive signs and symptoms and management practices. Medical staff surveys explored the standard of care regarding concussions. A total of 342 surveys were returned, for a 47% response rate. Descriptive analyses indicated 10% of athletes sustaining a concussion in the past year and 62% of these injuries were not reported, primarily due to the athletes not thinking the injury was serious enough. Coaches consistently identified non-concussion related symptoms (98.7%, but were unable to identify symptoms associated with concussion (38.9%. Most understood that loss of consciousness is not the sole indicator of injury (82.6%. Medical staff reported a heavy reliance on the clinical exam (92% and athlete symptom reports (92% to make the concussion diagnosis and return to play decision, with little use of neurocognitive (16.7% or balance (0.0% testing. Italian football athletes appear to report concussions at a rate similar to American football players, with a slightly higher rate of unreported injuries. Most of these athletes were aware they were concussed, but did not feel the injury was serious enough to report. Although coaches served as the primary person to whom concussions were reported, the majority of coaches were unable to accurately identify concussion related symptoms. With little use for neurocognitive and postural control assessments, the medical personnel may be missing injuries or returning athletes to play too soon. Collectively, these findings suggest that athletes, coaches, and medical personnel would

  6. Dribbling determinants in sub-elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Piovan, Andrea Gianluca; Annoni, Isabella; Ciprandi, Daniela; Iaia, F Marcello; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    Dribbling speed in soccer is considered critical to the outcome of the game and can assist in the talent identification process. However, little is known about the biomechanics of this skill. By means of a motion capture system, we aimed to quantitatively investigate the determinants of effective dribbling skill in a group of 10 Under-13 sub-elite players, divided by the median-split technique according to their dribbling test time (faster and slower groups). Foot-ball contacts cadence, centre of mass (CoM), ranges of motion (RoM), velocity and acceleration, as well as stride length, cadence and variability were computed. Hip and knee joint RoMs were also considered. Faster players, as compared to slower players, showed a 30% higher foot-ball cadence (3.0 ± 0.1 vs. 2.3 ± 0.2 contacts · s(-1), P < 0.01); reduced CoM mediolateral (0.91 ± 0.05 vs. 1.14 ± 0.16 m, P < 0.05) and vertical (0.19 ± 0.01 vs. 0.25 ± 0.03 m, P < 0.05) RoMs; higher right stride cadence (+20%, P < 0.05) with lower variability (P < 0.05); reduced hip and knee flexion RoMs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster players are able to run with the ball through a shorter path in a more economical way. To effectively develop dribbling skill, coaches are encouraged to design specific practices where high stride frequency and narrow run trajectories are required.

  7. The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo, David; Pastor Vicedo, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Villora, Sixto; Contreras Jordan, Onofre Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP) in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs), although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE. Key pointsThere was RAE in all groups analyzed, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the general population.RAE is more evident in the Elite groups than in the Amateur probably because of the detection process, which is more thorough in the Elite groups.Playing position, number of years in their specific age group and category of the team did not have any influence on the extent of RAE.Any attempts to prevent RAE should be based on a stable sport policy and the implication of all the stakeholders in the system. All of them should think in the development of a player as a long-term project.

  8. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF FLUID INGESTION ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCCER PLAYERS DURING A MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Tirapegui

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on soccer performance. Twenty soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Players were allocated to two assigned trials according to their positional roles in the team: CHO group (ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution at regular 15 minutes intervals and NCHO (ingesting no fluid during 75 min on-field soccer game. During the trials, body mass loss, heart rate, time spent running, number of sprints and core temperature were measured. There were statistically significant changes (p < 0.05 in body mass loss (CHO: 1.14 ± 0.37 kg vs. NCHO: 1.75 ± 0.47 kg and number of sprints performed (CHO: 14.70 ± 4.38 vs. NCHO: 10.70 ± 5.80 between groups. The main finding of the present study indicates that supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink during a soccer match is beneficial in helping to prevent deterioration in performance.

  10. The "Russian roulette" of soccer? : Perceived control and anxiety in a major tournament penalty shootout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; T Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Visscher, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Kicks from the penalty mark (official term for the "penalty shootout") are regularly featured in major soccer tournaments to determine the outcome of tied games. Based on the contingency-competence-control (CCC) model (Weisz & Stipek, 1982), this study provides an examination of the control beliefs

  11. Changes in perceived stress and recovery in overreached young elite soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel; Visscher, Chris; Coutts, A.J.; Lemmink, Koen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively monitor sport-specific performance and assess the stress-recovery balance in overreached (OR) soccer players and controls. During two competitive seasons, 94 players participated in the study. The stress-recovery balance (RESTQ-Sport) and sport-specific

  12. Changes in perceived stress and recovery in overreached young elite soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M. S.; Visscher, C.; Coutts, A. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The aim of this study was to prospectively monitor sport-specific performance and assess the stressrecovery balance in overreached (OR) soccer players and controls. During two competitive seasons, 94 players participated in the study. The stressrecovery balance (RESTQ-Sport) and sport-specific

  13. "Studentship" and "Impression Management" in an Advanced Soccer Coach Education Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterfield, Gavin; Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how coaches perceived and responded to the content knowledge and assessment processes that they were exposed to during an advanced level soccer coaching award programme. In-depth interviews were conducted with six coaches who had successfully completed the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)…

  14. Short-term street soccer improves fitness and cardiovascular health status of homeless men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Petersen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of small-sided street soccer (2.2 ± 0.7 sessions/week) and fitness center training (0.5 ± 0.2 sessions/week) on physical fitness and cardiovascular health profile for homeless men. Exercise capacity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), body composition (DXA...... scans), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile were determined before and after the intervention period for 22 soccer-group subjects (SG) and 10 waiting list controls (CO). In addition, time-motion analyses, HR measurements, and pedometer recordings were performed during street soccer training...... and daily-life activities. During a 60 min 4 versus 4 street soccer session 182 ± 62 intense running bouts were performed; mean HR was 82 ± 4% HR(max) and HR was >90% HR(max) for 21 ± 12% (±SD) of total time. On a day without training the participants performed 10,733 ± 4,341 steps and HR was >80% HR...

  15. Soccer-related Facial Trauma: Multicenter Experience in 2 Brazilian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov C. Goldenberg, MD, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Although it is less common than orthopedic injuries, soccer players do sustain maxillofacial trauma. Knowledge of its frequency is important to first responders, nurses, and physicians who have initial contact with patients. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems in the physiological actions of breathing, vision, and chewing.

  16. Morphological and maturational predictors of technical performance in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Matta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to describe the association between chronological age, morphology, biological maturation and sport experience in relation to technical performance in young Brazilian soccer players. Technical, maturation and anthropometric variables were assessed in 119 soccer players, 74 and 45 in the under-15 and under-17 categories, respectively. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. Adiposity was negatively associated with technical performance regardless the age-category. Weight was negatively associated with technical performance in under-15 and positively with the under-17 category, respectively. In under-17 biological maturation was negatively related to the dribbling test and positively associated with the ball control test. Years of experience proved to be positively associated with technique taught to soccer player in the under-17 category. The explained variance was different between categories. The technical performance of Brazilian soccer players aged 14-to-17 seems to be related to biological maturation, adiposity, weight and years of experience.

  17. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts' expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  18. Information salience, investor sentiment and stock returns : The case of British soccer betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2009-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts' expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  19. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts’ expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  20. Individual analysis of creatine kinase concentration in Brazilian elite soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Alves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the individual profile of blood concentration of creatine kinase CK in elite soccer players as well as to analyze the CK concentrations in different periods during the Professional Brazilian Championship. METHODS: resting CK of 17 soccer players was evaluated before the competition pre-season and after the matches 36 and 46 hours after the games CKGame for the individual blood CK. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the individual CK during the season. The competitive season was divided into three periods: initial, intermediate and final. The one-way ANOVA with repeated measurements followed by post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to compare the individual CK of each soccer player in each competitive period. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: the highest frequency of individual CK was found in the second quartile 71 observations and the lowest frequency in the first 26 observations and the fourth quartile 40 observations compared to the expected number of 45.8 x2=22.21. CK concentrations were lower in the intermediate mean=66.99% and final mean=60.21% periods than in the initial period mean=89.33%. CONCLUSION: soccer players did not show elevated muscle damage and probably a muscle adaptation occurred in the competition, due to the reduction of CK concentrations observed.