WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar radius measurements

  1. Solar radius change between 1925 and 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, S.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J. B.; Fiala, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    From an analysis of numerous reports from different locations on the duration of totality of the solar eclipses on January 24, 1925, and February 26, 1979, it is found that the solar radius at the earlier date was 0.5 arcsec (or 375 km) larger than at the later date. The correction to the standard solar radius found for each eclipse is different when different subsets of the observations are used (for example, edge of path of totality timings compared with central timings). This is seen as suggesting the existence of systematic inaccuracies in our knowledge of the lunar figure. The differences between the corrections for both eclipses, however, are very similar for all subsets considered, indicating that changes of the solar size may be reliably inferred despite the existence of the lunar figure errors so long as there is proper consideration of the distribution of the observations. These results are regarded as strong evidence in support of the occurrence of solar radius changes on shorter than evolutionary time scales.

  2. Solar radius change between 1925 and 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofia, S.; Fiala, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    By analysing numerous reports, from different locations, on the duration of totality of the solar eclipses on 24 January 1925, and on 26 February 1979, it was found that the solar radius at the earlier date was 0.5 arc s, or 375 km larger than at the later date. The correction to the standard solar radius found for each eclipse was different when different subsets of the observations were used (for example, edge of path of totality timings compared with central timings), suggesting the existence of systematic inaccuracies in our knowledge of the lunar figure. However, the differences between the corrections for both eclipses were very similar for all subsets considered, indicating that changes of the solar size may be reliably inferred despite the existence of the lunar figure errors, as long as the proper consideration is made of the distribution of the observations. It is considered that these results are strong evidence in support of the occurrence of solar radius changes on shorter than evolutionary time scales. (author)

  3. Solar Radius at Subterahertz Frequencies and Its Relation to Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana

    2017-12-01

    The Sun emits radiation at several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the optical band, the solar radius is 695 700 km, and this defines the photosphere, which is the visible surface of the Sun. However, as the altitude increases, the electromagnetic radiation is produced at other frequencies, causing the solar radius to change as a function of wavelength. These measurements enable a better understanding of the solar atmosphere, and the radius dependence on the solar cycle is a good indicator of the changes that occur in the atmospheric structure. We measure the solar radius at the subterahertz frequencies of 0.212 and 0.405 THz, which is the altitude at which these emissions are primarily generated, and also analyze the radius variation over the 11-year solar activity cycle. For this, we used radio maps of the solar disk for the period between 1999 and 2017, reconstructed from daily scans made by the Solar Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SST), installed at El Leoncito Astronomical Complex (CASLEO) in the Argentinean Andes. Our measurements yield radii of 966.5'' ±2.8'' for 0.2 THz and 966.5'' ±2.7'' for 0.4 THz. This implies a height of 5.0 ±2.0 ×106 m above the photosphere. Furthermore, we also observed a strong anticorrelation between the radius variation and the solar activity at both frequencies.

  4. A measurement of the pion charge radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Badelek, B.; Batignani, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tonelli, G.; Codino, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Satta, L.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.; Counihan, M.J.; Frank, S.G.F.; Harvey, J.; Storey, D.; Menasce, D.; Meroni, E.; Moroni, L.

    1984-01-01

    We report a measurement of the negative pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of space-like four-momentum transfer 0.014 2 2 . The measurement was made by the NA7 collaboration at the CERN SPS, by observing the interaction of 300 GeV pions with the electrons of a liquid hydrogen target. The form factor is fitted by a pole form with a pion radius of (rho 2 )sup(1/2) = 0.657 +- 0.012 fm. (orig.)

  5. A measurement of the kaon charge radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Gianetti, P.; Giazzotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stefanini, A.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Zallo, A.; Gren, M.G.; Landon, M.P.J.; March, P.V.; Strong, J.A.; Tenchini, R.; Meroni, E.

    1986-01-01

    The negative kaon electromagnetic form factor has been measured in the space-like q 2 range 0.015-0.10 (GeV/c) 2 by the direct scattering of 250 GeV kaons from electrons at the CERN SPS. It is found that the kaon mean square charge radius K 2 >=0.34±0.05 fm 2 . From data collected simultaneously for πe scattering, the difference between the charged pion and kaon mean square radii (which is less sensitive to systematic errors) is found to be π 2 >- K 2 >=0.10±0.045 fm 2 . (orig.)

  6. Determination of variations of the solar radius from solar eclipse observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, S.; Dunham, D. W.; Fiala, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the method to determine the solar radius and its variations from observations made during total solar eclipses. In particular, the procedure to correct the spherical moon predictions for the effects of lunar mountains and valleys on the width and location of the path of totality is addressed in detail. The errors affecting this technique are addressed, a summary of the results of its application to three solar eclipses are presented, and the implications of the results on the constancy of the solar constant are described.

  7. DML and Foil Measurements of ETA Beam Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W; Weir, J

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the ETA beam radius have been made with a quartz foil and a diamagnetic loop (DML). While the measurements agreed at some settings they diverged at others. While the DML measures the rms radius of the total beam, the foil measures mainly the core and the divergence can be explained by the presence of a low density halo. Evidence of such a halo from other measurements is presented

  8. MUSE: Measuring the proton radius with muon-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The proton radius has been measured so far using electron-proton scattering, electronic Hydrogen spectroscopy and muonic Hydrogen spectroscopy, the latter producing a much more accurate, but seven sigma different, result, leading to the now famous proton radius puzzle. The MUSE collaboration aims to complete the set of measurements by using muon scattering to determine the proton radius and to shed light on possible explanations of the discrepancy. The talk gives an overview of the experiment motivation and design and a status report on the progress.

  9. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section 886.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... corneal size by superimposing the image of the cornea on a scale at the focal length of the lens of a...

  10. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  11. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  12. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  13. Reliability of radiographic measurements for acute distal radius fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Narelle J.; Asadollahi, Saeed; Parrish, Frank; Ridgway, Jacqueline; Tran, Phong; Keating, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The management of distal radial fractures is guided by the interpretation of radiographic findings. The aim of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-observer reliability of eight traditionally reported anatomic radiographic parameters in adults with an acute distal radius fracture. Five observers participated. All were routinely involved in making treatment decisions based on distal radius fracture radiographs. Observers performed independent repeated measurements on 30 radiographs for eight anatomical parameters: dorsal shift (mm), intra-articular gap (mm), intra-articular step (mm), palmar tilt (degrees), radial angle (degrees), radial height (mm), radial shift (mm), ulnar variance (mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the magnitude of retest errors were calculated. Measurement reliability was summarised as high (ICC > 0.80), moderate (0.60–0.80) or low (<0.60). Intra-observer reliability was high for dorsal shift and palmar tilt; moderate for radial angle, radial height, ulnar variance and radial shift; and low for intra-articular gap and step. Inter-observer reliability was high for palmar tilt; moderate for dorsal shift, ulnar variance, radial angle and radial height; and low for radial shift, intra-articular gap and step. Error magnitude (95 % confidence interval) was within 1–2 mm for intra-articular gap and step, 2–4 mm for ulnar variance, 4–6 mm for radial shift, dorsal shift and radial height, and 6–8° for radial angle and palmar tilt. Based on previous reports of critical values for palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle, error margins appear small enough for measurements to be useful in guiding treatment decisions. Our findings indicate that clinicians cannot reliably measure values ≤1 mm for intra-articular gap and step when interpreting radiographic parameters using the standardised methods investigated in this study. As a guide for treatment selection, palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle

  14. Radius Determination of Solar-type Stars Using Asteroseismology: What to Expect from the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stello, Dennis; Chaplin, William J.; Bruntt, Hans; Creevey, Orlagh L.; García-Hernández, Antonio; Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G.; Moya, Andrés; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Sousa, Sergio G.; Suárez, Juan-Carlos; Appourchaux, Thierry; Arentoft, Torben; Ballot, Jerome; Bedding, Timothy R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Elsworth, Yvonne; Fletcher, Stephen T.; García, Rafael A.; Houdek, Günter; Jiménez-Reyes, Sebastian J.; Kjeldsen, Hans; New, Roger; Régulo, Clara; Salabert, David; Toutain, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    For distant stars, as observed by the NASA Kepler satellite, parallax information is currently of fairly low quality and is not complete. This limits the precision with which the absolute sizes of the stars and their potential transiting planets can be determined by traditional methods. Asteroseismology will be used to aid the radius determination of stars observed during NASA's Kepler mission. We report on the recent asteroFLAG hare-and-hounds Exercise#2, where a group of "hares" simulated data of F-K main-sequence stars that a group of "hounds" sought to analyze, aimed at determining the stellar radii. We investigated stars in the range 9 values of the artificial stars to within 3%, when the large frequency spacing is used. This is 5-10 times better than the results where seismology is not applied. These results give strong confidence that radius estimation can be performed to better than 3% for solar-like stars using automatic pipeline reduction. Even when the stellar distance and luminosity are unknown we can obtain the same level of agreement. Given the uncertainties used for this exercise we find that the input log g and parallax do not help to constrain the radius, and that T eff and metallicity are the only parameters we need in addition to the large frequency spacing. It is the uncertainty in the metallicity that dominates the uncertainty in the radius.

  15. Erratum: Correction to: Solar Radius at Subterahertz Frequencies and Its Relation to Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana

    2018-06-01

    Correction to: Solar Phys (2017) 292:195 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-017-1216-y In this article we forgot to acknowledge the financial support for operation of the Solar Submillimeter Telescope (SST) from FAPESP (Proc. #2013/24155-3) and AFOSR Grant #FA9550-16-1-0072. The authors apologize for this negligence.

  16. Measuring Atmospheric Abundances and Rotation of a Brown Dwarf with a Measured Mass and Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkby, Jayne

    2015-08-01

    There are no cool brown dwarfs with both a well-characterized atmosphere and a measured mass and radius. LHS 6343, a brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to tie theoretical atmospheric models to the observed brown dwarf mass-radius diagram. We propose four half-nights of observations with NIRSPAO in 2015B to measure spectral features in LHS 6343 C by detecting the relative motions of absorption features during the system's orbit. In addition to abundances, we will directly measure the brown dwarf's projected rotational velocity and mass.

  17. New Insights of High-precision Asteroseismology: Acoustic Radius and χ2-matching Method for Solar-like Oscillator KIC 6225718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tao

    2017-01-01

    parameters. In the present work, we adopt the χ2-minimization method but only use the observed high-precision seismic observations (i.e., oscillation frequencies to constrain theoretical models for analyzing solar-like oscillator KIC 6225718. Finally, we find the acoustic radius τ0 is the only global parameter that can be accurately measured by the χ2-matching method between observed frequencies and theoretical model calculations for a pure p-mode oscillation star. We obtain τ0=4601.5−8.3+4.4 seconds for KIC 6225718. It leads that the mass and radius of the CMMs are degenerate with each other. In addition, we find that the distribution range of acoustic radius is slightly enlarged by some extreme cases, which posses both a larger mass and a higher (or lower metal abundance, at the lower acoustic radius end.

  18. New Insights of High-precision Asteroseismology: Acoustic Radius and χ2-matching Method for Solar-like Oscillator KIC 6225718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Li, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for probing stellar interiors and determining stellar fundamental parameters. In the present work, we adopt the χ2-minimization method but only use the observed high-precision seismic observations (i.e., oscillation frequencies) to constrain theoretical models for analyzing solar-like oscillator KIC 6225718. Finally, we find the acoustic radius τ0 is the only global parameter that can be accurately measured by the χ2-matching method between observed frequencies and theoretical model calculations for a pure p-mode oscillation star. We obtain seconds for KIC 6225718. It leads that the mass and radius of the CMMs are degenerate with each other. In addition, we find that the distribution range of acoustic radius is slightly enlarged by some extreme cases, which posses both a larger mass and a higher (or lower) metal abundance, at the lower acoustic radius end.

  19. The separatrix radius measurement of field-reversed configuration plasma in FRX-L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shouyin; Tejero, Erik M.; Taccetti, Jose Martin; Wurden, Glen A.; Intrator, Thomas; Waganaar, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic pick-up coils and single turn flux loops are installed on the FRX-L device. The combination of the two measurements provides the excluded flux radius that approximates the separatrix radius of the field-reversed configuration plasma. Arrays of similar probes are used to map out local magnetic field dynamics beyond both ends of the theta-coil confinement region to help understand the effects of cusp locations on flux trapping during the FRC formation process. Details on the probe design and system calibrations are presented. The overall system calibration of excluded flux radius measurement is examined by replacing FRC plasma with a known radius aluminum conductor cylinder.

  20. Design of roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error for cylindrical components with large radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao

    2016-02-01

    The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius.

  1. Does bone measurement on the radius indicate skeletal status. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Chesney, R.W.; Lange, T.A.; Lindgren, U.; Smith, E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Single-photon (I-125) absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) of the distal third of the radius, and dual-photon absorptiometry (Gd-153) was used to measure total-body bone mineral (TBBM), as well as the BMC of major skeletal regions. Measurements were done in normal females, normal males, osteoporotic females, osteoporotic males, and renal patients. The BMC of the radius predicted TBBM well in normal subjects, but was less satisfactory in the patient groups. The spinal BMC was predicted with even lower accuracy from radius measurement. The error in predicting areal density (bone mass per unit projected skeletal area) of the lumbar and thoracic spine from the radius BMC divided by its width was smaller, but the regressions differed significantly among normals, osteoporotics, and renal patients. There was a preferential spinal osteopenia in the osteoporotic group and in about half of the renal patients. Bone measurements on the radius can indicate overall skeletal status in normal subjects and to a lesser degree in patients, but these radius measurements are inaccurate, even on the average, as an indicator of spinal state

  2. Study on Oneself Developed to Apparatus Position of Measurement of BMD in the Distal Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Seok; Song, Jae Yong; Lee, Hyun Kuk; Yu, Se Jong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of bone mineral density according to distal radius rotation and to develop the supporting tool to measure rotation angles. CT scanning and the measurement of BMD by DXA of the appropriate position of the forearm were performed on 20 males. Twenty healthy volunteers without any history of operations, anomalies, or trauma were enrolled. The CT scan was used to evaluate the cross sectional structure and the rotation angle on the horizontal plane of the distal radius. The rotational angle was measured by the m-view program on the PACS monitor. The DXA was used in 20 dried radii of cadaveric specimens in pronation and supination with five and ten degrees, respectively, including a neutral position (zero degrees) to evaluate the changes of BMD according to the rotation. The mean rotation angle of the distal radius on CT was 7.4 degrees of supination in 16 cases (80%), 3.3 degrees of pronation in three cases (15%), and zero degree of neutral in one case (9%), respectively. The total average rotation angle in 20 people was 5.4 degrees of supination. In the cadaveric study, the BMD of the distal radius was different according to the rotational angles. The lowest BMD was obtained at 3.3 degrees of supination. In the case of the measurement of BMD in the distal radius with a neutral position, the rotational angle of the distal radius is close to supination. Pronation is needed for the constant measurement of BMD in the distal radius with the rotation angle measuring at the lowest BMD and about five degrees of pronation of the distal radius is recommended.

  3. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  4. Measurements of the Minimum Bending Radius of Small Diameter Scintillating Plastic Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Lukas; Vaananen, Mika Petteri; Gavardi, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The minimum bending radius of plastic fibres is an important parameter as it determines the geometrical flexibility of the fibres during long-term storage or installation and usage inside detectors. The following document describes measurements of the minimum bending radius of round scintillating plastic fibres with small diameter performed in the context of the LHCb SciFi Tracker project. The experimental set-up is based on measuring the light output of a bent fibre in response to 1 MeV electrons over several days. The results suggest that the 250 μm diameter fibres can be bent to a radius of about 10 mm without damaging and losing light.

  5. Solar Radius Determination from Sodism/Picard and HMI/SDO Observations of the Decrease of the Spectral Solar Radiance during the 2012 June Venus Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Couvidat, S.; Bush, R.; Hochedez, J.-F.

    2014-03-01

    On 2012 June 5-6, the transit of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing a well-defined object, namely, the planet and its atmosphere, partially occulting the Sun. A new method has been developed to estimate the solar radius during a planetary transit. It is based on the estimation of the spectral solar radiance decrease in a region around the contact between the planet and the Sun at the beginning of the ingress and at the end of the egress. The extrapolation to zero of the radiance decrease versus the Sun-to-Venus apparent angular distance allows estimation of the solar radius at the time of first and fourth contacts. This method presents the advantage of being almost independent on the plate scale, the distortion, the refraction by the planetary atmosphere, and on the point-spread function of the imager. It has been applied to two space solar visible imagers, SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO. The found results are mutually consistent, despite their different error budgets: 959.''85 ± 0.''19 (1σ) for SODISM at 607.1 nm and 959.''90 ± 0.''06 (1σ) for HMI at 617.3 nm.

  6. Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the 2012 June Venus transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Couvidat, S.; Bush, R.

    2014-01-01

    On 2012 June 5-6, the transit of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing a well-defined object, namely, the planet and its atmosphere, partially occulting the Sun. A new method has been developed to estimate the solar radius during a planetary transit. It is based on the estimation of the spectral solar radiance decrease in a region around the contact between the planet and the Sun at the beginning of the ingress and at the end of the egress. The extrapolation to zero of the radiance decrease versus the Sun-to-Venus apparent angular distance allows estimation of the solar radius at the time of first and fourth contacts. This method presents the advantage of being almost independent on the plate scale, the distortion, the refraction by the planetary atmosphere, and on the point-spread function of the imager. It has been applied to two space solar visible imagers, SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO. The found results are mutually consistent, despite their different error budgets: 959.''85 ± 0.''19 (1σ) for SODISM at 607.1 nm and 959.''90 ± 0.''06 (1σ) for HMI at 617.3 nm.

  7. Laser confocal measurement system for curvature radius of lenses based on grating ruler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiwei; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Nan; Zhao, Weirui; Zhao, Weiqian

    2015-02-01

    In the modern optical measurement field, the radius of curvature (ROC) is one of the fundamental parameters of optical lens. Its measurement accuracy directly affects the other optical parameters, such as focal length, aberration and so on, which significantly affect the overall performance of the optical system. To meet the demand of measurement instruments for radius of curvature (ROC) with high accuracy in the market, we develop a laser confocal radius measurement system with grating ruler. The system uses the peak point of the confocal intensity curve to precisely identify the cat-eye and confocal positions and then measure the distance between these two positions by using the grating ruler, thereby achieving the high-precision measurement for the ROC. The system has advantages of high focusing sensitivity and anti-environment disturbance ability. And the preliminary theoretical analysis and experiments show that the measuring repeatability can be up to 0.8 um, which can provide an effective way for the accurate measurement of ROC.

  8. Determination of bone mineral density at distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Hitomi, Go; Murakami, Akihiko; Suemori, Shinji; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishii, Koshi; Hiji, Hiroo

    1988-01-01

    We have discussed the index of the bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal radius measured by single photon absorptiometry. Initially, the shape at the distal radius was evaluated using an X-ray photogram of the forearm and a calculation formula of the cross-sectional area at the distal radius was performed using an X-CT photogram of the forearm. A new index for the bone mineral density (modified BMD, mBMD), bone mineral content/cross-sectional area, at the distal radius was obtained for 154 young normal subjects (20 ∼ 44 yrs.). No significant differences in the mBMD values between young normal males and females, except for the group 20 ∼ 24 year-old group, were observed. Furthermore, a significantly decreased in the mBMD values with aging was observed in females between the ages of 20 ∼ 24 and 40 ∼ 44. However, no significant changes in the mBMD values were recognized in the men. Thus, it was shown that the new BMD index, mBMD, was useful for evaluating the changes of the bone mass. (author)

  9. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  10. The radius and mass of the close solar twin 18 Scorpii derived from asteroseismology and interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazot, M.; Ireland, M.J.; Huber, D.

    2011-01-01

    Sco. We observed the star during 12 nights with HARPS for seismology and used the PAVO beam-combiner at CHARA for interferometry. An average large frequency separation 134.4 ± 0.3 μHz and angular and linear radiuses of 0.6759 ± 0.0062 mas and 1.010 ± 0.009 Rsun were estimated. We used these values...

  11. Finite grid radius and thickness effects on retarding potential analyzer measured suprathermal electron density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of finite grid radius and thickness on the electron current measured by planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) is analyzed numerically. Depending on the plasma environment, the current is significantly reduced below that which is calculated using a theoretical equation derived for an idealized RPA having grids with infinite radius and vanishingly small thickness. A correction factor to the idealized theoretical equation is derived for the Pioneer Venus (PV) orbiter RPA (ORPA) for electron gases consisting of one or more components obeying Maxwell statistics. The error in density and temperature of Maxwellian electron distributions previously derived from ORPA data using the theoretical expression for the idealized ORPA is evaluated by comparing the densities and temperatures derived from a sample of PV ORPA data using the theoretical expression with and without the correction factor

  12. Measurements of Physical Parameters of White Dwarfs: A Test of the Mass–Radius Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bédard, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G., E-mail: bedard@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: fontaine@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2017-10-10

    We present a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of 219 DA and DB white dwarfs for which trigonometric parallax measurements are available. Our aim is to compare the physical parameters derived from the spectroscopic and photometric techniques, and then to test the theoretical mass–radius relation for white dwarfs using these results. The agreement between spectroscopic and photometric parameters is found to be excellent, especially for effective temperatures, showing that our model atmospheres and fitting procedures provide an accurate, internally consistent analysis. The values of surface gravity and solid angle obtained, respectively, from spectroscopy and photometry, are combined with parallax measurements in various ways to study the validity of the mass–radius relation from an empirical point of view. After a thorough examination of our results, we find that 73% and 92% of the white dwarfs are consistent within 1 σ and 2 σ confidence levels, respectively, with the predictions of the mass–radius relation, thus providing strong support to the theory of stellar degeneracy. Our analysis also allows us to identify 15 stars that are better interpreted in terms of unresolved double degenerate binaries. Atmospheric parameters for both components in these binary systems are obtained using a novel approach. We further identify a few white dwarfs that are possibly composed of an iron core rather than a carbon/oxygen core, since they are consistent with Fe-core evolutionary models.

  13. Geneva University - Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 12 May 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen: the proton radius puzzle Dr Aldo Antogninia , CREMA Collaboration, Max Planck Institute, Germany At the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland, we have measured several 2S-2P transition frequencies in muonic hydrogen (µp) and deuterium (µd) by means of laser spectroscopy. This results in an order of magnitude improvement on the rms charge radius values of the proton and the deuteron. Additionally the Zemach radii and the deuteron polarizability are also inferred. The new proton radius value is deduced with a relative accuracy of 0.1% but strongly disagrees from CODATA. The origin of this discrepancy is not yet known. It may come from theo...

  14. Proposed geological solar neutrino measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.A.; Haxton, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    It may be possible to measure the boron-8 solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of technetium-98 in molybdenum-rich ore. This geochemical experiment could provide the first test of nonstandard solar models that suggest a relation between the chlorine-37 solar neutrino puzzle and the most recent glacial epoch. The necessary conditions for achieving a meaningful measurement are identified and discussed

  15. Measurement of Gaussian laser beam radius using the knife-edge technique: improvement on data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Marcos A. de; Silva, Rubens; Lima, Emerson de; Pereira, Daniel P.; Oliveira, Paulo C. de

    2009-01-01

    We revisited the well known Khosrofian and Garetz inversion algorithm [Appl. Opt.22, 3406-3410 (1983)APOPAI0003-6935] that was developed to analyze data obtained by the application of the traveling knife-edge technique. We have analyzed the approximated fitting function that was used for adjusting their experimental data and have found that it is not optimized to work with a full range of the experimentally-measured data. We have numerically calculated a new set of coefficients, which makes the approximated function suitable for a full experimental range, considerably improving the accuracy of the measurement of a radius of a focused Gaussian laser beam

  16. Radius of curvature measurement of spherical smooth surfaces by multiple-beam interferometry in reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, D. G.; Shaalan, M. S.; Eloker, M. M.; Kim, Daesuk

    2010-06-01

    In this paper a method is presented to accurately measure the radius of curvature of different types of curved surfaces of different radii of curvatures of 38 000,18 000 and 8000 mm using multiple-beam interference fringes in reflection. The images captured by the digital detector were corrected by flat fielding method. The corrected images were analyzed and the form of the surfaces was obtained. A 3D profile for the three types of surfaces was obtained using Zernike polynomial fitting. Some sources of uncertainty in measurement were calculated by means of ray tracing simulations and the uncertainty budget was estimated within λ/40.

  17. Measurement of humerus and radius bone mineral content in the term and preterm infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyhmeister, N.R.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We compared two anatomic sites for single-photon absorptiometric measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in term and preterm infants. The distal one third of the radius and the midportion of the humerus were evaluated for measurements of BMC with an unmodified, commercially available bone densitometer. We assessed reproducibility of BMC and bone width (BW) measurements and defined normal at-birth ranges of BMC, BW, and BMC/BW ratio for infants with gestational ages of 24 to 42 weeks. Humerus BMC correlated with gestational age, birth weight, and BW of patients and did not differ from humerus BMC values determined over the same range of gestational ages at another center. Representative serial measurements of two very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of using humerus BMC in longitudinal studies to assess changes in bone mineralization. We conclude that bone densitometer measurements of mid-humerus BMC can be successfully performed and are preferable to similar measurements of the radius for VLBW infants. Normal humerus BMC values were defined for use in diagnosis and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment in VLBW infants who are at high risk of developing osteopenia of prematurity

  18. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaat Siti Amely; Othman Mohamad Hilmi

    2018-01-01

    This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR) sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was...

  19. [ESTABLISHMENT OF A NEW RADIUS DEFECT MODEL BASED ON ULNA ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENT IN RABBITS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjiang; Guo, Ying; Mei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    To introduce a new bone defect model based on the anatomical measurement of radius and ulna in rabbits for offering a standard model for further tissue engineering research. Fifteen healthy 4-month-old New Zealand rabbits were selected for anatomic measurement and radiological measurement of the radius and ulna. Another 30 healthy 4-month-old New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C (n=10). The radius bone defect was created bilaterally in 3 groups. In group A, the periosteum and interosseous membranes were fully removed with jig-saw by approach between extensor carpi radialis muscle and musculus extensor digitorum. The periosteum and interosseous membranes were fully removed in group B, and only periosteum was removed in group C with electric-saw by approach between extensor carpi radialis muscle and flexor digitorum profundus based on anatomical analysis results of ulnar and radial measurement. The gross observation, X-ray, micro-CT three-dimensional reconstruction, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were observed and recorded at immediate and 15 weeks after operation. HE staining and Masson staining were performed to observe bone formation in the defect areas. Blood vessel injury (1 rabbit), tendon injury (2 rabbits), postoperative hematoma (1 rabbit), and infection (1 rabbit) occurred in group A, postoperative infection (1 rabbit) in group C, and no postoperative complications in group B; the complication rate of group A (50%) was significantly higher than that of groups B (0%) and C (10%) (P0.05). HE staining and Masson staining results showed bone formation in group A, with structure disturbance and sclerosis. New bone formed in groups B and C, cartilage cells were observed in the center of bone cells. The radius bone defect model established by approach between extensor carpi radialis muscle and flexor digitorum profundus is an ideal model because of better exposures, less intra-operative blood loss, less

  20. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  1. Measurement Of Neutron Radius In Lead By Parity Violating Scattering Flash ADC DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zafar [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This dissertation reports the experiment PREx, a parity violation experiment which is designed to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. PREx is performed in hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from March 19th to June 21st. Longitudionally polarized electrons at energy 1 GeV scattered at and angle of θlab = 5.8 ° from the Lead target. Beam corrected pairty violaing counting rate asymmetry is (Acorr= 594 ± 50(stat) ± 9(syst))ppb at Q2 = 0.009068GeV 2. This dissertation also presents the details of Flash ADC Data Acquisition(FADC DAQ) system for Moller polarimetry in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The Moller polarimeter measures the beam polarization to high precision to meet the specification of the PREx(Lead radius experiment). The FADC DAQ is part of the upgrade of Moller polarimetery to reduce the systematic error for PREx. The hardware setup and the results of the FADC DAQ analysis are presented

  2. Solar Measurement and Modeling | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement and Modeling Solar Measurement and Modeling NREL supports grid integration studies , industry, government, and academia by disseminating solar resource measurements, models, and best practices have continuously gathered basic solar radiation information, and they now gather high-resolution data

  3. ALFVEN WAVE REFLECTION AND TURBULENT HEATING IN THE SOLAR WIND FROM 1 SOLAR RADIUS TO 1 AU: AN ANALYTICAL TREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    We study the propagation, reflection, and turbulent dissipation of Alfven waves in coronal holes and the solar wind. We start with the Heinemann-Olbert equations, which describe non-compressive magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations in an inhomogeneous medium with a background flow parallel to the background magnetic field. Following the approach of Dmitruk et al., we model the nonlinear terms in these equations using a simple phenomenology for the cascade and dissipation of wave energy and assume that there is much more energy in waves propagating away from the Sun than waves propagating toward the Sun. We then solve the equations analytically for waves with periods of hours and longer to obtain expressions for the wave amplitudes and turbulent heating rate as a function of heliocentric distance. We also develop a second approximate model that includes waves with periods of roughly one minute to one hour, which undergo less reflection than the longer-period waves, and compare our models to observations. Our models generalize the phenomenological model of Dmitruk et al. by accounting for the solar wind velocity, so that the turbulent heating rate can be evaluated from the coronal base out past the Alfven critical point-that is, throughout the region in which most of the heating and acceleration occurs. The simple analytical expressions that we obtain can be used to incorporate Alfven-wave reflection and turbulent heating into fluid models of the solar wind.

  4. Multi-Segment Radius Measurement Using an Absolute Distance Meter Through a Null Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Cormic; Wick, Eric; Hayden, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This system was one of the test methods considered for measuring the radius of curvature of one or more of the 18 segmented mirrors that form the 6.5 m diameter primary mirror (PM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The assembled telescope will be tested at cryogenic temperatures in a 17-m diameter by 27-m high vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center. This system uses a Leica Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), at a wavelength of 780 nm, combined with beam-steering and beam-shaping optics to make a differential distance measurement between a ring mirror on the reflective null assembly and individual PM segments. The ADM is located inside the same Pressure-Tight Enclosure (PTE) that houses the test interferometer. The PTE maintains the ADM and interferometer at ambient temperature and pressure so that they are not directly exposed to the telescope s harsh cryogenic and vacuum environment. This system takes advantage of the existing achromatic objective and reflective null assembly used by the test interferometer to direct four ADM beamlets to four PM segments through an optical path that is coincident with the interferometer beam. A mask, positioned on a linear slide, contains an array of 1.25 mm diameter circular subapertures that map to each of the 18 PM segments as well as six positions around the ring mirror. A down-collimated 4 mm ADM beam simultaneously covers 4 adjacent PM segment beamlets and one ring mirror beamlet. The radius, or spacing, of all 18 segments can be measured with the addition of two orthogonally-oriented scanning pentaprisms used to steer the ADM beam to any one of six different sub-aperture configurations at the plane of the ring mirror. The interferometer beam, at a wavelength of 687 nm, and the ADM beamlets, at a wavelength of 780 nm, pass through the objective and null so that the rays are normally incident on the parabolic PM surface. After reflecting off the PM, both the ADM and interferometer beams return to their respective

  5. LH2 Target Design & Position Survey Techniques for the MUSE experiment for Precise Proton Radius Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pottier, Luc; Roy, Pryiashee; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Raymond, Richard; Steinberg, Noah; Rossi de La Fuente, Erick; MUSE (MUon proton Scattering Experiment) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The proton radius puzzle is a currently unresolved problem which has intrigued the scientific community, dealing with a 7 σ discrepancy between the proton radii determined from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron scattering measurements. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) aims to resolve this puzzle by performing the first simultaneous elastic scattering measurements of both electrons and muons on the proton, which will allow the comparison of the radii from the two interactions with reduced systematic uncertainties. The data from this experiment is expected to provide the best test of lepton universality to date. The experiment will take place at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland in 2018. An essential component of the experiment is a liquid hydrogen (LH2) cryotarget system. Our group at the University of Michigan is responsible for the design, fabrication and installation of this system. Here we present our LH2 target cell design and fabrication techniques for successful operation at 20 K and 1 atm, and our computer vision-based target position survey system which will determine the position of the target, installed inside a vacuum chamber, with 0.01 mm or better precision at the height of the liquid hydrogen target and along the beam direction during the experiment.

  6. New Measurement of the 1 S -3 S Transition Frequency of Hydrogen: Contribution to the Proton Charge Radius Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurbaey, Hélène; Galtier, Sandrine; Thomas, Simon; Bonnaud, Marie; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François; Nez, François; Abgrall, Michel; Guéna, Jocelyne

    2018-05-01

    We present a new measurement of the 1 S -3 S two-photon transition frequency of hydrogen, realized with a continuous-wave excitation laser at 205 nm on a room-temperature atomic beam, with a relative uncertainty of 9 ×10-13. The proton charge radius deduced from this measurement, rp=0.877 (13 ) fm , is in very good agreement with the current CODATA-recommended value. This result contributes to the ongoing search to solve the proton charge radius puzzle, which arose from a discrepancy between the CODATA value and a more precise determination of rp from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy.

  7. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaat Siti Amely

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was measured using the current sensor module that can sense the current generated by the solar panel. These parameters as the input value for the Arduino and the output was display at the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD screen. The LCD screen display output of the temperature, the light intensity, the voltage and the current value. The purpose of Arduino to convert the analog input of parameter to the digital output and display via LCD screen. Other than that, this project also involve with a design to ensure that device case are easy to be carry around.

  8. THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE INHOMOGENEITIES ON QUIESCENT NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshamouty, K. G.; Heinke, C. O.; Morsink, S. M.; Stevens, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bogdanov, S., E-mail: alshamou@ualberta.ca [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Fitting the thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent X-ray binaries can constrain the masses and radii of NSs. The effect of undetected hot spots on the spectrum, and thus on the inferred NS mass and radius, has not yet been explored for appropriate atmospheres and spectra. A hot spot would harden the observed spectrum, so that spectral modeling tends to infer radii that are too small. However, a hot spot may also produce detectable pulsations. We simulated the effects of a hot spot on the pulsed fraction and spectrum of the quiescent NSs X5 and X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using appropriate spectra and beaming for hydrogen atmosphere models, incorporating special and general relativistic effects, and sampling a range of system angles. We searched for pulsations in archival Chandra HRC-S observations of X5 and X7, placing 90% confidence upper limits on their pulsed fractions below 16%. We use these pulsation limits to constrain the temperature differential of any hot spots, and to then constrain the effects of possible hot spots on the X-ray spectrum and the inferred radius from spectral fitting. We find that hot spots below our pulsation limit could bias the spectroscopically inferred radius downward by up to 28%. For Cen X-4 (which has deeper published pulsation searches), an undetected hot spot could bias its inferred radius downward by up to 10%. Improving constraints on pulsations from quiescent LMXBs may be essential for progress in constraining their radii.

  9. THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE INHOMOGENEITIES ON QUIESCENT NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshamouty, K. G.; Heinke, C. O.; Morsink, S. M.; Stevens, A. L.; Bogdanov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fitting the thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent X-ray binaries can constrain the masses and radii of NSs. The effect of undetected hot spots on the spectrum, and thus on the inferred NS mass and radius, has not yet been explored for appropriate atmospheres and spectra. A hot spot would harden the observed spectrum, so that spectral modeling tends to infer radii that are too small. However, a hot spot may also produce detectable pulsations. We simulated the effects of a hot spot on the pulsed fraction and spectrum of the quiescent NSs X5 and X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using appropriate spectra and beaming for hydrogen atmosphere models, incorporating special and general relativistic effects, and sampling a range of system angles. We searched for pulsations in archival Chandra HRC-S observations of X5 and X7, placing 90% confidence upper limits on their pulsed fractions below 16%. We use these pulsation limits to constrain the temperature differential of any hot spots, and to then constrain the effects of possible hot spots on the X-ray spectrum and the inferred radius from spectral fitting. We find that hot spots below our pulsation limit could bias the spectroscopically inferred radius downward by up to 28%. For Cen X-4 (which has deeper published pulsation searches), an undetected hot spot could bias its inferred radius downward by up to 10%. Improving constraints on pulsations from quiescent LMXBs may be essential for progress in constraining their radii.

  10. Photometric intensity and polarization measurements of the solar corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdougal, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a satellite photometric observatory (SPO) to measure the solar corona from Miahuatlan, Mexico during the Mar. 7, 1970, total eclipse of the sun. The SPO is equipped with a 24-in. Cassegrainian telescope, a four-channel photoelectric photometer, a Wollaston prism, and a rotating half-wave plate. Simultaneous measurements were made of the two orthogonal components of coronal light in the B and R bands of the UBVRI system. A 1-minute arc aperture was scanned from the lunar disk center out to five solar radii in a series of spirals of gradually increasing radius. For the first time, simultaneous multicolor intensity, degree, and angle of polarization profiles are computed from photoelectric measurements. Comparison of the variations of the measurements for each spiral scan yield a detailed picture of the intensity and polarization features in the K corona.

  11. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.

  12. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagyard, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display

  13. Development of Measurement Device of Working Radius of Crane Based on Single CCD Camera and Laser Range Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Satoru

    In this paper, what we want to do is to develop an observation device to measure the working radius of a crane truck. The device has a single CCD camera, a laser range finder and two AC servo motors. First, in order to measure the working radius, we need to consider algorithm of a crane hook recognition. Then, we attach the cross mark on the crane hook. Namely, instead of the crane hook, we try to recognize the cross mark. Further, for the observation device, we construct PI control system with an extended Kalman filter to track the moving cross mark. Through experiments, we show the usefulness of our device including new control system of mark tracking.

  14. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In contrast to the nuclear charge densities, which have been accurately measured with electron scattering, the knowledge of neutron densities still lack precision. Previous model-dependent hadron experiments suggest the difference between the neutron radius, Rn, of a heavy nucleus and the proton radius, Rp, to be in the order of several percent. To accurately obtain the difference, Rn-Rp, which is essentially a neutron skin, the Jefferson Lab Lead (208Pb) Radius Experiment (PREX) measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb at an energy of 1.06 GeV and a scattering angle of 5° . Since Z0 boson couples mainly to neutrons, this asymmetry provides a clean measurement of Rn with respect to Rp. PREX was conducted at the Jefferson lab experimental Hall A, from March to June 2010. The experiment collected a final data sample of 2x 107 helicity-window quadruplets. The measured parity-violating electroweak asymmetry APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.014 (syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions, Rn-Rp = 0.33+0.16-0.18 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin as expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus. The value of the neutron radius of 208Pb has important implications for models of nuclear structure and their application in atomic physics and astrophysics such as atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and neutron stars.

  15. Crosstalk in solar polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The instrumental crosstalk associated with the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and the solar crosstalk created by the magnetic field are described and their impact on the reconstruction of the solar vector magnetic field is analyzed. It is pointed out that identifying and correcting the crosstalk is important in the development of realistic models describing the solar atmosphere. Solar crosstalk is spatially dependent on the structure of the magnetic field while instrumental crosstalk is dependent on the position of the analyzer.

  16. Radiographical measurements for distal intra-articular fractures of the radius using plain radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suojaervi, Nora; Lindfors, N. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Hand Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Sillat, T.; Koskinen, S.K. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    Operative treatment of an intra-articular distal radius fracture is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic and hand surgery. The intra- and interobserver agreement of common radiographical measurements of these fractures using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and plain radiographs were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients undergoing open reduction and volar fixation for a distal radius fracture were studied. Two radiologists analyzed the preoperative radiographs and CBCT images. Agreement of the measurements was subjected to intra-class correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman analyses. Plain radiographs provided a slightly poorer level of agreement. For fracture diastasis, excellent intraobserver agreement was achieved for radiographs and good or excellent agreement for CBCT, compared to poor interobserver agreement (ICC 0.334) for radiographs and good interobserver agreement (ICC 0.621) for CBCT images. The Bland-Altman analyses indicated a small mean difference between the measurements but rather large variation using both imaging methods, especially in angular measurements. For most of the measurements, radiographs do well, and may be used in clinical practice. Two different measurements by the same reader or by two different readers can lead to different decisions, and therefore a standardization of the measurements is imperative. More detailed analysis of articular surface needs cross-sectional imaging modalities. (orig.)

  17. Radiographical measurements for distal intra-articular fractures of the radius using plain radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suojärvi, Nora; Sillat, T; Lindfors, N; Koskinen, S K

    2015-12-01

    Operative treatment of an intra-articular distal radius fracture is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic and hand surgery. The intra- and interobserver agreement of common radiographical measurements of these fractures using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and plain radiographs were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients undergoing open reduction and volar fixation for a distal radius fracture were studied. Two radiologists analyzed the preoperative radiographs and CBCT images. Agreement of the measurements was subjected to intra-class correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman analyses. Plain radiographs provided a slightly poorer level of agreement. For fracture diastasis, excellent intraobserver agreement was achieved for radiographs and good or excellent agreement for CBCT, compared to poor interobserver agreement (ICC 0.334) for radiographs and good interobserver agreement (ICC 0.621) for CBCT images. The Bland-Altman analyses indicated a small mean difference between the measurements but rather large variation using both imaging methods, especially in angular measurements. For most of the measurements, radiographs do well, and may be used in clinical practice. Two different measurements by the same reader or by two different readers can lead to different decisions, and therefore a standardization of the measurements is imperative. More detailed analysis of articular surface needs cross-sectional imaging modalities.

  18. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; Wong, K.L.; Scott, S.; Hsuan, H.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Tait, G.

    1990-01-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2587 (1985)] with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted Ti XXI Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range 2.1--3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range 1.8--3.0x10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is consistent with theoretical estimates

  20. The measurement of solar magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Solar activity is basically caused by the interaction between magnetic fields, solar rotation and convective motions. Detailed mapping of the Sun's rapidly varying magnetic field helps in the understanding of the mechanisms of solar activity. Observations in recent years have revealed unexpected and intriguing properties of solar magnetic fields, the explanation of which has become a challenge to plasma physicists. This review deals primarily with how the Sun's magnetic field is measured, but it also includes a brief review of the present observational picture of the magnetic field, which is needed to understand the problems of how to properly interpret the observations. 215 references. (author)

  1. In-situ measurements of the ATLAS large-radius jet response in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The response of the ATLAS experiment to groomed large (R=1.0) radius jets is measured {\\em in-situ} with 33 fb−1 of "$\\sqrt$"=13 TeV LHC proton--proton collisions collected in 2016. Results from several methods are combined. The jet transverse momentum scale and resolution are measured in events where the jet recoils against a reference object, either a calibrated photon, another jet, or a recoiling system of jets. The jet mass is constrained using mass peaks formed by boosted W-bosons and top quarks and by comparison to the jet mass calculated with track jets. Generally, the Monte Carlo description is found to be adequate. Small discrepancies are incorporated as {\\em in-situ} corrections. The constraint on the transverse momentum scale is 1-2% for pT< 2 TeV, that on the mass scale 2-4%. The pT (mass) resolution is constrained to 10% (20%).

  2. Measurement of nuclear reaction rates and spectral indices along the radius of fuel pellets from IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, Luis Felipe Liambos

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the measurements of the nuclear reaction rates along the radial direction of the fuel pellet by irradiation and posterior gamma spectrometry of a thin slice of fuel pellet of UO 2 with 4,3% enrichment. From its irradiation the rate of radioactive capture and fission have been measured as a function of the radius of the pellet disk using a HPGe detector. Lead collimators has been used for this purpose. Simulating the fuel pellet in the pin fuel of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, a thin UO 2 disk is used. This disk is inserted in the interior of a dismountable fuel rod. This fuel rod is then placed in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core and irradiated during 1 hour under a neutron flux of around 9 x 10 8 n/cm 2 s. For gamma spectrometry 10 collimators with different diameters have been used, consequently, the nuclear reactions of radioactive capture that occurs in atoms of 238 U and fissions that occur on both 235 U and 238 U are measured in function of 10 different region (diameter of collimator) of the fuel pellet disk. Corrections in the geometric efficiency due to introduction of collimators on HPGe detection system were estimated using photon transport of MCNP-4C code. Some calculated values of nuclear reaction rate of radioactive capture and fission along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet obtained by Monte Carlo methodology, using the MCNP-4C code, are presented and compared to the experimental data showing very good agreement. Besides nuclear reaction rates, the spectral indices 28 ρ and 25 δ have been obtained at each different radius of the fuel pellet disk. (author)

  3. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; Scott, S.; Wong, K.L.

    1986-07-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted TiXXI-Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range from 2.1 to 3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range from 1.8 to 3.0 x 10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is in agreement with results from modeling calculations which assume classical slowing-down of the injected fast deuterium ions and momentum damping at the rate established in the precompression plasma

  4. BMC of radius and ulna measured by mono-photon absorptiometry of 7972 individuals living in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongfu; Weng Shifang; Liu Dexi; Li Xingdi; Dai Suhua; Chen Gongming; Feng Xiao

    1992-01-01

    The bone mineral contents (BMC) of radius and ulna of 7972 individuals of 4-90 years old living in Shanghai were measured by GMYY-1 bone mineral detector, which is based on γ-ray absorptiometry technique. The results obtained showed that the BMC at 4-19 years old increased yearly, the growing rate being quicker in males than in females. The BMC of 20 to 29 years old group grew slowly and remained relatively constant at years 30-39. Then it started to fall down when the age was over 40 years old. The speed of reduction in females was 2 or 3 times quicker than that in males. The BMC was obviously decreased when females were above 50 years old and males were above 60 years old

  5. Footprint radius of a cosmic-ray neutron probe for measuring soil-water content and its spatiotemporal variability in an alpine meadow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuchao; Cao, Ruixue; Shao, Mingan; Liang, Yin

    2018-03-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron probes (CRNPs) have footprint radii for measuring soil-water content (SWC). The theoretical radius is much larger at high altitude, such as the northern Tibetan Plateau, than the radius at sea level. The most probable practical radius of CRNPs for the northern Tibetan Plateau, however, is not known due to the lack of SWC data in this hostile environment. We calculated the theoretical footprint of the CRNP based on a recent simulation and analyzed the practical radius of a CRNP for the northern Tibetan Plateau by measuring SWC at 113 sampling locations on 21 measuring occasions to a depth of 30 cm in a 33.5 ha plot in an alpine meadow at 4600 m a.s.l. The temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of SWC within the footprint were then analyzed. The theoretical footprint radius was between 360 and 420 m after accounting for the influences of air humidity, soil moisture, vegetation and air pressure. A comparison of SWCs measured by the CRNP and a neutron probe from access tubes in circles with different radii conservatively indicated that the most probable experimental footprint radius was >200 m. SWC within the CRNP footprint was moderately variable over both time and space, but the temporal variability was higher. Spatial heterogeneity was weak, but should be considered in future CRNP calibrations. This study provided theoretical and practical bases for the application and promotion of CRNPs in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. The K-meson form factor and charge radius: linking low-energy data to future Jefferson Laboratory measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutov, A.F. [Samara University, Samara (Russian Federation); Troitsky, S.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow (Russian Federation); Troitsky, V.E. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Starting from a successful model of the π-meson electromagnetic form factor, we calculate a similar form factor, F{sub K}(Q{sup 2}), of the charged K meson for a wide range of the momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}. The only remaining free parameter is to be determined from the measurements of the K-meson charge radius, r{sub K}. We fit this single parameter to the published data of the NA-7 experiment which measured F{sub K}(Q{sup 2}) at Q{sup 2} → 0 and determine our preferred range of r{sub K}, which happens to be close to recent lattice results. Still, the accuracy in the determination of r{sub K} is poor. However, future measurements of the K-meson electromagnetic form factor at Q{sup 2}

  7. Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WD15387, "Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells" was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and te international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

  8. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopyguided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of > or = 2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  9. Distal radius fracture arthroscopic intraarticular displacement measurement after open reduction and internal fixation from a volar approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Furuta, Kazuhiko; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Katayama, Takeshi; Akahane, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess articular surface reduction arthroscopically after volar locked-plate fixation of distal radius fractures (DRFs) via fluoroscopy-guided open reduction/internal fixation. We also aimed to develop preoperative radiographic criteria to help assist in determining which DRFs may need arthroscopic evaluation. A total of 31 consecutive patients with DRF were prospectively enrolled. Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs as well as axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were obtained just after attempted reduction of the DRF. The widest articular displacement at the radiocarpal joint surface of the distal radius (preopD) was then measured using a digital radiography imaging system. The DRF was reduced under fluoroscopy, and a volar locked plate was applied. The degree of residual articular displacement was then measured arthroscopically, and the maximum displacement (postopD) was measured with a calibrated probe. Of the 31 patients, 7 had an arthroscopically assessed maximum postopD of ≥2 mm after internal fixation. The correlation coefficients between each preopD and postopD of all radiographs and CTs were statistically significant. The cutoff values were 0.5 mm for PA radiographs, 2.10 mm for lateral radiographs, 2.15 mm for axial CT scans, 3.15 mm for coronal CT scans, and 1.20 mm for sagittal CT scans. All cutoff values for PA and lateral radiographs and for axial, coronal, and sagittal CT scans were unsuitable as screening criteria for arthroscopic reduction of DRF because of their low sensitivities and specificities. The cutoff value of the new preopD (the sum of the preopDs determined by lateral radiography and coronal CT scan) was 5.80 mm, and its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Because a new preopD cutoff value of 5.80 mm is a good indicator for residual articular displacement after internal fixation of >2 mm, it is also a good indicator for the need for arthroscopic evaluation after

  10. Measurement tolerance analysis of solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimo, J.; Maderkova, L.; Horak, J.; Igaz, D.; Pasztorova, S. [Department of Biomereorlogy and Hydrology, Slovak Agriculture University, Nitra (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01

    Solar radiant energy is bane and almost the only one source of heat for Earth 's surface and for atmosphere, and almost the only one source of energy for physical processes. Solar energy is one of the most available and the most ecological energy source. Currently the firm Kipp and Zonen belongs to prominent producer of sensors for measuring of global radiation. These sensors are the most used in our country and also in network of meteorological measurements of WMO. Therefore the two types of measuring sensors for global radiation (pyranometer PMP6, CMP 11) in comparison with calculation method Savin-Angstrom are analysed. (author)

  11. On the neutron charge radius and the new experiments proposed for the precise (n,e) - scattering length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enik, T.L.; Mitsyna, L.V.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Oprea, I.A.; Parzhitsky, S.S.; Popov, A.B.; Samosvat, G.S.; Vtiuryn, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    Relationship between the n,e scattering length, b ne , the neutron mean square charge radius n 2 > and anomalous magnetic moment μ n , the quantities which characterize the internal structure of the neutron, was investigated. The performed analysis showed that in the framework of the modern cloudy bag model (CBM) of the nucleon the values of b ne is determined by the value of n 2 > without the so-called Foldy term being taken into account, while in the framework of the phenomenological Foldy approach the experimental values of ne > obtained up to date can be described only by this Foldy term within an accuracy of about 10%, i.e. by the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron, μ n . Then a necessity is obvious to obtain b ne with higher accuracy than in previous experiments. To remove the contradictions in the experimental b ne estimates, new experiments to measure the energy dependence of the slow neutron scattering cross section by 86 Kr and scattering anisotropy on Xe isotopes, have been proposed. The investigation has been performed at Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR. (authors)

  12. Seismological measurement of solar helium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, S.V.; Pamyatnykh, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The internal structure and evolution of the Sun depends on its chemical composition, particularly the helium abundance. In addition, the helium abundance in the solar envelope is thought to represent the protosolar value, making it a datum of cosmological significance. Spectroscopic measurements of the helium abundance are uncertain, and the most reliable estimates until now have come from the calibration of solar evolutionary models. The frequencies of solar acoustic oscillations are sensitive, however, to the behaviour of the speed of sound in the Sun's helium ionization zone, which allows a helioseismological determination of the helium abundance. Sound-speed inversion of helioseismological data can be used for this purpose, but precise frequency measurements of high-degree oscillation modes are needed. Here we describe a new approach based on an analysis of the phase shift of acoustic waves of intermediate-degree modes. From the accurate intermediate-mode data now available, we obtain a helium mass fraction Y=0.25±0.01 in the solar convection zone, significantly smaller than the value Y=0.27-0.29 predicted by recent solar evolutionary models. The discrepancy indicates either that initial helium abundance was reduced in the envelope by downward diffusion or that the protosolar value was lower than currently accepted. (author)

  13. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesini, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The FAMU (Fisica degli Atomi Muonici) experiment has the goal to measure precisely the proton Zemach radius, thus contributing to the solution of the so-called proton radius "puzzle". To this aim, it makes use of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam at RIKEN-RAL impinging on a cryogenic hydrogen target with an high-Z gas admixture and a tunable mid-IR high power laser, to measure the hyperfine (HFS) splitting of the 1S state of the muonic hydrogen. From the value of the exciting laser frequency, the energy of the HFS transition may be derived with high precision ( 10-5) and thus, via QED calculations, the Zemach radius of the proton. The experimental apparatus includes a precise fiber-SiPMT beam hodoscope and a crown of eight LaBr3 crystals and a few HPGe detectors for detection of the emitted characteristic X-rays. Preliminary runs to optimize the gas target filling and its operating conditions have been taken in 2014 and 2015-2016. The final run, with the pump laser to drive the HFS transition, is expected in 2018.

  14. Spectral and electronic measurements of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mamoru; Hanyu, Mitsuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The spectral data of solar radiation are necessary if detailed discussion is intended in relation to the utilization of solar energy. Since those data have not been fully prepared so far, a measuring equipment developed in Electro-technical Laboratory to obtain those data is described. The laboratory is now continuing the measurement at the wavelength of 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm. The equipment employs the system to always calibrate with the standard light source, it can measure both the direct light of the sun only and the sun light including sky light, and it enables to obtain the value based on the secondary standard of spectral illumination intensity established by the laboratory. The solar spectral irradiance is determined with the current readings of photomultiplier in the standard light source and the sun-light measurements at a wavelength and with the spectral illumination intensity from the standard light source. In order to practice such measurement many times at various wavelengths, control of the equipment, data collection, computation, drawing and listing are performed by a microcomputer. As an example, the data on Sept. 10, 1976, are shown comparing the graphs at three different hours. It can be well observed that the transmissivity attenuates with shorter wavelength, and the transmissivity in near infra-red region changes greatly due to the absorption of radiation by water vapour. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. On the proton radius problem

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, M. M.; Santopinto, E.

    2013-01-01

    The recent values of the proton charge radius obtained by means of muonic-hydrogen laser spectroscopy are about $4\\%$ different from the electron scattering data. It has been suggested that the proton radius is actually measured in different frames and that, starting from a non relativistic quark model calculation, the Lorentz transformation of the form factors accounts properly for the discepancy. We shall show that the relation between the charge radii measured in different frames can be de...

  16. Comparison of 2D radiography and a semi-automatic CT-based 3D method for measuring change in dorsal angulation over time in distal radius fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Albert; Larsson, Sune [Uppsala University, Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala (Sweden); Nysjoe, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Sintorn, Ida-Maria; Nystroem, Ingela [Uppsala University, Centre for Image Analysis, Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Lars [Uppsala University, Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, UCR Statistics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the reliability and agreement between a computer tomography-based method (CT) and digitalised 2D radiographs (XR) when measuring change in dorsal angulation over time in distal radius fractures. Radiographs from 33 distal radius fractures treated with external fixation were retrospectively analysed. All fractures had been examined using both XR and CT at six times over 6 months postoperatively. The changes in dorsal angulation between the first reference images and the following examinations in every patient were calculated from 133 follow-up measurements by two assessors and repeated at two different time points. The measurements were analysed using Bland-Altman plots, comparing intra- and inter-observer agreement within and between XR and CT. The mean differences in intra- and inter-observer measurements for XR, CT, and between XR and CT were close to zero, implying equal validity. The average intra- and inter-observer limits of agreement for XR, CT, and between XR and CT were ± 4.4 , ± 1.9 and ± 6.8 respectively. For scientific purpose, the reliability of XR seems unacceptably low when measuring changes in dorsal angulation in distal radius fractures, whereas the reliability for the semi-automatic CT-based method was higher and is therefore preferable when a more precise method is requested. (orig.)

  17. Measurement of shower development and its Moliere radius with a four-plane LumiCal test set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Benhammou, Y.; Borysov, O.; Borysova, M.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Rosenblat, O. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abusleme, A. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Afanaciev, K.; Ignatenko, A. [Belarusian State University, NC PHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Bortko, L.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Karacheban, O.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Schuwalow, S. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Lukic, S.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Chelkov, G.; Gostkin, M.; Kotov, S.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Zhemchugov, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Daniluk, W.; Krupa, B.; Lesiak, T.; Moszczynski, A.; Pawlik, B.; Wojton, T.; Zawiejski, L. [IFJ PAN, Krakow (Poland); Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Klempt, W.; Kotula, J.; Kulis, S.; Nuiry, F.X.; Sailer, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Firu, E.; Ghenescu, V.; Neagu, A.T.; Preda, T.; Zgura, I.S. [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Ishikawa, A.; Yamamoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schumm, B. [University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Uggerhoj, U.I.; Wistisen, T.N. [Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2018-02-15

    A prototype of a luminometer, designed for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} collider detector, and consisting at present of a four-plane module, was tested in the CERN PS accelerator T9 beam. The objective of this beam test was to demonstrate a multi-plane tungsten/silicon operation, to study the development of the electromagnetic shower and to compare it with MC simulations. The Moliere radius has been determined to be 24.0 ± 0.6 (stat.) ± 1.5 (syst.) mm using a parametrization of the shower shape. Very good agreement was found between data and a detailed Geant4 simulation. (orig.)

  18. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E.; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS , are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ∼10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS >0.5 M ☉ ). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS , constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R NS =9.1 +1.3 -1.5 km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  19. Measurement of the Radius of Neutron Stars with High Signal-to-noise Quiescent Low-mass X-Ray Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by "normal matter" equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ~10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS>0.5 M ⊙). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R_NS =9.1^{+ 1.3}_{- 1.5} \\,km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  20. Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C

    1979-11-01

    A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

  1. An Estimate of Solar Wind Velocity Profiles in a Coronal Hole and a Coronal Streamer Area (6-40 R(radius symbol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Total electron content data obtained from the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment (SCE) in 1991 were used to select two data sets, one associated with a coronal hole and the other with coronal streamer crossings. (This is largely equatorial data shortly after solar maximum.) The solar wind velocity profile is estimated for these areas.

  2. Simulation of measurement absorbed dose on prostate brachytherapy with radius of prostate 2 cm using MCNP5 with seed implant model isoaid AdvantageTM IAPd-103A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poundra Setiawan; Suharyana; Riyatun

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of measurement absorbed dose on prostate brachytherapy with radius of prostate 2 cm using MCNP5 with seed implant model IsoAid Advantage TM IAPd-103A has been conducted. 103 Pd used as a radioactive source in the seed implant and it has energy gamma emission 20,8 keV with half live 16,9 days and has activity 4 mCi. The prostate cancer is modeled with spherical and it has radius 3 cm, after planting the seed implant 103 Pdover 24,4 days, prostate cancer has absorbed dose 2,172Gy. Lethal dose maximum use 103 Pd is 125 Gy and it was reached with 59 seeds. (author)

  3. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  4. Recommendation for measuring clinical outcome in distal radius fractures: a core set of domains for standardized reporting in clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhahn, Jörg; Beaton, Dorcas; Ladd, Amy; Macdermid, Joy; Hoang-Kim, Amy

    2014-02-01

    Lack of standardization of outcome measurement has hampered an evidence-based approach to clinical practice and research. We adopted a process of reviewing evidence on current use of measures and appropriate theoretical frameworks for health and disability to inform a consensus process that was focused on deriving the minimal set of core domains in distal radius fracture. We agreed on the following seven core recommendations: (1) pain and function were regarded as the primary domains, (2) very brief measures were needed for routine administration in clinical practice, (3) these brief measures could be augmented by additional measures that provide more detail or address additional domains for clinical research, (4) measurement of pain should include measures of both intensity and frequency as core attributes, (5) a numeric pain scale, e.g. visual analogue scale or visual numeric scale or the pain subscale of the patient-reported wrist evaluation (PRWE) questionnaires were identified as reliable, valid and feasible measures to measure these concepts, (6) for function, either the Quick Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire or PRWE-function subscale was identified as reliable, valid and feasible measures, and (7) a measure of participation and treatment complications should be considered core outcomes for both clinical practice and research. We used a sound methodological approach to form a comprehensive foundation of content for outcomes in the area of distal radius fractures. We recommend the use of symptom and function as separate domains in the ICF core set in clinical research or practice for patients with wrist fracture. Further research is needed to provide more definitive measurement properties of measures across all domains.

  5. Calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Long, Zhen; Zhao, Liang; Ma, Weibin

    2012-01-01

    Correlations for calculating diffuse solar radiation can be classified into models with global solar radiation (H-based method) and without it (Non-H method). The objective of the present study is to compare the performance of H-based and Non-H methods for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. The comparison is carried out at eight meteorological stations in China focusing on the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation. Based on statistical error tests, the results show that the Non-H method that includes other readily available meteorological elements gives better estimates. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Non-H method is more appropriate than the H-based one for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. -- Highlights: ► Methods for calculating diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements are investigated. ► Diffuse solar radiation models can be classified into two groups according to global solar radiation. ► Two approaches are compared at the eight meteorological stations in China. ► The method without global solar radiation is recommended.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H2X-3R4 (Canada); Servillat, Mathieu [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Webb, Natalie A., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter-present in the core of NSs-is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R{sub NS}, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of {approx}10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M{sub NS}>0.5 M{sub Sun }). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R{sub NS} value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R{sub NS}, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R{sub NS}=9.1{sup +1.3}{sub -1.5} km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R{sub NS} equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  7. ANALYSIS OF MEASURED AND MODELED SOLAR RADIATION AT THE TARS SOLAR HEATING PLANT IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    , such as solar radiation, inlet and outlet temperature for the solar collector field, flow rate and pressure, ambient temperature, Wind speed and wind direction were measured. Global horizontal radiation, direct normal irradiation (DNI) and total radiation on the tilted collector plane of the flat plate...... collector field have been measured in Tars solar heating plant. To determine the accuracy of modeled and measured solar radiation in Tars solar heating plant, monthly comparisons of measured and calculated radiation using 6 empirical models have been carried out. Comparisons of measured and modeled total......A novel combined solar heating plant with tracking parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and flat plate collectors (FPC) has been constructed and put into operation in Tars, 30 km north of Aalborg, Denmark in August 2015. To assess the operation performance of the plant, detailed parameters...

  8. Ever-changing proton radius?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovic, Miha [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the presently best value obtained from elastic scattering experiments remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today's nuclear physics. Therefore, several new experiments are underway, committed to provide new insight into the problem. High-precision electron scattering experiments are in progress at the Jefferson Lab and the Mainz Microtron. As a counterpart to these measurements, a muon-proton scattering experiment is envisioned at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Together with the nuclear scattering experiments, new atomic measurements are underway at the Max Planck Institute in Garching, which aim to further improve also the spectroscopic results on electronic hydrogen. These experiments are complemented by extensive theoretical efforts focused on studying various processes contributing to the atomic Lamb shift measurements that could explain the difference, as well as on pursuing different ways to interpret nuclear form-factor measurements, which could lead to a consistent value of the radius. In this presentation the currently best proton radius measurements are summarized, and the importance of the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data is discussed. Selected new experiments dedicated to remeasuring the radius are described, and the results of the MAMI experiment are presented.

  9. Measurements of the nuclear reaction rates and spectral indices along the radius of the fuel pellets of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitelli, Ulysses d'Utra; Mura, Luis Felipe L.; Fanaro, Leda C.C.B.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the measures of the nuclear reaction rates along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet by irradiation and posterior gamma spectrometry of a thin slice of fuel pellet of UO 2 at 4.3% enrichment. From its irradiation the rate of radioactive capture and fission are measures as a function of the radius of the pellet disk using a HPGe detector. Diverse lead collimators of changeable diameters have been used for this purpose. Simulating the fuel pellet in the pin fuel of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, a thin disk is used, being inserted in the interior of a dismountable fuel rod. This fuel rod is then placed in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core and irradiated during 1 hour under a neutron flux of 5.10 8 n/cm 2 s. The nuclear reaction of radioactive capture occurs in the atoms of U- 238 that when absorbs a neutron transmutes into U- 239 of half-life of only 23 minutes. Thus, it is opted for the detection of the Np- 239 , radionuclide derivative of the radioactive decay of the U- 239 and that has a measurable half-life (2.335 days). In gamma spectrometry 11 collimators with different diameters have been used, consequently, the gamma spectrometry is made in function of the diameter (radius) of the irradiated UO 2 fuel pellet disk, thus is possible to get the average value of the counting for each collimator in function of the specific pellet radius. These values are directly proportional to the radioactive capture nuclear reaction rates. The same way the nuclear fission rate occurs in the atoms of the U- 235 that produce different fission products such as Ce- 143 with a yield fission of 5.9% and applying the same procedure the fission nuclear reaction rate is obtained. This work presents some calculated values of nuclear reaction rate of radioactive capture and fission along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet obtained by Monte Carlo methodology using the MCNP-4C code. The relative values obtained are compared with experimental

  10. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  11. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  12. Influences on the radius of the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the variation in the radius of the auroral oval, as measured from auroral images gathered by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft, in response to solar wind inputs measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft for the two year interval June 2000 to May 2002. Our main finding is that the oval radius increases when the ring current, as measured by the Sym-H index, is intensified during geomagnetic storms. We discuss our findings within the context of the expanding/contracting polar cap paradigm, in terms of a modification of substorm onset conditions by the magnetic perturbation associated with the ring current.

  13. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  14. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Weber, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  15. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  16. Design and testing of an innovative solar radiation measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Omar; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; El-Tous, Yousif; Abdala, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    After review of studies conducted on the solar radiation measuring systems, a new innovative instrument that would help in measuring the accurate solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been designed and tested. An advanced instrument with ease of use and high precision that would enable the user to take the readings in terms of solar intensity (W/m 2 ) has been tested. Also, the innovative instrument can record instantaneous readings of the solar intensities as well as the averages value of the solar radiation flux during certain periods of time. The instrument based in its design on being programmed by programmable interfacing controller (PIC). Furthermore, the power supply circuit is fed by the solar energy cells and does not need an external power source.

  17. Muon-Spin Rotation Measurements of the Magnetic Field Dependence of the Vortex-Core Radius and Magnetic Penetration Depth in NbSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonier, J.E.; Kiefl, R.F.; Brewer, J.H.; Chakhalian, J.; Dunsiger, S.R.; MacFarlane, W.A.; Miller, R.I.; Wong, A.; Luke, G.M.; Brill, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Muon-spin rotation spectroscopy (μSR) has been used to measure the internal magnetic field distribution in NbSe 2 for H c1 c2 . The deduced profiles of the supercurrent density J s indicate that the vortex-core radius ρ 0 in the bulk decreases sharply with increasing magnetic field. This effect, which is attributed to increased vortex-vortex interactions, does not agree with the dirty-limit microscopic theory. A simple phenomenological equation in which ρ 0 depends on the intervortex spacing is used to model this behavior. In addition, we find for the first time that the in-plane magnetic penetration depth λ ab increases linearly with H in the vortex state of a conventional superconductor. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Quality assessment of solar UV irradiance measured with array spectroradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Luca; Gröbner, Julian; Hülsen, Gregor; Bachmann, Luciano; Blumthaler, Mario; Dubard, Jimmy; Khazova, Marina; Kift, Richard; Hoogendijk, Kees; Serrano, Antonio; Smedley, Andrew; Vilaplana, José-Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The reliable quantification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the earth's surface requires accurate measurements of spectral global solar UV irradiance in order to determine the UV exposure to human skin and to understand long-term trends in this parameter. Array spectroradiometers (ASRMs) are small, light, robust and cost-effective instruments, and are increasingly used for spectral irradiance measurements. Within the European EMRP ENV03 project "Solar UV", new devices, guidelines and characterization methods have been developed to improve solar UV measurements with ASRMs, and support to the end user community has been provided. In order to assess the quality of 14 end user ASRMs, a solar UV intercomparison was held on the measurement platform of the World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) in Davos, Switzerland, from 10 to 17 July 2014. The results of the blind intercomparison revealed that ASRMs, currently used for solar UV measurements, show a large variation in the quality of their solar UV measurements. Most of the instruments overestimate the erythema-weighted UV index - in particular at large solar zenith angles - due to stray light contribution in the UV-B range. The spectral analysis of global solar UV irradiance further supported the finding that the uncertainties in the UV-B range are very large due to stray light contribution in this wavelength range. In summary, the UV index may be detected by some commercially available ASRMs within 5 % compared to the world reference spectroradiometer, if well characterized and calibrated, but only for a limited range of solar zenith angles. Generally, the tested instruments are not yet suitable for solar UV measurements for the entire range between 290 and 400 nm under all atmospheric conditions.

  19. Determination of the radius of nano-particles in a magnetic fluid by means of a constant frequency measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannin, P.C.; Scaife, B.K.P.; Giannitsis, A.T.; Charles, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements and analysis are presented of the incremental magnetic susceptibilities, χ parallel (H 0 ) and χ perpendicular (H 0 ), of magnetic fluids subjected to an external polarizing field, H 0 . The technique of placing a fluid sample in a cylindrical coil positioned between the poles of a magnet and determining the susceptibility, at a fixed frequency, when the long axis of the sample is (1) parallel (χ parallel (H 0 )) and (2) perpendicular (χ perpendicular (H 0 )), to H 0 , provides a convenient method for the determination of the magnetic moment, and hence the effective particle size, of nano-particles in magnetic fluids. Two magnetic fluids samples consisting of magnetite and cobalt-zinc ferrite particles, respectively, are investigated and the results obtained are found to be in good agreement with those of the manufacturer. As the samples are cylindrical in shape, the demagnetizing field, H D , for both the perpendicular and parallel orientations of the samples, is accounted for in calculating χ parallel (H 0 ) and χ perpendicular (H 0 ). (author)

  20. Reliability and validity of selected measures associated with increased fall risk in females over the age of 45 years with distal radius fracture - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; MacDermid, Joy C; Richardson, Julie; MacIntyre, Norma J; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Clinical measurement. This study examined test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected tests and measures that assess balance impairment, fear of falling (FOF), impaired physical activity (PA), and lower extremity muscle strength (LEMS) in females >45 years of age after the distal radius fracture (DRF) population. Twenty one female participants with DRF were assessed on two occasions. Timed Up and Go, Functional Reach, and One Leg Standing tests assessed balance impairment. Shortened Falls Efficacy Scale, Activity-specific Balance Confidence scale, and Fall Risk Perception Questionnaire assessed FOF. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity were administered to assess PA level. Chair stand test and isometric muscle strength testing for hip and knee assessed LEMS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) examined the test-retest reliability of the measures. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined concurrent relationships between the measures. The results demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC between 0.50 and 0.96) and low to moderate concordance between the measures (low if r ≤ 0.4; moderate if r = 0.4-0.7). The results provide preliminary estimates of test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected measures associated with increased risk for falling in the females >45 years of age after DRF. Further research directions to advance knowledge regarding fall risk assessment in DRF population have been identified. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Lin, Y.P.; Lin, B.Y.; Chen, H.J.; Lai, R.C.; Cheng, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well

  2. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture

  3. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 2533 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 N, 54.45 E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m{sup 2}. Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m{sup 2}/day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture. (author)

  4. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  5. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  6. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  8. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  9. The high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS determined from ground-based solar irradiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gröbner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been determined from ground-based measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance (SSI over the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm using the Langley-plot technique. The measurements were obtained at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre from the Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Tenerife, Spain, during the period 12 to 24 September 2016. This solar spectrum (QASUMEFTS was combined from medium-resolution (bandpass of 0.86 nm measurements of the QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe spectroradiometer in the wavelength range from 300 to 500 nm and high-resolution measurements (0.025 nm from a Fourier transform spectroradiometer (FTS over the wavelength range from 305 to 380 nm. The Kitt Peak solar flux atlas was used to extend this high-resolution solar spectrum to 500 nm. The expanded uncertainties of this solar spectrum are 2 % between 310 and 500 nm and 4 % at 300 nm. The comparison of this solar spectrum with solar spectra measured in space (top of the atmosphere gave very good agreements in some cases, while in some other cases discrepancies of up to 5 % were observed. The QASUMEFTS solar spectrum represents a benchmark dataset with uncertainties lower than anything previously published. The metrological traceability of the measurements to the International System of Units (SI is assured by an unbroken chain of calibrations leading to the primary spectral irradiance standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany.

  10. 7Be solar neutrino measurement with KamLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; McKee, D. W.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Murayama, H.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Learned, J. G.; Sakai, M.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Downum, K. E.; Tolich, K.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Heeger, K.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We report a measurement of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate of 862 keV 7Be solar neutrinos based on a 165.4 kt d exposure of KamLAND. The observed rate is 582 ±94 (kt d)-1, which corresponds to an 862-keV 7Be solar neutrino flux of (3.26 ±0.52 ) ×109cm-2s-1 , assuming a pure electron-flavor flux. Comparing this flux with the standard solar model prediction and further assuming three-flavor mixing, a νe survival probability of 0.66 ±0.15 is determined from the KamLAND data. Utilizing a global three-flavor oscillation analysis, we obtain a total 7Be solar neutrino flux of (5.82 ±1.02 ) ×109cm-2s-1 , which is consistent with the standard solar model predictions.

  11. Development of Software for Measurement and Analysis of Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Abul Adli Anuar; Noor Ezati Shuib

    2015-01-01

    This software was under development using LabVIEW to be using with StellarNet spectrometers system with USB communication to computer. LabVIEW have capabilities in hardware interfacing, graphical user interfacing and mathematical calculation including array manipulation and processing. This software read data from StellarNet spectrometer in real-time and then processed for analysis. Several measurement of solar radiation and analysis have been done. Solar radiation involved mainly infra-red, visible light and ultra-violet. With solar radiation spectrum data, information of weather and suitability of plant can be gathered and analyzed. Furthermore, optimization of utilization and safety precaution of solar radiation can be planned. Using this software, more research and development in utilization and safety of solar radiation can be explored. (author)

  12. Comparison of solar irradiances measured by SBUV, SME, and rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.M.; Heath, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) measurements of the solar irradiance between 170 and 320 nm have been compared with rocket and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) ultraviolet spectrometer measurements. The SBUV and SME data were those available from the National Space Sciences Data Center (NSSDC). The published rocket measurement are sensitive enough to detect substantial systematic changes with time in other instruments and to check absolute calibration but not sufficiently sensitive to validate claims of changes in the solar ultraviolet irradiance longer than 170 nm. The SBUV irradiances show as systematic decrease with time not seen in the rocket measurements; a correction for this decrease, based on changes between the instrument properties measured in 1980--1981 and those in 1984, is introduced. Ratios of spectra in early 1982 to those in mid-1984, calculated using the SME and SBUV solar irradiances, have been compared with each other asnd with those predicted from Mg 280-nm variations. The scatter and overall structure in the SME spectra from the NSSDC is 3--5%, of the order of or larger than most of the changes predicted by the Mg index. The corrected SBUV ratio and the Mg index prediction for it agree to within 1% such agreement supports a common origin for variations between solar maximum and minimum and those for individual rotations: the degree to which active regions cover the visible hemisphere of the Sun. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  13. On the measurements of large scale solar velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    A general mathematical formulation for the correction of the scattered light influence on solar Doppler shift measurements has been developed. This method has been applied to the straylight correction of measurements of solar rotation, limb effect, large scale flows and oscillations. It is shown that neglecting the straylight errors may cause spurious large scale velocity fields, oscillations and erronous values for the solar rotation and limb effect. The influence of active regions on full disc velocity measurements has been studied. It is shown that a 13 day periodicity in the global velocity signal will be introduced by the passage of sunspots over the solar disc. With different types of low resolution apertures, other periodicities may be introduced. Accurate measurements of the center-to-limb velocity shift are presented for a set of magnetic insensitive lines well suited for solar velocity measurements. The absolute wavelenght shifts are briefly discussed. The stronger lines have a ''supergravitational'' shift of 300-400 m/s at the solar limb. The results may be explained by the presence of a 20-25 m/s poleward meridional flow and a latitudinal dependence of the granular parameters. Using a simple model it is shown that the main properites of the observations are explained by a 5% increase in the granular size with latitude. Data presented indicate that the resonance line K I, 769.9 nm has a small but significant limb effect of 125 m/s from center to limb

  14. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  15. Determining the Optimum Tilt Angle and Orientation for Solar Energy Collection Based on Measured Solar Radiance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Danny H. W.; Lam, Tony N. T.

    2007-01-01

    A prior requirement to the design of any solar-based conversion systems is the knowledge of optimum orientation and tilt surface at which peak solar energy can be collected. In many parts of the world, however, the solar radiation data for the surfaces of interest are not always available. This paper presents a numerical approach to calculate the solar radiation on sloped planes by integrating the measured sky radiance distributions. The annual total solar yield at different sloped surfaces ...

  16. About Solar Radiation Intensity Measurements and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICH-VANCEA Claudiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions of investigation necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical area. This can be done by using specific measuring equipment (pyranometer sensors based onthermal or photovoltaic principle. In this paper it is presented a method for measuring solar radiation (which has two main components - direct radiation and diffuse radiation with sensors based on photovoltaic principle. Such data are processed for positioning solarpanels, in order their efficiency to be maximized.

  17. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean energy of muons at sea level is ∼4 GeV with a rel- .... of decays of mesons and muons work against each other resulting in temperature coef- ..... The mean muon rate of 16 modules measured every 15 min for one week interval from .... 4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 24. Hours. Figure 12. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured in ...

  18. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VIII. CoRoT-7b: the first super-Earth with measured radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, A.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Barge, P.; Fridlund, M.; Samuel, B.; Ollivier, M.; Guenther, E.; Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Auvergne, M.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Alapini, A.; Almenara, J. M.; Baglin, A.; Barbieri, M.; Bruntt, H.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Catala, C.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Foing, B.; Fressin, F.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Gondoin, Ph.; Grasset, O.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Llebaria, A.; Loeillet, B.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Renner, S.; Samadi, R.; Shporer, A.; Sotin, Ch.; Tingley, B.; Wuchterl, G.; Adda, M.; Agogu, P.; Appourchaux, T.; Ballans, H.; Baron, P.; Beaufort, T.; Bellenger, R.; Berlin, R.; Bernardi, P.; Blouin, D.; Baudin, F.; Bodin, P.; Boisnard, L.; Boit, L.; Bonneau, F.; Borzeix, S.; Briet, R.; Buey, J.-T.; Butler, B.; Cailleau, D.; Cautain, R.; Chabaud, P.-Y.; Chaintreuil, S.; Chiavassa, F.; Costes, V.; Cuna Parrho, V.; de Oliveira Fialho, F.; Decaudin, M.; Defise, J.-M.; Djalal, S.; Epstein, G.; Exil, G.-E.; Fauré, C.; Fenouillet, T.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gallic, A.; Gamet, P.; Gavalda, P.; Grolleau, E.; Gruneisen, R.; Gueguen, L.; Guis, V.; Guivarc'h, V.; Guterman, P.; Hallouard, D.; Hasiba, J.; Heuripeau, F.; Huntzinger, G.; Hustaix, H.; Imad, C.; Imbert, C.; Johlander, B.; Jouret, M.; Journoud, P.; Karioty, F.; Kerjean, L.; Lafaille, V.; Lafond, L.; Lam-Trong, T.; Landiech, P.; Lapeyrere, V.; Larqué, T.; Laudet, P.; Lautier, N.; Lecann, H.; Lefevre, L.; Leruyet, B.; Levacher, P.; Magnan, A.; Mazy, E.; Mertens, F.; Mesnager, J.-M.; Meunier, J.-C.; Michel, J.-P.; Monjoin, W.; Naudet, D.; Nguyen-Kim, K.; Orcesi, J.-L.; Ottacher, H.; Perez, R.; Peter, G.; Plasson, P.; Plesseria, J.-Y.; Pontet, B.; Pradines, A.; Quentin, C.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rolland, G.; Rollenhagen, F.; Romagnan, R.; Russ, N.; Schmidt, R.; Schwartz, N.; Sebbag, I.; Sedes, G.; Smit, H.; Steller, M. B.; Sunter, W.; Surace, C.; Tello, M.; Tiphène, D.; Toulouse, P.; Ulmer, B.; Vandermarcq, O.; Vergnault, E.; Vuillemin, A.; Zanatta, P.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of very shallow (Δ F/F ≈ 3.4× 10-4), periodic dips in the light curve of an active V = 11.7 G9V star observed by the CoRoT satellite, which we interpret as caused by a transiting companion. We describe the 3-colour CoRoT data and complementary ground-based observations that support the planetary nature of the companion. Methods: We used CoRoT colours information, good angular resolution ground-based photometric observations in- and out- of transit, adaptive optics imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, and preliminary results from radial velocity measurements, to test the diluted eclipsing binary scenarios. The parameters of the host star were derived from optical spectra, which were then combined with the CoRoT light curve to derive parameters of the companion. Results: We examined all conceivable cases of false positives carefully, and all the tests support the planetary hypothesis. Blends with separation >0.40´´or triple systems are almost excluded with a 8 × 10-4 risk left. We conclude that, inasmuch we have been exhaustive, we have discovered a planetary companion, named CoRoT-7b, for which we derive a period of 0.853 59 ± 3 × 10-5 day and a radius of Rp = 1.68 ± 0.09 R_Earth. Analysis of preliminary radial velocity data yields an upper limit of 21 M_Earth for the companion mass, supporting the finding. Conclusions: CoRoT-7b is very likely the first Super-Earth with a measured radius. This object illustrates what will probably become a common situation with missions such as Kepler, namely the need to establish the planetary origin of transits in the absence of a firm radial velocity detection and mass measurement. The composition of CoRoT-7b remains loosely constrained without a precise mass. A very high surface temperature on its irradiated face, ≈1800-2600 K at the substellar point, and a very low one, ≈50 K, on its dark face assuming no atmosphere, have been derived. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 27

  19. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  20. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  1. Measuring Solar Radiation Incident on Earth: Solar Constant-3 (SOLCON-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, Dominique; Joukoff, Alexandre; Dewitte, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Life on Earth is possible because the climate conditions on Earth are relatively mild. One element of the climate on Earth, the temperature, is determined by the heat exchanges between the Earth and its surroundings, outer space. The heat exchanges take place in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The Earth gains energy because it absorbs solar radiation, and it loses energy because it emits thermal infrared radiation to cold space. The heat exchanges are in balance: the heat gained by the Earth through solar radiation equals the heat lost through thermal radiation. When the balance is perturbed, a temperature change and hence a climate change of the Earth will occur. One possible perturbation of the balance is the CO2 greenhouse effect: when the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere increases, this will reduce the loss of thermal infrared radiation to cold space. Earth will gain more heat and hence the temperature will rise. Another perturbation of the balance can occur through variation of the amount of energy emitted by the sun. When the sun emits more energy, this will directly cause a rise of temperature on Earth. For a long time scientists believed that the energy emitted by the sun was constant. The 'solar constant' is defined as the amount of solar energy received per unit surface at a distance of one astronomical unit (the average distance of Earth's orbit) from the sun. Accurate measurements of the variations of the solar constant have been made since 1978. From these we know that the solar constant varies approximately with the 11-year solar cycle observed in other solar phenomena, such as the occurrence of sunspots, dark spots that are sometimes visible on the solar surface. When a sunspot occurs on the sun, since the spot is dark, the radiation (light) emitted by the sun drops instantaneously. Oddly, periods of high solar activity, when a lot of sunspot numbers increase, correspond to periods when the average solar constant is high. This indicates that

  2. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zimmermann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  3. Measurement of solar spectra relating to photosynthesis and solar cells: an inquiry lab for secondary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L; Blankenship, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar cells. This laboratory was used with high-school science teachers who then took this experience back to their classrooms. During this exercise, teachers used an economical spectroradiometer to measure the solar spectrum and relate this to photosynthetic light absorption by determining the quality of light beneath trees. Following this investigation, teachers learned about the plant-inspired dye-sensitized solar cells and constructed one. To connect their light quality investigation to the efficiency of photosynthesis and solar cells, teachers then collected data at locations with varying quality and intensity of light. In sum, this investigation provides a crucial connection between photosynthesis and cutting edge research on solar energy technologies. Our learning experience provides a new instructional model for understanding a little investigated aspect of photosynthesis and connects to authentic scientific research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measurements of thermal parameters of solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, K; Krac, E

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the methods of measuring thermal parameters of photovoltaic panels - transient thermal impedance and the absorption factor of light-radiation are presented. The manner of realising these methods is described and the results of measurements of the considered thermal parameters of selected photovoltaic panels are presented. The influence of such selected factors as a type of the investigated panel and its mounting manner on transient thermal impedance of the considered panels is also discussed. (paper)

  5. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  6. FAST DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE INVERSION OF SOLAR CORONAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plowman, Joseph; Kankelborg, Charles; Martens, Petrus [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present a fast method for reconstructing differential emission measures (DEMs) using solar coronal data. The method consists of a fast, simple regularized inversion in conjunction with an iteration scheme for removal of residual negative emission measure. On average, it computes over 1000 DEMs s{sup -1} for a sample active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and achieves reduced chi-squared of order unity with no negative emission in all but a few test cases. The high performance of this method is especially relevant in the context of AIA, which images of order one million solar pixels per second. This paper describes the method, analyzes its fidelity, compares its performance and results with other DEM methods, and applies it to an active region and loop observed by AIA and by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode.

  7. Voyager microwave scintillation measurements of solar wind plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the solar conjunctions of Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in August 1979, September 1980, and November 1982, temporal variations of intensity and frequency of the dual-wavelength (3.6 and 13 cm) radio transmissions from the spacecraft were observed and subsequently analyzed to infer characteristics of the solar wind plasma flow. Measurements of the temporal wave structure function were used to estimate the spectral index of the power law spatial spectrum of irregularities. Theoretical-intensity scintillation spectra were compared with measured intensity spectra to obtain least-squares estimates of (1) mean velocity, (2) random velocity, (3) axial ratio, and (4) electron density standard deviation. Uncertainties in parameter estimates were calculated by standard propagation of errors techniques. Mean velocity and electron density standard deviations in 1979-1980 show little dependence on solar latitude. Density standard deviation estimates were 3-10% of the background mean density and mean velocity estimates ranged from approx.200 km/s inside 17 solar radii to approx.300 km/s at 25 solar radii. 1982 density standard deviation estimates increased rapidly with latitude near 45 0 N, then sharply decreased north of that latitude, indicating the existence of a polar region of reduced fluctuations surrounded by a thin cone of strong density irregularities

  8. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  9. new model for solar radiation estimation from measured air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    RMSE) and correlation ... countries due to the unavailability of measured data in place [3-5]. ... models were used to predict solar radiation in Nigeria by. [12-15]. However ..... "Comparison of Gene Expression Programming with neuro-fuzzy and ...

  10. Listing of solar radiation measuring equipment and glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E. A.; Greenbaum, S. A.; Patel, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt is made to list and provide all available information about solar radiation measuring equipment which are being manufactured and are available on the market. The list is in tabular form and includes sensor type, response time, cost data and comments for each model. A cost code is included which shows ranges only.

  11. Evaluation of Sources of Uncertainties in Solar Resource Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-25

    This poster presents a high-level overview of sources of uncertainties in solar resource measurement, demonstrating the impact of various sources of uncertainties -- such as cosine response, thermal offset, spectral response, and others -- on the accuracy of data from several radiometers. The study provides insight on how to reduce the impact of some of the sources of uncertainties.

  12. Accurate measurement of directional emittance of solar energy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugo-Le Gof, A.; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Directional emittance plays an important role in the calculation of radiative heat exchange. It partly determines the thermal insulation of single and multiple glazing and the efficiency of solar collectors. An emissiometer has been designed and built, capable for measurements of the directional

  13. Colors of Outer Solar System Objects Measured with VATT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 7 years, we have measured optical B-V and V-R colors for about 40 minor outer solar system objects using the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) located on Mt. Graham in southeast Arizona. We will present these colors and use them to update the discussion of colors of minor bodies in the outer solar system. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to Northern Arizona University and the U. of Oklahoma which helped support this work.

  14. Hanbury–Brown–Twiss measurements at large rapidity separations, or can we measure the proton radius in p-A collisions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga [Departamento de Fíõsica de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Armesto, Néstor, E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Fíõsica de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-01-10

    We point out that current calculations of inclusive two-particle correlations in p-A collisions based on the Color Glass Condensate approach exhibit a contribution from Hanbury–Brown–Twiss correlations. These HBT correlations are quite distinct from the standard ones, in that they are apparent for particles widely separated in rapidity. The transverse size of the emitter which is reflected in these correlations is the gluonic size of the proton. This raises an interesting possibility of measuring the proton size directly by the HBT effect of particle pairs produced in p-A collisions.

  15. Solar rotation measurements at Mount Wilson. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonte, B.J.; Howard, R.; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena

    1981-01-01

    Possible sources of systematic error in solar Doppler rotational velocities are examined. Scattered light is shown to affect the Mount Wilson solar rotation results, but this effect is not enough to bring the spectroscopic results in coincidence with the sunspot rotation. Interference fringes at the spectrograph focus at Mount Wilson have in two intervals affected the rotation results. It has been possible to correlate this error with temperature and thus correct for it. A misalignment between the entrance and exit slits is a possible source of error, but for the Mount Wilson slit configuration the amplitude of this effect is negligibly small. Rapid scanning of the solar image also produces no measurable effect. (orig.)

  16. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  17. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  18. Solar energy prediction and verification using operational model forecasts and ground-based solar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmopoulos, P.G.; Kazadzis, S.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Bais, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the predictions and verification of these predictions of solar energy using ground-based solar measurements from the Hellenic Network for Solar Energy and the National Observatory of Athens network, as well as solar radiation operational forecasts provided by the MM5 mesoscale model. The evaluation was carried out independently for the different networks, for two forecast horizons (1 and 2 days ahead), for the seasons of the year, for varying solar elevation, for the indicative energy potential of the area, and for four classes of cloud cover based on the calculated clearness index (k_t): CS (clear sky), SC (scattered clouds), BC (broken clouds) and OC (overcast). The seasonal dependence presented relative rRMSE (Root Mean Square Error) values ranging from 15% (summer) to 60% (winter), while the solar elevation dependence revealed a high effectiveness and reliability near local noon (rRMSE ∼30%). An increment of the errors with cloudiness was also observed. For CS with mean GHI (global horizontal irradiance) ∼ 650 W/m"2 the errors are 8%, for SC 20% and for BC and OC the errors were greater (>40%) but correspond to much lower radiation levels (<120 W/m"2) of consequently lower energy potential impact. The total energy potential for each ground station ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 MWh/m"2, while the mean monthly forecast error was found to be consistently below 10%. - Highlights: • Long term measurements at different atmospheric cases are needed for energy forecasting model evaluations. • The total energy potential at the Greek sites presented ranges from 1.5 to 1.9 MWh/m"2. • Mean monthly energy forecast errors are within 10% for all cases analyzed. • Cloud presence results of an additional forecast error that varies with the cloud cover.

  19. Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.

  20. Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.

  1. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-10-01

    To study the operating characteristics about PV cells, attention must be given to the dynamic behavior of the solar radiation. The dynamic behaviors of annual, monthly, daily and hourly averages of solar radiation have been studied in detail. But faster dynamic behaviors of solar radiation need more researches. The solar radiation random fluctuations in minute-long or second-long range, which lead to alternating radiation and cool down/warm up PV cell frequently, decrease conversion efficiency. Fast dynamic processes of solar radiation are mainly relevant to stochastic moving of clouds. Even in clear sky condition, the solar irradiations show a certain degree of fast variation. To evaluate operating characteristics of PV cells under fast dynamic irradiation, a solar radiation measuring array (SRMA) based on large active area photodiode, LoRa spread spectrum communication and nanoWatt MCU is proposed. This cross photodiodes structure tracks fast stochastic moving of clouds. To compensate response time of pyranometer and reduce system cost, the terminal nodes with low-cost fast-responded large active area photodiode are placed besides positions of tested PV cells. A central node, consists with pyranometer, large active area photodiode, wind detector and host computer, is placed in the center of the central topologies coordinate to scale temporal envelope of solar irradiation and get calibration information between pyranometer and large active area photodiodes. In our SRMA system, the terminal nodes are designed based on Microchip's nanoWatt XLP PIC16F1947. FDS-100 is adopted for large active area photodiode in terminal nodes and host computer. The output current and voltage of each PV cell are monitored by I/V measurement. AS62-T27/SX1278 LoRa communication modules are used for communicating between terminal nodes and host computer. Because the LoRa LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) specification provides seamless interoperability among Smart Things without the

  2. Precise pointing knowledge for SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bramstedt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to precisely determine the viewing direction for solar occultation instruments from scans over the solar disk. Basic idea is the fit of the maximum intensity during the scan, which corresponds to the center of the solar disk in the scanning direction. We apply this method to the solar occultation measurements of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY, which scans the Sun in elevation direction. The achieved mean precision is 0.46 mdeg, which corresponds to an tangent height error of about 26 m for individual occultation sequences. The deviation of the derived elevation angle from the geolocation information given along with the product has a seasonal cycle with an amplitude of 2.26 mdeg, which is in tangent height an amplitude of about 127 m. The mean elevation angle offset is −4.41 mdeg (249 m. SCIAMACHY's sun follower device controls the azimuth viewing direction during the occultation measurements. The derived mean azimuth direction has an standard error of 0.65 mdeg, which is about 36 m in horizontal direction at the tangent point. We observe also a seasonal cycle of the azimuth mispointing with an amplitude of 2.3 mdeg, which is slightly increasing with time. The almost constant mean offset is 88 mdeg, which is about 5.0 km horizontal offset at the tangent point.

  3. A Steady Flow Model for the Differential Emission Measure in the Solar Quiet Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, S.; Chae, J.; Yun, H.; Lee, J.

    2001-05-01

    With high quality UV spectroscopy from the SoHO spacecraft, the physical structure of the solar Transition Region (TR) is of renewed interest. We have investigated the thermodynamic structure of the TR using a one dimensional magnetic tube model constrained to Raymond & Doyle's Differential Emission Measure (DEM) in the average quiet sun. We have included the effect of the expansion of magnetic flux tube and a heating which is required in addition to conductive heat, convective energy and radiative cooling. From the resulting heating and flux tube geometry, we also investigated upflows probable in the transition region. To reproduce the Doppler shift of UV lines measured using SoHO/SUMER (Chae, Yun, & Poland 1998), flux tube needs to expand rapidly above T=105 K at a rate of radius increase up to (7.4x 10-2 km-1)~ r4.1 where r4.1 is the radius at log T = 4.1. To balance the energy, an energy supply by more than (9.3x 104 erg cm-2 s-1)~π r4.12 is required at the region between 1.3x 104 K and 2.5x 104 K regardless of filling factor, suggesting a local heating in the chromosphere. As for upflows, in subsonic flow cases, a model with the same additional energy loss as in a downflow is probable. Also, supersonic flows could be easily made and, in this case, supersonic upflows could carry extra energy to corona without increasing DEM, showing the possibility that upflows play a role in corona heating. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Institute Program, Ministry of Education (BSRI-98-5408) and by the BK21 Project of the Korean Government.

  4. A Spitzer Infrared Radius for the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the infrared transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observed two primary eclipse events (one partial and one complete transit) using the 24 micrometer array of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We analyzed a total of 2392 individual images (10-second integrations) of the planetary system, recorded before, during, and after transit. We perform optimal photometry on the images and use the local zodiacal light as a short-term flux reference. At this long wavelength, the transit curve has a simple box-like shape, allowing robust solutions for the stellar and planetary radii independent of stellar limb darkening, which is negligible at 24 micrometers. We derive a stellar radius of R(sub *) = 1.06 plus or minus 0.07 solar radius, a planetary radius of R(sub p) = 1.26 plus or minus 0.08 R(sub J), and a stellar mass of 1.17 solar mass. Within the errors, our results agree with the measurements at visible wavelengths. The 24 micrometer radius of the planet therefore does not differ significantly compared to the visible result. We point out the potential for deriving extrasolar transiting planet radii to high accuracy using transit photometry at slightly shorter IR wavelengths where greater photometric precision is possible.

  5. SOLAR OCCULTATION BY TITAN MEASURED BY CASSINI/UVIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Benilan, Yves [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universites Paris Est Creteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T.; Sandel, Bill R. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Holsclaw, Gregory M.; McClintock, William E., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the first published analysis of a solar occultation by Titan's atmosphere measured by the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on board Cassini. The data were measured during flyby T53 in 2009 April and correspond to latitudes between 21 Degree-Sign and 28 Degree-Sign south. The analysis utilizes the absorption of two solar emission lines (584 A and 630 A) in the ionization continuum of the N{sub 2} absorption cross section and solar emission lines around 1085 A where absorption is due to CH{sub 4}. The measured transmission at these wavelengths provides a direct estimate of the N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} column densities along the line of sight from the spacecraft to the Sun, which we inverted to obtain the number densities. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the data allowed us to retrieve density profiles in the altitude range 1120-1400 km for nitrogen and 850-1300 km for methane. We find an N{sub 2} scale height of {approx}76 km and a temperature of {approx}153 K. Our results are in general agreement with those from previous work, although there are some differences. Particularly, our profiles agree, considering uncertainties, with the density profiles derived from the Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrograph data, and with in situ measurements by the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer with revised calibration.

  6. The application of coronal scattering measurements to solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The interpretation of ground based observations of solar 'plasma frequency' radio bursts has been hampered in the past by an insufficient knowledge of coronal scattering by density inhomogeneities close to the Sun. Calculations based on measuurements of the angular broadening of natural radio sources, and Woo's 1975 measurement of the angular broadening of the telemetry carrier by Helios I near occultation (Woo, 1978), indicate that plasma frequency solar bursts should undergo considerable scattering, at least near the maximum of the sunspot cycle. The calculated displacements of the apparent positions of the bursts are about equal to the observed displacements which have been attributed to the bursts occurring in dense streamers. In order to obtain more scattering data close to the Sun, interferometer measurements of the angular broadening of spacecraft signals are planned, and the important contribution which could be made with large dishes is discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Erythemal solar UV measurement network in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measured daily total erythemal doses for 1989, 1990 and 1991 were presented and the cloudless-sky daily dose at the autumn equinox was approximately 30-50% higher than at the spring equinox as a result of the seasonal variation in ozone levels. In addition a substantially lower spring equinox erythemal dose was observed in 1991, probably as a result of increased aerosols arising from the Pinatubo eruption. An asymmetry in the diurnal pattern of irradiances about solar noon has been observed on cloudless days. Higher UV irradiances have been usually observed in the afternoons than in the mornings. Measurement of erythemal radiation is needed for skin cancer epidemiology projects. Given the uncertainties relating to the exposure of individuals to solar erythemal radiation, personal dosimeters may be very useful in providing more reliable personal UV exposure data. (author). 4 refs

  8. A Preliminary Analysis of Solar Irradiance Measurements at TNB Solar Research Centre for Optimal Orientation of Fixed Solar Panels installed in Selangor Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A M; Ahmad, B; Shafie, R M; Rusli, R; Aziz, M A; Hassan, J; Wanik, M Z C; Ali, M A M

    2013-01-01

    The well established rule for orienting fixed solar devices is to face south for places in the northern hemisphere and northwards for the southern hemisphere. However for regions near the equator such as in Selangor Malaysia, the position of the sun at solar noon is always near zenith both to the north and south depending on location and month of year. This paper reports an analysis of global solar radiation data taken at TNB Solar Research Centre, Malaysia. The solar radiation is measured using both shaded and exposed pyranometers together with a pyrheliometer which is mounted on a sun-tracker. The analysis on the solar measurements show that a near regular solar irradiation pattern had occurred often enough during the year to recommend an optimum azimuth orientation of installing the fixed solar panels tilted facing towards east. Even though all the solar measurements were done at a single location in TNBR Solar Research Centre at Bangi, for locations near the equator with similar weather pattern, the recommended azimuth direction of installing fixed solar panels and collectors tilted eastward will also be generally valid.

  9. MEASURING THE MASS OF SOLAR SYSTEM PLANETS USING PULSAR TIMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, D. J.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Edwards, R. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Backer, D. C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Van Straten, W.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P. B.; Ferdman, R. D.; Purver, M. B.; Folkner, W. M.; Hotan, A. W.; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A. N.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2) x10 -4 M sun , being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.

  10. Measurement of global solar radiation over Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.Q.; Ak Abd Malik Abd Raub Pg Ghani

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface were carried out for a period of 11 months starting from June 2001 to April 2002. The pyrano meter (Kipp and Zonen) was placed at the top of the library building of University of Brunei Darussalam, which affords optimum exposure to the instrument sensor without appreciable obstacle for incoming global radiation. The maximum and minimum monthly-averaged global irradiations of 553 W/m 2 and 433 W/m 2 were recorded for the months of March and October respectively. The variation of global solar radiation can be divided into two distinct groups - the low radiation values being associated with cloud and turbidity while the high values are associated with less turbid and cloudy periods

  11. Automatic solar image motion measurements. [electronic disk flux monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The solar seeing image motion has been monitored electronically and absolutely with a 25 cm telescope at three sites along the ridge at the southern end of the Magdalena Mountains west of Socorro, New Mexico. The uncorrelated component of the variations of the optical flux from two points at opposite limbs of the solar disk was continually monitored in 3 frequencies centered at 0.3, 3 and 30 Hz. The frequency band of maximum signal centered at 3 Hz showed the average absolute value of image motion to be somewhat less than 2sec. The observer estimates of combined blurring and image motion were well correlated with electronically measured image motion, but the observer estimates gave a factor 2 larger value.

  12. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  13. Estimation of diffuse from measured global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A data set of quality controlled radiation observations from stations scattered throughout Australia was formed and further screened to remove residual doubtful observations. It was then divided into groups by solar elevation, and used to find average relationships for each elevation group between relative global radiation (clearness index - the measured global radiation expressed as a proportion of the radiation on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere) and relative diffuse radiation. Clear-cut relationships were found, which were then fitted by polynomial expressions giving the relative diffuse radiation as a function of relative global radiation and solar elevation. When these expressions were used to estimate the diffuse radiation from the global, the results had a slightly smaller spread of errors than those from an earlier technique given by Spencer. It was found that the errors were related to cloud amount, and further relationships were developed giving the errors as functions of global radiation, solar elevation, and the fraction of sky obscured by high cloud and by opaque (low and middle level) cloud. When these relationships were used to adjust the first estimates of diffuse radiation, there was a considerable reduction in the number of large errors

  14. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar radiation modeling and measurements for renewable energy applications: data and model quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Daryl R.

    2005-01-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data

  16. Solar radiation modeling and measurements for renewable energy applications: data and model quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data. (author)

  17. Protocol of measurement techniques - Project colored solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2004-08-15

    This illustrated annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on multi-layer, thin-film interference coatings for solar collector glazing. The correct combinations of refractive indices and film thickness are discussed. The authors state that corresponding multi-layered thin film stacks will have to be realised experimentally in a controlled and reproducible way. New thin film materials are to be tailored to exhibit optimised optical and ageing properties. The development of these coatings is to be based on various measurement techniques, such as spectro-photometry, measurements of total power throughput by means of a solar simulator, spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The paper provides many examples of typical data and explains which film properties can be inferred from each method and thus describes both the function and purpose of the different measurement techniques.

  18. Measuring impact crater depth throughout the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Watters, Wesley A.; Chappelow, John E.; Bray, Veronica J.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Craddock, Robert A.; Beyer, Ross A.; Landis, Margaret E.; Ostrach, Lillian; Tornabene, Livio L.; Riggs, Jamie D.; Weaver, Brian P.

    2018-01-01

    One important, almost ubiquitous, tool for understanding the surfaces of solid bodies throughout the solar system is the study of impact craters. While measuring a distribution of crater diameters and locations is an important tool for a wide variety of studies, so too is measuring a crater's “depth.” Depth can inform numerous studies including the strength of a surface and modification rates in the local environment. There is, however, no standard data set, definition, or technique to perform this data‐gathering task, and the abundance of different definitions of “depth” and methods for estimating that quantity can lead to misunderstandings in and of the literature. In this review, we describe a wide variety of data sets and methods to analyze those data sets that have been, are currently, or could be used to derive different types of crater depth measurements. We also recommend certain nomenclature in doing so to help standardize practice in the field. We present a review section of all crater depths that have been published on different solar system bodies which shows how the field has evolved through time and how some common assumptions might not be wholly accurate. We conclude with several recommendations for researchers which could help different data sets to be more easily understood and compared.

  19. MEASUREMENTS OF THE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING CROSS SECTIONS FOR THE INTERACTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES WITH SUNSPOTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The solar acoustic waves are modified by the interaction with sunspots. The interaction can be treated as a scattering problem: an incident wave propagating toward a sunspot is scattered by the sunspot into different modes. The absorption cross section and scattering cross section are two important parameters in the scattering problem. In this study, we use the wavefunction of the scattered wave, measured with a deconvolution method, to compute the absorption cross section σ ab and the scattering cross section σ sc for the radial order n = 0–5 for two sunspots, NOAA 11084 and NOAA 11092. In the computation of the cross sections, the random noise and dissipation in the measured acoustic power are corrected. For both σ ab and σ sc , the value of NOAA 11092 is greater than that of NOAA 11084, but their overall n dependence is similar: decreasing with n . The ratio of σ ab of NOAA 11092 to that of NOAA 11084 approximately equals the ratio of sunspot radii for all n , while the ratio of σ sc of the two sunspots is greater than the ratio of sunspot radii and increases with n . This suggests that σ ab is approximately proportional to the sunspot radius, while the dependence of σ sc on radius is faster than the linear increase.

  20. MEASUREMENTS OF THE ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING CROSS SECTIONS FOR THE INTERACTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES WITH SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hui [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 200012 (China); Chou, Dean-Yi, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-01

    The solar acoustic waves are modified by the interaction with sunspots. The interaction can be treated as a scattering problem: an incident wave propagating toward a sunspot is scattered by the sunspot into different modes. The absorption cross section and scattering cross section are two important parameters in the scattering problem. In this study, we use the wavefunction of the scattered wave, measured with a deconvolution method, to compute the absorption cross section σ {sub ab} and the scattering cross section σ {sub sc} for the radial order n = 0–5 for two sunspots, NOAA 11084 and NOAA 11092. In the computation of the cross sections, the random noise and dissipation in the measured acoustic power are corrected. For both σ {sub ab} and σ {sub sc}, the value of NOAA 11092 is greater than that of NOAA 11084, but their overall n dependence is similar: decreasing with n . The ratio of σ {sub ab} of NOAA 11092 to that of NOAA 11084 approximately equals the ratio of sunspot radii for all n , while the ratio of σ {sub sc} of the two sunspots is greater than the ratio of sunspot radii and increases with n . This suggests that σ {sub ab} is approximately proportional to the sunspot radius, while the dependence of σ {sub sc} on radius is faster than the linear increase.

  1. Solar irradiance measurements from the Danish Galathea 3 expedition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bason, Frank [SolData Instruments, Silkeborg (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The Danish Galathea 3 Expedition completed an eight month journey of exploration and discovery on April 25th, 2007, having set sail from Copenhagen on August 11th, 2006. SolData Instruments was privileged to be selected to contribute an ''optics table'' with pyranometers, ultraviolet, lux, sky luminance, PAR and other optical radiation detectors. These instruments recorded data continuously during the 100.000 kilometer voyage of the Royal Danish Navy vessel Vaedderen. The voyage provided global solar irradiance and other data as far north as the Arctic Circle near Greenland and as far south as Antarctica. The data collected was analyzed to validate a solar irradiance model described in this paper. A unique opportunity was also provided to check the performance of SolData photovoltaic pyranometers against data from a Kipp-Zonen CMll instrument. In addition to optical radiation, ionizing radiation and atmospheric pressure were also measured, and some interesting aspects of these measurements will also be mentioned. (orig.)

  2. Measure Solar System Objects and Their Movements for Yourself!

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John D

    2009-01-01

    Instead of taking somebody's word about the basic size and distances for the solar system's objects, this book shows amateur astronomers how to measure these things for themselves. This is an enriching experience for any amateur astronomer - to understand and personally measure fundamental astronomical quantities and distances. A basic knowledge of geometry is required, but it is amazing how simple the ideas can be. Readers are led through the details as gently as possible - and in a light-hearted way - presuming that most will have half-forgotten most of the mathematics. The practical astronomical equipment recommended is no more than a typical commercially-made amateur telescope and a camera of some sort - these days a webcam works very well. Apart from that all the reader will need is access to a computer with internet service, the know-how to download free software, and an enthusiasm to expand his knowledge of the basics of scientific astronomy.

  3. Predicting Atmospheric Ionization and Excitation by Precipitating SEP and Solar Wind Protons Measured By MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolitz, Rebecca; Dong, Chuanfei; Lee, Christina; Lillis, Rob; Brain, David; Curry, Shannon; Halekas, Jasper; Bougher, Stephen W.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Precipitating energetic particles ionize and excite planetary atmospheres, increasing electron content and producing aurora. At Mars, the solar wind and solar energetic particles (SEPs) can precipitate directly into the atmosphere because solar wind protons can charge exchange to become neutral and pass the magnetosheath, and SEPs are sufficiently energetic to cross the magnetosheath unchanged. We will compare ionization and Lyman alpha emission rates for solar wind and SEP protons during nominal solar activity and a CME shock front impact event on May 16 2016. We will use the Atmospheric Scattering of Protons and Energetic Neutrals (ASPEN) model to compare excitation and ionization rates by SEPs and solar wind protons currently measured by the SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer) and SEP instruments aboard the MAVEN spacecraft. Results will help quantify how SEP and solar wind protons influence atmospheric energy deposition during solar minimum.

  4. Solar neutrino measurements with Super-Kamiokande III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Motoyasu

    2008-01-01

    The third phase of Super-Kamiokande experiment (SK-III) has been running since 12th July, 2006. The SK-III detector is achieved 40% photo-cathode coverage with 11,129 20-inch PMTs. One of the physics goals in SK-III is observing the transition of solar neutrino oscillations between vacuum and matter oscillation around 4MeV. From 24th January, 2007 to 2nd March, 2008, we obtained data of live-time 288.9 days with energy threshold 6.5MeV (Full Final sample: FF sample). For data with a lower energy threshold 5.0MeV, we needed remove high radon contaminated period from the FF sample, then we obtained another data sample (Radon reduced sample: RR sample) with live-time 191.7 days. The current measurements show that SK-III has already achieved a similar signal to noise ratio as SK-I for energy range from 5.0 to 20.0MeV, and the solar angle distribution of FF sample shows that the solar neutrino event rate also looks consistent with SK-I for energy range from 6.5 to 20.0MeV. As for the RR sample, although the vertex distribution of low energy events is not uniform in the detector and there are more BG events in the edge of fiducial volume, it is clear that SK-III BG level is smaller than that of SK-I in the central region of the detector. Finally, the future plan for lowering the energy threshold shows a 2a discovery potential of the energy spectrum upturn with 3 years of observation after both software and hardware improvements.

  5. An iterative algorithm for calculating stylus radius unambiguously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorburger, T V; Zheng, A; Renegar, T B; Song, J-F; Ma, L

    2011-01-01

    The stylus radius is an important specification for stylus instruments and is commonly provided by instrument manufacturers. However, it is difficult to measure the stylus radius unambiguously. Accurate profiles of the stylus tip may be obtained by profiling over an object sharper than itself, such as a razor blade. However, the stylus profile thus obtained is a partial arc, and unless the shape of the stylus tip is a perfect sphere or circle, the effective value of the radius depends on the length of the tip profile over which the radius is determined. We have developed an iterative, least squares algorithm aimed to determine the effective least squares stylus radius unambiguously. So far, the algorithm converges to reasonable results for the least squares stylus radius. We suggest that the algorithm be considered for adoption in documentary standards describing the properties of stylus instruments.

  6. Linear intra-bone geometry dependencies of the radius: Radius length determination by maximum distal width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, S.F.; Krusche-Mandl, I.; Huf, W.; Mall, G.; Fialka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate possible linear intra-bone geometry dependencies by determining the relation between the maximum radius length and maximum distal width in two independent populations and test for possible gender or age effects. A strong correlation can help develop more representative fracture models and osteosynthetic devices as well as aid gender and height estimation in anthropologic/forensic cases. Methods: First, maximum radius length and distal width of 100 consecutive patients, aged 20–70 years, were digitally measured on standard lower arm radiographs by two independent investigators. Second, the same measurements were performed ex vivo on a second cohort, 135 isolated, formalin fixed radii. Standard descriptive statistics as well as correlations were calculated and possible gender age influences tested for both populations separately. Results: The radiographic dataset resulted in a correlation of radius length and width of r = 0.753 (adj. R 2 = 0.563, p 2 = 0.592) and side no influence on the correlation. Radius length–width correlation for the isolated radii was r = 0.621 (adj. R 2 = 0.381, p 2 = 0.598). Conclusion: A relatively strong radius length–distal width correlation was found in two different populations, indicating that linear body proportions might not only apply to body height and axial length measurements of long bones but also to proportional dependency of bone shapes in general.

  7. Measuring solar UV radiation with EBT radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Ethan T; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry has been performed with the use of a radiochromic film dosimeter called Gafchromic EBT for solar radiation exposure. The film changes from a clear colour to blue colour when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and results have shown that the colour change is reproducible within ±10% at 5 kJ m -2 UV exposure under various conditions of solar radiation. Parameters tested included changes in season (summer versus winter exposure), time of day, as well as sky conditions such as cloudy skies versus clear skies. As the radiochromic films' permanent colour change occurs in the visible wavelengths the film can be analysed with a desktop scanner with the most sensitive channel for analysis being the red component of the signal. Results showed that an exposure of 5 kJ m -2 (approximately 1 h exposure in full sun during summer) produced an approximate 0.28 change in the net OD when analysed in reflection mode on the desktop scanner which is significant darkening. The main advantages of this film type, and thus the new EBT2 film which has replaced EBT for measurement of UV exposure, is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner, its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. (note)

  8. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  9. New Solar Irradiance Measurements from the Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer Cubesat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Richard; Mason, James Paul; Moore, Christopher S.; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Caspi, Amir [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Chamberlin, Phillip C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Solomon, Stanley C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Machol, Janet; Viereck, Rodney [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer ( MinXSS ) CubeSat is to explore the energy distribution of soft X-ray (SXR) emissions from the quiescent Sun, active regions, and during solar flares and to model the impact on Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. The energy emitted in the SXR range (0.1–10 keV) can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXRs to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. The MinXSS primary science instrument is an Amptek, Inc. X123 X-ray spectrometer that has an energy range of 0.5–30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution. Two flight models have been built. The first, MinXSS -1, has been making science observations since 2016 June 9 and has observed numerous flares, including more than 40 C-class and 7 M-class flares. These SXR spectral measurements have advantages over broadband SXR observations, such as providing the capability to derive multiple-temperature components and elemental abundances of coronal plasma, improved irradiance accuracy, and higher resolution spectral irradiance as input to planetary ionosphere simulations. MinXSS spectra obtained during the M5.0 flare on 2016 July 23 highlight these advantages and indicate how the elemental abundance appears to change from primarily coronal to more photospheric during the flare. MinXSS -1 observations are compared to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES ) X-ray Sensor (XRS) measurements of SXR irradiance and estimated corona temperature. Additionally, a suggested improvement to the calibration of the GOES XRS data is presented.

  10. Solar Irradiance Measurements Using Smart Devices: A Cost-Effective Technique for Estimation of Solar Irradiance for Sustainable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al-Taani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiance measurement is a key component in estimating solar irradiation, which is necessary and essential to design sustainable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV systems. The measurement is typically done with sophisticated devices designed for this purpose. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup to estimate the solar irradiance in a certain location. The setup is accessible, easy to use and cost-effective. The method we propose does not have the accuracy of an irradiance meter of high precision but has the advantage of being readily accessible on any smartphone. It could serve as a quick tool to estimate irradiance measurements in the preliminary stages of PV systems design. Furthermore, it could act as a cost-effective educational tool in sustainable energy courses where understanding solar radiation variations is an important aspect.

  11. ON THE CONSTANCY OF THE DIAMETER OF THE SUN DURING THE RISING PHASE OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Irbah, A. [Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris VI—Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/INSU, Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France); Corbard, T.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Renaud, C. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (OCA), Boulevard de l’Observatoire, 06304 Nice (France); Riguet, F.; Pradal, F., E-mail: Mustapha.Meftah@latmos.ipsl.fr, E-mail: Thierry.Corbard@oca.eu [Safran REOSC, Avenue de la Tour Maury, 91280 Saint-Pierre-du-Perray (France)

    2015-07-20

    The potential relationship between solar activity and changes in solar diameter remains the subject of debate and requires both models and measurements with sufficient precision over long periods of time. Using the PICARD instruments, we carried out precise measurements of variations in solar diameter during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. From new correction methods we found changes in PICARD space telescope solar radius amplitudes that were less than ±20 mas (i.e. ±14.5 km) for the years 2010–2011. Moreover, PICARD ground-based telescope solar radius amplitudes are smaller than ±50 mas from 2011 to 2014. Our observations could not find any direct link between solar activity and significant fluctuations in solar radius, considering that the variations, if they exist, are included within this range of values. Further, the contribution of solar radius fluctuations is low with regard to variations in total solar irradiance. Indeed, we find a small variation of the solar radius from space measurements with a typical periodicity of 129.5 days, with ±6.5 mas variation.

  12. Measurement of the jet radius and transverse momentum dependence of inclusive jet suppression in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; 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Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schöning, André; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; 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Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-02-26

    Measurements of inclusive jet suppression in heavy ion collisions at the LHC provide direct sensitivity to the physics of jet quenching. In a sample of lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 7 inverse microbarns, ATLAS has measured jets with a calorimeter over the pseudorapidity interval |$\\eta$| < 2.1 and over the transverse momentum range 38 < pT < 210 GeV. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with values for the distance parameter that determines the nominal jet radius of R = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. The centrality dependence of the jet yield is characterized by the jet "central-to-peripheral ratio," $R_{cp}$. Jet production is found to be suppressed by approximately a factor of two in the 10% most central collisions relative to peripheral collisions. $R_{cp}$ varies smoothly with centrality as characterized by the number of participating nucleons. The observed suppression is only weakly dependent on jet radius ...

  13. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Wolfson, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density.

  14. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references

  15. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references.

  16. Multifractality as a Measure of Complexity in Solar Flare Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Asok K.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we use the notion of multifractality to describe the complexity in H α flare activity during the solar cycles 21, 22, and 23. Both northern and southern hemisphere flare indices are analyzed. Multifractal behavior of the flare activity is characterized by calculating the singularity spectrum of the daily flare index time series in terms of the Hölder exponent. The broadness of the singularity spectrum gives a measure of the degree of multifractality or complexity in the flare index data. The broader the spectrum, the richer and more complex is the structure with a higher degree of multifractality. Using this broadness measure, complexity in the flare index data is compared between the northern and southern hemispheres in each of the three cycles, and among the three cycles in each of the two hemispheres. Other parameters of the singularity spectrum can also provide information about the fractal properties of the flare index data. For instance, an asymmetry to the left or right in the singularity spectrum indicates a dominance of high or low fractal exponents, respectively, reflecting a relative abundance of large or small fluctuations in the total energy emitted by the flares. Our results reveal that in the even (22nd) cycle the singularity spectra are very similar for the northern and southern hemispheres, whereas in the odd cycles (21st and 23rd) they differ significantly. In particular, we find that in cycle 21, the northern hemisphere flare index data have higher complexity than its southern counterpart, with an opposite pattern prevailing in cycle 23. Furthermore, small-scale fluctuations in the flare index time series are predominant in the northern hemisphere in the 21st cycle and are predominant in the southern hemisphere in the 23rd cycle. Based on these findings one might suggest that, from cycle to cycle, there exists a smooth switching between the northern and southern hemispheres in the multifractality of the flaring process. This new

  17. SOLAR WIND HEAVY IONS OVER SOLAR CYCLE 23: ACE/SWICS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    Solar wind plasma and compositional properties reflect the physical properties of the corona and its evolution over time. Studies comparing the previous solar minimum with the most recent, unusual solar minimum indicate that significant environmental changes are occurring globally on the Sun. For example, the magnetic field decreased 30% between the last two solar minima, and the ionic charge states of O have been reported to change toward lower values in the fast wind. In this work, we systematically and comprehensively analyze the compositional changes of the solar wind during cycle 23 from 2000 to 2010 while the Sun moved from solar maximum to solar minimum. We find a systematic change of C, O, Si, and Fe ionic charge states toward lower ionization distributions. We also discuss long-term changes in elemental abundances and show that there is a ∼50% decrease of heavy ion abundances (He, C, O, Si, and Fe) relative to H as the Sun went from solar maximum to solar minimum. During this time, the relative abundances in the slow wind remain organized by their first ionization potential. We discuss these results and their implications for models of the evolution of the solar atmosphere, and for the identification of the fast and slow wind themselves.

  18. Measurement of the ratio of inclusive jet cross sections using the anti-kT algorithm with radius parameters R =0.5 and 0.7 in pp collisions at √s =7 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Heracleous, N.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Kim, T. J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Grebenyuk, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ã.-.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Stein, M.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Höing, R. S.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Gouskos, L.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Jones, J.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Singh, A. P.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Musenich, R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Biasotto, M.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fanzago, F.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Korenkov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Dordevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. 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J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wang, M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Ilic, J.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Felcini, M.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Lacroix, F.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Shrinivas, A.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Kcira, D.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Ratnikova, N.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sakharov, A.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; CMS Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of the inclusive jet cross section with the anti-kT clustering algorithm are presented for two radius parameters, R =0.5 and 0.7. They are based on data from LHC proton-proton collisions at √s =7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector in 2011. The ratio of these two measurements is obtained as a function of the rapidity and transverse momentum of the jets. Significant discrepancies are found comparing the data to leading-order simulations and to fixed-order calculations at next-to-leading order, corrected for nonperturbative effects, whereas simulations with next-to-leading-order matrix elements matched to parton showers describe the data best.

  19. Measurements and IRI Model Predictions During the Recent Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Brown, Steven A.; Wang, Mathew Y.; Souza, Jonas R.; Roddy, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    Cycle 23 was exceptional in that it lasted almost two years longer than its predecessors and in that it ended in an extended minimum period that proved all predictions wrong. Comparisons of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) with CHAMP and GRACE in-situ measurements of electron density during the minimum have revealed significant discrepancies at 400-500 km altitude. Our study investigates the causes for these discrepancies with the help of ionosonde and Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) data from the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite. Our C/NOFS comparisons confirm the earlier CHAMP and GRACE results. But the ionosonde measurements of the F-peak plasma frequency (foF2) show generally good agreement throughout the whole solar cycle. At mid-latitude stations yearly averages of the data-model difference are within 10% and at low latitudes stations within 20%. The 60-70% differences found at 400-500 km altitude are not seen at the F peak. We will discuss how these seemingly contradicting results from the ionosonde and in situ data-model comparisons can be explained and which parameters need to be corrected in the IRI model.

  20. Electric arc radius and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The heat transfer equation of an arc discharge has been solved. The arc is assumed to be a cylinder with negligible axial variation and the dominant heat transfer process is conduction radially inside the column and radiation/convection at the outside edge. The symmetric consideration allows a simple one-dimensional formulation. By taking into account proper variation of the electrical conductivity as function of temperature, the heat balance equation has been solved analytically. The radius of the arc and its current-field characteristics have also been obtained. The conventional results that E approx. I 0 5385 and R approx. I 0 7693 with E being the applied field, I the current, and R the radius of the cylindrical arc, have been proved to be simply limiting cases of our more general characteristics. The results can be applied quite widely including, among others, the neutral beam injection project in nuclear fusion and MHD energy conversion

  1. On joint numerical radius II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drnovšek, R.; Müller, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 9 (2014), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 0308-1087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : joint numerical range * numerical radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081087.2013.816303

  2. Study on photoelectric parameter measurement method of high capacitance solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junchao; Xiong, Limin; Meng, Haifeng; He, Yingwei; Cai, Chuan; Zhang, Bifeng; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Changshi

    2018-01-01

    The high efficiency solar cells usually have high capacitance characteristic, so the measurement of their photoelectric performance usually requires long pulse width and long sweep time. The effects of irradiance non-uniformity, probe shielding and spectral mismatch on the IV curve measurement are analyzed experimentally. A compensation method for irradiance loss caused by probe shielding is proposed, and the accurate measurement of the irradiance intensity in the IV curve measurement process of solar cell is realized. Based on the characteristics that the open circuit voltage of solar cell is sensitive to the junction temperature, an accurate measurement method of the temperature of solar cell under continuous irradiation condition is proposed. Finally, a measurement method with the characteristic of high accuracy and wide application range for high capacitance solar cell is presented.

  3. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Netzer, Hagai; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hβ R BLR -L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR -L relationship.

  4. Feasibility of retrieving dust properties and total column water vapor from solar spectra measured using a lander camera on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Naohiro; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Hashimoto, George L.; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Suzuki, Makoto; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    Dust and water vapor are important constituents in the Martian atmosphere, exerting significant influence on the heat balance of the atmosphere and surface. We have developed a method to retrieve optical and physical properties of Martian dust from spectral intensities of direct and scattered solar radiation to be measured using a multi-wavelength environmental camera onboard a Mars lander. Martian dust is assumed to be composed of silicate-like substrate and hematite-like inclusion, having spheroidal shape with a monomodal gamma size distribution. Error analysis based on simulated data reveals that appropriate combinations of three bands centered at 450, 550, and 675 nm wavelengths and 4 scattering angles of 3°, 10°, 50°, and 120° lead to good retrieval of four dust parameters, namely, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance of size distribution, and volume mixing ratio of hematite. Retrieval error increases when some of the observational parameters such as color ratio or aureole are omitted from the retrieval. Also, the capability of retrieving total column water vapor is examined through observations of direct and scattered solar radiation intensities at 925, 935, and 972 nm. The simulation and error analysis presented here will be useful for designing an environmental camera that can elucidate the dust and water vapor properties in a future Mars lander mission.

  5. Solar energy plant as a complement to a conventional heating system: Measurement of the storage and consumption of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, E.; Lippe, W.

    1982-08-01

    The technical and economic performances of a complementary solar heating installation for a new swimming pool added to a two-floor dwelling were examined after measurements were taken over a period of 12 months and analyzed. In particular, the heat absorption and utilization were measured and modifications were carried out to improve pipe insulation and regulation of mixer valve motor running and volume flow. The collector system efficiency was evaluated at 15.4%, the proportion of solar energy of the total consumption being 6.1%. The solar plant and the measuring instruments are described and recommendations are made for improved design and performance, including enlargement of the collector surface area, further modification of the regulation system, utilization of temperature stratification in the storage tanks and avoiding mutual overshadowing of the collectors.

  6. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen [Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stern, Stephanie [Cool Roof Rating Council, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The widely used methods to measure the solar reflectance of roofing materials include ASTM standards E903 (spectrometer), C1549 (reflectometer), and E1918 (pyranometer). Standard E903 uses a spectrometer with an integrating sphere to measure the solar spectral reflectance of an area approximately 0.1 cm{sup 2}. The solar spectral reflectance is then weighted with a solar spectral irradiance to calculate the solar reflectance. Standard C1549 uses a reflectometer to measure the solar reflectance of an area approximately 5 cm{sup 2}. Both E903 and C1549 are best suited to measurement of the solar reflectance of flat, homogeneous surfaces. Standard E1918 uses a pyranometer to measure the solar reflectance of an area approximately 10 m{sup 2}, and is best applied to large surfaces that may also be rough and/or non-uniform. We describe a technique that uses a pyranometer to measure the solar reflectance of a uniform or variegated sample with diffusely reflective surface of an area of approximately 1 m{sup 2}, and use this technique (referred to as E1918A) to measure the solar reflectances of low- and high-profile tile assemblies. For 10 large (10 m{sup 2}) tile assemblies whose E1918 solar reflectances ranged from 0.10 to 0.50, the magnitude of the difference between the E1918A and E1918 measurements did not exceed 0.02 for unicolor assemblies, and did not exceed 0.03 for multicolor assemblies. (author)

  7. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Solar Wind as Measured by Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is a scale-dependent process that generates fluctuations towards ever-smaller scales until dissipation occurs. Recent Cluster observations in the solar wind demonstrate the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius, where kinetic properties of ions invalidate fluid approximations, down to the electron Larmor radius, where electrons become demagnetized. The cascade is quasi-two-dimensional and has been interpreted as consisting of highly oblique kinetic Alfvenic fluctuations that dissipate near at the electron gyroradius scale via proton and electron Landau damping. Here we investigate for the first time the spatial properties of the turbulence at these scales. We report the presence of thin current sheets and discontinuities with spatial sizes greater than or approximately equal to the proton Larmor radius. These isolated structures may be manifestations of intermittency, and such would localize sites of turbulent dissipation. Studying the relationship between turbulent dissipation, reconnection and intermittency is crucial for understanding the dynamics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  8. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Norton, B.

    1995-10-01

    The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  9. Solar neutrino flux measurements by the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) for half the 22-year solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Gurkina, P.P.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Mirmov, I.N.; Khairnasov, N.G.; Shikhin, A.A.; Yants, V.E.; Bowles, T.J.; Teasdale, W.A.; Nico, J.S.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present measurements of the solar neutrino capture rate on metallic gallium in the Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE) over a period of slightly more than half the 22-year solar cycle. A combined analysis of 92 runs over the twelve-year period from January 1990 until December 2001 yields a capture rate of 70.8 +5.3 -5.2 (stat) +3.7 -3.2 (sys) SNU for solar neutrinos with energies above 0.233 MeV. This value is slightly more than half the rate predicted by the standard solar model, 130 SNU. We present the results of new runs since April 1998 and analyze all runs combined by years, months, and bimonthly periods beginning in 1990. A simple analysis of the SAGE results together with the results of other solar neutrino experiments gives an estimate of (4.6 ± 1.2) x 10 10 neutrinos cm -2 s -1 for the flux of the electron pp neutrinos that reach the Earth without changing their flavor. The flux of the pp neutrinos produced in thermonuclear reactions in the Sun is estimated to be (7.6 ± 2.0) x 10 10 neutrinos cm -2 s -1 , in agreement with the value of (5.95 ± 0.06) x 10 10 neutrinos cm -2 s -1 predicted by the standard solar model

  10. Proton Fluxes Measured by the PAMELA Experiment from the Minimum to the Maximum Solar Activity for Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, M.; Munini, R.; Boezio, M.; Di Felice, V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Santis, C.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Marcelli, N.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergè, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Osteria, G.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Potgieter, M. S.; Raath, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    Precise measurements of the time-dependent intensity of the low-energy (solar activity periods, i.e., from minimum to maximum, are needed to achieve comprehensive understanding of such physical phenomena. The minimum phase between solar cycles 23 and 24 was peculiarly long, extending up to the beginning of 2010 and followed by the maximum phase, reached during early 2014. In this Letter, we present proton differential spectra measured from 2010 January to 2014 February by the PAMELA experiment. For the first time the GCR proton intensity was studied over a wide energy range (0.08–50 GeV) by a single apparatus from a minimum to a maximum period of solar activity. The large statistics allowed the time variation to be investigated on a nearly monthly basis. Data were compared and interpreted in the context of a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model describing the GCRs propagation through the heliosphere.

  11. Use of GNSS derived ionospheric information to detect and measure Solar Flares

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pajares, Manuel; García Rigo, Alberto; Aragón Ángel, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The Ionosphere, the partially ionized atmospheric r egion ranging from approximately 60 to +1000 km height, is typically affected by spatial and tempor al variations, driven by Local Time (solar illumina - tion), Latitude (magnetic field and solar illuminat ion) and time (space weather, among seasonal and solar cycle dependence). It can be indirectly studi ed from the dual L-band frequency GNSS measure- ments by assuming the first order ionospheric delay approximation (the higher order ionosp...

  12. Direct Measurement of the 7Be Solar Neutrino Flux with 192 Days of Borexino Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpesella, C.; Di Pietro, G.; Monzani, M. E.; Back, H. O.; Hardy, S.; Joyce, M.; Manecki, S.; Raghavan, R. S.; Rountree, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Balata, M.; Di Credico, A.; Gazzana, S.; Korga, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Orsini, M.; Papp, L.; Razeto, A.; Tartaglia, R.; Bellini, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7 Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7 Be neutrinos is 49±3 stat ±4 syst counts/(day·100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for 7 Be solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 4σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar ν e in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measurement improves the experimental determination of the flux of 7 Be, pp, and CNO solar ν e , and the limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment using solar neutrinos

  13. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colon, C. J.; Merrigan, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection

  14. Measuring solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, A.; Stutz, J.; Berry, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has, in our hands, been fraught with missteps and puzzling problems. Here we describe lessons we have learned and the resulting novel system recently installed in the Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil. The system is designed to measure light from 740 - 780 nm, enabling us to compare SIF computed from Fraunhofer lines in an optically transparent band of the atmosphere (745 - 759 nm) with SIF computed using the telluric O2A band (760 - 770 nm). Fraunhofer line analysis requires high optical resolution (better than 0.2 nm) to detect the relatively narrow lines, but we discovered that fiber-optic diffraction-grating spectrometers are sensitive to very small inhomogeneities in the lighting. Errors resulting from this autocorrelated but random noise were similar in magnitude to the SIF signal itself. Optical diffusers reduce this problem, leading to our final design: a sealed cylinder, dubbed Rotaprism, in which a rotatable prism selects whether light from upward- or downward-looking windows enters an axially-placed optical fiber. Cosine-correcting opal glass covering the windows not only solves the noise issue but also makes the measurements correspond to photon flux. Rotaprism also maximizes the amount of light reaching the spectrometer - maximizing the signal:noise ratio - by avoiding the need for lossy optical switches and fiber splitters. Rotaprism is driven by a pneumatic actuator that is controlled by electronic valves attached to a pressurized N2 source. The gas exhausts into the temperature-controlled spectrometer enclosure to help purge the optics. Finally, custom software provides fault-tolerant control and data acquisition, ensuring that measurements continue with little or no intervention at the remote field site despite unreliable power. Analysis of initial data demonstrates the advantage of Fraunhofer line SIF analysis: due to the atmosphere transparency in this band, the results are more

  15. LONG-TERM TRENDS IN THE SOLAR WIND PROTON MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Heather A.; McComas, David J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); DeForest, Craig E. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We examine the long-term time evolution (1965–2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature ( T {sub p}) and speed ( V {sub p}) and between the proton density ( n {sub p}) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature–speed ( T {sub p}– V {sub p}) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density–speed ( n {sub p}– V {sub p}) relationship is not linear like the T {sub p}– V {sub p} relationship, we perform power-law fits for n {sub p}– V {sub p}. The exponent (steepness in the n {sub p}– V {sub p} relationship) is correlated with the solar cycle. This exponent has a stronger correlation with current sheet tilt angle than with sunspot number because the sunspot number maxima vary considerably from cycle to cycle and the tilt angle maxima do not. To understand this finding, we examined the average n {sub p} for different speed ranges, and found that for the slow wind n {sub p} is highly correlated with the sunspot number, with a lag of approximately four years. The fast wind n {sub p} variation was less, but in phase with the cycle. This phase difference may contribute to the n {sub p}– V {sub p} exponent correlation with the solar cycle. These long-term trends are important since empirical formulas based on fits to T {sub p} and V {sub p} data are commonly used to identify interplanetary coronal mass ejections, but these formulas do not include any time dependence. Changes in the solar wind density over a solar cycle will create corresponding changes in the near-Earth space environment and the overall extent of the heliosphere.

  16. Evaluation of conventional and high-performance routine solar radiation measurements for improved solar resource, climatological trends, and radiative modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueymard, Christian A. [Solar Consulting Services, P.O. Box 392, Colebrook, NH 03576 (United States); Myers, Daryl R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401-3305 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The solar renewable energy community depends on radiometric measurements and instrumentation for data to design and monitor solar energy systems, and develop and validate solar radiation models. This contribution evaluates the impact of instrument uncertainties contributing to data inaccuracies and their effect on short-term and long-term measurement series, and on radiation model validation studies. For the latter part, transposition (horizontal-to-tilt) models are used as an example. Confirming previous studies, it is found that a widely used pyranometer strongly underestimates diffuse and global radiation, particularly in winter, unless appropriate corrective measures are taken. Other types of measurement problems are also discussed, such as those involved in the indirect determination of direct or diffuse irradiance, and in shadowband correction methods. The sensitivity of the predictions from transposition models to inaccuracies in input radiation data is demonstrated. Caution is therefore issued to the whole community regarding drawing detailed conclusions about solar radiation data without due attention to the data quality issues only recently identified. (author)

  17. Variational principles for the spectral radius of functional operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonevich, A B; Zajkowski, K

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radius of a functional operator with positive coefficients generated by a set of maps (a dynamical system) is shown to be a logarithmically convex functional of the logarithms of the coefficients. This yields the following variational principle: the logarithm of the spectral radius is the Legendre transform of a convex functional T defined on a set of vector-valued probability measures and depending only on the original dynamical system. A combinatorial construction of the functional T by means of the random walk process corresponding to the dynamical system is presented in the subexponential case. Examples of the explicit calculation of the functional T and the spectral radius are presented.

  18. Solar Radiation Measurement Using Raspberry Pi and Its Modelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Selvanathan Shanmuga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of solar energy as the best alternative to traditional energy sources has led to an extensive study on the measurement and prediction of solar radiation. Devices such as pyranometer, pyrrheliometer, global UV radiometer are used for the measurement of solar radiation. The solar radiation measuring instruments available at Innovation Center, MIT Manipal were integrated with a Raspberry Pi to allow remote access to the data through the university Local Area Network. The connections of the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi were enclosed in a plastic box to prevent damage from the rainfall and humidity in Manipal. The solar radiation data was used to validate an Artificial Neural Network model which was developed using various meterological data from 2011-2015.

  19. Applying measured reflection from the ground to simulations of thermal perfromance of solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    representation of the reflection from the ground. In this study a more accurate description of the albedo is obtained based on detailed measurements from a solar hat, installed at ASIAQ’s climate station in Sisimiut, Greenland. The solar hat measures the global radiation on horizontal, the total radiation......Solar radiation on tilted and vertical surfaces in the Arctic is, in large parts of the year, strongly influenced by reflection from snow. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems in the Arctic, it is important to have an accurate...... on vertical surfaces facing north, south, east and west, and radiation reflected from the ground on vertical surfaces facing north, south, east and west. Based on measured data from 2004-2007 the albedo is determined for each month of the year as a function of the difference between the solar azimuth...

  20. Coupling of the solar wind to measures of magnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherron, R.L.; Fay, R.A.; Garrity, C.R.; Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; Clauer, C.R.; Searls, C.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of linear prediction filtering has been used to generate empirical response functions relating the solar wind electric field to the most frequently used magnetic indices, AL, AU, Dst and ASYM. Two datasets, one from 1967-1968 and one from 1973-1974, provided the information needed to calculate the empirical response functions. These functions have been convolved with solar wind observations obtained during the IMS to predict the indices. These predictions are compared with the observed indices during two, three-day intervals studied extensively by participants in the CDAW-6 workshop. Differences between the observed and predicted indices are discussed in terms of the linear assumption and in terms of physical processes other than direct solar wind-magnetosphere interaction

  1. Measurement of solar neutrinos flux in Russian-American gallium experiment SAGE for half 22-years cycle of solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, D.N.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The results of measuring the solar neutrino capture on the metallic gallium in the Russian-American experiment SAGE for the period slightly exceeding the half of the 22-year cycle of solar activity, are presented. The results of new measurements since April 1998 are quoted and the analysis of all the measurements, performed by years, months and two-year periods, beginning since 1990 are also presented. Simple analysis of the SAGE results together with the results of other solar neutrino experiments leads to estimating the value of the flux of the pp-neutrinos, reaching the Earth without change in their around, equal to (4.6 ± 1.2) x 10 10 neutrino/(cm 2 s). The value of the flux of the pp-neutrinos, originating in the Sun thermonuclear reactions, is equal to (7.6 ± 2.0) x 10 10 neutrino/(cm 2 s), which agrees well with the standard solar model (5.95 ± 0.6) x 10 10 neutrino/(cm 2 s) [ru

  2. Trilogy, a planetary geodesy mission concept for measuring the expansion of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Mao, Dan-dan

    2018-04-01

    The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G. The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates for the expansion of the scale of the solar system are of order 1.5 cm year-1 AU-1, which over several years is an observable quantity with present-day laser ranging systems. This estimate suggests that laser measurements between planets could provide an accurate estimate of the solar system expansion rate. We examine distance measurements between three bodies in the inner solar system - Earth's Moon, Mars and Venus - and outline a mission concept for making the measurements. The concept involves placing spacecraft that carry laser ranging transponders in orbit around each body and measuring the distances between the three spacecraft over a period of several years. The analysis of these range measurements would allow the co-estimation of the spacecraft orbit, planetary ephemerides, other geophysical parameters related to the constitution and dynamics of the central bodies, and key geodetic parameters related to the solar system expansion, the Sun, and theoretical physics.

  3. Trilogy, a Planetary Geodesy Mission Concept for Measuring the Expansion of the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Neumann, Gregory A; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H; Mao, Dan-Dan

    2018-04-01

    The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G . The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates for the expansion of the scale of the solar system are of order 1.5 cm year -1 AU -1 , which over several years is an observable quantity with present-day laser ranging systems. This estimate suggests that laser measurements between planets could provide an accurate estimate of the solar system expansion rate. We examine distance measurements between three bodies in the inner solar system -- Earth's Moon, Mars and Venus -- and outline a mission concept for making the measurements. The concept involves placing spacecraft that carry laser ranging transponders in orbit around each body and measuring the distances between the three spacecraft over a period of several years. The analysis of these range measurements would allow the co-estimation of the spacecraft orbit, planetary ephemerides, other geophysical parameters related to the constitution and dynamics of the central bodies, and key geodetic parameters related to the solar system expansion, the Sun, and theoretical physics.

  4. Effect of perturbation of convective energy transport on the luminosity and radius of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endal, A.S.; Twigg, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    The response of solar models to perturbations of the efficiency of convective energy transport is studied for a number of cases. Such perturbations primarily affect the shallow superadiabatic layer of the convective envelope (at depths 3 km below the photosphere). Independent of the details of the perturbation scheme, the resulting change in the solar radius (ΔR/R) is always very small compared to the change in luminosity (ΔL/L). This appears to be true for any physical mechanism of solar variability which operates in the outer layers of the convection zone. Changes of the solar radius have been inferred by Dunham et al. from historical observations of solar eclipses in 1715 and 1925. Considering the constraints on concurrent luminosity changes, this type of solar variability must be indicative of changes in the solar structure at substantial depths below the superadiabatic layer of the convective envelope

  5. INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING AND TRANSMISSION THE SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's energy is distributed over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum and Sun behaves approximately like a "blackbody" radiating at a temperature of about 5800 K with maximum output in the green-yellow part of the visible spectrum, around 500 nm. Not all solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth's surface due to a various optical phenomena in regard to solar radiation crossing the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to investigate them, there are two general categories of instruments used to measure the transmission of solar radiation through Earth's atmosphere: instruments that measure radiation from the entire sky and instruments that measure only direct solar radiation. Within each of these categories, instruments can be further subdivided into those that measure radiation over a broad range of wavelengths and those that measure only specific wavelengths.

  6. An overview of global solar radiation measurements in Ghardaia area, south Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gairaa, Kacem; Bakelli, Yahia [Applied Research Unit for Renewables Energies, Ouargla Road, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of actual solar radiation data measurements in Ghardaia site (32.360 N, 3.810 W, 450 m above MSL). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year from 1 January-31December 2005. The data thus recorded are compared with corresponding data of the 22-year average of NASA's surface meteorology and solar energy-model. Hourly, daily and monthly solar radiation was made from five-minute recorded by EKO Pyranometer. The highest measured daily and monthly mean solar radiation was found to be 369 and 326 (W/m2), and the highest five minute averaged solar radiation values up to 1268 (W/m2) were observed in the summer season from May to September, and the yearly average daily energy input was 21.83 (MJ/m2/day). Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average temperature variations are discussed. The collected data indicate that Ghardaia has a strong potential for solar energy applications.

  7. The radius of RX Eridani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R.; Dean, J.

    1976-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of the light curves of RX Eri obtained in B, V and I, and radial velocity determinations, are combined to determine the radius by a method originally proposed by van Hoof which avoids matching colours in the rising and falling branches of the light curve and concentrates on the falling branch. The results agree well with those from other stars determined by the normal Baade-Wesselink method, but the method is easier to apply if the colour curve is flat in the falling branch. The parameters found for the star are r 0 = 5.5 Sun, mass = 0.45 Sun, and Msub(v) = + 0sup(m).54. (author)

  8. Cassini-VIMS at Jupiter: Solar occultation measurements using Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Bellucci, G.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report unusual and somewhat unexpected observations of the jovian satellite Io, showing strong methane absorption bands. These observations were made by the Cassini VIMS experiment during the Jupiter flyby of December/January 2000/2001. The explanation is straightforward: Entering or exiting from Jupiter's shadow during an eclipse, Io is illuminated by solar light which has transited the atmosphere of Jupiter. This light, therefore becomes imprinted with the spectral signature of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, which includes strong atmospheric methane absorption bands. Intercepting solar light refracted by the jovian atmosphere, Io essentially becomes a "miffor" for solar occultation events of Jupiter. The thickness of the layer where refracted solar light is observed is so large (more than 3000 km at Io's orbit), that we can foresee a nearly continuous multi-year period of similar events at Saturn, utilizing the large and bright ring system. During Cassini's 4-year nominal mission, this probing tecnique should reveal information of Saturn's atmosphere over a large range of southern latitudes and times. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of on-board measurements during solar storm periods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, P.; Dyer, C.; Fuller, N.; Hands, A.; Latocha, M.; Rollet, S.; Spurný, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2009), s. 297-303 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : solar storm * aircraft crew * cosmic radiation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.707, year: 2009

  10. Solar wind electron densities from Viking dual-frequency radio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.; Anderson, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous phase coherent, two-frequency measurements of the time delay between the Earth station and the Viking spacecraft have been analyzed in terms of the electron density profiles from 4 solar radii (R/sub sun/) to 200 R/sub sun/. The measurements were made during a period of solar activity minimum (1976--1977) and show a strong solar latitude effect. The data were analyzed with both a model independent, direct numerical inversion technique and with model fitting, yielding essentially the same results. It is shown that the solar wind density can be represented by two power laws near the solar equator proportional to r/sup -2.7/ and r/sup -2.04/. However, the more rapidly falling term quickly disappears at moderate latitudes (approx.20 0 ), leaving only the inverse-square behavior

  11. Measurement of Solar Spectra Relating to Photosynthesis and Solar Cells: An Inquiry Lab for Secondary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Balcerzak, Phyllis; May, Victoria L.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is central to science curriculum at all levels. This article describes an inquiry-based laboratory investigation developed to explore the impact of light quality on photosynthesis and to connect this process to current research on harvesting solar energy, including bioenergy, artificial photosynthesis, and solar…

  12. Nuclear charge radius of {sup 11}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Rodolfo, E-mail: R.Sanchez@GSI.de; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN(Switzerland); Ewald, Guido; Goette, Stefan; Kirchner, Reinhard; Kluge, H.-Juergen; Kuehl, Thomas [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Wojtaszek, Agnieszka [Swietokrzyska Academy, Institute of Physics (Poland); Bushaw, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Drake, Gordon W. F. [University of Windsor, Department of Physics (Canada); Yan Zongchao [University of New Brunswick, Department of Physics (Canada); Zimmermann, Claus [Physikalisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Albers, Daniel; Behr, John; Bricault, Pierre; Dilling, Jens; Dombsky, Marik; Lassen, Jens; Phil Levy, C. D. [Tri-University Meson Facility (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    We have determined the nuclear charge radius of {sup 11}Li by high-precision laser spectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility where the {sup 7}Li-{sup 11}Li isotope shift (IS) was measured in the 2s{yields}3s electronic transition using Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy with a relative accuracy better than 10{sup -5}. The accuracy for the IS of the other lithium isotopes was also improved. IS's are mainly caused by differences in nuclear mass, but changes in proton distribution also give small contributions. Comparing experimentally measured IS with advanced atomic calculation of purely mass-based shifts, including QED and relativistic effects, allows derivation of the nuclear charge radii. The radii are found to decrease monotonically from {sup 6}Li to {sup 9}Li, and then increase with {sup 11}Li about 11% larger than {sup 9}Li. These results are a benchmark for the open question as to whether nuclear core excitation by halo neutrons is necessary to explain the large nuclear matter radius of {sup 11}Li; thus, the results are compared with a number of nuclear structure models.

  13. Nuclear charge radius of 11Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rodolfo; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried; Dax, Andreas; Ewald, Guido; Goette, Stefan; Kirchner, Reinhard; Kluge, H.-Juergen; Kuehl, Thomas; Wojtaszek, Agnieszka; Bushaw, Bruce A.; Drake, Gordon W. F.; Yan Zongchao; Zimmermann, Claus; Albers, Daniel; Behr, John; Bricault, Pierre; Dilling, Jens; Dombsky, Marik; Lassen, Jens; Phil Levy, C. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have determined the nuclear charge radius of 11 Li by high-precision laser spectroscopy. The experiment was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility where the 7 Li- 11 Li isotope shift (IS) was measured in the 2s → 3s electronic transition using Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy with a relative accuracy better than 10 -5 . The accuracy for the IS of the other lithium isotopes was also improved. IS's are mainly caused by differences in nuclear mass, but changes in proton distribution also give small contributions. Comparing experimentally measured IS with advanced atomic calculation of purely mass-based shifts, including QED and relativistic effects, allows derivation of the nuclear charge radii. The radii are found to decrease monotonically from 6 Li to 9 Li, and then increase with 11 Li about 11% larger than 9 Li. These results are a benchmark for the open question as to whether nuclear core excitation by halo neutrons is necessary to explain the large nuclear matter radius of 11 Li; thus, the results are compared with a number of nuclear structure models.

  14. Lower Ionosphere Sensitivity to Solar X-ray Flares Over a Complete Solar Cycle Evaluated From VLF Signal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macotela, Edith L.; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Manninen, Jyrki; Correia, Emília; Turunen, Tauno; Magalhães, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The daytime lower ionosphere behaves as a solar X-ray flare detector, which can be monitored using very low frequency (VLF) radio waves that propagate inside the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. In this paper, we infer the lower ionosphere sensitivity variation over a complete solar cycle by using the minimum X-ray fluence (FXmin) necessary to produce a disturbance of the quiescent ionospheric conductivity. FXmin is the photon energy flux integrated over the time interval from the start of a solar X-ray flare to the beginning of the ionospheric disturbance recorded as amplitude deviation of the VLF signal. FXmin is computed for ionospheric disturbances that occurred in the time interval of December-January from 2007 to 2016 (solar cycle 24). The computation of FXmin uses the X-ray flux in the wavelength band below 0.2 nm and the amplitude of VLF signals transmitted from France (HWU), Turkey (TBB), and U.S. (NAA), which were recorded in Brazil, Finland, and Peru. The main result of this study is that the long-term variation of FXmin is correlated with the level of solar activity, having FXmin values in the range (1 - 12) × 10-7 J/m2. Our result suggests that FXmin is anticorrelated with the lower ionosphere sensitivity, confirming that the long-term variation of the ionospheric sensitivity is anticorrelated with the level of solar activity. This result is important to identify the minimum X-ray fluence that an external source of ionization must overcome in order to produce a measurable ionospheric disturbance during daytime.

  15. To Measure Probable Physical Changes On The Earth During Total Solar Eclipse Using Geophysical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocmen, C.

    2007-01-01

    When the total solar eclipse came into question, people connected the eclipse with the earthquake dated 17.08.1999. We thought if any physical parameters change during total solar eclipse on the earth, we could measure this changing and we did the project 'To Measure Probable Physical Changes On The Earth During Total Solar Eclipse Using Geophysical Methods' We did gravity, magnetic and self-potential measurements at Konya and Ankara during total solar eclipse (29, March, 2006) and the day before eclipse and the day after eclipse. The measurements went on three days continuously twenty-four hours at Konya and daytime in Ankara. Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory gave us magnetic values in Istanbul and we compare the values with our magnetic values. Turkish State Meteorological Service sent us temperature and air pressure observations during three days, in Konya and Ankara. We interpreted all of them

  16. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  17. Diagnostics of the Solar Wind and Global Heliosphere with Lyman-α Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provornikova, E. P.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Laming, J. M.; Strachan, L.; Wood, B. E.; Katushkina, O. A.; Ko, Y.-K.; Tun Beltran, S.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to develop an instrument measuring full sky intensity maps and spectra of interplanetary Lyman-α emission to reveal the global solar wind variability and the nature of the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium.

  18. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Bero, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC R film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A 633 ) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11 % for spectral absorbance measurements and 15 % for OD measurements. (authors)

  19. Outdoor solar UVA dose assessment with EBT2 radiochromic film using spectrophotometer and densitometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukassem, I; Bero, M A

    2015-04-01

    Direct measurements of solar ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) have an important role in the protection of humans against UVR hazard. This work presents simple technique based on the application of EBT2 GAFCHROMIC(®) film for direct solar UVA dose assessment. It demonstrates the effects of different parts of the solar spectrum (UVB, visible and infrared) on performed UVA field measurements and presents the measurement uncertainty budget. The gradient of sunlight exposure level permitted the authors to establish the mathematical relationships between the measured solar UVA dose and two measured quantities: the first was the changes in spectral absorbance at the wavelength 633 nm (A633) and the second was the optical density (OD). The established standard relations were also applied to calculate the solar UVA dose variations during the whole day; 15 min of exposure each hour between 8:00 and 17:00 was recorded. Results show that both applied experimental methods, spectrophotometer absorbance and densitometer OD, deliver comparable figures for EBT2 solar UVA dose assessment with relative uncertainty of 11% for spectral absorbance measurements and 15% for OD measurements. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Spectroscopy of muonic atoms and the proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, Aldo

    2017-09-01

    We have measured several 2 S -2 P transitions in muonic hydrogen (μp), muonic deuterium (μd) and muonic helium ions (μ3He, μ4He). From muonic hydrogen we extracted a proton charge radius 20 times more precise than obtained from electron-proton scattering and hydrogen high-precision laser spectroscopy but at a variance of 7 σ from these values. This discrepancy is nowadays referred to as the proton radius puzzle. New insight has been recently provided by the first determination of the deuteron charge radius from laser spectroscopy of μd. The status of the proton charge radius puzzle including the new insights obtained by μd spectroscopy will be discussed. Work supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation SNF-200021-165854 and the ERC CoG. #725039.

  2. Direct measurements of the 160.01-min oscillation in the solar radio brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, V.A.; Moiseev, I.G.; Nesterov, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Direct (nondifferential) brightness measurements of the quiet sun at lambda = 8.2 and 13.5 mm, corrected by the Bouguer law for absorption in the terrestrial atmosphere, confirm the presence of a 160.009 +- 0.002 min periodicity. At the two wavelengths the relative amplitudes are roughly-equal0.6 x 10 -3 , 1 x 10 -3 . Maximum radio brightness occurs at the phase when optical data indicate the photosphere radius is largest

  3. Note: Photoluminescence measurement system for multi-junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespidi, F; Malchiodi, A; Farina, F

    2017-05-01

    We describe a photoluminescence spectroscopy system developed for studying phenomena of optical coupling in multiple-junction solar cells and processed/unprocessed wafers, under the high solar concentration levels typical of HCPV (High Concentration PhotoVoltaic) systems. The instrument operates at room temperature over two spectral ranges: 475 nm-1100 nm and 950 nm-1650 nm. Power densities exceeding 10 000 suns can be obtained on the sample. The system can host up to four compact focusable solid state laser sources, presently only three are mounted and operated at 450 nm, 520 nm, and 785 nm; they provide overlapped beams on the sample surface and can shine simultaneously the sample to study possible mutual interaction between the different junctions.

  4. Recent measurements of the flux excess from solar faculae and the implication for the solar oblateness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Direct observation of the excess brightness from photospheric faculae are presented. This excess brightness is, at times, large enough to produce an apparent oblateness that exceeds that reported by Dicke and Goldenberg. These results support the Chapman-Ingersoll facular explanation for the excess solar oblateness and support the findings of Hill et al. by offering a possible source for their excess equatorial brightness which, they showed, can produce an apparent, nongeometrical oblateness

  5. Review of Image Quality Measures for Solar Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Adam; Radlak, Krystian; Bernacki, Krzysztof; Orlov, Valeri

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the solar photosphere from the ground encounter significant problems caused by Earth's turbulent atmosphere. Before image reconstruction techniques can be applied, the frames obtained in the most favorable atmospheric conditions (the so-called lucky frames) have to be carefully selected. However, estimating the quality of images containing complex photospheric structures is not a trivial task, and the standard routines applied in nighttime lucky imaging observations are not applicable. In this paper we evaluate 36 methods dedicated to the assessment of image quality, which were presented in the literature over the past 40 years. We compare their effectiveness on simulated solar observations of both active regions and granulation patches, using reference data obtained by the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. To create images that are affected by a known degree of atmospheric degradation, we employed the random wave vector method, which faithfully models all the seeing characteristics. The results provide useful information about the method performances, depending on the average seeing conditions expressed by the ratio of the telescope's aperture to the Fried parameter, D/r0. The comparison identifies three methods for consideration by observers: Helmli and Scherer's mean, the median filter gradient similarity, and the discrete cosine transform energy ratio. While the first method requires less computational effort and can be used effectively in virtually any atmospheric conditions, the second method shows its superiority at good seeing (D/r0<4). The third method should mainly be considered for the post-processing of strongly blurred images.

  6. Diagnostics of the solar corona from comparison between Faraday rotation measurements and magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chat, G.; Cohen, O.; Kasper, J. C.; Spangler, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized natural radio sources passing behind the Sun experience Faraday rotation as a consequence of the electron density and magnetic field strength in coronal plasma. Since Faraday rotation is proportional to the product of the density and the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight of the observer, a model is required to interpret the observations and infer coronal structures. Faraday rotation observations have been compared with relatively ad hoc models of the corona. Here for the first time we compare these observations with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the solar corona driven by measurements of the photospheric magnetic field. We use observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array of 34 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona between 5 and 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during 1997 May, and 2005 March and April. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona. We find that (1) using a synoptic map of the solar magnetic field just one Carrington rotation off produces poorer agreements, meaning that the outer corona changes in the course of one month, even in solar minimum; (2) global MHD models of the solar corona driven by photospheric magnetic field measurements are generally able to reproduce Faraday rotation observations; and (3) some sources show significant disagreement between the model and the observations, which appears to be a function of the proximity of the line of sight to the large-scale heliospheric current sheet.

  7. Solar Cycle variations in Earth's open flux content measured by the SuperDARN radar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a long term study, from 1996 - 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection and is here used as a proxy for the amount of open flux in the polar cap. The mean HMB latitude (measured at midnight) is found to be at 64 degrees during the entire period, with secondary peaks at lower latitudes during the solar maximum of 2003, and at higher latitudes during the recent extreme solar minimum of 2008-2011. We associate these large scale statistical variations in open flux content with solar cycle variations in the solar wind parameters leading to changes in the intensity of the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  8. Data analysis of solar potential in northern Bulgaria obtained by measurements with tall meteorological masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terziev, A.; Genovski, I.; Petrov, P.; Valchev, V.

    2010-01-01

    Energy from the sun as a renewable energy source could be used for producing not only heat energy but also electricity. The maximum utilization of this type energy requires very good knowledge of the solar radiation for an exact geographical location. Determination of the solar intensity is carried out with special devices called pyranometers. This work considers solar potential data analysis based on data collected from meteorological masts installed in Northern Bulgaria. Comparison between the data from on-site measurements and some long-term data sources well known in literature is also considered. The possibility of studying the interpolation between the points where measurements are carried out in order to obtain solar radiation intensity Filed for the area limited by the points of measurement is also reviewed. Based on correlation analysis results the estimated energy production within the studied area has been calculated. (authors)

  9. A comparison of solar irradiances measured by SBUV, SME, and rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Barry M.; Heath, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) measurements of solar irradiance and predictions from the Mg 280-nm index are compared with each other and with coincident Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) and rocket measurements. The SBUV irradiances show a systematic decrease with time not seen in the rocket measurements; a correction for this decrease is introduced. The scatter and overall structure in the SME spectra is 3-5 percent, of the order of or larger than most of the changes predicted by the Mg index. The corrected SBUV ratio and the Mg index prediction for it agree to within 1 percent. Such agreement supports a common origin for variations between solar maximum and minimum and those for individual rotations: the degree to which active regions cover the visible hemisphere of the sun.

  10. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  11. Sky brightness and color measurements during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald G; Bruns, Ronald D

    2018-06-01

    The sky brightness was measured during the partial phases and during totality of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. A tracking CCD camera with color filters and a wide-angle lens allowed measurements across a wide field of view, recording images every 10 s. The partially and totally eclipsed Sun was kept behind an occulting disk attached to the camera, allowing direct brightness measurements from 1.5° to 38° from the Sun. During the partial phases, the sky brightness as a function of time closely followed the integrated intensity of the unobscured fraction of the solar disk. A redder sky was measured close to the Sun just before totality, caused by the redder color of the exposed solar limb. During totality, a bluer sky was measured, dimmer than the normal sky by a factor of 10,000. Suggestions for enhanced measurements at future eclipses are offered.

  12. Photometric measurements of solar irradiance variations due to sunspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, G.A.; Herzog, A.D.; Laico, D.E.; Lawrence, J.K.; Templer, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a daily basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and irradiance deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial irradiance contribution from faculae and active region plage. 23 refs

  13. Solar UV exposures measured simultaneously to all arbitrarily oriented leaves on a plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alfio V; Schouten, Peter; Downs, Nathan J; Turner, Joanna

    2010-05-03

    The possible ramifications of climate change include the influence it has upon the amount of cloud cover in the atmosphere. Clouds cause significant variation in the solar UV radiation reaching the earth's surface and in turn the amount incident on ecosystems. The consequences of changes in solar UV radiation delivered to ecosystems due to climate change may be significant and should be investigated. Plants are an integral part of the world wide ecological balance, and research has shown they are affected by variations in solar UV radiation. Therefore research into the influence of solar UV radiation on plants is of particular significance. However, this requires a means of obtaining detailed information on the solar UV radiation received by plants. This research describes a newly developed dosimetric technique employed to gather information on solar UV radiation incident to the leaves of plants in combination with the measurement of spectral irradiances in order to provide an accurate method of collecting detailed information on the solar UV radiation affecting the canopy and lower leaf layers of individual plants. Variations in the measurements take into account the inclination and orientation of each leaf investigated, as well as the influence of shading by other leaves in the plant canopy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectroscopic Measurements of the Ion Velocity Distribution at the Base of the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel W.; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the fast solar wind reveal non-thermal distributions of electrons, protons, and minor ions extending from 0.3 au to the heliopause. The physical mechanisms responsible for these non-thermal properties and the location where these properties originate remain open questions. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence, from extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy, that the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of minor ions are already non-Gaussian at the base of the fast solar wind in a coronal hole, at altitudes of thermal equilibrium, (b) fluid motions such as non-Gaussian turbulent fluctuations or non-uniform wave motions, or (c) some combination of both. These observations provide important empirical constraints for the source region of the fast solar wind and for the theoretical models of the different acceleration, heating, and energy deposition processes therein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ion VDF in the fast solar wind has been probed so close to its source region. The findings are also a timely precursor to the upcoming 2018 launch of the Parker Solar Probe, which will provide the closest in situ measurements of the solar wind at approximately 0.04 au (8.5 solar radii).

  15. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  16. Helioseismic measurements in the solar envelope using group velocities of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Ayukov, S. V.; Gryaznov, V. K.

    2014-07-01

    At intermediate- and high-degree l, solar p and f modes can be considered as surface waves. Using variational principle, we derive an integral expression for the group velocities of the surface waves in terms of adiabatic eigenfunctions of normal modes, and address the benefits of using group-velocity measurements as a supplementary diagnostic tool in solar seismology. The principal advantage of using group velocities, when compared with direct analysis of the oscillation frequencies, comes from their smaller sensitivity to the uncertainties in the near-photospheric layers. We address some numerical examples where group velocities are used to reveal inconsistencies between the solar models and the seismic data. Further, we implement the group-velocity measurements to the calibration of the specific entropy, helium abundance Y, and heavy-element abundance Z in the adiabatically stratified part of the solar convective envelope, using different recent versions of the equation of state. The results are in close agreement with our earlier measurements based on more sophisticated analysis of the solar oscillation frequencies. These results bring further support to the downward revision of the solar heavy-element abundances in recent spectroscopic measurements.

  17. Qualification and recovering of solar radiation data measured at Florianopolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil; Qualificacao e recuperacao de dados de radiacao solar medidos em Florianopolis - Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Samuel L. de; Colle, Sergio; Almeida, Anand P.; Mantelli Neto, Sylvio Luiz [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar]. E-mail: samuel@emc.ufsc.br; colle@emc.ufsc.br; anand@labsolar.ufsc.br; sylvio@labsolar.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The incident solar radiation is one of the most important inputs for simulation programs of solar thermal systems and of thermal behavior of buildings. Actually, these kind of data are well known for countries where long-term measurements of incident solar radiation are available. This fact allows the use of statistical procedures to generate typical meteorological years for simulation. In Brazil, solar radiation data are measured in sites spread all over the country by individual efforts. These data are usually measured only during short periods of time, does not have any standardization, and also are not easy to access. The present work describes the steps of qualification and data-filling used to handle the raw data measured in a specific location. The present data were measured in the radiometric station of the Solar Energy Laboratory (Federal University of Santa Catarina) in Florianopolis, for the period of 1990 to 1999. (author)

  18. Errors in short circuit measurements due to spectral mismatch between sunlight and solar simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Errors in short circuit current measurement were calculated for a variety of spectral mismatch conditions. The differences in spectral irradiance between terrestrial sunlight and three types of solar simulator were studied, as well as the differences in spectral response between three types of reference solar cells and various test cells. The simulators considered were a short arc xenon lamp AMO sunlight simulator, an ordinary quartz halogen lamp, and an ELH-type quartz halogen lamp. Three types of solar cells studied were a silicon cell, a cadmium sulfide cell and a gallium arsenide cell.

  19. Measurement of the North-South asymmetry in the solar proton albedo neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifedili, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    The solar proton albedo neutron flux in the range 10 -2 --10 7 eV measured by a neutron detector on board the Ogo 6 satellite was examined for north-south asymmetry. For the solar proton event of December 19, 1969, the S/N ratio of the solar proton albedo neutron rate at geomagnetic latitude lambda>70 0 was 1.61 +- 0.27 during the event, while for the November 2, 1969, event at 40 0 0 and altitudes ranging from 700 km to 800 km the solar proton albedo neutron rate was 0.40 +- 0.10 count/s in the north and 0.00 +- 0.10 count/s in the south. During the solar proton event of December 18, 1969, the N/S ratio of the solar proton albedo neutron rate at lambda>70 0 was 1.00 +- 0.26. The results are consistent with the expected N-S asymmetry in the solar proton flux. An interplanetary proton anisotropy with the interplanetary magnetic field polarity away from the sun corresponded to larger fluxes of solar proton albedo neutrons at the north polar cap than at the south, while an interplanetary proton anisotropy with the interplanetary magnetic field polarity toward the sun corresponded to larger fluxes of solar proton albedo neutrons at the south polar cap than at the north. This evidence favors the direct access of solar protons to the earth's polar caps via the merged interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines

  20. Solar radiation measurements at the network of six sites in the UK, January - December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Pearson, A.J.; Grainger, K.J.L.; Dean, S.F.; Clark, I.E

    2002-04-01

    A summary of the results from January to December 2001 of a survey of solar radiation levels at the UK network of six solar radiation measurement sites is presented. The network consists of three NRPB sites at Chilton, Leeds and (monitoring since 1988) and three Meteorological Office stations at Camborne, Kinloss and Lerwick (monitoring since 1993). Visible (400-770 nm), ultraviolet UVA radiation (320-400 nm) and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation UVR{sub eff} (280-400 nm) have been measured simultaneously using a three detector measurement system. Results are compared with calculated irradiances of ultraviolet radiation and published illuminance data, and with data for the measurement period from 1988 to 2000. Yearly reports have been produced for selected sites, giving the daily solar index (which is a measure of the sunburn potential for sensitive skin types) throughout the year. (author)

  1. Solar radiation measurements at the network of six sites in the UK, January - December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Pearson, A.J.; Grainger, K.J.L.; Dean, S.F.; Clark, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    A summary of the results from January to December 2001 of a survey of solar radiation levels at the UK network of six solar radiation measurement sites is presented. The network consists of three NRPB sites at Chilton, Leeds and (monitoring since 1988) and three Meteorological Office stations at Camborne, Kinloss and Lerwick (monitoring since 1993). Visible (400-770 nm), ultraviolet UVA radiation (320-400 nm) and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation UVR eff (280-400 nm) have been measured simultaneously using a three detector measurement system. Results are compared with calculated irradiances of ultraviolet radiation and published illuminance data, and with data for the measurement period from 1988 to 2000. Yearly reports have been produced for selected sites, giving the daily solar index (which is a measure of the sunburn potential for sensitive skin types) throughout the year. (author)

  2. Research of Precataclysmic Variables with Radius Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminova, N. R.; Shimansky, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the pre-cataclysmic variable NSVS 14256825, which is a HW Vir binary system, were analyzed. The chemical composition is determined, the radial velocities and equivalent widths of a given star are measured. The fundamental parameters of the components were determined (R1 = 0.166 R⊙ , M2 = 0.100 M⊙ , R2 = 0.122 R⊙). It is shown that the secondary component has a mass close to the mass of brown dwarfs. A comparison of two close binary systems is made: HS 2333 + 3927 and NSVS 14256825. A radius-to-mass relationship for the secondary components of the studied pre-cataclysmic variables is constructed. It is concluded that an excess of radii relative to model predictions for MS stars is observed in virtually all systems.

  3. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  4. Yearly thermal performances of solar heating plants in Denmark – Measured and calculated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Perers, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    The thermal performance of solar collector fields depends mainly on the mean solar collector fluid temperature of the collector field and on the solar radiation. For Danish solar collector fields for district heating the measured yearly thermal performances per collector area varied in the period...... 2012–2016 between 313 kWh/m2 and 577 kWh/m2, with averages between 411 kWh/m2 and 463 kWh/m2. The percentage difference between the highest and lowest measured yearly thermal performance is about 84%. Calculated yearly thermal performances of typically designed large solar collector fields at six...... different locations in Denmark with measured weather data for the years 2002–2010 vary between 405 kWh/m2 collector and 566 kWh/m2 collector, if a mean solar collector fluid temperature of 60 °C is assumed. This corresponds to a percentage difference between the highest and lowest calculated yearly thermal...

  5. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam and Recent Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    2016-12-14

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers such as pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). An ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure the extended broadband spectrum of the terrestrial direct solar beam irradiance that extends beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands; i.e. below 0.2 um and above 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, the pyranometers and pyrheliometers were developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to the spectral range of approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers, which measure the atmospheric longwave irradiance, are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, yet they are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster describes a method to measure the broadband longwave irradiance in the terrestrial direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The described method is used to measure the irradiance from sunrise to sunset; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 with an estimated uncertainty of 1.5 Wm-2, for a solar zenith angle range from 80 degrees to 16 degrees, respectively. Recent development shows that there is greater than 1.1 percent bias in measuring shortwave solar irradiance.

  6. The I-V Measurement System for Solar Cells Based on MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fengxiang; Ai Yu; Wang Jiafu; Wang Lisheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an I-V measurement system for solar cells based on Single-chip Microcomputer (MCU) is presented. According to the test principles of solar cells, this measurement system mainly comprises of two parts-data collecting, data processing and displaying. The MCU mainly used as to acquire data, then the collecting results is sent to the computer by serial port. The I-V measurement results of our test system are shown in the human-computer interaction interface based on our hardware circuit. By comparing the test results of our I-V tester and the results of other commercial I-V tester, we found errors for most parameters are less than 5%, which shows our I-V test result is reliable. Because the MCU can be applied in many fields, this I-V measurement system offers a simple prototype for portable I-V tester for solar cells.

  7. The I-V Measurement System for Solar Cells Based on MCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Fengxiang; Ai Yu; Wang Jiafu; Wang Lisheng, E-mail: phonixchen79@yahoo.com.cn [Department of physics science and technology, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, 430070 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, an I-V measurement system for solar cells based on Single-chip Microcomputer (MCU) is presented. According to the test principles of solar cells, this measurement system mainly comprises of two parts-data collecting, data processing and displaying. The MCU mainly used as to acquire data, then the collecting results is sent to the computer by serial port. The I-V measurement results of our test system are shown in the human-computer interaction interface based on our hardware circuit. By comparing the test results of our I-V tester and the results of other commercial I-V tester, we found errors for most parameters are less than 5%, which shows our I-V test result is reliable. Because the MCU can be applied in many fields, this I-V measurement system offers a simple prototype for portable I-V tester for solar cells.

  8. Janus: Graphical Software for Analyzing In-Situ Measurements of Solar-Wind Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruca, B.; Stevens, M. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    In-situ observations of solar-wind ions provide tremendous insights into the physics of space plasmas. Instrument on spacecraft measure distributions of ion energies, which can be processed into scientifically useful data (e.g., values for ion densities and temperatures). This analysis requires a strong, technical understanding of the instrument, so it has traditionally been carried out by the instrument teams using automated software that they had developed for that purpose. The automated routines are optimized for typical solar-wind conditions, so they can fail to capture the complex (and scientifically interesting) microphysics of transient solar-wind - such as coronal mass ejections (CME's) and co-rotating interaction regions (CIR's) - which are often better analyzed manually.This presentation reports on the ongoing development of Janus, a new software package for processing in-situ measurement of solar-wind ions. Janus will provide user with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for carrying out highly customized analyses. Transparent to the user, Janus will automatically handle the most technical tasks (e.g., the retrieval and calibration of measurements). For the first time, users with only limited knowledge about the instruments (e.g., non-instrumentalists and students) will be able to easily process measurements of solar-wind ions. Version 1 of Janus focuses specifically on such measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday Cups and is slated for public release in time for this presentation.

  9. Comparisons of Measurements and Modeling of Solar Eclipse Effects on VLF Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Marshall, R. A.; Drob, D. P.; Decena, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 provides an excellent opportunity to examine Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal propagation through the path of the solar eclipse between Navy VLF transmitters and several VLF receivers. The VLF transmitters available for this study radio signal propagation study are NLK in Jim Creek, Washington (24.8 kHz, 192 kW, 48.20N, 121.90W), NML in LaMour, North Dakota (25.2 kHz, 500 kW 46.37N, 93.34W), and NAA in Cutler, Maine (24.0 kHz, 1000 kW, 44.65N, 67.29W). These VLF transmitters provide propagation paths to three VLF receivers at Utah State University (41.75N, 111.76W), Bear Lake Observatory (41.95N, 111.39W), Salt Lake City (40.76N, 111.89W) and one receiver in Boulder, Colorado (40.02N, 105.27W). The solar eclipse shadow will cross all propagations paths during the day and will modify the D region electron density within the solar shadow. The week prior to the solar eclipse will be used to generate a diurnal baseline of VLF single strength for each transmitter-receiver pair. These will be compared to the day of the solar eclipse to identify VLF propagation differences through the solar eclipse shawdow. Additionally, the electron density effects of the week prior and of the solar eclipse day will be modeled using the Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) model [Eccles et al., 2005] with a detailed eclipse solar flux mask. The Long-Wave Propagation Code and the HASEL RF ray-tracing code will be used to generate VLF signal strength for each measured propagation path through the days prior and the solar eclipse day. Model-measurement comparisons will be presented and the D region electron density effects of the solar eclipse will be examined. The DDDR is a time-dependent D region model, which makes it very suitable for the solar eclipse effects on the electron density for the altitude range of 36 to 130 km. Eccles J. V., R. D. Hunsucker, D. Rice, J. J. Sojka (2005), Space weather effects on midlatitude HF propagation paths: Observations and

  10. Evaluation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Lopez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solar resource is essential for a wide spectrum of applications including renewable energy, climate studies, and solar forecasting. Solar resource information can be obtained from ground-based measurement stations and/or from modeled data sets. While measurements provide data for the development and validation of solar resource models and other applications modeled data expands the ability to address the needs for increased accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed and regular updates modeled solar resource through the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The recent NSRDB dataset was developed using the physics-based Physical Solar Model (PSM) and provides gridded solar irradiance (global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), and diffuse horizontal irradiance) at a 4-km by 4-km spatial and half-hourly temporal resolution covering 18 years from 1998-2015. A comprehensive validation of the performance of the NSRDB (1998-2015) was conducted to quantify the accuracy of the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiation data. Further, the study assessed the ability of NSRDB (1998-2015) to accurately capture inter-annual variability, which is essential information for solar energy conversion projects and grid integration studies. Comparisons of the NSRDB (1998-2015) with nine selected ground-measured data were conducted under both clear- and cloudy-sky conditions. These locations provide a high quality data covering a variety of geographical locations and climates. The comparison of the NSRDB to the ground-based data demonstrated that biases were within +/- 5% for GHI and +/-10% for DNI. A comprehensive uncertainty estimation methodology was established to analyze the performance of the gridded NSRDB and includes all sources of uncertainty at various time-averaged periods, a method that is not often used in model evaluation. Further, the study analyzed the inter

  11. Solar radiation transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse through measurements on scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Kyritsis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The solar transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse has been investigated experimentally using a scale model, of dimensions 40 cm width and 80 cm length. The solar transmissivity was measured at 48 positions on the “ground” surface of the scale model using 48 small silicon solar cells. The greenhouse model was positioned horizontally on a specially made goniometric mechanism. In this way, the greenhouse azimuth could be changed so that typical days of the year could be simulated using different combinations of greenhouse azimuth and the position of the sun in the sky. The measured solar transmissivity distribution at the “ground” surface and the average greenhouse solar transmissivity are presented and analysed, for characteristic days of the year, for winter and summer for a latitude of 37°58′ (Athens, Greece). It is shown that for the latitude of 37°58′ N during winter, the E–W orientation is preferable to the N–S one. The side walls, and especially the East and West ones for the E–W orientation, reduce considerably the greenhouse transmissivity at areas close to the walls for long periods of the day when the angle of incidence of the solar rays to these walls is large. (author)

  12. Solar Cycle Variations in Polar Cap Area Measured by the SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a long term study, from January 1996 - August 2012, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) measured at midnight using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection, and is used in this study as a measure of the global magnetospheric dynamics and activity. We find that the yearly distribution of HMB latitudes is single-peaked at 64° magnetic latitude for the majority of the 17-year interval. During 2003 the envelope of the distribution shifts to lower latitudes and a second peak in the distribution is observed at 61°. The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function derived by Milan et al. (2012) suggests that the solar wind driving during this year was significantly higher than during the rest of the 17-year interval. In contrast, during the period 2008-2011 HMB distribution shifts to higher latitudes, and a second peak in the distribution is again observed, this time at 68° magnetic latitude. This time interval corresponds to a period of extremely low solar wind driving during the recent extreme solar minimum. This is the first statistical study of the polar cap area over an entire solar cycle, and the results demonstrate that there is a close relationship between the phase of the solar cycle and the area of the polar cap on a large scale statistical basis.

  13. Response of the mesopause airglow to solar activity inferred from measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pertsev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based spectrographical observations of infrared emissions of the mesopause region have been made at Zvenigorod Observatory (56 N, 37 E, located near Moscow, Russia, for 670 nights of 2000–2006. The characteristics of the hydroxyl and molecular oxygen (865 nm airglow, heights of which correspond to 87 and 94 km, are analyzed for finding their response to solar activity. The measured data exhibit a response to the F10.7 solar radio flux change, which is 30%–40%/100 sfu in intensities of the emissions and about 4.5 K/100 sfu in hydroxyl temperature. Seasonal variations of the airglow response to solar activity are observed. In winter it is more significant than in summer. Mechanisms that may provide an explanation of the solar influence on intensities of the emissions and temperature are considered. Radiative processes not involving atmospheric dynamics appear insufficient to explain the observed effect.

  14. Response of the mesopause airglow to solar activity inferred from measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pertsev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based spectrographical observations of infrared emissions of the mesopause region have been made at Zvenigorod Observatory (56 N, 37 E, located near Moscow, Russia, for 670 nights of 2000–2006. The characteristics of the hydroxyl and molecular oxygen (865 nm airglow, heights of which correspond to 87 and 94 km, are analyzed for finding their response to solar activity. The measured data exhibit a response to the F10.7 solar radio flux change, which is 30%–40%/100 sfu in intensities of the emissions and about 4.5 K/100 sfu in hydroxyl temperature. Seasonal variations of the airglow response to solar activity are observed. In winter it is more significant than in summer. Mechanisms that may provide an explanation of the solar influence on intensities of the emissions and temperature are considered. Radiative processes not involving atmospheric dynamics appear insufficient to explain the observed effect.

  15. Indoor measurement of angle resolved light absorption by antireflective glass in solar panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    measurements with trackers. The experimental results showed optical responses that are stable and suitable for indoor characterization of solar cells. We find the characteristic optical response of six different antireflective glasses, and based on such measurements, we perform PVsyst simulations and present...

  16. Results of the round robin exercise on IV-measurements of classic Si-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    A round robin exercise was performed on IV measurements and spectral response measurements of solar cells. Seven partners participated in the exercise. The aim of the round robin was to enable the verification of their measurement facilities and procedures for IV-measurements on 'classic' Si-solar cells by comparing their measurement data with the other participants. In this way possible flaws in the equipment or procedures can be found and corrected for or the measurement uncertainties can be reassessed. The differences between the measurement results of the various partners were more or less within the expected measurement uncertainty although one or more partners may decide to use the results to reexamine their facilities or procedures.

  17. Precision Measurement of the Beryllium-7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Richard Nigel

    Solar neutrinos, since their first detection nearly forty years ago, have revealed valuable information regarding the source of energy production in the Sun, and have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) oscillation parameters with matter interactions due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. This thesis presents a precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate within Borexino, an underground liquid scintillator detector that is designed to measure solar neutrino interactions through neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The thesis includes a detailed description of the analysis techniques developed and used for this measurement as well as an evaluation of the relevant systematic uncertainties that affect the precision of the result. The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is determined to be 45.4 +/- 1.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (sys) counts/day/100 ton. Due to extensive detector calibrations and improved analysis methods, the systematic uncertainty in the interaction rate has been reduced by more than a factor of two from the previous evaluation. In the no-oscillation hypothesis, the interaction rate corresponds to a 0.862 MeV 7Be electron neutrino flux of (2.75 +/- 0.13) x 10 9 cm-2 sec-1. Including the predicted neutrino flux from the Standard Solar Model yields an electron neutrino survival probability of Pee 0.51 +/- 0.07 and rules out the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5.1sigma The LMA-MSW neutrino oscillation model predicts a transition in the solar Pee value between low ( 10 MeV) energies which has not yet been experimentally confirmed. This result, in conjunction with the Standard Solar Model, represents the most precise measurement of the electron neutrino survival probability for solar neutrinos at sub-MeV energies.

  18. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-07-01

    Accurate solar radiation data sets are critical to reducing the expenses associated with mitigating performance risk for solar energy conversion systems, and they help utility planners and grid system operators understand the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies and the resulting calibration responsivities provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors, and some are calibrated outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1% to 2% differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the radiometer data and will assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  19. Cloud sensitivity studies for stratospheric and lower mesospheric ozone profile retrievals from measurements of limb-scattered solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sonkaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Clouds in the atmosphere play an important role in reflection, absorption and transmission of solar radiation and thus affect trace gas retrievals. The main goal of this paper is to examine the sensitivity of stratospheric and lower mesospheric ozone retrievals from limb-scattered radiance measurements to clouds using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model and retrieval package. The retrieval approach employed is optimal estimation, and the considered clouds are vertically and horizontally homogeneous. Assuming an aerosol-free atmosphere and Mie phase functions for cloud particles, we compute the relative error of ozone profile retrievals in a cloudy atmosphere if clouds are neglected in the retrieval. To access altitudes from the lower stratosphere up to the lower mesosphere, we combine the retrievals in the Chappuis and Hartley ozone absorption bands. We find significant cloud sensitivity of the limb ozone retrievals in the Chappuis bands at lower stratospheric altitudes. The relative error in the retrieved ozone concentrations gradually decreases with increasing altitude and becomes negligible above approximately 40 km. The parameters with the largest impact on the ozone retrievals are cloud optical thickness, ground albedo and solar zenith angle. Clouds with different geometrical thicknesses or different cloud altitudes have a similar impact on the ozone retrievals for a given cloud optical thickness value, if the clouds are outside the field of view of the instrument. The effective radius of water droplets has a small influence on the error, i.e., less than 0.5% at altitudes above the cloud top height. Furthermore, the impact of clouds on the ozone profile retrievals was found to have a rather small dependence on the solar azimuth angle (less than 1% for all possible azimuth angles. For the most frequent cloud types, the total error is below 6% above 15 km altitude, if clouds are completely neglected in the retrieval. Neglecting clouds in

  20. Measured performance of 12 demonstation projects - IEA Task 13 "advanced solar low energy buildings"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Poel, Bart

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from measurements and experiences gained from interviews on 12 advanced solar low energy houses designed and built as part of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme – Task 13. Three years after the IEA Task 13 formally ended, the results were collected...... climate conditions are compared and differences explained. Special innovative installations and systems are de-scribed and evaluated. In general the measured energy consumption was higher than the expected values due to user influence and unforeseen technical problems but still an energy saving of 60...

  1. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 x 10^47 cm^-3 and 1.1 x 10^48 cm^-3. Comparing Sph...

  2. Detection of solar radio brightness oscillations with 160.01-min period from direct measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, V.A.; Moiseev, I.G.; Nesterov, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that direct measurements of the quiet Sun brightness at 8.2 and 13.5 mm wavelengths corrected for extinction in the Earth atmosphere by means of the Bouguer law reveal the 160.01-min periodic component. The relative amplitudes of variations are of approximately 6x10 -4 at the shorter wavelength and of 10 -3 at the longer one. The brightness maximum coincides with the phase of the maximal radius of the photosphere as derived from the optical data

  3. Estimating random transverse velocities in the fast solar wind from EISCAT Interplanetary Scintillation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Canals

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary scintillation measurements can yield estimates of a large number of solar wind parameters, including bulk flow speed, variation in bulk velocity along the observing path through the solar wind and random variation in transverse velocity. This last parameter is of particular interest, as it can indicate the flux of low-frequency Alfvén waves, and the dissipation of these waves has been proposed as an acceleration mechanism for the fast solar wind. Analysis of IPS data is, however, a significantly unresolved problem and a variety of a priori assumptions must be made in interpreting the data. Furthermore, the results may be affected by the physical structure of the radio source and by variations in the solar wind along the scintillation ray path. We have used observations of simple point-like radio sources made with EISCAT between 1994 and 1998 to obtain estimates of random transverse velocity in the fast solar wind. The results obtained with various a priori assumptions made in the analysis are compared, and we hope thereby to be able to provide some indication of the reliability of our estimates of random transverse velocity and the variation of this parameter with distance from the Sun.Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; solar wind plasma; instruments and techniques

  4. Estimating random transverse velocities in the fast solar wind from EISCAT Interplanetary Scintillation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Canals

    Full Text Available Interplanetary scintillation measurements can yield estimates of a large number of solar wind parameters, including bulk flow speed, variation in bulk velocity along the observing path through the solar wind and random variation in transverse velocity. This last parameter is of particular interest, as it can indicate the flux of low-frequency Alfvén waves, and the dissipation of these waves has been proposed as an acceleration mechanism for the fast solar wind. Analysis of IPS data is, however, a significantly unresolved problem and a variety of a priori assumptions must be made in interpreting the data. Furthermore, the results may be affected by the physical structure of the radio source and by variations in the solar wind along the scintillation ray path. We have used observations of simple point-like radio sources made with EISCAT between 1994 and 1998 to obtain estimates of random transverse velocity in the fast solar wind. The results obtained with various a priori assumptions made in the analysis are compared, and we hope thereby to be able to provide some indication of the reliability of our estimates of random transverse velocity and the variation of this parameter with distance from the Sun.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; solar wind plasma; instruments and techniques

  5. The PRad experiment and the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparian Ashot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New results from the recent muonic hydrogen experiments seriously questioned our knowledge of the proton charge radius, rp. The new value, with its unprecedented less than sub-percent precision, is currently up to eight standard deviation smaller than the average value from all previous experiments, triggering the well-known “proton charge radius puzzle” in nuclear and atomic physics. The PRad collaboration is currently preparing a novel, magnetic-spectrometer-free ep scattering experiment in Hall B at JLab for a new independent rp measurement to address this growing “puzzle” in physics.

  6. Results from an International Measurement Round Robin of III-V Triple Junction Solar Cells under Air Mass Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Chris; Goodbody, Chris; Baur, Carsten; Sharps, Paul; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Yoo, Henry; Sahlstrom, Ted; Walters, Robert; Lorentzen, Justin; hide

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international measurement round robin of monolithic, triple-junction, GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells. Eight laboratories representing national labs, solar cell vendors and space solar cell consumers, measured cells using in-house reference cells and compared those results to measurements made where each lab used the same set of reference cells. The results show that most of the discrepancy between laboratories is likely due to the quality of the standard cells rather than the measurement system or solar simulator used.

  7. Ground-based spectral measurements of solar radiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Keizo; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Goto, Ryozo; Yamauchi, Toyotaro

    1979-01-01

    A newly designed spectro-pyranometer was used for the measurement of the global (direct + diffuse) and the diffuse sky radiation reaching the ground. By the subtraction of the diffuse component from the global radiation, we got the direct radiation component which leads to the spectral distribution of the optical thickness (extinction coefficient) of the turbid atmosphere. The measurement of the diffuse sky radiation reveals the scattering effect of aerosols and that of the global radiation allows the estimation of total attenuation caused by scattering and absorption of aerosols. The effects of the aerosols are represented by the deviation of the real atmosphere measured from the Rayleigh atmosphere. By the combination of the measured values with those obtained by theoretical calculation for the model atmosphere, we estimated the amount of absorption by the aerosols. Very strong absorption in the ultraviolet region was recognized. (author)

  8. Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...

  9. EISCAT measurements of solar wind velocity and the associated level of interplanetary scintillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Fallows

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A relative scintillation index can be derived from EISCAT observations of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS usually used to study the solar wind velocity. This provides an ideal opportunity to compare reliable measurements of the solar wind velocity derived for a number of points along the line-of-sight with measurements of the overall level of scintillation. By selecting those occasions where either slow- or fast-stream scattering was dominant, it is shown that at distances from the Sun greater than 30 RS , in both cases the scintillation index fell with increasing distance as a simple power law, typically as R-1.7. The level of scintillation for slow-stream scattering is found to be 2.3 times the level for fast-stream scattering.Key words. Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma

  10. Statistical Prediction of Solar Particle Event Frequency Based on the Measurements of Recent Solar Cycles for Acute Radiation Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung-Hee, Y. Kim; Shaowen, Hu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPEs) present significant acute radiation risks to the crew members during extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or in lightly shielded space vehicles for space missions beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) can impair performance and result in failure of the mission. Improved forecasting capability and/or early-warning systems and proper shielding solutions are required to stay within NASA's short-term dose limits. Exactly how to make use of observations of SPEs for predicting occurrence and size is a great challenge, because SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature even though the expected frequency of SPEs is strongly influenced by the time position within the solar activity cycle. Therefore, we developed a probabilistic model approach, where a cumulative expected occurrence curve of SPEs for a typical solar cycle was formed from a non-homogeneous Poisson process model fitted to a database of proton fluence measurements of SPEs that occurred during the past 5 solar cycles (19 - 23) and those of large SPEs identified from impulsive nitrate enhancements in polar ice. From the fitted model, the expected frequency of SPEs was estimated at any given proton fluence threshold (Phi(sub E)) with energy (E) >30 MeV during a defined space mission period. Corresponding Phi(sub E) (E=30, 60, and 100 MeV) fluence distributions were simulated with a random draw from a gamma distribution, and applied for SPE ARS risk analysis for a specific mission period. It has been found that the accurate prediction of deep-seated organ doses was more precisely predicted at high energies, Phi(sub 100), than at lower energies such as Phi(sub 30) or Phi(sub 60), because of the high penetration depth of high energy protons. Estimates of ARS are then described for 90th and 95th percentile events for several mission lengths and for several likely organ dose-rates. The ability to accurately measure high energy protons

  11. Autocorrelation Study of Solar Wind Plasma and IMF Properties as Measured by the MAVEN Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Melissa L.; Lillis, Robert J.; Halekas, J. S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Espley, J. R.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been a goal of the heliophysics community to understand solar wind variability at heliocentric distances other than 1 AU, especially at ˜1.5 AU due to not only the steepening of solar wind stream interactions outside 1 AU but also the number of missions available there to measure it. In this study, we use 35 months of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data taken at Mars by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft to conduct an autocorrelation analysis of the solar wind speed, density, and dynamic pressure, which is derived from the speed and density, as well as the IMF strength and orientation. We found that the solar wind speed is coherent, that is, has an autocorrelation coefficient above 1/e, over roughly 56 hr, while the density and pressure are coherent over smaller intervals of roughly 25 and 20 hr, respectively, and that the IMF strength is coherent over time intervals of approximately 20 hr, while the cone and clock angles are considerably less steady but still somewhat coherent up to time lags of roughly 16 hr. We also found that when the speed, density, pressure, or IMF strength is higher than average, the solar wind or IMF becomes uncorrelated more quickly, while when they are below average, it tends to be steadier. This analysis allows us to make estimates of the values of solar wind plasma and IMF parameters when they are not directly measured and provide an approximation of the error associated with that estimate.

  12. A novel experimental mechanics method for measuring the light pressure acting on a solar sail membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiming; Jiang, Li; Dowell, Earl H.; Qin, Zhixuan

    2017-02-01

    Solar sail is a high potential `sailing craft' for interstellar exploration. The area of the first flight solar sail demonstrator named "IKAROS" is 200 square meters. Future interplanetary missions will require solar sails at least on the order of 10000 square meters (or larger). Due to the limitation of ground facilities, the size of experimental sample should not be large. Furthermore the ground experiments have to be conducted in gravitational field, so the gravity effect must be considered in a ground test. To obtain insight into the solar sail membrane dynamics, a key membrane flutter (or limit cycle oscillations) experiment with light forces acting on it must be done. But one big challenge is calibrating such a tiny light force by as a function of the input power. In this paper, a gravity-based measuring method for light pressure acting on membrane is presented. To explain the experimental principle, an ideal example of a laser beam with expanders and a metal film is studied. Based on calculations, this experimental mechanics method for calibrating light pressure with an accuracy of 0.01 micro-Newton may be realized by making the light force balance the gravity force on the metal films. This gravity-based measuring method could not only be applied to study the dynamics characteristics of solar sail membrane structure with different light forces, but could also be used to determine more accurate light forces/loads acting on solar sail films and hence to enhance the determination of the mechanical properties of the solar sail membrane structure.

  13. Equatorial thermospheric wind changes during the solar cycle: Measurements at Arequipa, Peru, from 1983 to 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether, J.W. Jr.; Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A.; Hallenbeck, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts in the nightglow 630-nm emission line have been used to determine near-equatorial thermospheric wind velocities at Arequipa, Peru, over ∼ 2/3 of a solar cycle. Monthly-average nocturnal variations in the meridional and zonal wind components were calculated from the nightly data to remove short term (day-to-day) variability, facilitating display of seasonal changes in the wind patterns, as well as any additional changes introduced by the progression of the solar cycle. The measured seasonal variations in the wind patterns are more pronounced than the solar cycle variations and are more readily understandable in terms of the expected, underlying forcing and damping processes. For most of the years, at the winter solstice, there is a weak (≤ 100 m/s) transequatorial flow from the summer to the winter hemisphere in the early and the late night, with essentially zero velocities in between. At the equinoxes, an early-night poleward (southward) flow at solar minimum (1986) is replaced by an equatorward (northward) flow at solar maximum (1989-1990). The zonal flows are predominantly eastward throughout the night, except for the solar minimum equinoxes, where brief westward flows appear in the early and the late night. The peak eastward velocities increase toward solar maximum; at the winter solstice, they are ∼ 100-130 m/s in 1983, 1984 and 1986, reaching ∼ 200 m/s in 1988, 1989 and 1990. The present equatorial thermospheric wind determinations agree in some respects with the satellite-data-based horizontal wind model IIWM-87 and the vector spherical harmonic form of the thermospheric general circulation model

  14. Solar intensity measurement using a thermoelectric module; experimental study and mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Nader; Asadi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar intensity could be explained as a linear function of voltage and ambient temperature. • The maximum output voltage is approximately 120 mV which was occurred in midday. • The average value of the heat-sink thermal resistance could be measured with this device. • The average values of total heat transfer coefficients could be measured with this device. • Two correlations were proposed to predict the solar intensity with the accuracy of 10%. - Abstract: The present study is intended to design, manufacture, and modeling an inexpensive pyranometer using a thermoelectric module. The governing equations relating the solar intensity, output voltage, and ambient temperature have been derived by applying the mathematical and thermodynamic models. According to the thermodynamics modeling, the output voltage is a function of solar intensity, ambient temperature, internal parameters of thermoelectric module, convection and radiation coefficients, and geometrical characteristics of the setup. Moreover, the solar intensity can be considered as a linear function of voltage and ambient temperature within an acceptable range of accuracy. The experiments have been carried out on a typical winter day under climatic conditions of Semnan (35°33′N, 53°23′E), Iran. The results also indicated that the output voltage is dependent on the solar intensity and its maximum value was 120 mV. Finally, based on the experimental results, two correlations, with the accuracy of 10%, have been proposed to predict the solar intensity as a function of output voltage and ambient temperature. The average values of total heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance of the heat-sink have been also calculated according to the thermodynamic modeling and experimental results.

  15. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten

    2000-01-01

    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe

  16. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten

    2000-07-01

    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe.

  17. Nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Andreas; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kreim, Kim; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Neff, Thomas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Novotny, Christian; Sanchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be was precisely determined using the technique of collinear laser spectroscopy on the $2s_{1/2}\\rightarrow 2p_{1/2, 3/2}$ transition in the Be$^{+}$ ion. The mean square charge radius increases from $^{10}$Be to $^{12}$Be by $\\delta ^{10,12} = 0.69(5)$ fm$^{2}$ compared to $\\delta ^{10,11} = 0.49(5)$ fm$^{2}$ for the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be. Calculations in the fermionic molecular dynamics approach show a strong sensitivity of the charge radius to the structure of $^{12}$Be. The experimental charge radius is consistent with a breakdown of the N=8 shell closure.

  18. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  19. Measurement of Minority-Carrier Lifetime in Silicon Solar Cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This manuscript describes the measurement of minority - carrier lifetime of silicon solar cells, at room temperature, by photoconductive decay method. The Holobeam, Model 655 Double-Pulsed Holographic system, is used as the light source. This consists of a Q-switched, pulsed ruby laser oscillator with two ruby laser ...

  20. Measuring the iron spectral opacity in solar conditions using a double ablation front scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaitis, A. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Talence (France); CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Ducret, J. E. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Talence (France); CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); Turck-Chieze, S [CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); Pennec, M L [CEA/DRF/IRFU/DAp, CEA Saclay (France); CEA/DIF, Arpajon (France); Blancard, C [CEA/DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2018-01-22

    We propose a new method to achieve hydrodynamic conditions relevant for the investigation of the radiation transport properties of the plasma at the base of the solar convection zone. The method is designed in the framework of opacity measurements with high-power lasers and exploits the temporal and spatial stability of hydrodynamic parameters in counter-propagating Double Ablation Front (DAF) structures.

  1. Artifact Interpretation of Spectral Response Measurements on Two-Terminal Multijunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells promise higher power-conversion efficiency than the single-junction. With respect to two-terminal devices, an accurate measurement of the spectral response requires a delicate adjustment of the light- and voltage-biasing; otherwise it can result in artifacts in the data and

  2. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica; Villasenor, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  3. [Fluctuations in biophysical measurements as a result of variations in solar activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T F

    1995-01-01

    A theory is proposed to explain variations in the net electrical charge of biological substances at the Earth's surface. These are shown to occur in association with changes in the solar wind and geomagnetic field. It is suggested that a liquid dielectric's net volume charge will imitate pH effects, influence chemical reaction rates, and alter ion transfer mechanisms in biophysical systems. An experiment is described which measures dielectric volume charge, or non-neutrality, to allow correlation of this property with daily, 28-day, and 11-year fluctuation patterns in geophysical and satellite data associated with solar activity and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  4. Analysis of solar irradiation measurements at Beer Sheva, Israel from 1985 through 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseev, Efim G.; Kudish, Avraham I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In depth analysis of long-term solar irradiation at Beer Sheva, Israel. • Construction of a typical meteorological year for global and beam irradiation. • Statistical analysis of the global and beam irradiation. • Analysis of long-term trends regarding global and beam irradiation. - Abstract: An in-depth analysis of the solar horizontal global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation monitored at Beer Sheva from 1985 through 2013 has been performed. The horizontal beam irradiation, daily clearness index, daily beam index and beam fraction of the horizontal global irradiation were determined from the measured parameters. A statistical analysis, which included average, median, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values and the coefficient of variation, was performed on the parameters under investigation. The monthly frequency distribution types were determined for the solar global, normal incidence beam and solar global incident on a south-facing surface tilted at 40° irradiation based upon their corresponding skewness and kurtosis values. In addition, typical meteorological years were developed for the solar horizontal global and normal incidence beam irradiation. Beer Sheva is characterized as a site with a high incidence of clear days with global irradiation consisting of a relatively high beam fraction. A relatively steep minimum in the annual average daily normal incidence beam irradiation is observed from 1991 to 1993 and has been attributed to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines during June 1991. A time series analysis of the both individual monthly and annual average daily global and normal incidence irradiation indicated a slight trend of solar brightening for this region during the time interval 1985 through 2013, but in most cases they were not statistically significant based upon their p values

  5. Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otnes, Gaute; Barrigón, Enrique; Sundvall, Christian; Svensson, K Erik; Heurlin, Magnus; Siefer, Gerald; Samuelson, Lars; Åberg, Ingvar; Borgström, Magnus T

    2018-05-09

    III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

  6. Studying the proton 'radius' puzzle with μp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The disagreement between the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen and from electronic measurements is called the proton radius puzzle. The resolution of the puzzle remains unclear and appears to require new experimental results. An experiment to measure muon-proton elastic scattering is presented here

  7. Meridional flow in the solar convection zone. I. Measurements from gong data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholikov, S. [National Solar Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Serebryanskiy, A. [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent 100052 (Uzbekistan); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: kholikov@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of Global Oscillation Network Group Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near the base of the convection zone suggest a possible equatorward flow, as well as partial evidence of a sign change in the travel-time differences at mid-convection zone depths. This analysis on an independent data set using different measurement techniques strengthens recent conclusions that the convection zone may have multiple 'cells' of meridional flow. The results may challenge the common understanding of one large conveyor belt operating in the solar convection zone. Further work with helioseismic inversions and a careful study of systematic effects are needed before firm conclusions of these large-scale flow structures can be made.

  8. Scintillation measurements at Bahir Dar during the high solar activity phase of solar cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, Martin; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Sato, Hiroatsu [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Neustrelitz (Germany). Inst. of Communications and Navigation; Mersha, Mogese Wassaie [Bahir Dar Univ. (Ethiopia). Washera Geospace and Radar Science Lab.

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale ionospheric disturbances may cause severe radio scintillations of signals transmitted from global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs). Consequently, smallscale plasma irregularities may heavily degrade the performance of current GNSSs such as GPS, GLONASS or Galileo. This paper presents analysis results obtained primarily from two high-rate GNSS receiver stations designed and operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with Bahir Dar University (BDU) at 11.6 N, 37.4 E. Both receivers collect raw data sampled at up to 50 Hz, from which characteristic scintillation parameters such as the S4 index are deduced. This paper gives a first overview of the measurement setup and the observed scintillation events over Bahir Dar in 2015. Both stations are located close to one another and aligned in an east-west, direction which allows us to estimate the zonal drift velocity and spatial dimension of equatorial ionospheric plasma irregularities. Therefore, the lag times of moving electron density irregularities and scintillation patterns are derived by applying cross-correlation analysis to high-rate measurements of the slant total electron content (sTEC) along radio links between a GPS satellite and both receivers and to the associated signal power, respectively. Finally, the drift velocity is derived from the estimated lag time, taking into account the geometric constellation of both receiving antennas and the observed GPS satellites.

  9. Energy Yield Determination of Concentrator Solar Cells using Laboratory Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; Garcia, Ivan; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-14

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used to predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted. temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  10. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  11. Measurements and Simulations on the Mechanisms of Efficiency Losses in HIT Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pierro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the electrical and the optical behavior of HIT solar cell by means of measurements and optoelectrical simulations by TCAD simulations. We compare the HIT solar cell with a conventional crystalline silicon solar cell to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the HIT technology. Results highlight different mechanisms of electrical and optical efficiency losses caused by the presence of the amorphous silicon layer. The higher resistivity of the a-Si layers implies a smaller distance between the metal lines that causes a higher shadowing. The worst optical coupling between the amorphous silicon and the antireflective coating implies a slight increase of reflectivity around the 600 nm wavelength.

  12. On the determination of the proton RMS-radius from electron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, F.; Simon, G.G.; Walther, V.H.; Wendling, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the proton rms radius should be determined from fiting a polynomial of second order to the low-q 2 form factors. The commonly used polynomial of first yields radius values which are too small. The proton rms radius has been redetermined from an analysis of the electron scattering data measured at three laboratories. The best fit value is [r 2 sub(E)]sup(1/2) = 0.87 +- 0.02 fm. (orig.) [de

  13. Error in interpreting field chlorophyll fluorescence measurements: heat gain from solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marler, T.E.; Lawton, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were determined on leaves of various horticultural species following a dark adaptation period where dark adaptation cuvettes were shielded from or exposed to solar radiation. In one study, temperature of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. leaflets within cuvettes increased from approximately 36C to approximately 50C during a 30-minute exposure to solar radiation. Alternatively, when the leaflets and cuvettes were shielded from solar radiation, leaflet temperature declined to 33C in 10 to 15 minutes. In a second study, 16 horticultural species exhibited a lower variable: maximum fluorescence (F v :F m ) when cuvettes were exposed to solar radiation during the 30-minute dark adaptation than when cuvettes were shielded. In a third study with S. mahagoni, the influence of self-shielding the cuvettes by wrapping them with white tape, white paper, or aluminum foil on temperature and fluorescence was compared to exposing or shielding the entire leaflet and cuvette. All of the shielding methods reduced leaflet temperature and increased the F v :F m ratio compared to leaving cuvettes exposed. These results indicate that heat stress from direct exposure to solar radiation is a potential source of error when interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence measurements on intact leaves. Methods for moderating or minimizing radiation interception during dark adaptation are recommended. (author)

  14. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO's Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating's first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of "uncalibrated" first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the "uncalibrated" first-order "solar" component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  15. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  16. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  17. Measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation intensity type A and B in Qazvin (2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAR. Babaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is considered one of the most important biological risk factors in the world. Most health damages from solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level are mainly caused by UVA and UVB spectrums. Objective: The aim of this study was to Measure the solar ultraviolet radiation intensity type A and B in Qazvin city. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation type A and B was measured in Qazvin on years of 2013-14 (during one year every monthly at three times, in the morning, afternoon and evening by using a UV Radiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: The maximum average intensity of UVA and UVB rays during the one year with 28.36±1.88 W/m2 and 0.156±0.035 W/m2 respectively was in Tir month (June 22–July 22 and the minimum average intensity of UVA and UVB rays with 10.36±0.83 W/m2 and 0.041±0.010 W/m2 respectively was in Dai month (December 22–January 20. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is recommended that individuals were less exposed to exposure time with direct sunshine and use appropriate protective measures such as; wear appropriate clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen.

  18. Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Pacific Warm Pool Estimated Using TOGA COARE Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong

    1999-01-01

    The energy budget of the tropical western Pacific (TWP) is particularly important because this is one of the most energetic convection regions on the Earth. Nearly half of the solar radiation incident at the top of atmosphere is absorbed at the surface and only about 22% absorbed in the atmosphere. A large portion of the excess heat absorbed at the surface is transferred to the atmosphere through evaporation, which provides energy and water for convection and precipitation. The western equatorial Pacific is characterized by the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and heaviest rainfall in the world ocean. A small variation of SST associated with the eastward shift of the warm pool during El-Nino/Souther Oscillation changes the atmospheric circulation pattern and affects the global climate. In a study of the TWP surface heat and momentum fluxes during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Intensive observing period (IOP) from November 1992 to February have found that the solar radiation is the most important component of the surface energy budget, which undergoes significant temporal and spatial variation. The variations are influenced by the two 40-50 days Madden Julian Oscillations (MJOs) which propagated eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific during the IOP. The TWP surface solar radiation during the COARE IOP was investigated by a number of studies. In addition, the effects of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere in the TWP was studied using energy budget analysis. In this study, we present some results of the TWP surface solar shortwave or SW radiation budget and the effect of clouds on the atmospheric solar heating using the surface radiation measurements and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 4 radiance measurements during COARE IOP.

  19. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  20. AFM measurements of novel solar cells. Studying electronic properties of Si-based radial junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hývl, Matěj

    -, č. 1 (2014), s. 52-53 ISSN 1439-4243 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25747S; GA ČR GA13-12386S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM measurements * conductive cantilever * electronic properties * nanowires * PF TUNA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.imaging-git.com/science/scanning-probe-microscopy/afm-measurements-novel-solar- cells

  1. A STUDY OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE GRADIENT VARIATION USING LIMB DARKENING MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscuoli, Serena [National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Foukal, Peter [192 Willow Road, Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The variation in area of quiet magnetic network measured over the sunspot cycle should modulate the spatially averaged photospheric temperature gradient, since temperature declines with optical depth more gradually in magnetic flux tube atmospheres. Yet, limb darkening measurements show no dependence upon activity level, even at an rms precision of 0.04%. We study the sensitivity of limb darkening to changes in area filling factor using a 3D MHD model of the magnetized photosphere. The limb darkening change expected from the measured 11-year area variation lies below the level of measured limb darkening variations, for a reasonable range of magnetic flux in quiet network and internetwork regions. So the remarkably constant limb darkening observed over the solar activity cycle is not inconsistent with the measured 11-year change in area of quiet magnetic network. Our findings offer an independent constraint on photospheric temperature gradient changes reported from measurements of the solar spectral irradiance from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor, and recently, from wavelength-differential spectrophotometry using the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the HINODE spacecraft.

  2. A method to calibrate a solar pyranometer for measuring reference diffuse irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Accurate pyranometer calibrations, traceable to internationally recognized standards, are critical for solar irradiance measurements. One calibration method is the component summation, where the pyranometers are calibrated outdoors under clear sky conditions, and the reference global solar irradiance is calculated as the sum of two reference components, the diffuse and subtended beam solar irradiances. The beam component is measured with pyrheliometers traceable to the World Radiometric Reference, while there is no internationally recognized reference for the diffuse component. In the absence of such a reference, we present a method to consistently calibrate pyranometers for measuring the diffuse component with an estimated uncertainty of {+-} (3% of reading +1 W/m{sup 2}). The method is based on using a modified shade/unshade method, and pyranometers with less than 1 W/m{sup 2} thermal offset errors. We evaluated the consistency of our method by calibrating three pyranometers four times. Calibration results show that the responsivity change is within {+-} 0.52% for the three pyranometers. We also evaluated the effect of calibrating pyranometers unshaded, then using them shaded to measure diffuse irradiance. We calibrated three unshaded pyranometers using the component summation method. Their outdoor measurements of clear sky diffuse irradiance, from sunrise to sundown, showed that the three calibrated pyranometers can be used to measure the diffuse irradiance to within {+-} 1.4 W/m{sup 2} variation from the reference irradiance. (author)

  3. Development of tool for optimization in the measurement of solar radiation; Desarrollo de herramientas para la optimizacion en la medicion de la radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaro, J.; Quiroga, D.; Fasulo, A.; Lema, A.

    2004-07-01

    One of the most important requirements to make a project of rational use of solar energy is the precise knowledge of the temporal-spatial distribution of the solar resource on the terrestrial surface. For that reason, the Solar Energy Group at the National University of Rio Cuarto in Argentina, is measuring and recording data of global and direct solar radiation. Many possibilities of different kinds of errors there exist in this process, but the most significant problem is the lack of data. Then, it would be necessary to have a methodology that indicates what to do in this situation, and for that reason, this work performs an study about the data processing of the obtained measurements to infer values to be incorporated to the series in situations where the data are lost. To incorporate lost data, the Time Series Analysis based in spatial state models were used. (Author)

  4. Comparative Study of foF2 Measurements with IRI-2007 Model Predictions During Extended Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenkova, I. E.; Krankowski, A.; Bilitza, D.; Cherniak, Iu.V.; Shagimuratov, I.I.; Sieradzki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The unusually deep and extended solar minimum of cycle 2324 made it very difficult to predict the solar indices 1 or 2 years into the future. Most of the predictions were proven wrong by the actual observed indices. IRI gets its solar, magnetic, and ionospheric indices from an indices file that is updated twice a year. In recent years, due to the unusual solar minimum, predictions had to be corrected downward with every new indices update. In this paper we analyse how much the uncertainties in the predictability of solar activity indices affect the IRI outcome and how the IRI values calculated with predicted and observed indices compared to the actual measurements.Monthly median values of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) derived from the ionosonde measurements at the mid-latitude ionospheric station Juliusruh were compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model predictions. The analysis found that IRIprovides reliable results that compare well with actual measurements, when the definite (observed and adjusted) indices of solar activityare used, while IRI values based on earlier predictions of these indices noticeably overestimated the measurements during the solar minimum.One of the principal objectives of this paper is to direct attention of IRI users to update their solar activity indices files regularly.Use of an older index file can lead to serious IRI overestimations of F-region electron density during the recent extended solar minimum.

  5. Radius crossover sign: an indication of malreduced radius shaft greenstick fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick B; Crepeau, Allison E; Herrera-Soto, José A; Price, Charles T

    2012-06-01

    Radius shaft greenstick fractures in children can be a challenging injury to treat because angulation and rotational alignment are difficult to assess. In this report, we describe a simple method for analyzing the deformity and identifying rotational and angular malalignment. This technique involves analyzing the forearm radiographs as 2 segments, proximal and distal, and assuring that the rotational position of each matches the other. We present 3 cases of proximal radius greenstick fractures in malalignment to demonstrate the radius crossover sign. Identifying the radius crossover sign, and proceeding with further closed reduction may prevent deformity that could otherwise result in a significant loss of forearm motion. Level V.

  6. Computer based system for measuring the minority carrier lifetime in the solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales A, A.; Casados C, G.

    1994-01-01

    We show the development of a computer based system for measuring the minority carrier lifetime in the base of silicon solar cells. The system allows using two different techniques for such kind of measurements:the open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and the surface voltage decay SVD. The equipment is based on internal cards for IBM-Pc or compatible computers that work as an oscilloscope and as a function generator, in addition to a synchronization and signal conditioning circuit. The system is fully controlled by a 'c' language program that optimizes the used of the instrument built in this way, and makes the analysis of the measurement data by curve fitting techniques. We show typical results obtained with silicon solar cells made in our laboratories. (Author)

  7. Measurement of Global Solar Radiation data using Raspberry Pi and its estimation using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S.Shanmuga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for more efficient and environmentally benign, non-conventional sources of energy came into picture due to increasing demands for human comforts. Solar energy is now the ultimate option. In this paper, the instruments used to measure the solar radiation at Innovation Centre, MIT Manipal were connected to a Raspberry Pi to access the data remotely. Genetic Algorithms were formulated, so that the monthly mean global solar radiation in Manipal can be effectively estimated. Meteorological data such as humidity, temperature, wind speed, etc. were used as inputs to train the networks. A successful network was made between the data loggers and the Raspberry Pi. The data collected by the data loggers from the devices are transmitted to the Raspberry Pi which in turn sends the data to an internal server. The Raspberry Pi can be accessed using any SSH client such as PuTTY. The meteorological data was collected for the years 2010-2014 in order to formulate the Artificial Intelligence models. The validity of the formulated models were checked by comparing the measured data with the estimated data using tools such as RMSE, correlation coefficient, etc. The modelling of solar radiation using GA was carried out in GeneXpro tools version 5.0.

  8. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-α line profile observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-α (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya

  9. Coulomb corrections to scattering length and effective radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, V.D.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Popov, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    The problem considered is extraction of the ''purely nuclear'' scattering length asub(s) (corresponding to the strong potential Vsub(s) at the Coulomb interaction switched off) from the Coulomb-nuclear scattering length asub(cs), which is an object of experimental measurement. The difference between asub(s) and asub(cs) is especially large if the potential Vsub(s) has a level (real or virtual) with an energy close to zero. For this case formulae are obtained relating the scattering lengths asub(s) and asub(cs), as well as the effective radii rsub(s) and rsub(cs). The results are extended to states with arbitrary angular momenta l. It is shown that the Coulomb correction is especially large for the coefficient with ksup(2l) in the expansion of the effective radius; in this case the correction contains a large logarithm ln(asub(B)/rsub(0)). The Coulomb renormalization of other terms in the effective radius espansion is of order (rsub(0)/asub(B)), where r 0 is the nuclear force radius, asub(B) is the Bohr radius. The obtained formulae are tried on a number of model potentials Vsub(s), used in nuclear physics

  10. Social Support Contributes to Outcomes following Distal Radius Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J. Symonette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models (F-to-remove 0.10 were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5% and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, r(n=181=-0.22, P<0.05. Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, R2=4.7%, F (1, 181 = 9.98, P<0.05. Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes.

  11. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  12. Precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino rate and absence of day-night asymmetry in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Borexino, in data taking since May 2007, is the only experiment capable to perform the measurement of low-energy solar-ν. Borexino has performed the first direct measurement of the 7 Be solar-ν rate with accuracy better than 5%. The absence of day-night asymmetry of the 7 Be solar-ν rate was measured with a total uncertainty of 1%. Borexino results alone reject the Low Δm 2 (LOW) region of solar-ν oscillation parameters at more than 8.5 σ CL. Combined with the other solar-ν data, Borexino measurements isolate the Large Mixing Angle (LMA)- Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of neutrino oscillations without assuming CPT invariance in the neutrino sector.

  13. Conversion of radius of curvature to power (and vice versa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenhagen, Sven; Endo, Kazumasa; Fuchs, Ulrike; Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing optical components relies on good measurements and specifications. One of the most precise measurements routinely required is the form accuracy. In practice, form deviation from the ideal surface is effectively low frequency errors, where the form error most often accounts for no more than a few undulations across a surface. These types of errors are measured in a variety of ways including interferometry and tactile methods like profilometry, with the latter often being employed for aspheres and general surface shapes such as freeforms. This paper provides a basis for a correct description of power and radius of curvature tolerances, including best practices and calculating the power value with respect to the radius deviation (and vice versa) of the surface form. A consistent definition of the sagitta is presented, along with different cases in manufacturing that are of interest to fabricators and designers. The results make clear how the definitions and results should be documented, for all measurement setups. Relationships between power and radius of curvature are shown that allow specifying the preferred metric based on final accuracy and measurement method. Results shown include all necessary equations for conversion to give optical designers and manufacturers a consistent and robust basis for decision-making. The paper also gives guidance on preferred methods for different scenarios for surface types, accuracy required, and metrology methods employed.

  14. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal, part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Steven Ray

    2008-01-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keY of 65.4 +3.1 3.0 (stat) +2.6 -2.8 (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neUlrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 ± 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37 Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51 Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.88 ± 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71 Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63--67 SNU with an uncertainly of about 5%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the pp neutrino flux produced in the Sun to be φ · pp = (6.1 ± 0.8) x 10 10 /(cm 2 s), which agrees well with the flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  15. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  16. Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements - Comparisons with tower observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  17. SOLAR WAVE-FIELD SIMULATION FOR TESTING PROSPECTS OF HELIOSEISMIC MEASUREMENTS OF DEEP MERIDIONAL FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartlep, T.; Zhao, J.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.

    2013-01-01

    The meridional flow in the Sun is an axisymmetric flow that is generally directed poleward at the surface, and is presumed to be of fundamental importance in the generation and transport of magnetic fields. Its true shape and strength, however, are debated. We present a numerical simulation of helioseismic wave propagation in the whole solar interior in the presence of a prescribed, stationary, single-cell, deep meridional circulation serving as synthetic data for helioseismic measurement techniques. A deep-focusing time-distance helioseismology technique is applied to the synthetic data, showing that it can in fact be used to measure the effects of the meridional flow very deep in the solar convection zone. It is shown that the ray approximation that is commonly used for interpretation of helioseismology measurements remains a reasonable approximation even for very long distances between 12° and 42° corresponding to depths between 52 and 195 Mm. From the measurement noise, we extrapolate that time-resolved observations on the order of a full solar cycle may be needed to probe the flow all the way to the base of the convection zone.

  18. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  19. The earth's radius and the G variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York

    1981-01-01

    It has been assumed that if the gravitational constant G was larger in the past, the Earth's radius had to be smaller. The assertion holds provided the input from microphysics (in particular the equation of state) is independent of G. While this is true for some theories of gravity with variable G it is not so in the scale covariant theory, where the pressure can be affected by a variable G in a way that, for a constant mass of the Earth, a larger G in the past implies a larger Earth's radius. Comparison with recent palaeomagnetic data is presented. (author)

  20. Measurements of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure at Work and at Leisure in Danish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Eriksen, Paul; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2018-03-30

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the main cause of skin cancer and may well present an occupational health and safety problem. In Denmark, skin cancer is a common disease in the general population, but detailed data on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure among outdoor workers are lacking. The aim of this study was to provide objective measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure on working days and at leisure and compare levels of exposure between groups of mainly outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers. To this end, UV-B dosimeters with an aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector were used to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation exposure of 457 workers in the Danish summer season. Presented as semi-annual standard erythemal dose (SED) on working days, respectively, at leisure, the results are for mainly outdoor workers 214.2 SED and 64.8 SED, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor workers 131.4 SED and 64.8 SED, indoor workers 55.8 SED and 57.6 SED. The daily SED by month is significantly different (α = 0.05) between mainly outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers and across professional groups; some of which are exposed at very high levels that is roofers 361.8 SED. These findings substantiate that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is indeed an occupational health and safety problem in Denmark. © 2018 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Photobiology.

  1. Solar UV exposure among outdoor workers in Denmark measured with personal UV-B dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Sherman, David Zim

    2017-01-01

    radiation exposure are needed to help resolve this problem. This can be done using personal ultraviolet radiation dosimeters. Methods: We consider technical and practical feasibility of measuring individual solar ultraviolet exposure at work and leisure in professions with different á priori temporal high......-level outdoor worktime, using aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector based personal UV-B dosimeters. Essential technical specifications including the spectral and angular responsivity of the dosimeters are described and pre-campaign dosimeter calibration applicability is verified. The scale...... with our specialist knowledge as occupational physicians. Conclusions: Large-scale use of personal UV-B dosimeters for measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at work and leisure in Denmark is indeed feasible from a technical and practical viewpoint. Samples of exposure data shown support...

  2. XCO2-measurements with a tabletop FTS using solar absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A commercial low-resolution (0.5 cm−1 Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS has been modified and is used for determining the total column XCO2 of the atmosphere by analysing direct solar radiation. The spectrometer has a small home-built solar tracker attached, so that it is a ready-to-use instrument. The results are validated with temporally coinciding on-site measurements taken with a high-resolution Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON FTIR spectrometer. For the whole comparison period of 5 months (26 measurement days an agreement with TCCON results of (0.12 ± 0.08% is achieved. This makes the spectrometer a promising candidate for a low-cost addition to the TCCON core FTIR sites, especially suitable for locations with limited infrastructure. An impressive mechanical and thermal stability is proved, enabling the spectrometer for use in field campaigns and for the monitoring of local sources.

  3. Heat transfer analysis in a calorimeter for concentrated solar radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Col. Centro. Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Acosta, R. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Boulevard Bahia s/n Esq. I. Comonfort, Chetumal Quintana Roo 77019 (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    A calorimeter was built for measuring the concentrated solar power produced by a point focus solar concentrator that was developed at CIE - UNAM. In order to obtain a thermal characterization of the calorimeter a theoretical and experimental heat transfer study is carried out. This study addresses the heat transfer in the circular flat plate of the calorimeter, which acts as receiver for the concentrating system. Temperatures are measured at different points of this plate and fit with a theoretical model that considers heat conduction with convective and radiative boundary conditions. In particular, it is possible to calculate the temperature distribution on the irradiated surface. This allows to examine the validity of the assumptions of cold water calorimetry, which was the technique applied to this system in previous works. (author)

  4. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio [Organic OptoElectronics Laboratory, Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA—SS 14.5, km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.fraleoni@elettra.trieste.it, E-mail: afraleoni@units.it [Organic OptoElectronics Laboratory, Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA—SS 14.5, km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Flextronics Laboratory, Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste. V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (TS) (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  5. A home-made system for IPCE measurement of standard and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Giuseppina; Cozzarini, Luca; Capria, Ennio; Fraleoni-Morgera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A home-made system for incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) characterization, based on a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, has been set up. In addition to its low cost (compared to the commercially available apparatuses), the double-beam configuration gives the advantage to measure, autonomously and with no need for supplementary equipment, the lamp power in real time, compensating possible variations of the spectral emission intensity and quality, thus reducing measurement times. To manage the optical and electronic components of the system, a custom software has been developed. Validations carried out on a common silicon-based photodiode and on a dye-sensitized solar cell confirm the possibility to adopt this system for determining the IPCE of solar cells, including dye-sensitized ones.

  6. Measurements of the solar UVR protection provided by shade structures in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Peter; Mackay, Christina

    2004-01-01

    To reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure during childhood, shade structures are being erected in primary schools to provide areas where children can more safely undertake outdoor activities. This study to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and purpose built shade structures in providing solar UVR protection was carried out on 29 such structures in 10 schools in New Zealand. Measurements of the direct and scattered solar UVR doses within the central region of the shade structures were made during the school lunch break period using UVR-sensitive polysulfone film badges. These measurements indicate that many of the structures had UVR protection factors (PF) of 4-8, which was sufficient to provide protection during the school lunch hour. However, of the 29 structures examined, only six would meet the suggested requirements of UVR PF greater than 15 required to provide all-day protection.

  7. Measurement of 7Be and 8B solar neutrinos with Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavatarelli, S.; Bellini, G.; Bonetti, S.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.

    2009-01-01

    Borexino is a real-time liquid-scintillator detector for low-energy neutrino spectroscopy located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Italy). Thanks to the unprecedented radio purity of the target mass it is providing the first direct and simultaneous measurements of the solar neutrino survival probability in both vacuum-dominated (7 B e ν) and matter-enhanced regions (8 B ν) by a single experiment. The measured interaction rates for both 7 B e and 8 B solar neutrinos are in fair agreement with the SSM predictions in case of the Lma-Msw oscillation solution and a further confirmation of the Lma scenario is provided by the absence of a day-night asymmetry in the 7 B e signal. These experimental results allow to improve the upper limit on the neutrino effective magnetic moment. Calibration campaigns aiming to reduce the systematical errors on fiducial volume definition and detector energy response are presently in progress.

  8. Application of LBIC measurements for characterisation of triple junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwarikunda, N., E-mail: Nicholas.kwarikunda@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. BOX 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa); Makerere University, P.O. BOX 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. BOX 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa); Okullo, W. [Makerere University, P.O. BOX 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Munji, M.K. [Kenyatta University, P.O. BOX 43844-00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2014-04-15

    In this study the Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) imaging technique was used to characterise InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells. The study focused on the use of monochromatic and solar light as beam probes to obtain photocurrent response maps from which the presence of any current reducing features on the solar cell were identified. Point illuminated current voltage (I–V) curves were obtained simultaneously while LBIC scanning measurements were being made. Curve fitting using an interval division algorithm based on the single diode model was performed to extract basic point device and performance parameters to give a rough indication of the functioning of the triple junction device. Using red and blue lasers as beam probes, reverse voltage breakdown was observed on the I–V curves which could be attributed to the Ge bottom subcell not being fully activated. The extracted parameters obtained when using monochromatic and solar light beam probes showed a large variation, indicating the dependence of I–V parameters on the spectral content of the beam probe.

  9. Application of LBIC measurements for characterisation of triple junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwarikunda, N.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) imaging technique was used to characterise InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells. The study focused on the use of monochromatic and solar light as beam probes to obtain photocurrent response maps from which the presence of any current reducing features on the solar cell were identified. Point illuminated current voltage (I–V) curves were obtained simultaneously while LBIC scanning measurements were being made. Curve fitting using an interval division algorithm based on the single diode model was performed to extract basic point device and performance parameters to give a rough indication of the functioning of the triple junction device. Using red and blue lasers as beam probes, reverse voltage breakdown was observed on the I–V curves which could be attributed to the Ge bottom subcell not being fully activated. The extracted parameters obtained when using monochromatic and solar light beam probes showed a large variation, indicating the dependence of I–V parameters on the spectral content of the beam probe.

  10. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayahsi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  11. What will the /sup 98/Mo solar-neutrino experiment measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the geochemical measurement of the solar-neutrino flux using /sup 98/Mo should yield the same value for the 8 B neutrino flux as is determined by contemporary observations using the /sup 37/Cl and Kamiokande II detectors. The /sup 98/Mo and contemporary fluxes should be equal to an accuracy of better than 1%, provided standard ideas regarding time scales in stellar evolution are correct

  12. A new and inexpensive temperature-measuring system. Application to photovoltaic solar facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohorquez, Miguel Angel Martinez; Enrique Gomez, Juan Manuel; Andujar Marquez, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, Carretera Huelva - Palos de la, Frontera S/N, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This article presents the design, construction and testing of a new and inexpensive digital sensor-based temperature-measuring system, whose principal characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation and easy scaling, and all this at a very low cost. This new digital sensor-based measuring system overcomes the traditional problems of digital measuring sensors, offering characteristics similar to Pt100-based measuring systems, and therefore can be used in any installation where reliable temperature measurement is necessary. It is especially suitable for installations where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of measuring system. It presents a practical application of the developed instrumentation system for use in photovoltaic solar facilities. This new temperature-measuring system has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office with the number P200803364. (author)

  13. Chapter 1: Reliably Measuring the Performance of Emerging Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumbles, Garry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Matthew O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Ashley [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Determining the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells, especially those from new, emerging areas of technology, is important if advances in performance are to be made. However, although precise measurements are important, it is the accuracy of these types of measurements that can cause issues. Accurate measurements not only promote the development of new technology platforms, but they also enable comparisons with established technologies and allow assessments of advancements within the same field. This chapter provides insights into how measurements can be made with reasonable accuracy using both the components of the measuring system and a good protocol to acquire good data. The chapter discusses how to measure a calibrated lamp spectrum, determine a spectral mismatch factor, identify the correct reference cell and filter, define the illuminated active area, measure J-V curves to avoid any hysteresis effects, take note of sample degradation issues and avoid the temptation to artificially enhance efficiency data.

  14. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-06-02

    This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies on calibration responsivities and the resulting impact on radiometric measurements. The calibration responsivities used in this study are provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The BORCAL method provides outdoor calibration responsivity of pyranometers and pyrheliometers at a 45 degree solar zenith angle and responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle determined by clear-sky comparisons to reference irradiance. The BORCAL method also employs a thermal offset correction to the calibration responsivity of single-black thermopile detectors used in pyranometers. Indoor calibrations of radiometers by their manufacturers are performed using a stable artificial light source in a side-by-side comparison of the test radiometer under calibration to a reference radiometer of the same type. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1percent to 2 percent differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately enable a reduction in radiometric measurement uncertainties and assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  15. Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system: measurement, data analysis and theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cini Castagnoli, G.; Provenzale, A. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The course Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system: measurement, data analysis and theoretical models is explicitly devoted to these issues. A solar cycle ago, in summer 1985, G. Cini organized a similar school, in a time when this field was in a very early stage of development and definitely fewer high-quality measurements were available. After eleven years, the field has grown toward becoming a robust scientific discipline, new data have been obtained, and new ideas have been proposed by both solar physicists and climate dynamicists. For this reason, the authors felt that it was the right time to organize a new summer school, with the aim of formalizing the developments that have taken place during these years, and also for speculating and maybe dreaming of new results that will be achieved in the upcoming years. The papers of the lectures have now been collected in this volume. First, in order to know what the authors talking about, they need to obtain reliable data from terrestrial archives,and to properly date the records that have been measured. To these crucial aspects is devoted the first part of the book, dealing with various types of proxy data and with the difficult issue of the dating of the records.

  16. Spectral Radius and Hamiltonicity of Graphs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Nikiforov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 432, č. 9 (2010), s. 2170-2173 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Hamiltonian cycle * Hamiltonian path * spectral radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2010

  17. Solar Flare Track Exposure Ages in Regolith Particles: A Calibration for Transmission Electron Microscope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from multiple processes including: exposure to the solar wind, which results in ion damage and implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm); cosmic ray and solar flare activity, which result in track formation; and impact processes that result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. Determining the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure is critical to studies of the surface evolution of airless bodies. Solar flare energetic particles (mainly Fe-group nuclei) have a penetration depth of a few millimeters and leave a trail of ionization damage in insulating materials that is readily observable by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging. The density of solar flare particle tracks is used to infer the length of time an object was at or near the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). Track measurements by TEM methods are routine, yet track production rate calibrations have only been determined using chemical etching techniques [e.g., 1, and references therein]. We used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) sample preparation techniques combined with TEM imaging to determine the track density/exposure age relations for lunar rock 64455. The 64455 sample was used earlier by [2] to determine a track production rate by chemical etching of tracks in anorthite. Here, we show that combined FIB/TEM techniques provide a more accurate determination of a track production rate and also allow us to extend the calibration to solar flare tracks in olivine.

  18. Optical depth retrievals from Delta-T SPN1 measurements of broadband solar irradiance at ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, Victor; Serrano, David; Segura, Sara; Wood, John; Webb, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The SPN1 radiometer, manufactured by Delta-T Devices Ltd., is an instrument designed for the measurement of global solar irradiance and its components (diffuse, direct) at ground level. In the present study, the direct irradiance component has been used to retrieve an effective total optical depth, by applying the Beer-Lambert law to the broadband measurements. The results have been compared with spectral total optical depths derived from two Cimel CE318 and Prede POM01 sun-sky radiometers, located at the Burjassot site in Valencia (Spain), during years 2013 - 2015. The SPN1 is an inexpensive and versatile instrument for the measurement of the three components of the solar radiation without any mobile part and without any need to azimuthally align the instrument to track the sun (http://www.delta-t.co.uk). The three components of the solar radiation are estimated from a combination of measurements performed by 7 different miniature thermopiles. In turn, the Beer-Lambert law has been applied to the broadband direct solar component to obtain an effective total optical depth, representative of the total extinction in the atmosphere. For the assessment of the total optical depth values retrieved with the SPN1, two different sun-sky radiometers (Cimel CE318 and Prede POM01L) have been employed. Both instruments belong to the international networks AERONET and SKYNET. The modified SUNRAD package has been applied in both Cimel and Prede instruments. Cloud affected data has been removed by applying the Smirnov cloud-screening procedure in the SUNRAD algorithm. The broadband SPN1 total optical depth has been analysed by comparison with the spectral total optical depth from the sun-sky radiometer measurements at wavelengths 440, 500, 675, 870 and 1020 nm. The slopes and intercepts have been estimated to be 0.47 - 0.98 and 0.055 - 0.16 with increasing wavelength. The average correlation coefficients and RMSD were 0.80 - 0.83 and 0.034 - 0.036 for all the channels. The

  19. Comparison of Solar UVA and UVB Radiation Measured in Selangor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin, S. U.; Gopir, G.; Yatim, B.; Sanusi, H.; Mahmud, P. S. Megat; Choo, P. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation data was measured at Physics Building, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (2 degree sign 55' N, 101 degree sign 46' E, 50m asl) by the Xplorer GLX Pasco that connected to UVA Light sensor. The measured solar UVA data were compared with the total daily solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation data recorded by the Malaysian Metrological Department at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (3 degree sign 06' N, 101 degree sign 39' E, 50m asl) for 18 days in year 2007. The daily total average of UVA radiation received is (298±105) kJm -2 while the total daily maximum is (600±56) kJm -2 . From the analysis, it shows that the values of UVA radiation data were higher than UVB radiation data with the average ratio of 6.41% between 3-14%. A weak positive correlation was found (the correlation coefficient, r, is 0.22). The amount of UVA radiation that reached the earth surface is less dependence on UVB radiation and the factors were discussed.

  20. High latitude stratospheric electrical measurements in fair and foul weather under various solar conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzworth, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Stratospheric electric field and conductivity measurements during a wide variety of weather and solar conditions are presented. These data are all from high latitude sites in the months of either April or August. The vector electric field is determined by orthogonal double probes connected through high impedance inputs to differential electrometers. The direct conductivity measurement involves determining the relaxation time constant of the medium after refloating a shorted pair of separated probes. Vertical electric field data from several balloon flights with average duration of 18 h at ceiling in fair weather are shown to be well modeled by a simple exponential altitude dependent equation. Examples of solar flare and magnetospheric effects on stratospheric electric fields are shown. Data collected over electrified clouds and thunderstorms are presented along with a discussion of the thunderstorm related electric currents. Lightning stroke signatures in the stratosphere during a large thunderstorm are identified in the electric field data. Current surges through the stratosphere due to DC currents as well as the sferic are calculated. In nearly 1000 h of balloon data no direct solar influence is identified in these data except during major flares. (author)

  1. Design and measured performances of a plane reflector augmented box-type solar-energy cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    2001-06-01

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a plane-reflector augmented box-type solar-energy cooker are presented. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminum plate absorber painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially-available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not in use. Provision is made for four cooking vessels each capable of holding up to 1 kg of water. Results of thermal performance tests show stagnation absorber plate temperatures of 138 deg. C and 119 deg. C for the cooker with and without the plane reflector in place, respectively. Boiling times of 60 minutes (3600 seconds) and 70 minutes (4200 seconds) for 1 kg of water, for the cooker with and without the reflector in place, respectively, were recorded. The solar cooker performance has been rated using the first figure of merit (F 1 ) on the no-load test and the second figure of merit (F 2 ) on the sensible heat tests. Predicted water boiling times using the two figures of merit compared favourable with measured values. The performance of the cooker with the plane reflector in place was improved tremendously compared to that without the reflector in place. (author)

  2. Water vapor measurements at ALOMAR over a solar cycle compared with model calculations by LIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogh, P.; Sonnemann, G. R.; Grygalashvyly, M.; Song, Li; Berger, U.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave water vapor measurements between 40 and 80 km altitude over a solar cycle (1996-2006) were carried out in high latitudes at Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.29°N, 16.03°E), Norway. Some smaller gaps and three interruptions of monitoring in the winters 1996/1997 and 2005/2006 and from spring 2001 to spring 2002 occurred during this period. The observations show a distinct year-to-year variability not directly related to solar Lyman-α radiation. In winter the water vapor mixing ratios in the upper domain were anticorrelated to the solar activity, whereas in summer, minima occurred in the years after the solar maximum in 2000/2001. In winter, sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) modulated the water vapor mixing ratios. Within the stratopause region a middle atmospheric water vapor maximum was observed, which results from the methane oxidation and is a regular feature there. The altitude of the maximum increased by approximately 5 km as summer approached. The largest mixing ratios were monitored in autumn. During the summer season a secondary water vapor maximum also occurred above 65 km most pronounced in late summer. The solar Lyman-α radiation impacts the water vapor mixing ratio particularly in winter above 65 km. In summer the correlation is positive below 70 km. The correlation is also positive in the lower mesosphere/stratopause region in winter due to the action of sudden stratospheric warmings, which occur more frequently under the condition of high solar activity and the enhancing the humidity. A strong day-to-day variability connected with planetary wave activity was found throughout the entire year. Model calculations by means of Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model (LIMA) reflect the essential patterns of the water vapor variation, but the results also show differences from the observations, indicating that exchange processes between the troposphere and stratosphere not modeled by LIMA could have

  3. The effect of different solar simulators on the measurement of short-circuit current temperature coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Gallium arsenide solar cells are considered for several high temperature missions in space. Both near-Sun and concentrator missions could involve cell temperatures on the order of 200 C. Performance measurements of cells at elevated temperatures are usually made using simulated sunlight and a matched reference cell. Due to the change in bandgap with increasing temperature at portions of the spectrum where considerable simulated irradiance is present, there are significant differences in measured short circuit current at elevated temperatures among different simulators. To illustrate this, both experimental and theoretical data are presented for gallium arsenide cells.

  4. A comparative study of satellite estimation for solar insolation in Albania with ground measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrushi, Driada; Berberi, Pëllumb; Muda, Valbona; Buzra, Urim; Bërdufi, Irma; Topçiu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to compare data provided by Database of NASA with available ground data for regions covered by national meteorological net NASA estimates that their measurements of average daily solar radiation have a root-mean-square deviation RMSD error of 35 W/m"2 (roughly 20% inaccuracy). Unfortunately valid data from meteorological stations for regions of interest are quite rare in Albania. In these cases, use of Solar Radiation Database of NASA would be a satisfactory solution for different case studies. Using a statistical method allows to determine most probable margins between to sources of data. Comparison of mean insulation data provided by NASA with ground data of mean insulation provided by meteorological stations show that ground data for mean insolation results, in all cases, to be underestimated compared with data provided by Database of NASA. Converting factor is 1.149.

  5. Comet 73P Measurements of Solar Wind Interactions, Cometary Ion Pickup, and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Several fragments of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 passed near the Earth following a 2006 disintegration episode. Unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during this time by both the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. As the solar wind passed through the neutral cometary coma, it experienced charge exchange that was observed as an increase in the ratio of He+/He++. In addition, particles originating from fragments trailing the major cometary objects were ionized and picked up by the solar wind. The cometary material can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16-18 amu/e, indicating that these are actively sublimating fragments. Here we present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, directionality, and heliospheric interactions with a focus on Helium, Carbon (C/O), and water-group ions.

  6. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  7. Solar UVR instrument inter-comparison focussing on measurement interval recording setting and solar zenith angle as important factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, GY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available considerations, to make meaningful deductions from the data. By comparing two solar UVR instruments, namely, a UV biometer and a Davis Vantage Pro2 UVR Detector, we look at an important factor influencing ambient solar UVR, namely SZA, and its impact... Vantage Pro2 UV detector comprises a transducer which is a semiconductor photodiode with a spectral response that matches the McKinley/Diffey Erythemal Action Spectrum. It includes a diffuser which provides good cosine response and multiple hard...

  8. High Fidelity Measurement of Free Space Solar Particle Event and Galactic Cosmic Ray Environments at Intermediate Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgab, M.

    2018-02-01

    A charged particle measurement experiment mounted externally to the Deep Space Gateway is proposed, contributing to improving astronaut radiation exposure management during Solar Particle Events and Extra Vehicular Activities.

  9. Solar chulha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhao, P. H. [Department of Physics J.D. Institute of Engg. & Tech. Yavatmal (India); Patrikar, S. R. [Department of Physics VNIT, Nagpur (India)

    2016-05-06

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  10. Solar Energetic Particles Events and Human Exploration: Measurements in a Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, L.; Berrilli, F.; Casolino, M.; Del Moro, D.; Forte, R.; Giovannelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Picozza, P.; Rizzo, A.; Scardigli, S.; Sparvoli, R.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Solar activity is the source of Space Weather disturbances. Flares, CME and coronal holes modulate physical conditions of circumterrestrial and interplanetary space and ultimately the fluxes of high-energy ionized particles, i.e., solar energetic particle (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) background. This ionizing radiation affects spacecrafts and biological systems, therefore it is an important issue for human exploration of space. During a deep space travel (for example the trip to Mars) radiation risk thresholds may well be exceeded by the crew, so mitigation countermeasures must be employed. Solar particle events (SPE) constitute high risks due to their impulsive high rate dose. Forecasting SPE appears to be needed and also specifically tailored to the human exploration needs. Understanding the parameters of the SPE that produce events leading to higher health risks for the astronauts in deep space is therefore a first priority issue. Measurements of SPE effects with active devices in LEO inside the ISS can produce important information for the specific SEP measured, relative to the specific detector location in the ISS (in a human habitat with a shield typical of manned space-crafts). Active detectors can select data from specific geo-magnetic regions along the orbits, allowing geo-magnetic selections that best mimic deep space radiation. We present results from data acquired in 2010 - 2012 by the detector system ALTEA inside the ISS (18 SPEs detected). We compare this data with data from the detector Pamela on a LEO satellite, with the RAD data during the Curiosity Journey to Mars, with GOES data and with several Solar physical parameters. While several features of the radiation modulation are easily understood by the effect of the geomagnetic field, as an example we report a proportionality of the flux in the ISS with the energetic proton flux measured by GOES, some features appear more difficult to interpret. The final goal of this work is to find the

  11. Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru ENACEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.

  12. Spatio-temporal representativeness of ground-based downward solar radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2017-04-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) is most directly observed with ground based pyranometer measurements. Besides measurement uncertainties, which arise from the pyranometer instrument itself, also errors attributed to the limited spatial representativeness of observations from single sites for their large-scale surrounding have to be taken into account when using such measurements for energy balance studies. In this study the spatial representativeness of 157 homogeneous European downward surface solar radiation time series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) were examined for the period 1983-2015 by using the high resolution (0.05°) surface solar radiation data set from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF SARAH) as a proxy for the spatiotemporal variability of SSR. By correlating deseasonalized monthly SSR time series form surface observations against single collocated satellite derived SSR time series, a mean spatial correlation pattern was calculated and validated against purely observational based patterns. Generally decreasing correlations with increasing distance from station, with high correlations (R2 = 0.7) in proximity to the observational sites (±0.5°), was found. When correlating surface observations against time series from spatially averaged satellite derived SSR data (and thereby simulating coarser and coarser grids), very high correspondence between sites and the collocated pixels has been found for pixel sizes up to several degrees. Moreover, special focus was put on the quantification of errors which arise in conjunction to spatial sampling when estimating the temporal variability and trends for a larger region from a single surface observation site. For 15-year trends on a 1° grid, errors due to spatial sampling in the order of half of the measurement uncertainty for monthly mean values were found.

  13. Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-12-01

    A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)

  14. Mass-Radius diagram for compact stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, G A; Jr, R M Marinho; Malheiro, M

    2015-01-01

    The compact stars represent the final stage in the evolution of ordinary stars, they are formed when a star ceases its nuclear fuel, in this point the process that sustain its stability will stop. After this, the internal pressure can no longer stand the gravitational force and the star colapses [2]. In this work we investigate the structure of these stars which are described by the equations of Tolman-Openheimer-Volkof (TOV) [1]. These equations show us how the pressure varies with the mass and radius of the star. We consider the TOV equations for both relativistic and non-relativistic cases. In the case of compact stars (white dwarfs and neutron stars) the internal pressure that balances the gravitational pressure is essentialy the pressure coming from the degeneracy of fermions. To have solved the TOV equations we need a equation of state that shows how this internal pressure is related to the energy density or mass density. Instead of using politropic equations of state we have solved the equations numericaly using the exact relativistic energy equation for the model of fermion gas at zero temperature. We obtain results for the mass-radius relation for white dwarfs and we compared with the results obtained using the politropic equations of state. In addition we discussed a good fit for the mass-radius relation. (paper)

  15. Determination of Performance Measuring Parameters of an Improved Dual Paraboloid Solar Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Zaki Farooqui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation into the performance evaluation of an improved dual reflector foldable paraboloid solar cooker has been reported, along with its energy and exergy analysis. The best attribute of this lightweight and low-cost solar cooker is its high performance coupled with the ease of handling. The cooker utilizes two paraboloid reflectors made out of Mylar-coated fiberglass dishes, each having a diameter of 90 cm and focal length of 105 cm. The total intercepted radiation energy is 1.08 kW under standard test conditions. Stagnation temperatures of up to 330°C and cooking temperatures of up to 290°C have been attained with load. Altogether, 9 experiments have been performed with and without load. Loaded tests have been conducted with water and vegetable oil. Results indicate an average cooking power of 485 W, peak exergy gain of 60.53 W, quality factor of 0.077, and a high product of temperature difference gap at half peak power to peak power of 4364.33 W·K. The maximum exergy output power attained was 70 W, while maximum exergy efficiency was 8–10%. All performance measuring parameters indicate that it is a high performance solar cooker for rural and urban communities and is suitable for all types of oil- and water-based cooking.

  16. A Method to Reconstruct the Solar-Induced Canopy Fluorescence Spectrum from Hyperspectral Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A method for canopy Fluorescence Spectrum Reconstruction (FSR is proposed in this study, which can be used to retrieve the solar-induced canopy fluorescence spectrum over the whole chlorophyll fluorescence emission region from 640–850 nm. Firstly, the radiance of the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs at five absorption lines of the solar spectrum was retrieved by a Spectral Fitting Method (SFM. The Singular Vector Decomposition (SVD technique was then used to extract three basis spectra from a training dataset simulated by the model SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes. Finally, these basis spectra were linearly combined to reconstruct the Fs spectrum, and the coefficients of them were determined by Weighted Linear Least Squares (WLLS fitting with the five retrieved Fs values. Results for simulated datasets indicate that the FSR method could accurately reconstruct the Fs spectra from hyperspectral measurements acquired by instruments of high Spectral Resolution (SR and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. The FSR method was also applied to an experimental dataset acquired in a diurnal experiment. The diurnal change of the reconstructed Fs spectra shows that the Fs radiance around noon was higher than that in the morning and afternoon, which is consistent with former studies. Finally, the potential and limitations of this method are discussed.

  17. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  18. PAMELA’S MEASUREMENTS OF MAGNETOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON HIGH-ENERGY SOLAR PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II,” I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bravar, U. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M.; De Donato, C. [INFN, Sezione di Rome “Tor Vergata,” I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Christian, E. R.; Nolfo, G. A. de, E-mail: georgia.a.denolfo@nasa.gov [Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    The nature of particle acceleration at the Sun, whether through flare reconnection processes or through shocks driven by coronal mass ejections, is still under scrutiny despite decades of research. The measured properties of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have long been modeled in different particle-acceleration scenarios. The challenge has been to disentangle the effects of transport from those of acceleration. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument enables unique observations of SEPs including the composition and angular distribution of the particles about the magnetic field, i.e., pitch angle distribution, over a broad energy range (>80 MeV)—bridging a critical gap between space-based and ground-based measurements. We present high-energy SEP data from PAMELA acquired during the 2012 May 17 SEP event. These data exhibit differential anisotropies and thus transport features over the instrument rigidity range. SEP protons exhibit two distinct pitch angle distributions: a low-energy population that extends to 90° and a population that is beamed at high energies (>1 GeV), consistent with neutron monitor measurements. To explain a low-energy SEP population that exhibits significant scattering or redistribution accompanied by a high-energy population that reaches the Earth relatively unaffected by dispersive transport effects, we postulate that the scattering or redistribution takes place locally. We believe that these are the first comprehensive measurements of the effects of solar energetic particle transport in the Earth’s magnetosheath.

  19. Round robins of solar cells to evaluate measurement systems of different european research institutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Van der Brog, N.J.C.M. [ECN Solar, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Bliss, M.; Mihaylov, B.; Gottschlag, R. [CREST, Holywell Park MBG GJ/Gx, Loughborough Univeristy, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Izzi, M.; Tucci, M. [ENEA CASACCIA, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Roca, F.; Pellegrino, M.; Romano, A.; Graditi, G. [ENEA PORTICI, P. le E. Fermi Localita Granatello, 80055 Portici Napoli (Italy); Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer ISE, Berliner Allee 30, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Debucquoy, M.; El Daif, O.; Gordon, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Champliaud, J.; Jouini, A. [INES, 50 avenue du lac Leman, BP 332, 73377, Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Glatz-Reichenbach, J. [ISC, Rudolf Diesel Str. 15, D-78467 Konstanz (Germany); Bothe, K. [ISFH, Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Herguth, A. [University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Determination of the solar cell efficiency and internal quantum efficiency are standard characterization methods used by the majority of research institutes. Random errors can be assessed by institutes themselves by repeated measurements, but systematic deviations cannot be assessed without comparisons with other institutes. The comparisons were performed for illuminated IV, spectral response and reflection measurements. The results were split into systematic differences between the partners and random differences within an institute for a single measurement session. The total differences are: J{sub sc}: 0.27 A, V{sub oc}: 8.5 mV, FF: 2.4 %, {eta}: 0.6%, spectral response: 0.14 A/W and reflection: 0.08. For all measurement methods, the systematic differences exceeded the random differences. The major component for the systematic differences is likely the reference device, but also temperature control, contacting scheme and setup differences play a part.

  20. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Solar shading for low energy use and daylight quality in offices: Simulations, measurements and design tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of solar shading devices on energy use and daylight quality in office rooms. The impact on energy use is analysed through computer simulations with the dynamic energy simulation program Derob-LTH while the impact on daylight quality is investigated through measurements in full-scale experimental office rooms and simulations with the program Radiance. This thesis also includes a literature review of research on solar shading as well as design tools to incorporate shading devices at an early stage in the design of buildings. This thesis indicates that, in cold countries, shading devices may provide more annual energy savings than any solar-protective (reflective, tinted) glazing and that the optimum glazing transmittance is orientation- and climate-dependent. For example, high annual energy savings are obtained on the south facade with higher transmittance glazings (compared with the east and west facade) because the potential for passive solar gain utilisation in the winter is high in comparison with the annual cooling demand. Exterior shading devices like awnings and overhangs may reduce the cooling demand dramatically but they are not suitable as daylight (glare) control devices. Devices like screens and venetian blinds are preferable because they cover the entire window area, which prevents sunlight patches in the room and the direct view of the bright sky. Screens and venetian blinds also reduce daylight in the room to levels that are suitable for computer work. However, it is essential that the screen is of a diffusing type since screens with a strong (specular) transmittance component result in poor daylight quality. The study on daylight quality also indicated that a screen transmittance of around 15 % may be optimum for a standard (3.5 by 6.0 m{sup 2}) south-oriented office room with a window covering around 25 % of the facade area (12 % of the floor area)

  2. The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

  3. Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahia, F.; Lemos, A.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Department of Physics, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds. (orig.)

  4. Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...

  5. Making Ultraviolet Spectro-Polarimetry Polarization Measurements with the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program. This paper will concentrate on SUMI's VUV optics, and discuss their spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics. While SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria, there are several areas that will be improved for its second and third flights. This paper will emphasize the MgII linear polarization measurements and describe the changes that will be made to the sounding rocket and how those changes will improve the scientific data acquired by SUMI.

  6. Multi-Spacecraft 3D differential emission measure tomography of the solar corona: STEREO results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, A. M.; Frazin, R. A.

    We have recently developed a novel technique (called DEMT) for the em- pirical determination of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the so- lar corona differential emission measure through multi-spacecraft solar ro- tational tomography of extreme-ultaviolet (EUV) image time series (like those provided by EIT/SOHO and EUVI/STEREO). The technique allows, for the first time, to develop global 3D empirical maps of the coronal elec- tron temperature and density, in the height range 1.0 to 1.25 RS . DEMT constitutes a simple and powerful 3D analysis tool that obviates the need for structure specific modeling.

  7. Emissivity-corrected power loss calibration for lock-in thermography measurements on silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemann, Martin; Walter, Benjamin; Meinhardt, Christoph; Ebser, Jan; Kwapil, Wolfram; Warta, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes power loss calibration procedures with implemented emissivity correction. The determination of our emissivity correction matrix does neither rely on blackbody reference measurements nor on the knowledge of any sample temperatures. To describe the emissivity-corrected power calibration procedures in detail, we review the theory behind lock-in thermography and show experimentally that the lock-in signal is proportional to the power dissipation in the solar cell. Experiments show the successful application of our emissivity correction procedure, which significantly improves the informative value of lock-in thermography images and the reliability of the conclusions drawn from these images

  8. Autonomous portable solar ultraviolet spectroradiometer (APSUS) - a new CCD spectrometer system for localized, real-time solar ultraviolet (280-400 nm) radiation measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Rebecca; Pearson, Andy; O'Hagan, John

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has significant implications for human health and increasing levels are a key concern regarding the impact of climate change. Monitoring solar UV radiation at the earth's surface is therefore of increasing importance. A new prototype portable CCD (charge-coupled device) spectrometer-based system has been developed that monitors UV radiation (280-400 nm) levels at the earth's surface. It has the ability to deliver this information to the public in real time. Since the instrument can operate autonomously, it is called the Autonomous Portable Solar Ultraviolet Spectroradiometer (APSUS). This instrument incorporates an Ocean Optics QE65000 spectrometer which is contained within a robust environmental housing. The APSUS system can gather reliable solar UV spectral data from approximately April to October inclusive (depending on ambient temperature) in the UK. In this study the new APSUS unit and APSUS system are presented. Example solar UV spectra and diurnal UV Index values as measured by the APSUS system in London and Weymouth in the UK in summer 2012 are shown. © 2014 Crown copyright. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  9. Evaluation of the Delta-T SPN1 radiometer for the measurement of solar irradiance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, Victor; Serrano, David; Segura, Sara; Wood, John; Webb, Nick; Utrillas, Maria Pilar

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse the performance of an SPN1 radiometer built by Delta-T Devices Ltd. to retrieve global solar irradiance at ground and its components (diffuse, direct) in comparison with measurements from two Kipp&Zonen CMP21 radiometers and a Kipp&Zonen CHP1 pirheliometer, mounted on an active Solys-2 suntracker at the Burjassot site (Valencia, Spain) using data acquired every minute during years 2013 - 2015. The measurement site is close to sea level (60 m a.s.l.), near the Mediterranean coast (10 km) and within the metropolitan area of Valencia City (over 1.500.000 inhabitants). The SPN1 is an inexpensive and versatile instrument for the measurement of the three components of the solar radiation without any mobile part and without any need to azimuthally align the instrument to track the sun (http://www.delta-t.co.uk). The three components of the solar radiation are estimated from a combination of measurements performed by 7 different miniature thermopiles. The SPN1 pyranometer measures the irradiance between 400 and 2700 nm, and the nominal uncertainty for the individual readings is about 8% ± 10 W/m2 (5% for the daily averages). The pyranometer Kipp&Zonen CMP21 model is a secondary standard for the measurement of broadband solar global irradiance in horizontal planes. Two ventilated CMP21 are used for the measurement of the global and diffuse irradiances. The expected total daily uncertainty of the radiometer is estimated to be 2%. The pirheliometer Kipp&Zonen CHP1 is designed for the measurement of the direct irradiance. The principles are similar to the CMP21 pyranometer. The results of the comparison show that the global irradiance from the SPN1 compares very well with the CMP21, with absolute RMSD and MBD differences below the combined uncertainties (15 W/m2 and -5.4 W/m2, respectively; relative RMSD of 3.1%). Both datasets are very well correlated, with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.997 and a slope and intercept very close to 1 and 0

  10. Measurement of minority carrier lifetime in silicon solar cells using an a. c. light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, A.; Gupta, R.S.; Srivastava, G.P. (Delhi Univ., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Electronic Sciences); Jain, V.K. (Solid State Physics Lab., Delhi (India)); Chilana, G.S. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics)

    1990-06-01

    A simple technique for the measurement of minority carriers lifetimes is proposed. It is based on the modification of the junction structure by the addition of a d.c. bias to the a.c. source. This always keeps the solar cell in the forward biased condition and also keeps it in the operating range. This method provides a direct measurement of minority carriers lifetimes. The lifetime is found to increase from 2.89 {mu}s at 30deg C to 4.55 {mu}s at 120deg C. The lifetime reduces to 1.45 {mu}s at liquid air temperature. Based on these lifetime measurements, the diffusion length of the carriers has also been calculated. (orig.).

  11. Measuring Air Temperature in Glazed Ventilated Facades in the Presence of Direct Solar Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Zanghirella, Fabio; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive element of buildings with a double glazed façade is naturally or mechanically driven flow in a ventilated cavity. Accurate air temperature measurements in the cavity are crucial to evaluate the dynamic performance of the façade, to predict and control its behavior as a significant...... part of the complete ventilation system. Assessment of necessary cooling/heating loads and of the whole building energy performance will then depend on the accuracy of measured air temperature. The presence of direct solar radiation is an essential element for the façade operation, but it can heavily...... affect measurements of air temperature and may lead to errors of high magnitude using bare thermocouples and even adopting shielding devices. Two different research groups, from Aalborg University and Politecnico di Torino, tested separately various techniques to shield thermocouples from direct...

  12. Effectiveness estimation of camouflage measures with solar radiation and longwave radiation considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.S. [LG Electronics Corporation (Korea); Kauh, S.K. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Yoo, H.S. [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    Camouflage measures in military purpose utilizes the apparent temperature difference between the target and background, so it is essential to develop thermal analysis program for apparent temperature predictions and to apply some camouflage measures to real military targets for camouflage purpose. In this study, a thermal analysis program including conduction, convection and radiation is developed and the validity of radiation heat transfer terms is examined. The results show that longwave radiation along with solar radiation should be included in order to predict apparent temperature as well as physical temperature exactly. Longwave emissivity variation as an effective camouflage measures is applied to a real M2 tank. From the simulation results, it is found that an effective surface treatment, such as painting of a less emissive material or camouflage, clothing, may provide a temperature similarity or a spatial similarity, resulting in an effective camouflage. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Measurement of solar proton-proton fusion neutrinos with a Soviet-American gallium experiment: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.

    1989-06-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to low-energy proton-proton fusion neutrinos. A flux of 70 SNU is expected in a gallium detector from the p-p reaction independent of solar model calculations. If, however, neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed 8 B flux measured by the Homestake 37 Cl experiment, then a comparison of the gallium and chlorine results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 60-ton gallium detector is currently being constructed in the Baksan Laboratory in the Soviet Union, and should be taking data by the end of 1989

  14. Why can’t I measure the external quantum efficiency of the Ge subcell of my multijunction solar cell?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrigón, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.barrigon@ies-def.upm.es; Espinet-González, Pilar; Contreras, Yedileth; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid ETSI de Telecomunicación, Avd. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The measurement of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of low bandgap subcells in a multijunction solar cell can be sometimes problematic. In particular, this paper describes a set of cases where the EQE of a Ge subcell in a conventional GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell cannot be fully measured. We describe the way to identify each case by tracing the I-V curve under the same light-bias conditions applied for the EQE measurement, together with the strategies that could be implemented to attain the best possible measurement of the EQE of the Ge subcell.

  15. Small-radius jets to all orders

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory; Salam, Gavin; Dasgupta, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    With hadron colliders continuing to push the boundaries of precision, it is becoming increas­ ingly important to have a detailed understanding of the subtleties appearing at smaller values of the jet radius R. We present a method to resum all leading logarithmic terms, a'.; Inn R, using a generating functional approach, as was recently discussed in Ref. 1. We study a variety of observables, such as the inclusive jet spectrum and jet vetoes for Higgs physics, and show that small-R effects can be sizeable. Finally, we compare our calculations to existing ALICE data, and show good agreement.

  16. Temperature Measurements in the Solar Transition Region Using N III Line Intensity Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, R.; Doschek, G. A.; Laming, J. M.; Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    UV emission from B-like N and O ions a rather rare opportunity for recording spectral lines in a narrow wavelength range that can potentially be used to derive temperatures relevant to the solar transition region. In these ions, the line intensity ratios of the type (2s2p(sup 2) - 2p(sup 3)) / (2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2)) are very sensitive to the electron temperature. Additionally, the lines involving the ratios fall within a range of only - 12 A; in N III the lines fall in the 980 - 992 A range and in O IV in the 780 - 791 A range. In this work, we explore the use of these atomic systems, primarily in N III, for temperature diagnostics of the transition region by analyzing UV spectra obtained by the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer flown on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The N III temperature-sensitive line ratios are measured in more than 60 observations. Most of the measured ratios correspond to temperatures in the range 5.7x10(exp 4) - 6.7x10(exp 4) K. This range is considerably lower than the calculated temperature of maximum abundance of N III, which is approx. 7.6x10(exp 4) K. Detailed analysis of the spectra further indicates that the measured ratios are probably somewhat overestimated due to resonant scattering effects in the 2s(sup 2)2p - 2s2p(sup 2) lines and small blends in the 2s2p(sup 2) - 2p3 lines. Actual lower ratios would only increase the disagreement between the ionization balance calculations and present temperature measurements based on a collisional excitation model. In the case of the O IV spectra, we determined that due to the close proximity in wavelength of the weak line (2s2p(sup 2)-2p3 transitions) to a strong Ne VIII line, sufficiently accurate ratio measurements cannot be obtained. Subject headings: atomic data --- atomic processes --- Sun: transition region --- Sun: U V radiation --- techniques: spectroscopic

  17. The radius of the quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Steiner, A. W.; Campana, S.; Cohn, H. N.; Ho, W. C. G.; Lugger, P. M.; Servillat, M.

    2018-06-01

    X-ray spectra of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries containing neutron stars can be fit with atmosphere models to constrain the mass and the radius. Mass-radius constraints can be used to place limits on the equation of state of dense matter. We perform fits to the X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13, utilizing data from ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, and constrain the mass-radius relation. Assuming an atmosphere composed of hydrogen and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star, we find the radius to be R_NS=12.2^{+1.5}_{-1.1} km, a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements. Incorporating an uncertainty on the distance to M13 relaxes the radius constraints slightly and we find R_NS=12.3^{+1.9}_{-1.7} km (for a 1.4M⊙ neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere), which is still an improvement in precision over previous measurements, some of which do not consider distance uncertainty. We also discuss how the composition of the atmosphere affects the derived radius, finding that a helium atmosphere implies a significantly larger radius.

  18. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 10 47 cm –3 and 1.1 × 10 48 cm –3 . Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  19. SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  20. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Kuzin, S. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Farnik, F. [Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Italy, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Phillips, K. J. H., E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  1. A Miniaturized Seismometer for Surface Measurements in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Pike, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    Seismology is a powerful tool for investigating the inner structure and dynamic processes of a planetary body. The interior structure information derived from seismic measurements is complementary to other methods of probing the subsurface (such as gravity and electromagnetics), both in terms of spatial and depth resolution and the relevant types of material properties being sensed. The propagation of seismic waves is sensitive to composition (via density and elastic parameters), temperature (via attenuation) and physical state (solid vs. liquid). In addition, the seismicity (level and distribution in space and time of seismic activity) provides information on the impact flux and tectonic forces currently active within the body. The major satellites of the outer solar system provide obvious targets for seismic investigations. In addition, small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, can also benefit from seismic measurements. We have developed an extremely small, lightweight, low-power seismometer for planetary applications which is ideally suited for use in the outer solar system. This instrument has previously been proposed and selected for use on a comet (on the Rosetta Lander, subsequently deselected for programmatic reasons) and Mars (on the NetLander mission). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass. (author)

  3. A solar neutrino loophole: standard solar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, C A [General Atomic Co., San Diego, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The salient aspects of the existence theorem for a unique solution to a system of linear of nonlinear first-order, ordinary differential equations are given and applied to the equilibrium stellar structure equations. It is shown that values of pressure, temperature, mass and luminosity are needed at one point - and for the sun, the logical point is the solar radius. It is concluded that since standard solar model calculations use split boundary conditions, a solar neutrino loophole still remains: solar model calculations that seek to satisfy the necessary condition for a unique solution to the solar structure equations suggest a solar interior quite different from that deduced in standard models. This, in turn, suggests a theory of formation and solar evolution significantly different from the standard theory.

  4. Correction of the exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Ze; Dong, Xi-Ying; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu

    2018-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the correction of exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) on different polar substrates arising from the exciton-optical phonon coupling, in which both the intrinsic longitudinal optical phonon and surface optical phonon modes couple with the exciton are taken into account. We find that the exciton Bohr radius is enlarged markedly due to these coupling. Moreover, it can be changed on a large scale by modulating the polarizability of polar substrate and the internal distance between the monolayer TMDCs and polar substrate. Theoretical result provides a potential explanation for the variation of the exciton Bohr radius in experimental measurement.

  5. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Rajni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.

  6. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rajni; Gautam, Sakshi

    2014-01-01

    We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12 C + 12 C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius. (author)

  7. Comparison of several databases of downward solar daily irradiation data at ocean surface with PIRATA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Mélodie; Wald, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    The solar radiation impinging at sea surface is an essential variable in climate system. There are several means to assess the daily irradiation at surface, such as pyranometers aboard ship or on buoys, meteorological re-analyses and satellite-derived databases. Among the latter, assessments made from the series of geostationary Meteosat satellites offer synoptic views of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean every 15 min with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km. Such Meteosat-derived databases are fairly recent and the quality of the estimates of the daily irradiation must be established. Efforts have been made for the land masses and must be repeated for the Atlantic Ocean. The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) network of moorings in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean is considered as a reference for oceanographic data. It consists in 17 long-term Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys equipped with sensors to measure near-surface meteorological and subsurface oceanic parameters, including downward solar irradiation. Corrected downward solar daily irradiation from PIRATA were downloaded from the NOAA web site and were compared to several databases: CAMS RAD, HelioClim-1, HelioClim-3 v4 and HelioClim-3 v5. CAMS-RAD, the CAMS radiation service, combines products of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) on gaseous content and aerosols in the atmosphere together with cloud optical properties deduced every 15 min from Meteosat imagery to supply estimates of the solar irradiation. Part of this service is the McClear clear sky model that provides estimates of the solar irradiation that should be observed in cloud-free conditions. The second and third databases are HelioClim-1 and HelioClim-3 v4 that are derived from Meteosat images using the Heliosat-2 method and the ESRA clear sky model, based on the Linke turbidity factor. HelioClim-3 v5 is the fourth database and differs from v4 by the

  8. On the charge radius of the neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Papavassiliou, J; Vidal, J

    2000-01-01

    Using the pinch technique we construct at one-loop order a neutrino charge radius, which is finite, depends neither on the gauge-fixing parameter nor on the gauge-fixing scheme employed, and is process-independent. This definition stems solely from an effective proper photon-neutrino one-loop vertex, with no reference to box or self-energy contributions. The role of the $WW$ box in this construction is critically examined. In particular it is shown that the exclusion of the effective WW box from the definition of the neutrino charge radius is not a matter of convention but is in fact dynamically realized when the target-fermions are right-handedly polarized. In this way we obtain a unique decomposition of effective self-energies, vertices, and boxes, which separately respect electroweak gauge invariance. We elaborate on the tree-level origin of the mechanism which enforces at one-loop level massive cancellations among the longitudinal momenta appearing in the Feynman diagrams, and in particular those associat...

  9. QED confronts the radius of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    De Rujula, A

    2011-01-01

    Recent results on muonic hydrogen [1] and the ones compiled by CODATA on ordinary hydrogen and $ep$-scattering [2] are $5\\sigma$ away from each other. Two reasons justify a further look at this subject: 1) One of the approximations used in [1] is not valid for muonic hydrogen. This amounts to a shift of the proton's radius by $\\sim 3$ of the standard deviations of [1], in the "right" direction of data-reconciliation. In field-theory terms, the error is a mismatch of renormalization scales. Once corrected, the proton radius "runs", much as the QCD coupling "constant" does. 2) The result of [1] requires a choice of the "third Zemach moment". Its published independent determination is based on an analysis with a $p$-value --the probability of obtaining data with equal or lesser agreement with the adopted (fit form-factor) hypothesis-- of $3.92\\times 10^{-12}$. In this sense, this quantity is not empirically known. Its value would regulate the level of "tension" between muonic- and ordinary-hydrogen results, curr...

  10. Satellite observations of energetic electron precipitation during the 1979 solar eclipse and comparisons with rocket measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. E.; Imhof, W. L.; Voss, H. D.; Reagan, J. B.

    1983-07-01

    During the solar eclipse of 26 February 1979, the P78-1 satellite passed near Red Lake, Ontario, at an altitude of about 600 km. On two consecutive orbits spanning the time of total eclipse, energetic electrons were measured with two silicon solid state detector spectrometers having excellent energy and angular resolution. Significant fluxes of precipitating electrons were observed near the path of totality. Comparisons of flux intensities and energy spectra with those measured from a Nike Orion and two Nike Tomahawk rockets launched near Red Lake before and during total eclipse give good agreement and indicate that the electron precipitation was relatively uniform for more than an hour and over a broad geographical area.

  11. Satellite observations of energetic electron precipitation during the 1979 solar eclipse and comparisons with rocket measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, E.E.; Imhof, W.L.; Voss, H.D.; Reagan, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the solar eclipse of 26 February 1979, the P78-1 satellite passed near Red Lake, Ontario, at an altitude of approx. 600 km. On two consecutive orbits spanning the time of total eclipse, energetic electrons were measured with two silicon solid state detector spectrometers having excellent energy and angular resolution. Significant fluxes of precipitating electrons were observed near the path of totality. Comparisons of flux intensities and energy spectra with those measured from a Nike Orion and two Nike Tomahawk rockets launched near Red Lake before and during total eclipse give good agreement and indicate that the electron precipitation was relatively uniform for more than an hour and over a broad geographical area. (author)

  12. Accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance between 4000-10000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, J.; Coleman, M. D.; Gardiner, T.; Shine, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The near-infrared solar spectral irradiance (SSI) is an important input into simulations of weather and climate; the distribution of energy throughout this region of the spectrum influences atmospheric heating rates and the global hydrological cycle through absorption and scattering by water vapour. Current measurements by a mixture of ground-based and space-based instruments show differences of around 10% in the 4000-7000 cm-1 region, with no resolution to this controversy in sight. This work presents observations of SSI taken using a ground-based Fourier Transform spectrometer between 4000-10000 cm-1 at a field site in Camborne, UK, with particular focus on a rigorously defined uncertainty budget. While there is good agreement between this work and the commonly-used ATLAS3 spectrum between 7000-10000 cm-1, the SSI is systematically lower by 10% than ATLAS3 between 4000-7000 cm-1, with no overlap within the k = 2 measurement uncertainties.

  13. The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gurlit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7-418 nm and the visible from 400-652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3 and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance spectrum perfectly agrees within +0.03% with the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.7 in the visible spectral range (415-650 nm, but it is +2.1% larger in the (370-415 nm wavelength interval, and -4% smaller in the UV-A spectral range (316.7-370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. Similar comparisons of the SOLSPEC (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b and SORCE/SIM (Harder et al., 2000 solar spectra with MODTRAN 3.7 confirms our findings with the values being -0.5%, +2%, and -1.4% for SOLSPEC -0.33%, -0.47%, and -6.2% for SORCE/SIM, respectively. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (- re-calibrated by the University of Bremen - with MODTRAN 3.7 indicates an agreement within -0.4% in the visible spectral range (415-585 nm, -1.6% within the 370-415 nm, and -5.7% within 325-370 nm wavelength interval, in agreement with the results of the other sensors. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.

  14. On the intrinsic timescales of temporal variability in measurements of the surface solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2018-01-01

    This study is concerned with the intrinsic temporal scales of the variability in the surface solar irradiance (SSI). The data consist of decennial time series of daily means of the SSI obtained from high-quality measurements of the broadband solar radiation impinging on a horizontal plane at ground level, issued from different Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) ground stations around the world. First, embedded oscillations sorted in terms of increasing timescales of the data are extracted by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Next, Hilbert spectral analysis is applied to obtain an amplitude-modulation-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) representation of the data. The time-varying nature of the characteristic timescales of variability, along with the variations in the signal intensity, are thus revealed. A novel, adaptive null hypothesis based on the general statistical characteristics of noise is employed in order to discriminate between the different features of the data, those that have a deterministic origin and those being realizations of various stochastic processes. The data have a significant spectral peak corresponding to the yearly variability cycle and feature quasi-stochastic high-frequency variability components, irrespective of the geographical location or of the local climate. Moreover, the amplitude of this latter feature is shown to be modulated by variations in the yearly cycle, which is indicative of nonlinear multiplicative cross-scale couplings. The study has possible implications on the modeling and the forecast of the surface solar radiation, by clearly discriminating the deterministic from the quasi-stochastic character of the data, at different local timescales.

  15. High Time-Resolved Kinetic Temperatures of Solar Wind Minor Ions Measured with SOHO/CELIAS/CTOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzek, N. P.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Solar wind heavy ions with an atomic number Z > 2 are referred to as minor ions since they represent a fraction of less than one percent of all solar wind ions. They can be therefore regarded as test particles, only reacting to but not driving the dynamics of the solar wind plasma, which makes them a unique diagnostic tool for plasma wave phenomena both in the solar atmosphere and the extended heliosphere. In the past, several studies have investigated the kinetic temperatures of minor ions, but due to low counting statistics these studies are based on ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) recorded over time periods of several hours. The Charge Time-Of-Flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer as part of the Charge, ELement and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) provides solar wind heavy ion 1D radial VDFs with excellent charge state separation, an unprecedented cadence of 5 minutes and very high counting statistics, exceeding similar state-of-the-art instruments by a factor of ten. In our study, based on CTOF measurements at Langrangian point L1 between DOY 150 and DOY 220 in 1996, we investigate systematically the influence of the VDF time resolution on the derived kinetic temperatures for solar wind silicon and iron ions. The selected ion set spans a wide range of mass-per-charge from 3 amu/e heavy ions with ion-cyclotron waves.

  16. Zenith: A Radiosonde Detector for Rapid-Response Ionizing Atmospheric Radiation Measurements During Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A. C. R.; Ryden, K. A.; Hands, A. D. P.; Dyer, C.; Burnett, C.; Gibbs, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solar energetic particle events create radiation risks for aircraft, notably single-event effects in microelectronics along with increased dose to crew and passengers. In response to this, some airlines modify their flight routes after automatic alerts are issued. At present these alerts are based on proton flux measurements from instruments onboard satellites, so it is important that contemporary atmospheric radiation measurements are made and compared. This paper presents the development of a rapid-response system built around the use of radiosondes equipped with a radiation detector, Zenith, which can be launched from a Met Office weather station after significant solar proton level alerts are issued. Zenith is a compact, battery-powered solid-state radiation monitor designed to be connected to a Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde, which transmits all data to a ground station as it ascends to an altitude of 33 km. Zenith can also be operated as a stand-alone detector when connected to a laptop, providing real-time count rates. It can also be adapted for use on unmanned aerial vehicles. Zenith has been flown on the Met Office Civil Contingency Aircraft, taken to the European Organization for Nuclear Research-EU high energy Reference Field facility for calibration and launched on a meteorological balloon at the Met Office's weather station in Camborne, Cornwall, UK. During this sounding, Zenith measured the Pfotzer-Regener maximum to be at an altitude of 18-20 km where the count rate was measured to be 1.15 c s-1 cm-2 compared to 0.02 c s-1 cm-2 at ground level.

  17. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of ballooning modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.

    1980-07-01

    A ballooning mode equation that includes full finite Larmor radius effects has been derived from the Vlasov equation for a circular tokamak equilibrium. Numerical solution of this equation shows that finite Larmor radius effects are stabilizing

  18. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  19. Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.T.; Ten Thije O.G. Boonkkamp, J.; Borg, van der N.J.C.M.; Beek, van M.

    1997-01-01

    The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued. Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig

  20. High resolution measurements of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the Fraunhofer oxigen bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, M.; Agati, G.; Cecchi, G.; Toci, G.; Mazzinghi, P.

    2017-11-01

    Spectra of solar radiance reflected by leaves close to the Fraunhofer bands show the net contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence emission which adds to the reflected solar spectra. In a laboratory experiment, a low stray light, high resolution, 0.85 m double monochromator was used to filter radiation living leaves still attached to the plant in correspondence of the 687 nm and 760 nm O2 absorption bands. Reference spectra from a non fluorescent white reference were also acquired. Acquisition was performed by a Microchannel plate (MCP) intensified diode array with 512 elements. A fit of the spectral data outside the absorption lines allowed to retrieve the spectral base-line as a function of wavelength for the reference panel and the leaf. Reflectance functions were determined extending the Plascyck equation system to all the resolved lines of the oxygen absorption bands and using the base-lines for the continuum values. Fluorescence was deduced from the same equation system, using both the measured leaf and reference radiance spectra and the leaf reflectance fitting function.

  1. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    African countries from 2010 to 2013, dedicated government committees have prioritized climate change mitigation technologies and developed action plans for the diffusion of the selected technologies. The project results show that solar PV is high on the agenda in Africa. Six out of ten countries...... in the region prioritized solar PV, and action plans for the diffusion of solar home systems were put forward in Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mali and Senegal, while the implementation of grid-connected systems was proposed in Rwanda, Mali and Senegal. The project reports and technology action plans prepared...... in these six countries are used as the basis for comparing how solar PV is perceived in these countries and how policy measures enabling environmental adjustments and investment programmes are being planned to promote diffusion of the technology in these different contexts....

  2. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  3. Measurement of the profile and intensity of the solar He I lambda 584-A resonance line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. O.; Hartmann, U. G.; Judge, D. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity and profile of the helium resonance line at 584 A from the entire disk of the sun was investigated by using a rocket-borne helium-filled spectrometer and a curve-of-growth technique. The line profile was found to be accurately represented by a Gaussian profile with full width at half maximum of 122 + or - 10 mA, while the integrated intensity was measured to be 2.6 + or - 1.3 billion photons/s per sq cm at solar activity levels of F(10.7) = 90.8 x 10 to the -22nd per sq m/Hz and Rz = 27. The measured line width is in good agreement with previous spectrographic measurements, but the integrated intensity is larger than most previous photoelectric measurements. However, the derived line center flux of 20 + or - 10 billion photons/s per sq cm/A is in good agreement with values inferred from airglow measurements.

  4. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  5. Calculation of nuclear radius using alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.B. de.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Quantum Theory approach for the Alpha-Decay process, a formula is deduced for determination of the nuclear radius of the s-state, that is, a nuclear model with a spherical shell. The hypothesis that it is possible to individualize the alpha particle and the daughter nucleus at the moment of the alpha particle emission is considered. In considered in these conditions, the treatment of a two body problem considered as point particles, repelling each other by Coulomb's Law. Using the new values of the fundamental physical constants, experimentally determinated, by substitution of their numerical values in the proposed, new values of nuclear radii are obtained. These values are compared with those found in the literature. (author) [pt

  6. Cross-Calibrating Sunspot Magnetic Field Strength Measurements from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Dunn Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Fraser T.; Beck, Christian; Penn, Matthew J.; Tritschler, Alexandra; Pillet, Valentín Martinez; Livingston, William C.

    2015-11-01

    In this article we describe a recent effort to cross-calibrate data from an infrared detector at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A synoptic observation program at the McMath-Pierce has measured umbral magnetic field strengths since 1998, and this data set has recently been compared with umbral magnetic field observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. To further improve on the data from McMath-Pierce, we compared the data with measurements taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope with far greater spectral resolution than has been possible with space instrumentation. To minimise potential disruption to the study, concurrent umbral measurements were made so that the relationship between the two datasets can be most accurately characterised. We find that there is a strong agreement between the umbral magnetic field strengths recorded by each instrument, and we reduced the FIRS data in two different ways to successfully test this correlation further.

  7. Understanding the mass-radius relation for sub-Neptunes: radius as a proxy for composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transiting planet surveys like Kepler have provided a wealth of information on the distribution of planetary radii, particularly for the new populations of super-Earth- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. In order to aid in the physical interpretation of these radii, we compute model radii for low-mass rocky planets with hydrogen-helium envelopes. We provide model radii for planets 1-20 M {sub ⊕}, with envelope fractions 0.01%-20%, levels of irradiation 0.1-1000 times Earth's, and ages from 100 Myr to 10 Gyr. In addition we provide simple analytic fits that summarize how radius depends on each of these parameters. Most importantly, we show that at fixed H/He envelope fraction, radii show little dependence on mass for planets with more than ∼1% of their mass in their envelope. Consequently, planetary radius is to a first order a proxy for planetary composition, i.e., H/He envelope fraction, for Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. We recast the observed mass-radius relationship as a mass-composition relationship and discuss it in light of traditional core accretion theory. We discuss the transition from rocky super-Earths to sub-Neptune planets with large volatile envelopes. We suggest ∼1.75 R {sub ⊕} as a physically motivated dividing line between these two populations of planets. Finally, we discuss these results in light of the observed radius occurrence distribution found by Kepler.

  8. Development of a very fast spectral response measurement system for analysis of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells and modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, J.A.; Fortes, M.; Alberte, C.; Vetter, M.; Andreu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spectral response equipment for measuring a-Si:H solar cells in a few seconds. ► Equipment based on 16 LEDs with simultaneous illumination of the solar cell. ► The current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform. ► Cheap equipment without lock-in technology for the current measurement. ► Measurement error vs. conventional measurement less than 1% in J sc . - Abstract: An important requirement for a very fast spectral response measurement system is the simultaneous illumination of the solar cell at multiple well defined wavelengths. Nowadays this can be done by means of light emitting diodes (LEDs) available for a multitude of wavelengths. For the purpose to measure the spectral response (SR) of amorphous silicon solar cells a detailed characterization of LEDs emitting in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 800 nm was performed. In the here developed equipment the LED illumination is modulated in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz and the current generated by each LED is analyzed by a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the current component corresponding to each wavelength. The equipment provides a signal to noise ratio of 2–4 orders of magnitude for individual wavelengths resulting in a precise measurement of the SR over the whole wavelength range. The difference of the short circuit current determined from the SR is less than 1% in comparison to a conventional system with monochromator.

  9. Radius scaling of titanium wire arrays on the Z accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdale, C.A.; Denney, C.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The 20 MA Z accelerator has made possible the generation of substantial radiation (> 100 kJ) at higher photon energies (4.8 keV) through the use of titanium wire arrays. In this paper, the results of experiments designed to study the effects of initial load radius variations of nickel-clad titanium wire arrays will be presented. The load radius was varied from 17.5 mm to 25 mm and titanium K-shell (4.8 keV) yields of greater than 100 kJ were measured. The inclusion of the nickel cladding on the titanium wires allows for higher wire number loads and increases the spectral broadness of the source; kilovolt emissions (nickel plus titanium L-shell) of 400 kJ were measured in these experiments. Comparisons of the data to calculations will be made to estimate pinched plasma parameters such as temperature and participating mass fraction. These results will also be compared with previous pure titanium wire array results

  10. The cross section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at solar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, M.; Arpesella, C.; Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fubini, A.; Gervino, G.; Greife, U.; Gustavino, C.; Lambert, J.; Prati, P.; Rodney, W.S.; Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Zavatarelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the status of the 3 He( 3 He,2p) 4 He experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). The lowest projectile energies for the measured cross section correspond already to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak (E 0 =22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the 3 He( 3 He,2p) 4 He reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted S(0) value for bare nuclides (= 5.40 MeVb)

  11. Characterizing the solar reflection from wildfire smoke plumes using airborne multiangle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Varnai, T.; Gautam, R.; Poudyal, R.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    To help better understand forest fire smoke plumes, this study examines sunlight reflected from plumes that were observed over Canada during the ARCTAS campaign in summer 2008. In particular, the study analyzes multiangle and multispectral measurements of smoke scattering by the airborne Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). In combination with other in-situ and remote sensing information and radiation modeling, CAR data is used for characterizing the radiative properties and radiative impact of smoke particles—which inherently depend on smoke particle properties that influence air quality. In addition to estimating the amount of reflected and absorbed sunlight, the work includes using CAR data to create spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere angular distribution models (ADMs) of solar radiation reflected by smoke plumes, and examining the sensitivity of such angular models to scene parameters. Overall, the results help better understand the radiative properties and radiative effects of smoke particles, and are anticipated to help better interpret satellite data on smoke plumes.

  12. Electron and hole drift mobility measurements on methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Brian; Long, Qi; Schiff, Eric A. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Yang, Mengjin; Zhu, Kai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kottokkaran, Ranjith; Abbas, Hisham; Dalal, Vikram L. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-04-25

    We report nanosecond domain time-of-flight measurements of electron and hole photocarriers in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. The mobilities ranged from 0.06 to 1.4 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature, but there is little systematic difference between the two carriers. We also find that the drift mobilities are dispersive (time-dependent). The dispersion parameters are in the range of 0.4–0.7, and they imply that terahertz domain mobilities will be much larger than nanosecond domain mobilities. The temperature-dependences of the dispersion parameters are consistent with confinement of electron and hole transport to fractal-like spatial networks within nanoseconds of their photogeneration.

  13. Design, Construction And Characterization Of A Pyranometer For Measuring Global Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onah, D.U; Osuji, R.O.

    2004-01-01

    Due to cost and stringent importation requirement, we have designed and constructed a Pyranometer from locally available materials. The constructed Pyranometer was calibrated against a standard calibrated Eppley pyranometer model PSP17190F3. the two pyranometers were used simultaneously in measuring global solar radiation at Nsukka, Nigeria on latitude 6.8 degree North and longitude 7.35 degree East, located 488m above sea level. The average insolation for each of the two typical clear sky days were 3.221KW per square metre and 3.266KW per square metre. The maximum insolation obtained with the constructed pyranometer was 965.5 W per square metre on 16/1/03. The corresponding insolation obtained with the reference Eppley pyranometre on the same day was 1087.5W per square metre. We are happy to remark that there was not significant difference between the performances of the constructed pyranometer and the standard Eppley pyranometer

  14. A comparison of synthetic and measured solar continuum intensities and limb darkening coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute continuum intensities and wavelength-dependent low-order polynomial fits to optical and infrared continuum limb darkening provide useful discriminants among single-component models of the solar photosphere. The thermal structure in best quantitative agreement with the recent center-limb measurements by Pierce and Slaughter (1977) and by Pierce et.al. (1977) is the semi-empirical model by Vernazza, Avrett and Loeser (VAL). However, the VAL model M temperatures must be scaled upward by a factor of 1.015+-0.005 to be consistent with the Labs and Neckel absolute calibration of continuum high points in the optical region 0.40-0.65 μm. (Auth.)

  15. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties and the solar heating rate estimated by combining sky radiometer and lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Aoyagi, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    The SKYLIDAR algorithm was developed to estimate vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer (SKYNET) and lidar (AD-Net) measurements. The solar heating rate was also estimated from the SKYLIDAR retrievals. The algorithm consists of two retrieval steps: (1) columnar properties are retrieved from the sky radiometer measurements and the vertically mean depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements and (2) vertical profiles are retrieved from the lidar measurements and the results of the first step. The derived parameters are the vertical profiles of the size distribution, refractive index (real and imaginary parts), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Sensitivity tests were conducted by applying the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the simulated sky radiometer and lidar data for vertical profiles of three different aerosols, continental average, transported dust, and pollution aerosols. The vertical profiles of the size distribution, extinction coefficient, and asymmetry factor were well estimated in all cases. The vertical profiles of the refractive index and single-scattering albedo of transported dust, but not those of transported pollution aerosol, were well estimated. To demonstrate the performance and validity of the SKYLIDAR algorithm, we applied the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the actual measurements at Tsukuba, Japan. The detailed vertical structures of the aerosol optical properties and solar heating rate of transported dust and smoke were investigated. Examination of the relationship between the solar heating rate and the aerosol optical properties showed that the vertical profile of the asymmetry factor played an important role in creating vertical variation in the solar heating rate. We then compared the columnar optical properties retrieved with the SKYLIDAR algorithm to those produced with the more established scheme SKYRAD.PACK, and the surface solar irradiance calculated from the SKYLIDAR

  16. Laser Ranging in Solar System: Technology Developments and New Science Measurement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mcgarry, J.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Laser Ranging has played a major role in geodetic studies of the Earth over the past 40 years. The technique can potentially be used in between planets and spacecrafts within the solar system to advance planetary science. For example, a direct measurement of distances between planets, such as Mars and Venus would make significant improvements in understanding the dynamics of the whole solar system, including the masses of the planets and moons, asteroids and their perturbing interactions, and the gravity field of the Sun. Compared to the conventional radio frequency (RF) tracking systems, laser ranging is potentially more accurate because it is much less sensitive to the transmission media. It is also more efficient because the laser beams are much better focused onto the targets than RF beams. However, existing laser ranging systems are all Earth centric, that is, from ground stations on Earth to orbiting satellites in near Earth orbits or lunar orbit, and to the lunar retro-reflector arrays deployed by the astronauts in the early days of lunar explorations. Several long distance laser ranging experiments have been conducted with the lidar in space, including a two-way laser ranging demonstration between Earth and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MESSENGER spacecraft over 24 million km, and a one way laser transmission and detection experiment over 80 million km between Earth and the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on the MGS spacecraft in Mars orbit. A one-way laser ranging operation has been carried out continuously from 2009 to 2014 between multiple ground stations to LRO spacecraft in lunar orbit. The Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) on the LADEE mission has demonstrated that a two way laser ranging measurements, including both the Doppler frequency and the phase shift, can be obtained from the subcarrier or the data clocks of a high speed duplex laser communication system. Plans and concepts presently being studied suggest we may be

  17. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation at Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lindfors

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  18. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  19. In Situ Roughness Measurements for the Solar Cell Industry Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio González-Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Areal roughness parameters always need to be under control in the thin film solar cell industry because of their close relationship with the electrical efficiency of the cells. In this work, these parameters are evaluated for measurements carried out in a typical fabrication area for this industry. Measurements are made using a portable atomic force microscope on the CNC diamond cutting machine where an initial sample of transparent conductive oxide is cut into four pieces. The method is validated by making a comparison between the parameters obtained in this process and in the laboratory under optimal conditions. Areal roughness parameters and Fourier Spectral Analysis of the data show good compatibility and open the possibility to use this type of measurement instrument to perform in situ quality control. This procedure gives a sample for evaluation without destroying any of the transparent conductive oxide; in this way 100% of the production can be tested, so improving the measurement time and rate of production.

  20. Kinetic-Scale Magnetic Turbulence and Finite Larmor Radius Effects at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Khazanov, G. V.; Donovan, E. F.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2011-01-01

    We use a nonstationary generalization of the higher-order structure function technique to investigate statistical properties of the magnetic field fluctuations recorded by MESSENGER spacecraft during its first flyby (01/14/2008) through the near-Mercury space environment, with the emphasis on key boundary regions participating in the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction. Our analysis shows, for the first time, that kinetic-scale fluctuations play a significant role in the Mercury's magnetosphere up to the largest resolvable timescale (approx.20 s) imposed by the signal nonstationariry, suggesting that turbulence at this plane I is largely controlled by finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, we report the presence of a highly turbulent and extended foreshock system filled with packets of ULF oscillations, broad-band intermittent fluctuations in the magnetosheath, ion-kinetic turbulence in the central plasma sheet of Mercury's magnetotail, and kinetic-scale fluctuations in the inner current sheet encountered at the outbound (dawn-side) magnetopause. Overall, our measurements indicate that the Hermean magnetosphere, as well as the surrounding region, are strongly affected by non-MHD effects introduced by finite sizes of cyclotron orbits of the constituting ion species. Physical mechanisms of these effects and their potentially critical impact on the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetic field remain to be understood.

  1. Determination of Differential Emission Measure Distribution of Coronal Structures Observed by SphinX During Recent Minimum of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw

    SphinX is a high-sensitivity soft X-ray spectrophotometer which measures soft X-ray spectra in the energy range between 0.8 keV and 15 keV. From February to November 2009 the instrument has observed unusually quiet solar coronal emission as well as a number of weak solar flares. Based on SphinX spectra it is possible to study the differential emission measure distributions (DEM) in the temperature range roughly between 1 MK and 10 MK. The aim of the present study is to unveil DEM plasma distributions for selected activity conditions and analyze their variability.

  2. Dense solar wind cloud geometries deduced from comparisons of radio signal delay and in situ plasma measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The geometries of dense solar wind clouds are estimated by comparing single-location measurements of the solar wind plasma with the average of the electron density obtained by radio signal delay measurements along a radio path between earth and interplanetary spacecraft. Several of these geometries agree with the current theoretical spatial models of flare-induced shock waves. A new class of spatially limited structures that contain regions with densities greater than any observed in the broad clouds is identified. The extent of a cloud was found to be approximately inversely proportional to its density.

  3. Comparison of Modelled and Measured Tilted Solar Irradiance for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Mubarak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the performance of five transposition models that estimate the global and diffuse solar irradiance on tilted planes based on the global horizontal irradiance. The modelled tilted irradiance values are compared to measured one-minute values from pyranometers and silicon sensors tilted at different angles at Hannover (Germany and NREL (Golden, CO, USA. It can be recognized that the deviations of the model of Liu and Jordan, Klucher and Perez from the measurements increases as the tilt angle increases and as the sensors are oriented away from the south direction, where they receive lower direct radiation than south-oriented surfaces. Accordingly, the vertical E, W and N planes show the highest deviation. Best results are found by the models from Hay and Davies and Reindl, when horizontal pyranometer measurements and a constant albedo value of 0.2 are used. The relative root mean squared difference (rRMSD of the anisotropic models does not exceed 11% for south orientation and low inclination angles (β = 10–60°, but reaches up to 28.9% at vertical planes. For sunny locations such as Golden, the Perez model provides the best estimates of global tilted irradiance for south-facing surfaces. The relative mean absolute difference (rMAD of the Perez model at NREL ranges from 4.2% for 40° tilt to 8.7% for 90° tilt angle, when horizontal pyranometer measurements and a measured albedo value are used; the use of measured albedo values instead of a constant value of 0.2 leads to a reduction of the deviation to 3.9% and 6.0%, respectively. The use of higher albedo values leads to a significant increase of rMAD. We also investigated the uncertainty resulting from using horizontal pyranometer measurements, in combination with constant albedo values, to estimate the incident irradiance on tilted photovoltaic (PV modules. We found that these uncertainties are small or negligible.

  4. Measurement of nuclear reaction rates and spectral indices along the radius of fuel pellets from IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Medidas de taxas de reacao nuclear e de indices espectrais ao longo do raio das pastilhas combustiveis do reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mura, Luis Felipe Liambos

    2010-07-01

    This work presents the measurements of the nuclear reaction rates along the radial direction of the fuel pellet by irradiation and posterior gamma spectrometry of a thin slice of fuel pellet of UO{sub 2} with 4,3% enrichment. From its irradiation the rate of radioactive capture and fission have been measured as a function of the radius of the pellet disk using a HPGe detector. Lead collimators has been used for this purpose. Simulating the fuel pellet in the pin fuel of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, a thin UO{sub 2} disk is used. This disk is inserted in the interior of a dismountable fuel rod. This fuel rod is then placed in the central position of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core and irradiated during 1 hour under a neutron flux of around 9 x 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s. For gamma spectrometry 10 collimators with different diameters have been used, consequently, the nuclear reactions of radioactive capture that occurs in atoms of {sup 238}U and fissions that occur on both {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U are measured in function of 10 different region (diameter of collimator) of the fuel pellet disk. Corrections in the geometric efficiency due to introduction of collimators on HPGe detection system were estimated using photon transport of MCNP-4C code. Some calculated values of nuclear reaction rate of radioactive capture and fission along of the radial direction of the fuel pellet obtained by Monte Carlo methodology, using the MCNP-4C code, are presented and compared to the experimental data showing very good agreement. Besides nuclear reaction rates, the spectral indices {sup 28{rho}} and {sup 25{delta}} have been obtained at each different radius of the fuel pellet disk. (author)

  5. MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR VERY LOW MASS GASEOUS PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Stevenson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Kepler spacecraft has detected a sizable aggregate of objects, characterized by giant-planet-like radii and modest levels of stellar irradiation. With the exception of a handful of objects, the physical nature, and specifically the average densities, of these bodies remain unknown. Here, we propose that the detected giant planet radii may partially belong to planets somewhat less massive than Uranus and Neptune. Accordingly, in this work, we seek to identify a physically sound upper limit to planetary radii at low masses and moderate equilibrium temperatures. As a guiding example, we analyze the interior structure of the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-30d and show that it is acutely deficient in heavy elements, especially compared with its solar system counterparts. Subsequently, we perform numerical simulations of planetary thermal evolution and in agreement with previous studies, show that generally, 10-20 M ⊕ , multi-billion year old planets, composed of high density cores and extended H/He envelopes can have radii that firmly reside in the giant planet range. We subject our results to stability criteria based on extreme ultraviolet radiation, as well as Roche-lobe overflow driven mass-loss and construct mass-radius relationships for the considered objects. We conclude by discussing observational avenues that may be used to confirm or repudiate the existence of putative low mass, gas-dominated planets.

  6. A Non-Interfering Beam Radius Diagnostic Suitable For Induction Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexsen, W E

    2005-01-01

    High current electron induction linacs operate in a parameter regime that allows the use of a diamagnetic loop (DML) to measure the beam magnetic moment. Under certain easily met conditions the beam radius can be derived from the moment measurement. The DML has the advantage over the present methods of measuring beam radius in that it is an electrical measurement with good time resolution that does not interfere with the beam transport. I describe experiments on the LLNL accelerators, ETA-II and FXR that give confidence in the use of a DML as a beam diagnostic

  7. Magnetic field vector and electron density diagnostics from linear polarization measurements in 14 solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.

    1986-01-01

    The Hanle effect is the modification of the linear polarization parameters of a spectral line due to the effect of the magnetic field. It has been successfully applied to the magnetic field vector diagnostic in solar prominences. The magnetic field vector is determined by comparing the measured polarization to the polarization computed, taking into account all the polarizing and depolarizing processes in line formation and the depolarizing effect of the magnetic field. The method was applied to simultaneous polarization measurements in the Helium D3 line and in the hydrogen beta line in 14 prominences. Four polarization parameters are measured, which lead to the determination of the three coordinates of the magnetic field vector and the electron density, owing to the sensitivity of the hydrogen beta line to the non-negligible effect of depolarizing collisions with electrons and protons of the medium. A mean value of 1.3 x 10 to the 10th power cu. cm. is derived in 14 prominences.

  8. Geometric optimisation of an accurate cosine correcting optic fibre coupler for solar spectral measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuantzi, Roberto; Buckley, Alastair

    2017-09-01

    Making accurate and reliable measurements of solar irradiance is important for understanding performance in the photovoltaic energy sector. In this paper, we present design details and performance of a number of fibre optic couplers for use in irradiance measurement systems employing remote light sensors applicable for either spectrally resolved or broadband measurement. The angular and spectral characteristics of different coupler designs are characterised and compared with existing state-of-the-art commercial technology. The new coupler designs are fabricated from polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) rods and operate through forward scattering of incident sunlight on the front surfaces of the structure into an optic fibre located in a cavity to the rear of the structure. The PTFE couplers exhibit up to 4.8% variation in scattered transmission intensity between 425 nm and 700 nm and show minimal specular reflection, making the designs accurate and reliable over the visible region. Through careful geometric optimization near perfect cosine dependence on the angular response of the coupler can be achieved. The PTFE designs represent a significant improvement over the state of the art with less than 0.01% error compared with ideal cosine response for angles of incidence up to 50°.

  9. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  10. Geometric optimisation of an accurate cosine correcting optic fibre coupler for solar spectral measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuantzi, Roberto; Buckley, Alastair

    2017-09-01

    Making accurate and reliable measurements of solar irradiance is important for understanding performance in the photovoltaic energy sector. In this paper, we present design details and performance of a number of fibre optic couplers for use in irradiance measurement systems employing remote light sensors applicable for either spectrally resolved or broadband measurement. The angular and spectral characteristics of different coupler designs are characterised and compared with existing state-of-the-art commercial technology. The new coupler designs are fabricated from polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) rods and operate through forward scattering of incident sunlight on the front surfaces of the structure into an optic fibre located in a cavity to the rear of the structure. The PTFE couplers exhibit up to 4.8% variation in scattered transmission intensity between 425 nm and 700 nm and show minimal specular reflection, making the designs accurate and reliable over the visible region. Through careful geometric optimization near perfect cosine dependence on the angular response of the coupler can be achieved. The PTFE designs represent a significant improvement over the state of the art with less than 0.01% error compared with ideal cosine response for angles of incidence up to 50°.

  11. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  12. Electromagnetic Charge Radius of the Pion at High Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Das, Diganta

    2017-09-01

    We present a determination of the pion charge radius from high precision data on the pion vector form factor from both timelike and spacelike regions, using a novel formalism based on analyticity and unitarity. At low energies, instead of the poorly known modulus of the form factor, we use its phase, known with high accuracy from Roy equations for π π elastic scattering via the Fermi-Watson theorem. We use also the values of the modulus at several higher timelike energies, where the data from e+e- annihilation and τ decay are mutually consistent, as well as the most recent measurements at spacelike momenta. The experimental uncertainties are implemented by Monte Carlo simulations. The results, which do not rely on a specific parametrization, are optimal for the given input information and do not depend on the unknown phase of the form factor above the first inelastic threshold. Our prediction for the charge radius of the pion is rπ=(0.657 ±0.003 ) fm , which amounts to an increase in precision by a factor of about 2.7 compared to the Particle Data Group average.

  13. Relation of field-aligned currents measured by AMPERE project to solar wind and substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, R. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Chu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic perturbations measured in the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) by the Iridium constellation of spacecraft have been processed to obtain the time history of field-aligned currents (FAC) connecting the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. We find that the strength of these currents is closely related to the strength of the solar wind driver defined as a running average of the previous three hours of the optimum AL (auroral lower) coupling function. The relation is well represented by a saturation model I = A*S*Ss/(S+Ss) with I the current strength in mega Amps, S the driver strength in mV/m, Ss the saturation value of 7.78 mV/m, and A = 2.55 scales the relation to units of current. We also find that in general the upward current on the nightside increases with each substorm expansion onset defined by a combination of the SuperMag SML (SuperMag AL) and midlatitude positive bay (MPB) onset lists. A superposed epoch analysis using 700 onsets in 2010 shows the following: solar wind coupling peaks at expansion onset; dayside outward current starts to increase one hour before onset while nightside outward current starts suddenly at onset; nightside outward current reaches a peak at 28 minutes as do SML and MPB indices; FAC, SML, and MPB respectively take 1, 2, and 3 hours to decay to background. The data indicate that the substorm current wedge is superposed on a pre-existing field-aligned current system and that the location and properties of the current wedge can be studied with the AMPERE data.

  14. Relation between radius and expansion velocity in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.; Kwitter, K.B.; Kaler, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The expansion velocity-radius (R-V) relation for planetary nebulae is examined using the existing measurements of expansion velocities and recent calculations of radii. It is found that some of the previously alleged R-V relations for PN are not convincingly established. The scatter in the R-V plots may be due largely to stratification of ions in individual nebulae and to heterogeneity in the planetary nebula population. In addition, from new echelle/CCD observations of planetary nebulae, it is found that spatial information is essential in deriving the internal kinematic properties. Future investigations of R-V relations should be pursued separately for groups of planetaries with similar physical properties, and they should employ observations of appropriate low excitation lines in order to measure the expansion velocity at the surface of the nebula. 26 references

  15. Estimation of the hydrogen flux from a PEM electrolyzer, based in the solar irradiation measured in Zacatecas Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron-Torres, S.M.; Villagrana-Munoz, L.E.; Garcia-Saldivar, V.M.; Escalante-Garcia, I.L. [Univ. Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The current cost of obtaining hydrogen from electrolyzers is higher than the cost of producing fossil fuels. However, with advances in technology and greater use of alternative energy sources, the cost of electrolytic hydrogen production may decrease to the point of being competitive. This study calculated how much hydrogen can be produced in a typical polymer exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer. Local solar irradiation measurements were carried out from November 2007 to April 2008 at the Campus Siglo 21 Solarimetric Station at Zacatecas University in Mexico. The mean irradiation measured was 6.6 kW-h per m{sup 2}. Based on the solar data obtained at the station, the hydrogen produced by a typical solar-hydrogen (SH) system was evaluated. The study showed that an important quantity of hydrogen as an energy vector could be obtained from solar radiation. April was determined to be the month of maximum hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen production was in November. The data obtained during this study can be used to evaluate the solar renewable energy resource expressed as hydrogen production. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  17. Voyager observations of solar wind proton temperature - 1-10 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements are made of the solar wind proton temperatures by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, far from earth, and the IMP 8 spacecraft in earth orbit. This technique permits a separation of radial and temporal variations of solar wind parameters. The average value of the proton temperature between 1 and 9 AU is observed to decrease as r (the heliocentric radius) to the -(0.7 + or - 0.2). This is slower than would be expected for adiabatic expansion. A detailed examination of the solar wind stream structure shows that considerable heating occurs at the interface between high and low speed streams.

  18. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N 2 , and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10 15 /cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 μsec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 μF, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption

  19. Applying spaceborne reflectivity measurements for calculation of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. den Outer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term analysis of cloud effects on ultraviolet (UV radiation on the ground using spaceborne observations requires the use of instruments that have operated consecutively. The longest data record can be built from the reflectivity measurements produced by the instruments Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS flown on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to 1992, TOMS on Earth Probe from 1996 to 2005, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI flown on EOS Aura since 2004. The reflectivity data produced by TOMS on Earth Probe is only included until 2002. A comparison is made with cloud effects inferred from ground-based pyranometer measurements at over 83 World Radiation Data Centre stations. Modelled UV irradiances utilizing the standard reflectivity are compared with measurements of UV irradiances at eight European low-elevation stations. The reflectivity data of the two TOMS instruments shows a consistent agreement, and the required corrections are of low percentage, i.e. 2–3%. In contrast, the reflectivity product of OMI requires correction of 7–10%, and a solar angle dependency therein is more pronounced. These corrections were inferred from a comparison with pyranometer data, and tested using the UV measurements. The average reduction of UV radiation due to clouds for all sites together indicates a small trend: a diminishing cloudiness, in line with ground-based UV observations. Uncorrected implementation of the reflectivity data would have indicated the opposite.

    An optimal area was established for reflectivity data for the calculation of daily sums of UV radiation. It measures approximately 1.25° in latitudinal direction for square-shaped areas overhead the ground-based UV stations. Such an area can be traversed within 5 to 7 h at the average wind speeds found for the West European continent.

  20. Think the way to measure the Earth Radiation Budget and the Total Solar Irradiance with a small satellites constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Keckhut, P.; Damé, L.; Bekki, S.; Sarkissian, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2018-05-01

    Within the past decade, satellites constellations have become possible and practical. One of the interest to use a satellites constellation is to measure the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, which is a crucial quantity for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. This measurement presents a high interest because the 2001-2010 decade has not shown the accelerating pace of global warming that most models predict, despite the fact that the greenhouse-gas radiative forcing continues to rise. All estimates (ocean heat content and top of atmosphere) show that over the past decade the Earth radiation imbalance ranges between 0.5 to 1W-2. Up to now, the Earth radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar radiations (total solar irradiance) and the outgoing terrestrial radiations (top of atmosphere outgoing longwave radiations and shortwave radiations) onboard the same satellite, and ideally, with the same instrument. The incoming solar radiations and the outgoing terrestrial radiations are of nearly equal magnitude of the order of 340.5W-2. The objective is to measure these quantities over time by using differential Sun-Earth measurements (to counter calibration errors) with an accuracy better than 0.05Wm-2 at 1σ. It is also necessary to have redundant instruments to track aging in space in order to measure during a decade and to measure the global diurnal cycle with a dozen satellites. Solar irradiance and Earth Radiation Budget (SERB) is a potential first in orbit demonstration satellite. The SERB nano-satellite aims to measure on the same platform the different components of the Earth radiation budget and the total solar irradiance. Instrumental payloads (solar radiometer and Earth radiometers) can acquire the technical maturity for the future large missions (constellation that insure global measurement cover) by flying in a

  1. Comparison of several satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation against ground measurement in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Mathilde; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Wey, Etienne; Wald, Lucien

    2018-04-01

    HelioClim-3v4 (HC3v4), HelioClim-3v5 (HC3v5) and the radiation service version 2 of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS-Rad) are databases that contain hourly values of solar radiation at ground level. These estimated hourly irradiations are compared to coincident measurements made at five stations in Morocco. The correlation coefficients between measurements and estimates are similar for the three databases and around 0.97-0.98 for global irradiation. For the direct irradiation, the correlation coefficients are around 0.70-0.79 for HC3v4, 0.79-0.84 for HC3v5 and 0.78-0.87 for CAMS-Rad. For global irradiation, the bias relative to the average of the measurements is small and ranges between -6 and -1 % for HC3v4, -4 and 0 % for HC3v5, and -4 and 7 % for CAMS-Rad; HC3v4 and HC3v5 exhibit a tendency to slightly underestimate the global irradiation. The root mean square error (RMSE) ranges between 53 (12 %) and 72 Wh m-2 (13 %) for HC3v4, 55 (12 %) and 71 Wh m-2 (13 %) for HC3v5, and 59 (11 %) and 97 Wh m-2 (21 %) for CAMS-Rad. For the direct irradiation, the relative bias ranges between -16 and 21 % for HC3v4, -7 and 22 % for HC3v5, and -18 and 7 % for CAMS-Rad. The RMSE ranges between 170 (28 %) and 210 Wh m-2 (33 %) for HC3v4, 153 (25 %) and 209 Wh m-2 (40 %) for HC3v5, and 159 (26 %) and 244 Wh m-2 (39 %) for CAMS-Rad. HC3v5 captures the temporal and spatial variability of the irradiation field well. The performance is poorer for HC3v4 and CAMS-Rad which exhibit more variability from site to site. As a whole, the three databases are reliable sources on solar radiation in Morocco.

  2. Field measurement of clear-sky solar irradiance in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Ge, Jinming; Shi, Jinsen; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) sponsored and conducted an intensive field campaign on dust aerosols in Badain Jaran Desert of Northwestern China from April 20 to June 20, 2010. A set of state-of-the-art broadband radiometers and sun/sky photometers were deployed along with launched radiosonde. In this paper, we compared the simulated solar irradiances by using the SBDART radiative transfer model with those from the ground-based measurements for 69 selected cases of 7 days. It was shown that the averaged aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (AOD 500 ) is 0.18±0.09 with AOD 500 less than 0.5 for all cases. The single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor at 675 nm are 0.928±0.035, 0.712±0.023, respectively. The AODs retrieved from the CIMEL sun photometer at various wavelengths agree well with those from the PREDE sky radiometer, and the columnar water vapor contents from CIMEL also agree well with radiosonde observations. In the radiative closure experiment, we used a collocated thermopile pyrgeometer with a shadow and ventilator to correct the thermal dome offset of diffuse irradiance measurement. The mean differences between model and measurements are −9.1 Wm −2 (−2.6%) for the direct irradiance, +3.1 Wm −2 (+2.8%) for diffuse irradiance, and −6.0 Wm −2 (−1.3%) for global irradiance, which indicates an excellent radiative closure. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative forcing (ARF) and radiative heating rate are also investigated. The daily mean ARF ranges from −4.8 to +0.4 Wm −2 at the top of the atmosphere, −5.2 to −15.6 Wm −2 at the surface, and 5.2 to 10.8 Wm −2 in the atmosphere. The corresponding radiative heating rates for the whole atmosphere due to dust aerosols are 0.07, 0.11, 0.14, 0.11, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.07 K/day for the 7 selected cloudless days. These solar radiative forcing can be considered as the representative impact of background dust aerosol in Northwestern China

  3. The Flanitzhuette project - solar island electricity supply combined with comprehensive electricity saving measures; Projekt Flanitzhuette - solare Inselstromversorgung in Kombination mit umfassenden Stromsparmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eingartner, M. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Knapp, R. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Kranz, U. [Abt. Marketing, Energiedienstleistungen, Regenerative Energien, Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-10-02

    Since 1992, Bayernwerk AG has been operating a solar island network at Flanitzhuette in the Bavarian Forest, to supply a remote hamlet. The plant is based on a photo-electric system together with a battery and a gas unit. The plant was designed by the least cost planning (LCP) process, ie: The electricity demand was first reduced by economy measures on the customers` side (demand side management, DSM) and then largely coverd by photo-electric supply. In the case of the `Flanitzhuette solar island`, the application of LCP was able to contribute to minimising the supply costs. The authors report on the project and the results in the electricity generation and saving areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bayernwerk AG betreibt seit 1992 in Flanitzhuette im Bayerischen Wald ein solares Inselstromnetz zur Versorgung eines abgelegenen Weilers. Die Anlage basiert auf einem Photovoltaik-System in Verbindung mit einer Batterieanlage und einem Gasaggregat. Bei der Konzeption der Anlage wurde nach dem Verfahren des Least-Cost Planning (LCP) vorgegangen, d.h. der Strombedarf wurde zunaechst durch wirtschaftliche Massnahmen auf der Kundenseite (Demand-Side Management, DSM) reduziert und erst anschliessend weitgehend photovoltaisch gedeckt. Im Falle der `Solarinsel Flanitzhuette` konnte die Anwendung von LCP zu einer Minimierung der Versorgungskosten beitragen. Die Verfasser berichten ueber das Projekt und die Ergebnisse im Stromerzeugungs- und Stromsparbereich. (orig.)

  4. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  5. Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity during solar cycle 20 is discussed. A model is developed whereby it is possible to simulate the observed cosmic ray intensity from the observed number of solar flares of importance >= 1. This model leads to a radius for the modulation region of 60-70 AU. It is suggested that high speed solar streams also made a small contribution to the modulation of cosmic rays during solar cycle 20. (orig.)

  6. Estimating solar radiation using NOAA/AVHRR and ground measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Somayeh; Amanollahi, Jamil; Tzanis, Chris G.; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz

    2018-01-01

    Solar radiation (SR) data are commonly used in different areas of renewable energy research. Researchers are often compelled to predict SR at ground stations for areas with no proper equipment. The objective of this study was to test the accuracy of the artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models for estimating monthly average SR over Kurdistan Province, Iran. Input data of the models were two data series with similar longitude, latitude, altitude, and month (number of months) data, but there were differences between the monthly mean temperatures in the first data series obtained from AVHRR sensor of NOAA satellite (DS1) and in the second data series measured at ground stations (DS2). In order to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from AVHRR sensor, emissivity of the area was considered and for that purpose normalized vegetation difference index (NDVI) calculated from channels 1 and 2 of AVHRR sensor was utilized. The acquired results showed that the ANN model with DS1 data input with R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 1.04, MAE = 1.1 in the training phase and R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 1.06, MAE = 1.15 in the testing phase achieved more satisfactory performance compared with MLR model. It can be concluded that ANN model with remote sensing data has the potential to predict SR in locations with no ground measurement stations.

  7. Validation of SCIAMACHY limb NO2 profiles using solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bovensmann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere necessitate accurate global measurements of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Over the past decade, the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY instrument on ENVISAT (European Environmental Satellite has been providing global coverage of stratospheric NO2 every 6 days. In this study, the vertical distributions of NO2 retrieved from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the scattered solar light are validated by comparison with NO2 products from three different satellite instruments (SAGE II, HALOE and ACE-FTS. The retrieval algorithm based on the information operator approach is discussed, and the sensitivity of the SCIAMACHY NO2 limb retrievals is investigated. The photochemical corrections needed to make this validation feasible, and the chosen collocation criteria are described. For each instrument, a time period of two years is analyzed with several hundreds of collocation pairs for each year. As NO2 is highly variable, the comparisons are performed for five latitudinal bins and four seasons. In the 20 to 40 km altitude range, mean relative differences between SCIAMACHY and other instruments are found to be typically within 20 to 30%. The mean partial NO2 columns in this altitude range agree typically within 15% (both global monthly and zonal annual means. Larger differences are seen for SAGE II comparisons, which is consistent with the results presented by other authors. For SAGE II and ACE-FTS, the observed differences can be partially attributed to the diurnal effect error.

  8. Simultaneous Constraints on the Mass and Radius of Aql X–1 from Quiescence and X-Ray Burst Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhaosheng [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Falanga, Maurizio [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Chen, Li [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qu, Jinlu [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Renxin, E-mail: lizhaosheng@xtu.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-10

    The measurement of neutron star mass and radius is one of the most direct ways to distinguish between various dense matter equations of state. The mass and radius of accreting neutron stars hosted in low-mass X-ray binaries can be constrained by several methods, including photospheric radius expansion from type I X-ray bursts and from quiescent spectra. In this paper, we apply for the first time these two methods simultaneously to constrain the mass and radius of Aql X–1. The quiescent spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton , and photospheric radius expansion bursts from RXTE are used. The determination of the mass and radius of Aql X–1 is also used to verify the consistency between the two methods and to narrow down the uncertainties of the neutron star mass and radius. It is found that the distance to Aql X–1 should be in the range of 4.0–5.75 kpc, based on the overlapping confidence regions between photospheric radius expansion burst and quiescent spectra methods. In addition, we show that the mass and radius determined for the compact star in Aql X–1 are compatible with strange star equations of state and conventional neutron star models.

  9. Effects of corner radius on periodic nanoantenna for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Bo-Kai; Lin, Shih-Che; Nien, Li-Wei; Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Li, Jia-Han

    2015-01-01

    Corner radius is a concept to approximate the fabrication limitation due to the effective beam broadening at the corner in using electron-beam lithography. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of corner radius on the electromagnetic field enhancement and resonance wavelength for three periodic polygon dimers of bowtie, twin square, and twin pentagon. The enhancement factor of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy due to the localized surface plasmon resonances in fabricated gold bowtie nanostructures was investigated using both Raman spectroscopy and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The simulated enhancement factor versus corner radius relation was in agreement with measurements and it could be fitted by a power-law relation. In addition, the resonance wavelength showed blue shift with the increasing corner radius because of the distribution of concentrated charges in a larger area. For different polygons, the corner radius instead of the tip angle is the dominant factor of the electromagnetic field enhancement because the surface charges tend to localize at the corner. Greater enhancements can be obtained by having both the smaller gap and sharper corner although the corner radius effect on intensity enhancement is less than the gap size effect. (paper)

  10. Utility of radius bone densitometry for the treatment of osteoporosis with once-weekly teriparatide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Nakayama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As clinics that treat patients with osteoporosis do not usually have central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, bone density is often measured with radial DXA. However, no long-term evidence exists for radius bone density outcomes following treatment with once-weekly teriparatide in actual medical treatment. Methods: We evaluated changes in bone density at 6-, 12-, and 18-month intervals using radial DXA in patients treated with once-weekly teriparatide for more than 6 months. Results: A significant increase in bone mineral density (BMD was observed at the 1/3 and 1/10 radius sites 12 months after the initiation of once-weekly teriparatide. We also observed that the rate of change in BMD was greater at the distal 1/10 radius than at the 1/3 radius. Conclusions: Considering these points, the effect of once-weekly teriparatide therapy can be observed at the radius. In clinics that do not have central DXA, but instead have radial DXA, these findings can help to evaluate the effect of once-weekly teriparatide treatment on osteoporosis. Keywords: Once-weekly teriparatide, Osteoporosis, Radius, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

  11. Constraining the mass and radius of neutron stars in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C. K.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.

    2018-05-01

    We analyse observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method that can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  12. Solar wind and seasonal influence on ionospheric currents from Swarm and CHAMP measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, K. M.; Finlay, C. C.; Olsen, N.

    2018-01-01

    the ionosphere with the magnetosphere. The model provides ionospheric current values at any location as continuous functions of solar wind speed, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), dipole tilt angle, and the F10.7 index of solar flux. Geometric distortions due to variations in the Earth's main magnetic field...

  13. Design, construction, and measurement of a large solar powered thermoacoustic cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Reh-Lin

    2001-07-01

    A device based on harnessing concentrated solar power in combination with using thermoacoustic principles has been built, instrumented, and tested. Its acoustic power is generated by solar radiation and is subsequently used to pump heat from external loads. The direct conversion between thermal and mechanical energy without going through any electronic stage makes the mechanism simple. Construction of the solar collector is also rather unsophisticated. It was converted from a 10-ft satellite dish with aluminized Mylar glued on the surface. The thermoacoustic device was mounted on the dish with its engine's hot side positioned near the focus of the parabolic dish, about 1 meter above the center of the dish. A 2-dimensional solar tracking system was built, using two servo motors to position the dish at pre-calculated coordinates. The solar powered thermoacoustic cooler is intended to be used where solar power is abundant and electricity may not be available or reliable. The cooler provides cooling during solar availability. Cooling can be maintained by the latent heat of ice when solar power is unattainable. The device has achieved cooling although compromised by gas leakage and thermal losses and was not able to provide temperatures low enough to freeze water. Improvements of the device are expected through modifications suggested herein.

  14. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Tiejun

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  15. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  16. Enhancement in electron and ion temperatures due to solar flares as measured by SROSS-C2 satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Sharma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The observations on the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures (Te and Ti measured by the RPA payload aboard the SROSS-C2 satellite have been used to study the effect of solar flares on ionospheric heating. The data on solar flare has been obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC Boulder, Colorado (USA. It has been found that the electron and ion temperatures have a consistent enhancement during the solar flares on the dayside Earth's ionosphere. The estimated enhancement for the average electron temperature is from 1.3 to 1.9 times whereas for ion temperature it is from 1.2 to 1.4 times to the normal days average temperature. The enhancement of ionospheric temperatures due to solar flares is correlated with the diurnal variation of normal days' ionospheric temperatures. The solar flare does not have any significant effect on the nightside ionosphere. A comparison with the temperature obtained from the IRI-95 model also shows a similar enhancement.

  17. Enhancement in electron and ion temperatures due to solar flares as measured by SROSS-C2 satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Sharma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The observations on the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures (Te and Ti measured by the RPA payload aboard the SROSS-C2 satellite have been used to study the effect of solar flares on ionospheric heating. The data on solar flare has been obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC Boulder, Colorado (USA. It has been found that the electron and ion temperatures have a consistent enhancement during the solar flares on the dayside Earth's ionosphere. The estimated enhancement for the average electron temperature is from 1.3 to 1.9 times whereas for ion temperature it is from 1.2 to 1.4 times to the normal days average temperature. The enhancement of ionospheric temperatures due to solar flares is correlated with the diurnal variation of normal days' ionospheric temperatures. The solar flare does not have any significant effect on the nightside ionosphere. A comparison with the temperature obtained from the IRI-95 model also shows a similar enhancement.

  18. On Debye radius measurement in an unstable gas discharged plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvilkin, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that at low concentrations of charged particles conditions can be realized in a magnetized unstable-to-drift plasma for which concentration perturbations are comparable to the concentration itself. The electron temperature is then determined by potential fluctuations, and the drift oscillation wavelength is of the order of the Debye length

  19. Finite-Larmor-radius stability theory of EBT plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Cheng, C.Z.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    An eikonal ballooning-mode formalism is developed to describe curvature-driven modes of hot electron plasmas in bumpy tori. The formalism treats frequencies comparable to the ion-cyclotron frequency, as well as arbitrary finite Larmor radius and field polarization, although the detailed analysis is restricted to E/sub parallel/ = 0. Moderate hot-electron finite-Larmor-radius effects are found to lower the background beta core limit, whereas strong finite-Lamor-radius effects produce stabilization

  20. Spatial Representativeness of Surface-Measured Variations of Downward Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M.; Folini, D.; Hakuba, M. Z.; Wild, M.

    2017-12-01

    When using time series of ground-based surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in combination with gridded data, the spatial and temporal representativeness of the point observations must be considered. We use SSR data from surface observations and high-resolution (0.05°) satellite-derived data to infer the spatiotemporal representativeness of observations for monthly and longer time scales in Europe. The correlation analysis shows that the squared correlation coefficients (R2) between SSR times series decrease linearly with increasing distance between the surface observations. For deseasonalized monthly mean time series, R2 ranges from 0.85 for distances up to 25 km between the stations to 0.25 at distances of 500 km. A decorrelation length (i.e., the e-folding distance of R2) on the order of 400 km (with spread of 100-600 km) was found. R2 from correlations between point observations and colocated grid box area means determined from satellite data were found to be 0.80 for a 1° grid. To quantify the error which arises when using a point observation as a surrogate for the area mean SSR of larger surroundings, we calculated a spatial sampling error (SSE) for a 1° grid of 8 (3) W/m2 for monthly (annual) time series. The SSE based on a 1° grid, therefore, is of the same magnitude as the measurement uncertainty. The analysis generally reveals that monthly mean (or longer temporally aggregated) point observations of SSR capture the larger-scale variability well. This finding shows that comparing time series of SSR measurements with gridded data is feasible for those time scales.

  1. Compatibility of different measurement techniques. Long-term global solar radiation observations at Izaña Observatory [Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    García Cabrera, Rosa Delia; Cuevas Agulló, Emilio; García Rodríguez, Omaira Elena; Ramos López, Ramón; Romero Campos, Pedro Miguel; Ory Ajamil, Fernando de; Cachorro, Victoria E.; Frutos, Ángel M. de

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year intercomparison of classical and modern radiation and sunshine duration instruments has been performed at Izaña Atmospheric Observatory. We compare global solar radiation (GSR) records measured with a Kipp & Zonen CM-21 pyranometer, taken in the framework of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network, with those measured with a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer and a bimetallic pyranometer, and with GSR estimated from sunshine duration performed with a CS sunshine recorder.

  2. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on solar variability during 1990 at SCLERA is reviewed. That portion of the SCLERA research program supported by the Department of Energy has been directed toward the detection and monitoring of climatically significant solar variability by accurate measurement of the variability in solar shape and diameter. Observations were obtained in 1990 and results from analysis of earlier observations obtained. The observational evidence of systematic long-term changes in the apparent solar diameter and/or radius has been detected, and these changes continue to strongly correlated with long-term changes in solar total irradiance. Additional evidence for internal gravity modes has been found which may be important to understanding the internal structure of the Sun. Each of these findings shows promise for anticipating future changes in the solar luminosity. Progress has been made in setting up an international network based on SCLERA-type instruments to improve the coverage and quality of the observations. A proposal is made for the continuation of support from the Department of Energy for further studies relevant to solar-variability forecasting

  3. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  4. Solar wind and magnetosphere plasma diagnostics by spacecraft electrostatic potential measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pedersen

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Several satellites (GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1, Viking and CRRES carried electric field experiments on which probes were driven by a current from the satellite to be close to the plasma potential. The potential difference between an electric field probe and its spacecraft (with conductive surfaces can be used to determine the ambient electron density and/or electron flux with limited accuracy but with high time resolution, of the order of 10-100 ms. It is necessary for the development of this diagnostic method to understand the photoemission characteristics of probes and satellites. According to the electric field experiments on the above-mentioned satellites, all materials develop very similar photoemission properties when they are beyond the influence of atmospheric oxygen. The photoelectron yield steadily increases over the first few months in space and reaches values well above those measured on clean surfaces in the laboratory. The method can be used for solar radiation levels corresponding to distances from 0.4 to 5 AU from the Sun.

  5. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. ohoud-aljawi@hotmail.com (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  6. Determination of Linke turbidity factor from solar radiation measurement in northern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Masmoudi, M.; Medhioub, K.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation of solar radiation through a real atmosphere versus that through a clean dry atmosphere gives an indication of the atmospheric turbidity. Study of atmospheric turbidity is important in meteorology, climatology and for monitoring of atmospheric pollution. The Linke turbidity factor refers to the whole spectrum, that is, overall spectrally integrated attenuation, which includes presence of gaseous water vapour and aerosols. In this work, a procedure for calculation of Linke turbidity factor is adopted using pyrheliometric measurements in a coastal tourist location in Tunisia (Sidi Bou Said), during three summer months (June, July and August 1999). Real diurnal and monthly variations of the T L turbidity factor are found in the three studied months, with a maximum in August afternoon and a minimum in July morning. The increase of T L is an indication for increasing atmospheric turbidity level (pollution). The correlation between atmospheric turbidity and the local weather conditions shows that this increase is essentially due to the heavy water vapour content of maritime air masses, carried by the north-eastern winds prevalent during the afternoon. A second pollution source is the dust content of the continental air masses carried by western and southern winds prevalent in the morning. Next to this can be added the influence of traffic at rush hours and during the afternoon of summer holidays. (Author)

  7. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION, EMISSIVITY REDUCTION, AND LOCAL SUPPRESSION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Liang, Z.-C.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-01-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions is lower relative to the quiet Sun. Absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of acoustic waves contribute to the observed power reduction in magnetic regions. We propose a model for the energy budget of acoustic waves propagating through a sunspot in terms of the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of the sunspot. Using the property that the waves emitted along the wave path between two points have no correlation with the signal at the starting point, we can separate the effects of these three mechanisms. Applying this method to helioseismic data filtered with direction and phase-velocity filters, we measure the fraction of the contribution of each mechanism to the power deficit in the umbra of the leading sunspot of NOAA 9057. The contribution from absorption is 23.3 ± 1.3%, emissivity reduction 8.2 ± 1.4%, and local suppression 68.5 ± 1.5%, for a wave packet corresponding to a phase velocity of 6.98 x 10 -5 rad s -1 .

  8. MHD Collimation Mechanism in Arched Flux Ropes Characterized Using Volumetric, Time-Dependent B-Vector Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Magnus A.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory measurements of B(x,t) in a volume enclosing portions of two arched flux ropes show flux rope collimation driven by gradients in axial current density. These measurements verify the three predictions of a proposed MHD collimation mechanism: (1) axial magnetic forces exist in current channels with spatially varying minor radius, (2) these forces can drive counterpropagating axial flows, and (3) this process collimates the flux rope. This mechanism may explain the axial uni